Variety (linguistics

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In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster. This may include languages, dialects, accents, registers, styles or other sociolinguistic variation, as well as the standard variety itself.[1] "Variety" avoids the terms language, which many people associate only with the standard language, and dialect , which is associated with non-standard varieties thought of as less prestigious or "correct" than the standard.[2] Linguists speak of both standard and non-standard varieties. "Lect" avoids the problem in ambiguous cases of deciding whether or not two varieties are distinct languages or dialects of a single language. Variation at the level of the lexicon, such as slang and argot, is often considered in relation to particular styles or levels of formality (also called registers), but such uses are sometimes discussed as varieties themselves.[1]

Contents
1 Dialects 2 Standard varieties 3 Registers and styles 4 Idiolect 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Dialects
Main article: Dialect O'Grady et al. define dialect as, "A regional or social variety of a language characterized by its own phonological, syntactic, and lexical properties."[3] A variety spoken in a particular region is called a regional dialect; some regional varieties are called topolects, especially when discussing varieties of Chinese.[4] In addition, there are dialect varieties associated with particular ethnic groups (sometimes called ethnolects), socioeconomic classes (sometimes called sociolects), or other social or cultural groups. Dialectology is the study of dialects and their geographic or social distribution.[3] Traditionally, dialectologists study the variety of language used within a particular speech community, a group of people who share a set of norms or conventions for language use.[1] More recently, sociolinguists have adopted the concept of the community of practice, a group of people who develop shared knowledge and shared norms of interaction, as the social group within which dialects develop and change.[5] Sociolinguists Penelope Eckert and Sally McConnell-Ginet explain, "Some communities of practice may develop more distinctive ways of speaking than others. Thus it is within communities of practice that linguistic influence may spread within and among speech communities."[6]

which is used in many western cultures when talking to small children.[12] The appropriate form of language may also change during the course of a communicative event as the relationship between speakers changes. or a joking register used in teasing or playing the dozens. DC. such as the Académie française. which are used by particular speech communities and associated with geographical settings or social groupings. Standard varieties are more prestigious than other. nonstandard varieties and are generally thought of as "correct" by speakers of the language. that is. which refers to differences in syntax. standard varieties are understood only implicitly. Writing of standard English. The choice of register is affected by the setting and topic of speech. is the broader term. Unlike dialects. not any inherent superiority of the characteristics it specifies. though. As linguist Harold Fasold puts it. jargon refers specifically to the vocabulary associated with such registers.[11] or in terms of socially recognized events. Standard varieties Main article: Standard language Most languages have a standard variety. Trudgill suggests the following sentence as an example of a nonstandard dialect used with the technical register of physical geography: There was two eskers what we saw in them U-shaped valleys.[8] In some cases. as well as pronunciation. Since this selection constitutes an arbitrary standard.[8] Most speakers command a range of registers. Speakers may shift styles as their perception of an event in progress changes. Dialect and register may be thought of as different dimensions of variation. some variety that is selected and promoted by either quasi-legal authorities or other social institutions. refers only to differences in pronunciation. as well as the relationship that exists between the speakers.Although the words dialect and accent are sometimes used interchangeably in everyday English speech. or levels of formality.[10] There are also registers associated with particular professions or interest groups. purposes."[7] Sociolinguists generally recognize the standard variety of a language as one of the dialects of that language.[10] Settings may be defined in terms of greater or lesser formality. in technical usage. . "The standard language may not even be the best possible constellation of linguistic features available. especially those associated with geographic or social differences. Consider the following telephone call to the Cuban Interest Section in Washington. and vocabulary. standard varieties are only "correct" in the sense that they are highly valued within the society that uses the language. linguists and scholars define the two terms differently. describe the grammar and usage of a standard variety. which they use in different situations. an official body. More often. however. or different social facts become relevant. such as baby talk. Dialect. morphology. Accent. For example. John Algeo suggests that the standard variety "is simply what English speakers agree to regard as good. such as schools or media."[9] Registers and styles Main articles: Register (sociolinguistics) and Style shifting A register (sometimes called a style) is a variety of language used in a particular social setting. It is general social acceptance that gives us a workable arbitrary standard. registers are associated with particular situations.

J. Connor-Linton (eds) An Introduction to Language and Linguistics.) Receptionist: ¡Ah Rosa! ¿Cóma anda eso? (Oh. For scholars who regard language as a shared social practice. (1999) "Standard English: what it isn't" . 4.W. but since it involves styles or registers. Martin's. the idiolect is a way of referring to this specific knowledge. John Archibald. M. After the caller identifies herself the receptionist recognizes that she is speaking to a friend. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. essentially the knowledge of language and grammar that exists in the mind of an individual language user. Marjorie and Janie Rees-Miller. ^ Lave. and shifts to an informal register of colloquial Cuban Spanish. Penelope & Sally McConnell-Ginet.Abstandsprache . Fasold and J. and in the case of multilinguals. Dígame. Rees-Miller (eds) Contemporary Linguistics. ^ a b O'Grady. pp. 371-400.[14] For scholars who view language from the perspective of linguistic competence. ^ Fasold. the receptionist uses a relatively formal register.W. 5. Jean & Etienne Wenger. (It's Rosa. Archibald.Caller: ¿Es la embajada de Cuba? (Is this the Cuban embassy?) Receptionist: Sí. ^ a b c Meecham. 6. William. O'Grady. pp. ^ Eckert." In R. Mark Aronoff. professional registers. (2006) "Dialect variation. This shift is similar to metaphorical code-switching. 7. may I help you?) Caller: Es Rosa. Fasold and J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. is considered an example of style shifting.Dachsprache Language localization List of language subsystems References 1. and Jane Rees-Miller. Harold. 2010. various languages. idiolect is more like a dialect with a speech community of one individual. 8. ^ "topolect"."[13] An individual's idiolect may be affected by contact with various regional or social dialects. as befits her professional role. (2006) "The politics of language. (2001) Contemporary Linguistics. 3. Rosa! How's it going?)[12] At first. (1991) Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. eds. Idiolect Main article: Idiolect An idiolect is defined as "the language use typical of an individual person. (2003) Language and Gender. Aronoff and J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 311-341." In R. Natalies." In W. pp. 2. Boston: Bedford/St.).[15] See also Ausbausprache . ^ a b Trudgill. Connor-Linton (eds) An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Yes. Peter. Boston: Bedford/St. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2001) "Language in social contexts. 537-590. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed. Martin's. ^ Schilling-Estes.

(1993) "What Makes Good English Good?" In L.D. Lin (eds) Linguistics for Teachers. London: Routledge. John. 10.uk/home/dick/SEtrudgill. a non-profit organization. 13. Watts (eds) Standard English: The Widening Debate. pp. Alex. (http://www. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. . New York: McGraw. (2006) The Anthropology of Language. Oxford and Cambridge.stanford.htm) In T. 14. 15.ucl. 12. ^ Freeborn.org/w/index. pp." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://plato. MA: Blackwell. Inc. Houndsmill and London: MacMillan Press. ^ a b Ottenheimer. 473-82. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Michael and Susanne Carroll.ac.J. Belmont. ^ Algeo. London: Routledge. (1993) Varieties of English. Dennis. New York: Harcourt. Brace and World. 117-128. (2004) "Idiolects.phon.edu/entries/idiolects/). Miller Cleary and M. ^ Joos. CA: Wadsworth Cenage. By using this site.php?title=Variety_(linguistics)&oldid=548647614" Categories: Language varieties and styles Sociolinguistics This page was last modified on 4 April 2013 at 11:51. 11.wikipedia. Harriet Joseph. Muriel. (1961) The Five Clocks. (1978) Language and situation: language varieties and their social contexts.9. ^ a b Saville-Troike. Bex & R.. External links Retrieved from "http://en. ^ Barber. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. additional terms may apply. Retrieved 07-01-2009. ^ Gregory. Peter French & David Langford. Martin. (1982) The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction.