CHAPTER 3 : MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

PREPARED BY : EN. MUHD FAZLI DOLLAH

SUBSTOPICS
3.1 - Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane 3.2 – Understanding the Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane in Everyday Life 3.3 – Appreciating the Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane

 To

state the substances required by living cells  To state the substances that have to be eliminated from cells  To explain the necessity for movement of substances across the plasma membrane  To describe the structure of the plasma membrane  To describe the permeability of the plasma membrane

LEARNING OUTCOMES

NECESSITY FOR MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
 To

provide nutrients for metabolism & growth;  To supply oxygen for respiration;  To regulate solute concentration & suitable pH for maintaining a stable internal environment for optimal enzymatic activities  To maintain an ion concentration gradient required for nerve & muscle cell activities;

 To

secrete useful substances, for example, digestive enzymes & hormones;  To eliminate toxic waste products such as urea & carbon dioxide

Substances can move into or out of a cell by :
Passive

transport

Simple

diffusion Osmosis Facilitated diffusion

Active

transport

Movement of substances across the plasma membrane would depend on :

Selectivity

of the partially permeable membrane; The difference in concentration between the cell & extracellular fluid

Structure of the Plasma Membrane

Structure of the Plasma Membrane
 All

cells are covered by a thin plasma membrane. separates the cell contents from the surrounding S.J. Singer & G.L. Nicolson proposed the fluid-mosaic model of plasma membrane.

 It

 1972,

 The

plasma membrane is dynamic & fluid. The phospholipid molecules can move thus giving the membrane its fluidity & flexibility proteins are scattered in the membrane giving it a mosaic appearance : 7.0 – 8.0 nm.

 The

 Thickness

Structure of the Plasma Membrane

The membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer (2 molecules thick) The polar hydrophilic heads – outer layer face outwards, chemically attracted to the watery surrounding The non-polar hydrophobic hydrocarbon fatty acid tails – face inwards, away from water.

Structure of the Plasma Membrane
 There

are proteins on the outer & inner surfaces of the plasma membrane. proteins penetrate partially through the membrane, others penetrate completely. phospholipid bilayer is permeable to diffusion of small uncharged molecules such as O2 & CO2.

 Some

 The

Structure of the Plasma Membrane
 Two

types of transport protein :

Channel / pore proteins – have pore to facilitate diffusion of particular ions / molecules across the PM. Some carrier proteins – have binding sites that bind to specific molecules such as glucose @ amino acids  alter their shape to facilitate the diffusion of solutes. Other carrier proteins – function in active transport  an energized carrier protein actively pumps the solute across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient.

 Cholesterol

molecules stabilise the structure of PM.

Structure of the Plasma Membrane

MECHANISM OF MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
PERMEABILITY  A semipermeable @ partially permeable membrane = selectively permeable to small molecules such as water & glucose.
 Does

it.

not permit large molecule to move through

 Examples

: egg membrane, plasma membrane of living cells & cellaphone membrane of the Visking tubing.

MECHANISM OF MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
A

permeable membrane – permeable to the many solvent (water) & solute molecules  diffusion can occur. : cellulose cell wall of plant cell

 Example  An

impermeable membrane – not allow substances to diffuse through it. : the impermeable polythene membrane.

 Example

LEARNING OUTCOMES To explain the movement of substances across

the plasma membrane through the process of passive transport  To explain the movement of water molecules across the plasma membrane by osmosis,  To explain the movement of substances across the plasma membrane through the process of active transport,  To explain the process of passive transport in living organisms using examples

PASSIVE TRANSPORT
 The

movement of particles (molecules/ions) within a gas or liquid across the plasma membrane from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration & does not require expenditure of energy from ATP. substances move down their concentration gradient through different ways :
Phospholipid bilayer  Pore protein/ channel protein  Carrier protein

 The

PASSIVE TRANSPORT
SIMPLE DIFFUSION

OSMOSIS

FACILITATED DIFFUSION

SIMPLE DIFFUSION
 The

net movement of molecules / ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached.  Substances :
 Small

non-polar molecules – O2 & CO2  Lipid-soluble substances – vitamins ADEK, steroids & alcohols  Water molecules

SIMPLE DIFFUSION
 The

bigger the concentration gradient the faster the rate of diffusion.  These substances will diffuse down the concentration gradient if there is a concentration gradient. (until an equilibrium is reached).  Examples : gaseous exchange between the alveolus & the blood capillaries, blood capillaries & body

osmosis
 The

diffusion of water molecules (solvent) from a region of higher water concentration (diluted solution) to a region of lower water concentration (concentrated solution) through a semi-permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached.

A

special type of diffusion. :

 Examples

Absorption of water from soil solution by plant root hairs  Reabsorption of water by kidney tubules

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
 The

movement of molecules / ions down their concentration gradient assisted by transport proteins (channel protein / pore protein) across the plasma membrane without using energy. transport proteins facilitate & increase the rate of diffusion across the plasma membrane. require energy

 The

 Not

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
 The

rate of facilitated diffusion depends on the number of transport protein molecules in the membrane & how fast they can move their specific solute. allows small charged molecules such as mineral ions to pass through the pore protein. protein : allows larger uncharged polar molecules – glucose & amino acids to cross the membrane.

 Only

 Carrier

THE MECHANISM
The solute moves to the binding site of the specific carrier protein.  The solute binds to the carrier protein at the binding site & triggers the carrier protein to change its shape.  The carrier protein changes its shape & moves the solute across the membrane.  The carrier protein returns back to its original shape.

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
 The

solutes can be transported by carrier proteins in either direction but the net movement is always down the concentration gradient. : the transportation of glucose, amino acids & mineral ions across the membrane of the vilus at the ileum & body cells.

 Examples

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 The

movement of substances across the plasma membrane from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration (against the concentration gradient) by using metabolic energy. substances move across a membrane against the concentration gradient, using metabolic energy by a specific protein embedded in the plasma membrane.

 The

 Perform

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 Require

energy to change the shape of the protein such that the substance can be pumped across the membrane. : absorption of potassium ions from pond water by algae Nitella sp. against a concentration gradient, the intake of mineral ions by the plant root hairs, Na+/ K+ protein pumps in the plasma membrane of neurones transport Na+ & K+ against their concentration gradients.

 Example

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

 To

explain the process of active transport in living organisms using examples,  To compare and contrast passive transport & active transport.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

COMPARISON BETWEEN PASSIVE & ACTIVE TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT SIMILARITIES ACTIVE TRANSPORT

DIFFERENCES Concentration gradient Cellular energy Outcome of the process Occurs in Name of process Examples

COMPARISON BETWEEN PASSIVE & ACTIVE TRANSPORT
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
Transport

SIMILARITIES

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

of substances across the plasma membrane Need a difference of concentration gradient between extracellular environment & the cell

DIFFERENCES Follow Does not expend energy Until an equilibrium is reached Non-living & living organisms Simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
Concentration gradient Cellular energy Outcome of the process

Against Need to expend energy Depends on the cells requirement (no need to reach an equilibrium) Living organisms only Active transport

Occurs in Name of process Examples

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