$12

The Everyday Pocket Handbook for Visual inspection and Weld DiscontinuitiesCauses and Remedies
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Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Compiled as a useful tool for on-the-job welding personnel by the Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 AWS Product Development Committee Not for Resale, 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST

(Edited by Ted V. Weber, Principal Consultant, Weber & Associates)

O 1996 by American Welding Society. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America
Reprinted 2000

NOTE: Although care was taken in choosing and presenting the data in this guide, AWS cannot guarantee that it is enor
f r e e . Further, this guide is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the topic and therefore may not include aü available information, including w i t h respect to safev and health issues. By publishing this guide, AWS does not insure anyone using the information it contains against any liability or injury to property or person arising from that use.
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Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale, 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST

Table of Contents
Basic Safety Precautions........................................... Visual Inspection Notes ............................................. Discontinuity Types: Cracks .................................................................. Inclusions ........................................................... Incomplete Fusion.............................................. Incomplete Joint Penetration ............................. Overlap ............................................................... Porosity .............................................................. Undercut............................................................. Weld Profiles ...................................................... Fillet Weld Measurement ........................................ Dimensional Considerations................................... Plate and Pipe Dimensions ...................................... Metric Conversion Table .................................... Nondestructive Testing Symbols.............................
Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale, 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST

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`-`-`.. and hot work surfaces are produced by welding.``. The workpiece should not be mistaken for a ground connection. --`..Basic Safety Precautions Burn Protection. All electrical equipment and the workpiece should be grounded. Live electrical parts should not be touched.. Helmets or hand shields that provide protection for the face. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .. appropriate eye protection should be used... It is used only to complete the welding circuit.`.. However..`. Pant legs should be worn over the outside of high-top shoes. A separate connection is required to ground the workpiece. Electric shock can kill...`--- Electrical Hazards. improper grounding. The workpiece lead is not a ground lead.`.``. Pant cuffs. slag... The manufacturer’s instructions and recommended safe practices should be read and understood. High-top shoes or leather leggings and fire-resistant gloves should be worn. and incorrect operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all sources of danger. Faulty installation. and allied processes. and ears. In addition. sparks. open pockets. and a head covering to protect the head should be used.````. These can cause bums if precautionary measures are not used..`. cutting. Molten metal... Workers should wear protective clothing made of fire-resistant material. it can be avoided. neck. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 4 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. or other places on clothing that can catch and retain molten metal or sparks should not be worn.

zinc.. lead.. and allied processes produce fumes and gases which may be harmful to health. manganese. and Allied Processes”.. Many welding. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 5 .. Keep caps on cylinders when not in use.Fumes and Gases. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above the arc..`. and “Safety in Welding. brass.``.. or light radiation. Cutting...`.`.`--- Compressed Gas Cylinders. Arc welding may produce ultraviolet. Use point-of-welding fume removal when welding galvanized steel.``. Always wear protective clothing and eye protection to protect the skin and eyes from radiation.. cadmium.`-`-`. cutting. Do not weid on piping or containers that have held hazardous materials unless the containers have been inerted properly... Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. or bronze. “Fire Safety in Welding and Cutting”. chromium.. infrared.. Make sure that gas cylinders are chained to a wall or other structurai support...````.`. Do not weld in a confined area without a ventilation system. AWS also recommends a personal copy of “Arc Welding Safely”. Radiation. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. Shield others from light radiation from your welding operation.

conducted by properly trained inspectors. nondestructive testing.``. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 6 .. This pocket handbook provides a convenient source for the most common base metal and weld metal discontinuities found by effective VT... that render a part unable to meet applicable minimum acceptance standards or specifications.````.” While visual inspection is limited to materials’ surface-only examination.” All defects are discontinuities. “Visual inspection.. including welding.`.. as well as the correct terminology for each. but not all discontinuities are defects.`-`-`. a discontinuity is not necessarily a defect.Visual Inspection Notes Visual Inspection is a very effective inspection method. and metallurgy.. Discontinuity refers to “An interruption of the typical structure of a material.” A defect refers to “A condition. Visual inspection [abbreviated “VT’ by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)] of welded components requires inspectors to have a broad knowledge of many technologies..`--- it is important to distinguish between the words ‘discontinuity’ and ‘defect’.. results in the discovery of the vast majority of those defects which would only be discovered later by some mom expensive nondestructive test method.`.`. --`. The handbook is arranged by discontinuity type.. It has been shown repeatedly that... metallurgical.. it often detects the most damaging defects. or physical characteristics. including applicable VT detection methods.``. destructive testing. or conditions. such as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical..`. A defect can be considered a ‘rejectable discontinuity’... and likely causes and remedies in addition to suggested repair methods. and it should be the primary method included in any effective Quality Control Program.

. time of occurrence....`-`-`.... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST . or common usage terms.``.`. Cracks are usually further described by their location geometry..`.`.. see figure below for AWS crack terminology.. iEGEND: 1 CRATER CRACK 2 FACECRACK 3 HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE CRACK 4 LAMELLAR TEAR 5 LONGITUDINALCRACK 6 ROOTCRACK 7 ROOT SURFACE CRACK 8 THROAT CRACK 9 TOE CRACK 10 TRANSVERSE CRACK 11 UNDERBEAD CRACK 12 WELD INTERFACE CRACK 13 WELD METAL CRACK Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`.``.Cracks A crack is defined as “A fracture type discontinuity characterized by a sharp tip and a high ratio of length and width to opening displacement.”Cracks are usually considered the most severe discontinuity because of their tendency to propagate under stress....`..````.`--- m Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale..

ET.````. Ultrasonic Testing (UT). and a lox power magnifier are extremely helpful during visual inspection for surface cracking.`.`. but is limited to testing magnetic base materials. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST . transgranular. Smooth. confirm w i t h NDT. stress corrosion.``. Cracking can be caused by a multitude of conditions. See following chart for specific causes and recommended remedies.`.Types of cracks often include the following prefixes: base metal.. insufficient root bead size.. Note: The above procedures may not result in a suitable repair of stress corrosion cracking. Crack detection can be achieved visually if the crack is present on the surface and is of sufficient size to be visible to the eye.`-`-`. but the more common causes are: embrittlement of the base or weld metal caused by too-rapid cooling and the formation of brittle martensite. Locate crack extent and orientation. including preheat if required. poor joint design. Copyright American Welding Society --`. toe. heat-affected zone. hot. crater... nonmatching filler metals. underbead.`. If the surface cracking cannot be found visually. Weld using proper procedure... 2.``. and Radiographic Testing (RT) are required for the detection of subsurface cracking. use small diameter electrodes and stringer bead progression.. transverse. which may require replacement of the affected part or parts. weld shrinkage stresses.. and others. service induced. hydrogen. Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) can also be used. throat.. Grind to remove completely. and corrosive environment. UT. clean surfaces. oblique angle lighting. and RT. longitudinal.. root.. 4.`--- 8 Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. Eddy Current Testing (ET). weld metal. the next step is the use of the Penetrant Test method (a). Repairs to cracks include the following general requirements: 1. lamellar tear.. Refer to the AWS Welding Inspection Technology materials for more details regarding I T . Do not weld over (on top ofl cracks. NDT finished weld and base metal. intergranular. quench... MT. cold. face. delayed. 3..

heat treat without cooling to room temperature HighAmerican hardenability Copyright Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS Licensee=Aramco Solution heat treat prior to welding HQ/9980755100 Brittle phases in the microstructure No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale. raise welding current.`-`-`.Causes: Weld Metal Cracking Remedies: Weid Metal Cracking Highly rigid joint Excessive dilution Defective electrodes Poor fit-up Small weld bead High sulfur base metal Angular distortion Crater cracking Causes: Heat-AffectedZone Remedies: Heat-AffectedZone Use low-hydrogen welding process. anneal base metal prior to welding Low ductility Redesign weldment.`--- Preheat Relieve residual stresses mechanically (peening) Minimize shrinkage stresses using backstep or block welding sequence Change welding current and travel speed Weld with covered electrode neeative: butter the ioint faces prior to welding Change to new electrode..``.. build up the edges with weld metal..`. change welding sequence...`. apply intermediate stress-relief High residual stresses heat treatment Preheat.. increase heat input. Increase root opening.``. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST Hydrogen in weiding atmosphere --`.`. use a welding current decay device when terminating the weld bead I 1 . bake electrodes to remove moisture Reduce root opening. change base metal and/or filler metal Hot cracking Use preheat. reduce travel speed Use filler metal low in sulfur Change to balanced welding on both sides of joint Fill crater before extinguishing the arc.....`.````.. preheat and hold for 2 hour after welding or postweld heat treat immediately Use low heat input. deposit thin layers.... Increase electrode size..

.``..`. such as slag.” The inclusions may be found as single particles.`.`-`-`.````. Inclusions on the surface can be detected by VT. tungsten.... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST . Slag inclusions are frequently found on the weld surfaces.``. or clustered particles.Inclusions Inclusions are defined as “Entrapped foreign solid material. followed by weld repair and reinspection.. Subsurface inclusions require removal by gouging or grinding. or along the toes of the weld due to improper cleaning techniques.. and reinspection by appropriate NDT method. Examples of inclusions are shown below.`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. flux.. --`. aligned particles.. welding if required.. Slag Inclusions (darkened areas) Repairs of inclusions on the surface require removal by gouging or grinding.... or oxide..`.`.. subsurface inclusions require UT or RT. Tungsten inclusions are usually subsurface.

....````.`.. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST II ....`.Failure to remove slag Entrapment of refractory oxides Tungsten in the weld metal Improperjoint design ~~ ~ Oxide inclusions Slag flooding ahead of the welding arc Poor electrode manipulative technique Entrapped pieces of electrode covering Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`..`--~ Common Causes and Remedies of Slag Inclusions Remedies I I Clean surface and previous weld bead I Power wire brush the previous weld bead Causes Avoid contact between the electrode and the work use larger electrode Increase groove angle of joint 1 Provide proper gas shielding Reposition work to prevent loss of slag control Change electrode or flux to improve slag control Use undamaged electrodes Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale..``.....`-`-`..`.`.``.

````... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .`--- INCOMPLETE FUSION Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.. r INCOMPLETE C I <ElP....`...Incomplete Fusion Incomplete fusion is defined as “A weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads.``..`...kl INCOMPLETE FUSION INCOMPLETE FUSION Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`. The term specifically applies to fillet welds where the weld does not extend to the joint root... See the figures below.`.” Incomplete Fusion (IF) can occur on both groove welds and fillet welds.`-`-`..`..``.

`-`-`.. Insufficient heat input.. oblique angle lighting and lox magnification aid the inspector. or increase weld travel speed Clean weld surface prior to welding Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.Detection of incomplete fusion using VT is possible if the discontinuity location is visible on the surface.````..`.`. Repairs of incomplete fusion require removal of the discontinuity by gouging or grinding.. Generally. improper joint design... wrong type or size of electrode.``... or inadequate gas shielding --`. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Trapped oxides or slag on weld groove or weld face 13 .. IF is subsurface and is found using UT or RT methods..``.`... followed by weld repair and final inspection.. lower current.`.`--- Causes Remedies Follow correct welding procedure specification [ Incorrect electrode position Weld metal running ahead of the Z C 1 Maintain proper electrode position Reposition work...

01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST . Examples of incomplete joint penetration (UP)are shown in the following figures.... Repairs for IJP.Incomplete Joint Penetration Incomplete joint penetration is defined as “A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal does not extend through the joint thickness.````..`-`-`.``. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 14 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.``. followed by appropriate NDT method. Weld. oblique angle lighting assists in its detection... UT or RT are required for detection.. Repairs for IJP. Gouge or grind root to an oval..`.. permitting access to root. open shape. 2.. INCOMPLETE JOINT PENETRATION INCOMPLETE JO¡NT PENETRATION --`. norfillet welds. 2.. followed by appropriate NDT method...” Note rhat it applies to groove welds only.`. Gouge or ground from the weld face to remove entire-weld down to joint root..`--- Incomplete joint penetration can easily be found by VT if the root of the groove weld is visible.`. For groove welds with the root not visible. Weld.. when access to the root of the groove weld is possible: 1.`. where access to the root is not possible: i.

.`--- Follow welding procedure specification I 1 Adjust electrode or work position Use smaller electrodes in root or increase root opening I I Improve visibility or backgouge Backgouge to sound metal if required in welding procedure specification 1 Use wider root opening or smaller electrode in root pass Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale...``... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .Common Causes and Remedies of Incomplete Joint Penetration Causes I Use proper joint geometry Remedies I I Excessively thick root face or insufficient root opening Insuffcient heat input Slag flooding ahead of welding arc Electrode diameter too large Misalignment of second side weld Failure to backgouge when specified Bridging or root opening Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`.`.``...`.`.````.`-`-`....`......

`. --`..`..````.” Examples are shown below for fillet and groove welds..`-`-`......`..OverI ap Overlap is defined as “The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root..``..`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 16 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale...`. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .``...

..Detection of overlap is usually found by VT if the surfaces are visible to the eye: oblique lighting and lox magnification are helpful. PT and MT may be required to inspect questionable areas..`--- Remedies Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 17 .````..`...`. I Common Causes and Remedies of Overlap ~ Causes Slow travel speed Poor electrode manipulation Gravity effects I Increase travel speed Additional welder training Additional welder training I --`. Repairs include removal of overlap by gouging or grinding as a minimum.. followed by reinspection using appropriate NDT method.``.....`.`-`-`.`..``. and may require weid repairs to the gouged or ground areas...

..`. followed by reinspection by the appropriate NDT method..” The porosity may be surface or subsurface.. weld repair..``.... and is represented by the following figures..````..`-`-`. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 18 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. or clustered..`--- SCATTERED SURFACE POROSITY SUBSURFACE POROSITY Repairs of porosity consist of removal of the affected area by gouging or grinding...Porosity Porosity is defined as “Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification or in a thermal spray deposit.`. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .`..``.. aligned. --`.`. a single cavity.

`--- ... reduce heat input Remove zinc prior to welding Use E6010 electrodes and manipulate the arc heat to volatilize the zinc ahead of the molten weld pool Use recommended procedures for baking and storing electrodes Preheat the base metal Excessive moisture in electrode covering or on joint surfaces High sulfur base metal Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Use electrodes with basic slagging reactions Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale...``.`-`-`.````...`.. or oxygen in welding atmosphere High solidification rate Dirty base metal Dirty filler wire Improper arc length.`. or electrode manipulation Volatizationof zinc from brass Galvanized steel Clean joint faces and adjacent surfaces Use specially cleaned and packaged filler wire... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST --`. nitrogen.``.Common Causes and Remedies of Porosity Causes Remedies Use low-hydrogen welding process.. filler metals high in deoxidizers. welding current.`....`. increase shielding gas flow Use preheat or increase heat input Excessive hydrogen. and store it in clean area Change welding conditions and techniques Use copper-silicon filler metal...

``.`..`...`... Copyright American Welding Society 20 Provided by IHS under license with AWS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.. UNDERCUT Detection of surface undercut is easily found by VT using oblique lighting.````.`. Internal undercut on groove welds where access to the root is not possible requires UT or RT methods.`--- .” Examples are shown in the following figures......Undercut Undercut is defined as “A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weid face and left unfilled by weid metal. ‘Catching a thumbnail’ in the undercut groove is also helpful in its detection.. Measurement of undercut can be accurately determined using an undercut gauge shown in the following figure. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST --`..`-`-`.``...

Read depth on scale at pointer.`.Set bottom of gage on base material.``..... I MEASURE UNDERCUT DEPTH --`...`--- Causes /Excessive welding current Remedies 1 Reduce welding current 1 Reduce travel speed Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Additional welder training Not for Resale...`..`..... Locking screw can be tightened to hold reading for future reference. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST I Excessive travel speed Poor electrode manipulation I Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .. Set point on bottom of undercut.`.`-`-`.````. Repairs to undercut usually require light grinding and additional welding to replace the base metal removed during the undercutting and repair grinding..``.

the actual welds are compared with code or specification requirements regarding convexity or concavity for fillet welds..... Structural Welding Code.``...````. The following profiles are found in AWS D1.... C.`...1.. OF A WELD OR INDIVIDUAL SURFACE BEAD WITH DIMENSION W SHALL NOT EXCEED THE VALUE OF THE FOLLOWING TABLE: Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 22 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. Additionally.`--- ..`.`.Weld Profiles Visual inspection is very useful in determining the adequacy of weld profiles.`-`-`. their use is shown on page 25.. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST --`.. (A) DESIRABLE FILLET WELD PROFILES (E) ACCEPTABLE FILLET WELD PROFILES NOTE: CONVEXITY. and face and root reinforcement for groove welds. fillet weld sizes can be determined using fillet weid gages.`.``.

`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS INSUFFICIENT THROAT EXCESSIVE CONVEXITY EXCESSIVE UNDERCUT INSUFFICIENT LEG Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.`-`-`.``.`.. TO W < 1 in.. (25 mm) W 2 1 in.`..``.6 mm) 118 in. C 1/16 in..`..MAXIMUM CONVEXITY OF FILLET WELDS WIDTH OF WELD FACE OR INDIVIDUAL SURFACE BEAD.. (3 mrn) 3/16 in. W MAX CONVEXITY. (5 mm) ~ W s 5/16 in........````. (8 rnm) W > 5/16 in. (C) UNACCEPTABLE FILLET WELD PROFILES --`. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST OVERLAP INCOMPLETE FUSION 23 ..`.. (1.

.`..``...`-`-`...``..`--- BUTT JOINTEQUAL THICKNESS PLATE BUTT JOINT (TRANSITION)UNEQUAL THICKNESS PLATE NOTE: REINFORCEMENT R SHALL NOT EXCEED 1/8 in...... (3 mm).````.`..`..`. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST OVERLAP Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .(D) ACCEPTABLE GROOVE WELD PROFILE IN BUTT JOINT --`.. (E) UNACCEPTABLEGROOVE WELD PROFILES IN BUTT JOINTS EXCESSIVE REINFORCEMENT INSUFFICIENT THROAT 24 EXCESSIVE UNDERCUT Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.

. Provided byWITH IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS FOR CONVEX WELDS: USE BLADE WITH SINGLE ARC AT APPROPRIATE SIZE..``.`--- ..Fillet Weld Measurement How to Use Weld Fillet Gage PLACEMENT CONVEX WELDS CONCAVE WELDS BE CERTAIN BLADE EDGE IS SQUARE Copyright American Welding Society WELDED PARTS... Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale. FOR CONCAVE WELDS: USE BLADE WITH DOUBLE ARC AT APPROPRIATE SIZE.`...`-`-`.`.````..`... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 25 --`....``.`...

1. and consider them during component measurement for conformance."maximums. Included in the requirements for weld joint preparation shall be inspection for removal of scale.. base metal misalignment.`--- Dimensional Defects weld joint.. and lack of conformity to design requirements. Incorrect Weld S i z e I . Incorrect Joint Preparation I . Partial penetration weld joint preparations shall be visually inspected prior to welding to assure proper weld throat dimensions.....`-`-`.````.I. diameters. 3... Copyright American Welding Society 26 Provided by IHS under license with AWS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale.`.5ûû . paint. Incorrect Final Dimensions Incorrect final dimensions subject io visual inspection include all conditions of dimensional inaccuracies.750 inches.Dimensional Considerations An important aspect of VT is the measurements for size. from the --`.. Fillet weld size shall be determined by means of a fillet weld gage. The inspector should determine the dimensional tolerances for each of the measurements specified.`. geometry. etc. Often. oil. as well as weld sizes. Customary units.`. widths." The inspector should also be aware that measurements can be given in the US. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST . the inspector should ask for clarification.``. The manufacturing drawings will show the required lengths. 2. Incorrect weld size subject to visual inspection includes undersized fillet weld leg dimensions and underfilled groove weld throat dimensions.. distortion. and assembly of welded structures. or in the S. of the various components. these tolerances are noted as 'minimums.' or a dimensional range such as "I .`. If the tolerances are not stated. 2. and undesirable weld joint fit up conditions. or metric units. Incorrect joint penetration subject to visual inspection. includes out-of-tolerance welding bevel or groove dimensions.... generally before welding is started... etc...``. thicknesses.

``.250 39.563 I I 19/32 I 0.463 1 1 I 1 1 21.938 0.500 26.875 16.287 15.275 2..063 0.031 0.937 8.950 24.144 7.969 4.813 0.494 14.225 23.500 I 1 11...688 1 13.925 10.588 2.763 5.469 0.400 I 1 1 [ I I I 33..906 0.225 25.````.425 35.`.700 36.638 21.175 3.019 23..606 25.794 1.375 7.731 1 I 1 Not I I I I Applicable Copyright American Welding Society ' Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 15/32 1/2 I 1 0..700 1 1 19..381 3.556 I 1.125 20.`--- 0.431 22..825 5.813 24.669 17.200 11... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 13/16 27/32 I 718 I 29/32 15/16 31/32 I ) I I I 1 0.081 15.313 0.594 I I 5/8 I 0.``.050 -I I .`.775 28.Thickness and Weight of Steel Plates: 1/32-1 inch Gage Fraction Decimal mm lb/ft2 Gage I 22 16 13 II 9 7 5 I 1/32 1/16 3/32 I18 1 ..800 --`.656 1 11116 mm 1 [ ib/fî2 I I 1 1 0..ooO I I I 1 I I I 20..906 12.675 22..750 14.150 34.875 0.025 I I Fraction 1 Decimal I 17/32 1 0.531 I 9/16 I 0.125 0.975 38.400 27 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.344 1 0.100 6.219 0.`-`-`.156 0.475 12.625 I 21/32 1 0. 1 5/32 3/16 7/32 I 3 1 I 1 I 114 9/32 5/16 11/32 I 1 [ I I 1 I [ 6.`..250 0.350 7.550 3.188 0.969 1.525 40.094 0.281 0.844 0.650 8.`.

`..````..`--- ..`-`-`.``...Thickness and Weight of Steel Plates: 1-2 inch Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 28 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale..... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST --`.``..`....`..`..

438 0 . 2 0 0 0. 3 0 6 0.719 - 0 . 5 6 3 6 .436 0 .276 0. 2 8 1 0. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 2 9 .438 0 .--`. Sched. 5 0 0 0.065 0 .674 0. 1 2 0 0.065 0. 1 4 0 0.. Sched.315 1 .154 - 6 2 ..218 0.280 0 .095 - 0 .119 0.218 0.540 Sched.`.109 0 .432 - Sched.120 0.109 0.. dard2 40 xs3 80 120 0. 0 8 8 0.875 3. 0 8 3 0.134 0.154 0..``. 1 3 3 0 .250 0. 1 2 6 0.280 0.188 0.562 - - 0. 3 8 2 0 .250 0 .`.179 0.`. 3 3 7 0 .432 0 .140 0.358 0 .. 0 6 8 0. 0 8 3 0.083 0 . 5 5 .200 0. 1 0 9 0 .226 0.133 0.1 19 0.109 0 ..154 0 .237 0.145 0./% 0.3/8 0.375 0. 5 5 2 0.750 0.405 0.083 0.147 O. 0 4 .109 0.`--- Nominal Pipe Size 1/8 0. 0 8 8 0.````. 160 - XX Strong - 0.065 0.134 0.675 0 ..095 0.`-`-`.09/ 0. 3 7 5 2. 0 8 3 0 .065 0 .109 0.109 Nominal Wall Thicknesses in inches for StanSched..276 0.237 0.300 0. 8 4 0 1. 2 0 3 0 .375 0. 2 1 6 0 .068 0 .625 0.. 3 7 5 0. 0 8 3 0 .318 0 .050 - 1-1/4 I-l/2 2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 1.864 Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.2/6 0.258 0.065 0. 6 2 5 0. 1 1 3 0 .120 0. 4 0 0 0..126 0..091 0.. 1 9 1 0.337 0.`..900 0 .065 0 .219 0..344 0.145 0.120 0. 0 6 5 0.113 0.``. 2 9 4 0 .600 0. 1 0 9 0.5 4 . 2 2 6 0. 0 4 9 0 .147 0. 5 3 1 0..179 0 . 10s' 1 1 4 3/8 1 / 2 3/4 I 0. 5s' - Sched. 6 6 0 1.300 0.191 0 .258 0. 0 6 5 0.203 0.

`..... 145 6.`.454 2.... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 6.895 O.````...`-`-`...450 x 10’ Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --`.`..895 x lW3 1.``..`.``..205 psi Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.`--- ..mass (weight) pressure tensile strength pounds kilograms psi kPa psi MPa kilograms pounds kilopascal (kPa) psi megapascal (MPa) 0.

. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 31 .`.`-`-`.`. Arrow 3........ or other references) Examine All Around I I Field Examination I I I Radiation Direction I --`..`--- I J Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.````. codes.. Supplementary symbols 6.``.`. Reference line 2. Tail (Specifications. Examination method letter designations 4.`. Extent and number of examinations 5...``..Nondestructive Testing Symbols The examination symbol consists of the following elements: I ...

. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .````.....`..`.``....... --`.`--- ExaminationMethod Acoustic emission ---____ Electromagnetic I I Letter Designation _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ .`-`-`. AET ET - Leak Magnetic panicle u MT Neutron radiographic Penetrant Proof Radiographic I I NRT PT I PRT RT 1 U I trasonic Visual UT VT I I I I Standard Location of Elements of a Nondestructive Examination Symbol The elements of a nondestructive examination symbol shall have standard locations with respect to each other as shown in the following figure.`...Examination Method Letter Designations Nondestructive examination methods shall be specified by use of the letter designation shown below.``.`.. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 32 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.

NUMBER OF EXAMINATIONS REFERENCE LINE SPECIFICATION OR OTHERREFERENCE 7 0 7 U hl g} /c LENGTH OF SECTION TO BE EXAMINED.``.``...`.`.`...... 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST 33 ....````..`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.`..`-`-`.. n c n TAIL EXAMINATION METHOD LETTER DESIGNATIONS - EXAMINE IN FIELD EXAMINE-ALLAROUND ARROW Standard Location of Elements --`...

most illustrations in color..aws... --der these or other AWS publications. concise reference tool...`.`. 1O0 pages.``.2 A2. softbound. ANSI approved. softbound. call (800) 334-9353 or visit www.. --`.``.10 Welding Inspection Perennial best seller....ll Excellent tutorial. 41 pages.. Guide for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds DoD adopted. CM D18. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 34Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.. sofibound.. Guide to Weid Discoloration Levels on Inside of Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube Laminated guide shows results of increasing amounts of oxygen in shielding gas.org.`.4 Standard Symbols for Welding..`-`-`.. 222 pages. 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST .`--- WI B1.. Title Guide for the Visual Examination of Welds B1.`. softbound. Brazing.````. CertificationManual for Welding Inspectors Aid to studying for CWI exam as well as excellent introduction to weld inspection. and Nondestructive Examination Used by Departments of Transportation and Defense. 300 pages. 32 pages. softbound.Other PublicationsAvailable from AWS Order No.

..`..``..`-`-`........````..`.`--- . 01/08/2006 05:08:07 MST --`.Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 4) 550 N... Florida 33126 Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale.`.W.`.``. Miami. LeJeune Road..

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