I. !



Mathematical Modeling: Hardy-Weinberg

II. Purpose ! The purpose of these labs was to reenforce the ideas of the Hardy- Weinberg Theorem. It was also to show evolution at work in a population of organisms. Evolution usually occurs through Natural Selection which will happen as an animal needs to change and adapt to the needs of a changing environment. The proportion of genotypes in a population from generation to generation can be determined using that HardyWeinberg Theorem. This only works though under the conditions of Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles is at work. This theorem shows how Mendelian genetic inheritance preserves genetic variation. The proportion of allelic frequencies can be calculated by using the formulas p2+2pq+q2 and p-q=1. Genetic frequencies would change with the changes in the environment, the phenotype or genotype that is best suited for that specific environment will be the most observed at the time. When a bottleneck effect is observed the allelic frequency will be drastically changed from what it was. In addition when a founders affect is observed two populations of a species will evolve differently and become genetically different as they are no longer breeding together. III.Hypothesis ! Lab A. If you Randomly pick variable then the offspring produced in each generation will evolve to suit their changing environment. ! Lab B. If organisms are separated randomly then the offsprings that evolve from the parents will have a smaller gene pool and evolve differently from one another. IV.Materials ! Lab A. Computer, Paper, Pencil, AP Biology Investigative Lab book, Excel (spreadsheet) ! Lab B. Paper, Pencil, Ruler, Lab Packet, Notebook, Classmates V.Procedure Lab A: Step 1: Open a program that enables the creation of spreadsheets. Step 2: Complete the steps of model making 1. Formulate the question. 2. Determine the basic ingredients. 3. Quantitatively describe the biological system. 4. Quantitatively describe the biological system. 5. Analyze the equations. 6. Perform the checks and balances. 7. Relate the results back to the question. Step 3: To quantitatively describe the biological system you need to: 1. Set variable for the frequency of the alleles. a. Allele A can be p and Allele B can be q 2. P and q must add up to be 1. So after you input a value for p in D2 you can then put =1-D2 into D3 3. Next it is necessary to simulate random mating and this is done by using the function =RAND(). In E5 input the equation =IF(RAND()<=D$2,”A”, “B”)

1.4.and J are used to keep track o the numbers of each zygote’s genotype. Create graphs for the following generations to observe the change. Step 6: Determine the frequency of the heterozygous genotype (2pq) by multiplying 2 times p times q and complete column five in table 1. ! Do the same for attached earlobes. Make a bar graph of the genotypes using the chart tool. 3. Then Copy them both down for 16 cells. Place the zygote in cells G by entering the equation =CONCATENATE(E5. 4. Step 8: Test the Hardy-Weinberg law 1. Step 7: Select a trait for further testing. Use the genotype frequencies to calculate new allele frequencies and to recalculate new p and q values. Calculate the genetic frequencies of each population and how they have become different.0))Then copy it down the column 10. ! Fill in the first column of table 1. Step 2: Determine of homozygous recessive frequency (q2). In J5 input the equation =IF(G5=”BB”.1. 7. p=1-q and fill in the third column of table 1. Copy the chart and use different p and q values to describe the patterns of different allele frequencies over many generations. Do this by dividing the number of students who cannot taste PTC by number of students in the class. Then copy it down the column 9. 12. Fill in the second column of table 1. 5. Then copy it down the column 8.1. Use the model before to determine the p and q values of the next generation. Columns H. ! Lab B: Step 1: Determine if you are a PTC taster and if your earlobes are attached or unattached. that is. This gives you the q2 value. Calculate the genotypic frequencies for the given trait. 11. In I5 input the equation =IF(G5=”AB”.F5) then copy this formula down to match the numbers in column F.I. 14. Once the genotype to be used is contrived you must mate randomly with your fellow class mates for five generations and then record your results. Separate 6 students onto and island to create a founders effect and mate within your population for five generations. 15. Step 5: Determine the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype (p2) by multiplying p times p and fill in the fourth column of table1.1. VI.0).(IF(G5=”BA”. Calculate the sums of each generation by using the sum function.0). 2. 6. 13. Step 4: Determine the frequency of the dominant allele (p) using the formula p+q=1. Data Collection ! Lab A: . Create the same formula in E5. In H5 input the equation =IF(G5=”AA”. Step 3: Determine the frequency of the recessive allele (q) by calculating the square root of q2.

4 A A A B A A B B A B A A B B B B Gametes A A B A B B A A A A A B A A A A Zygote BB BB AB BB AB AB BB BB AB BB AA AA BA BA BA BB Sums for each genotype Number of each Genotype AA AB BB 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 7 7 A B 0.4375 p q 0.125 0.4 0.P = Frequency of A= q= Frequency of B= 0.4375 0.6 0.6614 number of each allele allele frequency next generation Generation 2 p 0.6614 B B A B A B A A A A A B A B Gametes A A B A A B B A A A B A A A Zygote AB AB AB BB AB BB AB AB AB AB AB BB AB BB AA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 AB 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 BB 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 .3536 q 0.3536 0.6614 0.

6875 0.5625 0.559 A A B B B A B A A A B A B B A B Gametes A A A B A A A B B A B A A B B B Zygote AB AB BB BB BB AB BB AB AB AB BB AB BB BB AB BA AA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A p P= Q= 0 0.8292 0.559 Generation 3 p q 0 0.3125 q 0 0.4375 q .A B B A AB BB 0 0 0 A p 1 0 11 0 1 5 B 0 0.66143783 AB 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 9 BB 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 7 B 0 0.

Genotype Frequencies 10 8 5 3 0 Generation 1 AA AB Genotype Frequencies BB 9 7 5 2 0 Generation 2 AA AB BB .

Genotype Frequencies 9 7 5 2 0 Generation 3 AA 1 AB BB 0 0 0 0 Allelic Frequencies P ! Lab B: Non Taster with attached ear lobes Q .

12 p2 Free Earlobe 10 aa q 0.41 q2 Non-taster Attached Earlobe x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 7 aa 10 p 0.35 0.23 0.76 0.Taster x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 7 Table 1 Trait PTC Tasting Earlobes Genotypes 0.05 0.64 2pq 0.45 Table 2: Present Generation Genotypic Frequencies PTC Tasting Homozygous Recessive (q2) 0.59 Earlobes 0.35 0.41 Number of Students PTC Tasting 10 Earlobes 8 .58 0.

05 0.Genotypes Homozygous Dominant (p2) Heterozygous (2pq) Genotypic Frequencies 0.36 1 10 6 1 10 6 Number of Students Table 5: Parental Generation Number of Students .05 0.06 0.45 0.13 0.57 0.57 0.36 Genotypic Frequencies 0.46 1 6 Number of Students 2 7 Breeding Round 1: ! ME! MATE!! F1! tt! tt! ! F2! tt! Tt! ! F3! Tt! Tt! ! F4! TT! Tt! ! F5! Tt! Tt! ! Table 4: F5 Generation Genotypes Homozygous recessive (q2) Homozygous dominant (p2) Heterozygous (2pq) Genotypes Homozygous recessive (q2) Homozygous dominant (p2) Heterozygous (2pq) Child! tt Tt TT Tt Tt Genotypic Frequencies 0.

489 2 3.Class Results: Heterozygotes! Tt ! ! ! 12 ! ! ! ! ! ! Homozygous Recessive ! ! tt ! ! ! ! ! 1! ! ! ! ! Homozygous Dominant TT! ! ! 4! ! Breeding Round 2: ! ME! MATE!! F1! Tt! Tt! ! F2! TT! Tt! ! F3! Tt! tt! ! F4! tt! tt! ! F5! tt! Tt! ! Our portions results: Heterozygotes! ! Tt ! ! ! ! 6! ! ! ! Child 1! Tt! ! Tt! ! Tt! ! tt! ! Tt! ! Child 2! Tt! ! Tt! ! tt! ! tt! ! tt! ! Chosen Child! Tt! ! Tt tt! tt! ! ! tt Homozygous Dominant TT! ! ! 3! ! Homozygous Recessive ! ! tt ! ! ! ! ! 2! ! ! ! ! Table 6: F5 Generation Genotypes Homozygous recessive (q2) Homozygous dominant (p2) Heterozygous (2pq) Island Results: Heterozygotes! Tt ! ! ! 1! ! ! Genotypic Frequencies 0.181818 0.3294 0.4 Number of Students ! ! ! Homozygous Recessive ! ! tt ! ! ! ! ! 1! ! ! ! ! Homozygous Dominant TT! ! ! 4 Table 7: Island Results Genotypes Homozygous recessive (q2) Genotypic Frequencies 0.166 1 Number of Students .6 5.

1. 2.48 2 3 Number of Students VII. ! They will still behave randomly but it depends on how large the population size is. 4. How does this compare to a population that has random gamete selection but its small ! the gametes will still display genetic variation though it will have a smaller population which would make evolution occur faster. What happens to allele frequencies in such a population? Is it predictable ? ! They become concentrated toward one side or another. Lab B. Do alleles behave the same way if you make a particular variable more extreme? Less extreme? ! The should behave the same way in the fact that they will combine together randomly. 2. 6. . what does the change tell you about how alleles behave? ! You can change the original allelic frequencies and this shows that everything is completely random. 1. yes as long as there is random mating. What can you change in your model? If you change something. ! Random mating must be present. What would happen if there were no randomness to this selection? ! It would not be an accurate display of the Hardy-Weinberg equation or evolution. Assigned Questions Lab A. Do alleles behave the same way no matter what the population size is? to answer this question you can insert rows of data somewhere between the first row of data and the last row the copy the formulas down to fill in the space. 3. 3. 8. 5. are the allele frequencies of the original population expected to change from generation to generation? ! No because the random events are what makes evolution happen.What evidence would you look for to indicate that a population is evolving? ! The phenotypes are changing in one direction or another. What kind of pattern of genotypes would you expect in the next generation? ! The genotype that is best suited for the environment that its living in will be most present.Genotypes Homozygous dominant (p2) Heterozygous (2pq) Genotypic Frequencies 0. 7.Assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. List the condition that must exist for the Hardy-Weinberg law to apply. In the absence of random events ( an infinitely large population).35 0.

2 p2=. as nothing can be proven unless math is behind it. The first lab was teaching us to create a model on the computer and to show us something that is very important to the science field . This can also be used to predict the evolution of a species over time and also what that species might do to the environment it lives in. ! Experiments that could be done to further the study might be to look at real life examples or organisms in an environment and to observe how they are changing with the environment in which they live. Also i learned how to create a mathematical model. I also realized what is happening to the population not just that numbers are being found through the equation.04 2pq= . Some errors that might have occurred in this section of the lab is that some of the results might not have been recorded down correction and there may be variation between the genotypes that were recorded between the class. ! In this lab i learned why and how the Hardy-Weinberg equation should be used and why it is used.64 q2= . as people are moving around constantly.q2. . More importantly than that i learned how to use Microsoft Excel. Show all your working. It helped to illustrate what the equation means and how it should be used. Conclusion ! The reason behind this lab was to try to use the Hardy-Weinberg equation in a real life situation. Through mating with people in the class room the different theories of selection were demonstrated while given a more realistic example of speciation and what the HardyWeinberg equation is composed of. q=. If p=0. for predicting almost everything. what would be the gene pool frequencies in the next generation if evolution does not occur? ! it would continue shifting toward the Q direction. In addition to this bacteria could be observed to see how it becomes resistant to antibiotics and also use to Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict what might happen. VIII. For example mathematical modeling is used in many different fields of science. There are many real life applications for the skills and topics that were learned through these labs. A generalized error for this section of the lab is that Excel is not the easiest application to use and the lab was meant to be used with Excel.32 b. calculate the values of q. For this reason it made it slightly more difficult to concentrate on what the lab was trying to teach. I also learned through this lab that communicating with a lot of people you have to be organized with your data.p2.a. and 2pq. The second lab though was a more hands on way to teach the same thing.8 for a population. ! This applies to both evolution and in a small way genetics. Evolution because it shows the amount change in a population of organisms over many different generations.

P Biology 3rd Block Denise Grover .Mathematical Modeling: Hardy-Weinberg Theory A.

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