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Gen Purp Antennas

# Gen Purp Antennas

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General Purpose Antenna Model
General Purpose Antenna Model

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Published by: pbeauvil on Apr 22, 2013
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# A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations Revision A: 27 July 2010, Original Release: 15 February

2010 Paul Beauvilliers Introduction An easily-implemented antenna pattern model provides one component of a tool-set for the general-purpose evaluation of a multi-terminal radio link environment. Each terminal has one or more antennas for transmitting and/or receiving Radio Frequency (RF) energy. (For a given operating frequency,) each antenna would be defined by a gain, which would be a function of pointing angles relative to a given reference. For most high gain (highly directional) antennas, these angles are the (θ, φ ) angles of the spherical coordinate system, where we define θ to be the angular measure off boresite, and φ to be the angular measure from a reference plane. Refer to Figure 1 for a depiction and further definition of the coordinate system which will be employed in this memo. For this coordinate system, we note that any direction vector can be specified via a value of θ in the range 0 < θ < π radians, and a value of φ in the range of 0 < φ < 2π radians. z-axis (boresite direction) θ is measured from z-axis. θ (θ, φ ) pointing direction

y-axis φ x-axis φ is measured from the x-z plane, in the direction of the y-axis. Figure 1. Spherical Coordinates Used in Antenna Pattern Description For the simple model described in this memo, the antenna patterns are a function of θ only (the patterns are independent of the value of φ). In other words, the patterns described here are rotationally symmetric about the boresite direction. Projection of (θ, φ ) direction vector onto x-y plane.

Page 1 of 8

and so. non-negative function with a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 1. This memo defines the gain of all other antennas using the isotropic radiator as a reference. and the analyst has no better source of antenna performance. N is restricted to non-negative integer multiples of 1/(2π). he/she is certainly encouraged to use that data in lieu of the model presented here. Such a function meets the qualifications of a normalized antenna pattern. πx M is restricted to non-negative integer values. N. or reflector). but we’d now like to state explicitly: There is no intent to imply that this model is an accurate representation of any particular antenna implementation (e. regardless of the selected values of M. The intent is to provide a coarse “one size fits all” solution for the purpose of performing link budget analyses which incorporate the effects of antenna directivity. We would also like to take this opportunity to stress a point which was implicit during the development of this model. when expressed in deciBel units. Note that setting σ = 0 effectively returns equation (1) to its “original condition”. waveguide horn. without dramatically affecting the main beam (for moderately small values of σ ). Should the analyst have access to pertinent antenna pattern data. Rationale for model update: The incorporation of the parameter σ provides an additional degree of control over the rate of side-lobe roll-off. An antenna with a beam solid angle of 4π steradians has the same gain in all pointing directions. aperture. and is known as an isotropic radiator. wire antenna.) the on-boresite gain associated with a normalized antenna pattern is defined as follows: G= 4π 2π π ∫ ∫ P (θ . and σ is a “taper scale factor” (a real value > 0) Note that. Page 2 of 8 . gains will be quoted as values dBi (deciBels with respect to an isotropic radiator). φ ) =  e Sin c ( Nθ )      2 2 (1) where: Sinc ( x ) = sin (π x ) . (Assuming the antenna has no dissipative energy losses.A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations The Antenna Model The model antenna pattern proposed in this memo is of the following form: − σθ M P (θ ..φ ) sin (θ ) dθ dφ 0 0 (2) where the denominator is recognized as the beam solid angle (in steradians) of the antenna pattern. and σ .g. the pattern described by equation (1) is a real.

of course. N = 0). In three-dimensional space. origin = -60 dBi) Figure 2: Pattern of Isotropic Radiator Page 3 of 8 . N) values. dBi -20 -40 -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 off boresite angle. The upper plot is a rectangular plot of (normalized) pattern gain vs. N = 1 (or M = 1.A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations A Small Antenna Catalogue Equation (1) and (2) have been implemented in MATLAB routines (included in the Appendix of this memo). Example 1: The Isotropic Radiator By choosing M = 0. The lower plot is a polar plot of the same information (here θ runs from 0 to 360 degrees. off-boresite angle (θ ) in degrees. N = 1 Boresite gain = 7. degrees 3 dB beamwidth = 360 degrees 90 1 120 60 0. rather than from –180 to +180 degrees). we see that equation (1) works out to a constant value of unity. the pattern is a sphere.8207e-009 dBi) 0 Gain. Figure 2 provides two views of the antenna pattern. Equation (1). M = 0.5 30 150 180 210 240 270 300 0 330 100 150 Polar plot (outer edge = 0 dBi. In the following we present several example antenna patterns (and associated gain calculations) for a sampling of (M. indicating that this antenna radiates equally in all directions.

dBi -20 -40 -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 off boresite angle. N = 1 Boresite gain = 3.5 150 30 180 210 240 270 300 0 330 100 150 Polar plot (outer edge = 0 dBi. Equation (1). M = 1. Such a pattern. away from the Earth’s surface. While the beam-width is broad (roughly hemispherical coverage).A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations Example 2: A Cardioid Radiator For this example. might be representative of the antenna pattern associated with a sat-phone. there is a distinct null at the θ = 180 degree direction. N = 1. M = 1. with the θ = 0 direction oriented upward. This pattern exhibits intensified radiation in some directions. with a corresponding decrease in other directions.2 degrees 90 1 120 60 0.6089 dBi) 0 Gain. for example. origin = -60 dBi) Figure 3: Pattern of Cardioid Radiator Page 4 of 8 . degrees 3 dB beamwidth = 159.

N = 3. N = 3 Boresite gain = 14.5 30 150 180 210 240 270 300 0 330 100 150 Polar plot (outer edge = 0 dBi.2 degrees 90 1 60 120 0. M = 2. along with a number of side-lobes with diminishing gain for lobes more distant from the main beam. Equation (1).2932 dBi) 0 Gain. dBi -20 -40 -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 off boresite angle. This pattern exhibits a distinct main lobe.A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations Example 3: A Medium-gain Radiator For this example. M = 2. degrees 3 dB beamwidth = 38. origin = -60 dBi) Figure 4: Pattern of Medium-gain Radiator Page 5 of 8 .

g. N = 65 Boresite gain = 130. degrees 3 dB beamwidth = 1 degrees 90 1 60 120 0. Such radiator performance is approached with very large diameter (with respect to a wavelength) reflector antennas (e. dBi -20 -40 -60 -150 -100 -50 0 50 off boresite angle. origin = -60 dBi) Figure 5: Pattern of Pencil-beam Radiator Page 6 of 8 . N = 65. Equation (1). This pattern exhibits an extreme example of a highly directional radiator. M = 5.. M = 5.76 dBi) 0 Gain.A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations Example 4: A Pencil-beam Radiator For this example.5 150 30 180 210 240 270 300 0 330 100 150 Polar plot (outer edge = 0 dBi. parabolic dishes). with negligible sidelobes.

M.'). M = 2 -> 4 sidelobes. M] numbers: N = 0/pi. 3dB BW = ~30 degrees N = 8/pi. M = 0) -> isotropic pattern. gain(i) = 1e-6. 0. M = 3 -> 19 sidelobes (only 4 are > -60 dBi). M = 5 -> (no sidelobes > -60 dBi).1) M = 5. plot(theta.. sigma. theta = (-180:0. 3dB BW = ~5 degrees N = 30/pi. % determines sidelobe rate of roll-off sigma = 0. M = 2 -> 14 sidelobes. % create an illustration: integflag = 0.'). figure. 'b'). pi. gain =0 dBi. % determines main lobe width & number of sidelobes % # sidelobes = 2*(Numerator . 3dB BW = ~14 degrees N = 10/pi. gain ~55 dBi. gain ~23 dBi. integflag). M = 1 (or N = 1/pi. disp(' '). gain ~17 dBi. gain ~130 dBi.m % MATLAB script to illustrate "experimental" antenna pattern.. % degrees gain = ant4func(theta*pi/180. bw3dB = theta(max(i)) . N. []. test = dblquad(@ant4func. % exp(-abs(sigma*theta). 10*log10(gain). 3dB BW = ~3 degrees N = 65/pi. i = find(10*log10(gain) > -3). M.theta(min(i)). 1). 0. gain ~26 dBi. gain ~4 dBi. disp(' '). subplot(2. 3dB BW = ~1 degree disp('Computing gain of experimental antenna pattern . 3dB BW = ~40 degrees N = 4/pi. M = 3 -> (only 4 sidelobes are > -60 dBi). % pattern taper exponent factor % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % some "good" [N. sigma. %#ok<FNDSB> disp('Computing 3 dB beamwidth . 3dB BW = ~10 degrees N = 20/pi. disp(['Computed beamwidth (double-sided) = ' num2str(bw3dB) ' degrees']). disp(['Computed gain = ' num2str(10*log10(4*pi/test)) ' dBi']). gain ~100 dBi. 3dB BW ~160 degrees N = 3/pi.^2)*sinc(N*theta)^M N = 65/pi. 1.. N. i = find(gain < 1e-6). gain ~14 dBi. M = 2 -> 6 sidelobes. grid on.1:180). M = 1 -> cardioid pattern. M = 3 -> (only 4 sidelobes are > -60 dBi).A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations Appendix: MATLAB Code % ant4. close all. 3 dB BW = 360 degrees N = 1/pi. clear all. 2*pi. [].. integflag). 0. Page 7 of 8 . integflag = 1. clc.

'. M = ' num2str(M) '. integflag) y = ( exp(-abs(sigma*theta). modgain. N.^M ). ylabel('Gain.. xlabel('off boresite angle. % y(i) = 0.m function y = ant4func(theta. % i = find(abs(theta) > pi/2). % end of ant4. ['Boresite gain = ' num2str(10*log10(4*pi/test)) ' dBi)']}). sigma = ' num2str(sigma)]. 2).. end % end of ant4func. title(['3 dB beamwidth = ' num2str(bw3dB) ' degrees']). phi.A General-Purpose Antenna Model for Radio Link Environment Evaluations axis([-180 180 -60 10]). origin = -60 dBi)'). dBi'). if max(modgain) == min(modgain) modgain = ones(size(theta))... else modgain = modgain/max(modgain).m %#ok<INUSL> Page 8 of 8 .0. xlabel('Polar plot (outer edge = 0 dBi.*sin(theta). sigma. 1. %#ok<FNDSB> if integflag y = y. % modify gain data for polar plotting: modgain = 10*log10(gain) .min(10*log10(gain)).^2). 'b'). . N = ' num2str(N*pi) . subplot(2. title({['Equation (1). M. end polar(theta*pi/180. degrees').^2.*sinc(N*theta).

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