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Presented By: Prof. B.Adhavan Assistant Professor Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engg [PG] Email: email@example.com Mobile No: 9994869720
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College (An Autonomous Co-education Institution, approved by AICTE, Re Accredited by NBA, Affiliated to Anna University Coimbatore) Vattamalaipalayam, NGGO Colony (Post) Coimbatore - 641 022, TAMILNADU.
CONSTRUCTION & PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF PMSM TYPES OF PMSM PMSM Vs BLDC TORQUETORQUE -SPEED CHARACTERISTICS APPLICATIONS CONTROL METHODS
Types of Electric Motors
CONSTRUCTION & OPERATION
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) will have the same operating and performance characteristics as synchronous machines operating at synchronous speed, a single or polyphase source of ac supplying the armature windings, Absence of slip rings and field windings.
5. Brushless Motor Components 6.Parts of a Motor 1. 4. 9. 10. 2. 8. 11. 3. 7. End Bell Fastners Shaft Key & Keyways Bearing & Brushings End Ball Flanges Identification Plates Wire Warnish Commutators Brush Holders Laminations Conduit Connection Box Magnets (Ferrites) Brush Type Motor Components .
PMSM MOTOR TRANSVERSE SECTION .
Single phase or Poly phase windings – connected in star or delta. 7 .CONSTRUCTION STATOR Stator laminations –Axial airgap Armature windings are double layered and lap wound.
ROTOR Synchronous machines are classified according to their Rotor Configurations Rotor Types Peripheral or Surface Interior Claw-pole Transverse 8 .
9 .ROTOR ConfigurationConfiguration-Peripheral PM flux developed is radial.
ROTOR Configurations PM flux developed is radial in interior PM flux developed is Circumferential in Transverse 10 .
11 . • Periphery of the discs extends like claws or lundell poles.ROTOR Configurations • PMs are discs shaped and magnetized axially. • Set of equally spaced claws on each disc alternates to north and south poles.
PM Motor Types Based on Wave shape of their induced emf 1) Sinusoidal (PMSM) 2) Trapezoidal (BLDC) 12 .
14 .Sinusoidal (PMSM) Sinusoidal distribution of magnet flux in the air gap Sinusoidal current waveforms Sinusoidal distribution of stator conductors. Trapezoidal (BLDC) Rectangular distribution of magnet flux in the air gap Rectangular current waveform Concentrated stator windings.
f Rotor speed (rad/s) : Ω = gives (r.pm for a 50Hz AC supply frequency 15 . This is synchronous operation. φ A The rotation of the rotor in this case will be at the same exact frequency as the applied excitation to the rotor.pm) p p f : AC supply frequency (Hz) p : motor poles pair per phase ω Example: a 2 poles pair synchronous motor will run at 1500 r. 60 . and the rotor C Stator field flux produces a torque which will ` cause the motor to rotate.Theory of operation: A` C N Rotor field N S B` S Rotor is carrying a constant magnetic field created either by permanent magnets or current fed B coils The interaction between the rotating stator flux.
How It Works When electric current passes through a coil in a magnetic field. Force in Motor: F=ILB F = Force B = Magnetic Field L = Length of Conductor I = Current in Conductor Torque in Motor: T = IBA sin θ A = LW L = Length of Winding W = Width of Winding . the magnetic force produces a torque which turns the motor.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION BLPM SNW motor carries a 3 phase winding connected to a dc supply through an electronic commutator. The voltage available at the input terminals of the armature winding is assumed to be sinusoidally varying 3 phase balanced voltage. whose freq is influenced by rotor speed. Its flux density is sine distributed. Under this condition. 17 . Electronic commutator acts as an ideal inverter. revolving magnetic field is set up in the air gap.
Synchronous operation 18 .
Synchronous operation 19 .
Synchronous operation 20 .
Synchronous operation 21 .
Synchronous operation 22 .
Synchronous operation 23 .
High efficiency (That is no current in the rotor means no copper loss) and reliability.Advantages of PM machines They have high torque to inertia (lower weight). Longer life. That is better dynamic performance than conventional one. High power density. Avoidance of brushes and slip rings makes the machine less audible noise. Efficient heat dissipation. 24 . sparkless (no fire hazard) and high speed.
There is a problem of maintenance of rotor magnet. 25 .Disadvantages of PM machines Loss of flexibility of field flux control Cost permanent magnets is high They have complex control. There is a possibility of demagnetization of the rotor magnet. If demagnetization occurs. there will be a reduction of torque production.
PMSM BLDC Synchronous machine Fed with direct currents Trapezoidal BEMF PMSM • Synchronous machine • Fed with sinusoidal currents • Sinusoidal BEMF • Continuous stator flux position Stator Flux position variation commutation each 60 degrees Only two phases ON at the same time Torque ripple at commutations • Possible to have three phases ON at the same time • No torque ripple at commutations 26 .BLDC Vs.
27 .TORQUE-SPEED TORQUECHARACTERISTICS •Maximum torque is developed in PMSM by varying the frequency from 0 to f0 . •Further increase in frequency. the torque gets reduced and goes to 0 at a frequency fd .
PMSM Motor Applications Washing machines Electrical power steering Industrial drive Servo drives Electric vehicle traction drive Automotive applications Refrigerator Air conditioning Fan 28 .
PMSM Motor Applications High speed and high power drives for Compressors Blowers Conveyers Steel rolling mills Air craft 29 .
PMSM DRIVE TOPOLOGY PMAC & feedback 30 .
For PMSM 120°Conduction mode of 3 Phase Inverter-For BLDC 32 .DRIVE 180°Conduction mode of 3 Phase Inverter.
. 456. The sequence of firing is: 123.180°Conduction For this mode of operation. each device conducts 180 degrees. 612. 345. 561. 234. The gating signals are shifted from each other by 60 degrees.
Waveforms for 180° Conduction 34 .
The sequence of firing is: 61. 56. 23. 34. each transistor conducts for 120 degrees.120° Conduction In this mode. 61. 35 . 12. 45.
Waveforms for 120° Conduction 36 .
FEEDBACK SENSORS 37 .
PMSM Motor Control 38 .
current.SCALAR CONTROL.Volt/Hertz Scalar control is based on relationships valid in steady state. The control is an open-loop scheme and does not use any feedback loops. Only magnitude and frequency of voltage. etc. are controlled. The idea is to keep stator flux constant at rated value so that the motor develops rated torque/ampere ratio over its entire speed range 39 .
Closed loop control These relationships are valid even during transients which is essential for precise torque and speed control.VECTOR CONTROL In vector control amplitude and position of a controlled space vector is considered. Types – Field Oriented Control (FOC) Direct Torque Control (DTC) 40 .
Angle between the axis of the flux and the armature mmf axis is 90°. Field axis Armature mmf axis 41 . CASE 1 Flux axis is in quadrature with the armature mmf axis.VECTOR CONTROL Electromagnetic torque developed due to the interaction of the current carrying conductor and magnetic field.
I = Id + Iq Id Direct axis Current Iq Quadrature axis Current Desired operating point of current is such that Id = 0. For a BLDC SNW motor to have better steady state and dynamic performance. it is essential that the armature mmf axis and the axis of the PM are to be in quadrature in all operating conditions. 42 .CASE 2 Angle between the axis of the flux and the armature mmf axis is different from 90°. Controlling the BLPM SNW motor considering above mentioned aspects is known as vector control of BLPM SNW motor.
Field axis Armature mmf axis 43 .
SENSORED CONTROL-FOC Id ref = 0 44 .
SENSORLESS CONTROL-FOC 45 .
DTC-PMSM 46 .
THANK YOU 47 .
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