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am Arbeitsbereich für Marketing und Innovation Prof. Dr. Thorsten Teichert Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften Universität Hamburg
Seminar zu Konsumentenverhalten und Werbung WiSe 11/12
Hamburg den 16. März, 2012
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... 1 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 2 2 Background....................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 Definition................................................................................................................... 4 3 The Marketing Mix........................................................................................................... 6 4 Social Marketing for Business.......................................................................................... 8 5 Customer Relationship Mangement .................................................................................10 6 Sustainability.................................................................................................................... 11 7. Effectiveness and Appropriateness................................................................................. 12 7.1 Appropriateness......................................................................................................... 12 7.2 Effectiveness ............................................................................................................. 14 8 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 15 Table of Figures .................................................................................................................. 16 References ........................................................................................................................... 19
‖2 Research and evaluation together form the very cornerstone of the social marketing process. Anca-Ramona (2011). 43 4 Kotler. by creating a program based on the desires and needs of the target audience. the health communications field has been impetuously evolving. Weibe asked "Why can‘t you sell brotherhood like you sell soap?‖ This brought to the forefront that supporters of social causes are ineffective as compared to sellers of commodities. It has progressed from a superficial dependence on public service announcements to a more refined method which uses successful commercial marketing techniques.4 Social marketing was "born" as a discipline in 1971. workers. Zaltman. 463 3 Pralea. dubbed "social marketing. with the publication of "Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change" in the Journal of Marketing. Stephanie (2009). Social marketing gained its current knowledge and understanding by using the theoretical background of: psychology. economy and of course marketing and health promotion. D. which reflects a more harmonic coexistence of the different actors in the marketplace: government. 3 2 . Gerald (1971). businesses. ―There should be a healthy balance. 3 But how does social marketing compare to traditional marketing? And is it effective? 2 Background Beginning in the 1950s.1 Instead of dictating from the top-down the way that a message is to be perceived. Marketing experts Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the same marketing principles being used to sell products to consumers could be used to sell ideas. public health professionals have learned to build more effective programs from that perspective. p. sociology. Philip. G. attitudes and behaviors. p." Increasingly. and a "marketing parent" = commercial and public sector marketing approaches. NGOs. who happen to be the top two cited authors in this field (see Chart 1). Slater. and the community or society at large. ethnography. p." meaning constantly researching in-depth and consistently re-evaluating every aspect of a program. Mirella.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata 1 Introduction Over the past four decades. social marketing is being described as having "two parents"—a "social parent" = social sciences and social policy. consumers. define social marketing as "differing from other areas of 1 2 Wikipedia Yani-de-Soriano. The program requires focusing on the "consumer. Kotler and Andreasen.
" For international health programs this method has been used widely. A process tracking system with both integrative and control functions 8. The use of formative research in product and message design and the pretesting of these materials 5. p. such as physical exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption. RC. behavior change focused programs" to improve public health were needed. and more frequently in the USA. place and promotion characteristics in intervention planning and implementation 7. social marketing is now deemed to be in the growth phase of its product life cycle. Use of the marketing mix—utilizing and blending product. In 1988 the public health community learned about social marketing from Craig Lefebvre and June Flora. Research in audience analysis and segmentation strategies 4. 300 Ibid. and outlined eight crucial parts of social marketing that are still relevant today. such as the US Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture began using social marketing practices to stimulate protective and preventive health behaviors. several decades on from its conception. A consumer orientation to realize organizational (social) goals 2.7 Public health professionals embraced a new strategy for promoting healthful behaviors and increasing the utilization of health services. They said that "large scale. 5 6 Lefebvre.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata marketing only with respect to the objectives of the marketer and his or her organization. planning. and to increase use of programs and services. 301 7 Alves. Social marketing seeks to influence social behaviors not to benefit the marketer. where since then it has been greatly used and explored. broad-based. implementation and feedback functions6 Toward the end of the 20th century.5 They are: 1. Helena (2010). price. 288 3 . JA (1988). p. Flora. A management process that involves problem analysis. but to benefit the target audience and the general society. Other federal and state agencies. An analysis of distribution (or communication) channels 6. An emphasis on the voluntary exchanges of goods and services between providers and consumers 3. p.
Social Marketing Muriel Sobata Within the last forty years. in its essence.‖9 Nevertheless. In order to encourage behavioral change. pricing. Philip. 2. Andreasen suggested a definition of social marketing as ―the application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis. social marketing is employed by a wide variety of public health and social service organizations in the US and all over the world. Zaltman. p. p. p.10 The original definition by social marketing pioneers Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman was formed in 1971 and defines social marketing as the ―design. and evaluation of programs designed to influence the 8 9 Alves. planning. there have been adaptations and clashes as to the true purpose of social marketing. In order to meet the growing demand. social communication and social advertising. p. and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning.‖11 In order to get the desired response. 92 11 Kotler. Gerald (1971).1 Definition The definition of Social marketing has come a long way since its meager beginnings in the 1970s. social marketing's application to public health problems has grown rapidly and evolved (see Table 1). Helena (2010). Naturally along its evolvement. (2005). Nowadays. implementation. execution. 8 ―The evolution of social marketing has been somewhat hindered by a lack of definitional clarity and consensus. communications. distribution and marketing research. 289 McDermott et al. 5 4 . 546 10 Dann. and other parts of the process. Later in the 1990‘s. social marketing organizations have materialized for strategic planning. they think that through the use of marketing skills a bridge will be created to achieve this. communication. public health administrators and health educators (state and local level) have begun using social marketing too. Therefore a single definition has yet to emerge leading to conflicts throughout its brief history as well as the common confusion of social marketing with social propaganda. campaigns. social marketing classes are available at many business schools and colleges of public health. Due to the growing significance and popularity of the field. Stephen (2008). and causes. technical assistance with consumer research. Social marketing is the adaptation and adoption of commercial marketing theory and practice for social change programs.
Stephen (2008). Alan R. groups or society as a whole. communicating. and exchanging offerings that have value for customers.13 Kotler. delivering. (1994). clients. one of the main issues revealed was that the field of social marketing has poor ―brand positioning‖. with ―an organizational function and a set of processes for creating. p. partners. in 2004 the American Marketing Association published a new definition of ―marketing. one of them being its definition. 94 17 Ibid 18 Ibid 5 . Roberto. Alan R. that describes marketing as the activity.‖ essentially blurring the line between commercial marketing and social marketing.18 12 13 Dann.17 But then again in 2007. p. after a series of interviews and questionnaires. p. communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. Mainly because there are too many definitions that conflict in major and minor ways making the field's image fuzzy.15 Adding more fuel to this debate. and society at large. and social marketing utilizes indirect benefit to the organization through direct benefit to the target adopter and society. (2002). and Lee (2002) defined it as ‗‗the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept. set of institutions and processes for creating. reject.‖ For social marketing. p. This is because influential key people perceive social marketing as an approach to social change that lacks clarity and has several undesirable traits. 93 Andreasen.14 As Andreasen listed in his 2002 paper. just as remarked above. 4 15 Ibid 16 Dann. modify. the AMA released a revised version of the definition.‖12. or abandon a behavior for the benefit of individuals. 110 14 Andreasen. there are several barriers to growth. Stephen (2008).‖16 One of the fundamental differences between social marketing and commercial marketing has always involved the flow of benefit: commercial marketing has the bottom line requirement of direct benefit to the organization.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata voluntary behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of their society‖ and then as ―social marketing is the adaptation of commercial marketing technologies to programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are a part.
Whereas traditional commercial marketing has 4 P‘s (produce.‖ 20 With this definition. Gerald (1971). price. this institute is regarded as the foremost authority on Social Marketing. p. Suggs. Zaltman. 10 6 . 122 23 Wood.‖ 19 Since its founding in 1999. Lastly.‖ Also in their 1971 paper. Kotler and Zaltman (1971) maintain that ―to the marketer. there are also several important marketing concepts to be noted. promotion. Presently the definition on their website is ―the planning and implementation of programs designed to bring about social change using concepts from commercial marketing. Matthew (2008). There will always be competition for the behaviors recommended.22 Compared to the for profit exchange of goods and services with paying customers. social marketing in many cases has 6 P‘s (product. place and price considerations‖ and ―these concepts have applicability to social causes. place and promotion). p. Philip.24 Within this 19 20 Social Marketing Institute Ibid 21 Ibid 22 Luca. place + policy and partnerships). the exchange process of social marketing is fundamentally more complex. 3 The Marketing Mix The marketing mix is a key component of social marketing providing one of the differential points in bringing about behavior and social change. the success of a campaign depends on the proper development of product. promotion. L. which was created to ―advance the science and practice of social marketing.23 A vital difference between commercial marketing and social marketing is the marketing mix. When the costs to target audiences will be less than the benefits they receive.21 Thus. Nadina Raluca. p. Kotler and Zaltman outline the social marketing planning process with a system shown in Chart 2. 79 24 Kotler. The crucial objective of social marketing is to influence action. price. as the discipline continues to evolve the definition will always be in motion with it. it‘s important for management to be prepared to swiftly change program tactics and strategies because the marketplace is always changing. By partitioning target audiences into segments. Programs that influence the behavior of the target audience actions are more effective if they‘re based on their own perceptions of the proposed exchange. it will be easier to isolate and gauge more uniform perceptions and/or likely responses. they will undertake action. Suzanne (2010).Social Marketing Muriel Sobata Alan Andreasen is the president of the Social Marketing Institute.
as Kotler (2008) did. which is the ―actual product‖ while the augmented product consists of ―tangible objects and services to support behavior change. the four Ps are integrated into a planning system for social marketing.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata process. The ―product‖ of social marketing being ―sold‖ is behavior change (i. it could also been noted. slowing down when driving.27 An article by Adam Joseph relates a fine correlation between the P‘s of traditional marketing and social marketing. that there are similarities between traditional and social marketing.25 The change agency operates a research unit and a planning unit. but rather the ―cost‖ to the citizen to change (or not change) their behavior. economic. Gerald (1971). and cultural) from the environment continuously. importance of marketing mix. 30 At the same time.29 Classic marketing practices are used for ―promotion‖. p. For organizations with limited resources and budgets. existence of competition.‖28 The ―price‖ of said ―product‖ is not monetary. The change agency collects information (i. 10 Ibid 27 Ibid 28 Wood. These similarities include: type of product sold. 44 7 . customer oriented. having good relationships with other groups who share the same goals and views can really be crucial for success of a program. Anca-Ramona (2011). Since social marketing is extraordinary. and the results are monitored by the change agency.e. Zaltman. which depending on the issue can range from mild guilt to painful death. 79 29 Joseph. p. and the consistent evaluation of programs. Philip. political. p. ―The core product comprises the benefits of the behavioral change. Matthew (2008). 26 Basically the change agency is the catalyst of the planning variables (4 Ps). channels and markets which all provide information back to the research unit of the change agency to continue the planning. while plans and messages are created and sent through channels to audiences. Where said behaviors can occur is the ―place‖. Adam (2009) 30 Ibid 31 Pralea. the general impact of a social marketing campaign can be capitalized. main benefit. By joining different Policy agendas.31 25 26 Kotler.e.). as mentioned there are an additional two Ps – namely Partnerships (sometimes referred to as People) and Policy. target market segmentation. Kotler and Zaltman address the issue of marketing social change. stop smoking etc. With this business marketing principle approach.
Labatt Breweries and Imperial Oil are among the leading practitioners of social marketing.34 4 Social Marketing for Business An fascinating twist on the subject is a handbook by Mark Sarner and Janice Nathanson. Their systematic review reveals that social marketing mix strategies can vastly contribute to positive results of an intervention. Nadina Raluca. Nathanson. p. The Body Shop. The ―place‖ is crucial to get into the hearts and minds of the target audience. For example. despite the theory that to run a successful social marketing campaign the 6 P‘s should be implemented. The benefits associated with the desired behavior change should be an enticing ―product.36 32 33 Social Marketing Institute Luca. Suzanne (2010). such as through retail stores as part of the distribution system. a campaign could also be formed around a point of purchase.‖35 For ―product. p. Suggs.‖ a perfect illustration to bolster awareness to create an atmosphere of responsible drinking is Labatt's "Know When to Draw the line" campaign. In the same way. ―Companies such as NIKE. The audience should be able to find these opportunities in ―places‖ that fit their lifestyles. Mark. a strategy in which corporate marketers aim to change society for the better while bolstering their own bottom lines. only a mere four of them fully utilized all 6 P‘s. the authors state that program managers need to describe in full how their mix was created. The desired responses can be maximized through creative strategies that will ―promote‖ the exchange opportunity.32 However. they should consider making ―products‖ that can be accessed that way. 33 The rest of the interventions analyzed used the traditional 4 P‘s. 125 34 Ibid. 144. 147 35 Sarner. L. based on a study of 17 interventions (social marketing programs) by Luca and Suggs. if a company has access to physicians' offices.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata The Social Marketing Institute also has some guidelines on how social marketers should work with the 4 Ps. titled ―Social Marketing for Business‖. Janice (1996) 36 Ibid 8 . which draws our attention to the interesting relationship between the use of social marketing within for profit companies. Due to the scarcity of mix development and in order to improve programs in the future.‖ while the ―price‖ to the target audience is minimized.
to model behavior and to focus attention on the issues that matter most. or brand name as a vehicle for their own social marketing programs or those conceived with a partner (i. The Policy of a social marketing campaign of a business often involves politics. which helps strengthen the overall cause and awareness.‖39 Overall.38 As for the extra P‘s: People and Policy. it‘s more of using their profit making abilities. social products can be at no additional cost to the customer or charge a fee. Such programs ―can direct people to write letters. Businesses need to take into account that if their free social marketing program is too successful. contact their representatives. Janice (1996) Ibid 39 Ibid 40 Ibid 9 .40 37 38 Sarner. Employees can be ―ambassadors of change‖ because they get involved or volunteer if a program bolsters their morale and loyalty. The author believes that businesses should capitalize on altruistic acts. A prime example is Kraft General Foods in the USA. NPO). the use of social marketing in business isn‘t all about profit. Sarner and Nathanson highlight that the employees of a business are the most important resource. Business has the capacity to demonstrate leadership. ―Addressing social issues can no longer be confined to those organizations that lack the ways and the means of raising the issues on the public's agenda. In some businesses senior executives or CEOs even speak out about social marketing programs. However. yet only those who are really interested in pursuing it will take part. which in its anti-hunger crusade was lobbying for funding for food stamps. And it can add visibility to the advocacy efforts of your non-profit partner.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata When businesses run a social marketing program. and rally for legislative change. those who buy into the program are proving that business is doing well in the social market sphere of their industry. their profit will run into the red. The main purpose of such programs by businesses is not to generate revenue but to offer them perpetually by forming a pricing strategy that self-finances.e. visibility. Nathanson. Mark. It can educate markets about current policies and necessary reforms.‖37 Through the promotion of their efforts. if a fee is charged this will essentially limit the availability to the customer. The evolution of businesses using social marketing campaigns is something to be watched in the future.
customer relationship management was vastly inapplicable to the social marketing sector. p. 112 Ibid. their relationships can become the locus of value co-creations which are implemented through four major building blocks: dialogue. it cannot be assumed that all customers are passive or complex. p. risk-benefit assessment. being that the bottom line profit is the most important for commercial marketing and ―social marketing utilizes indirect benefit to the organization through direct benefit to the target adopter and society.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata 5 Customer Relationship Management In the past.44 In the social marketing framework. the practices and theory of customer relationship management have not been widely accepted attributable to the high relational complexity.42 Since the flow of benefit in social marketing is different than that of commercial marketing.‖41 These days with new technologies. The relationship with the ―customer‖ in social marketing is very rarely a position taken by organizations.‖ 43 In social marketing. social marketers have the chance to cocreate value and be active relationship partners. It is so rarely discussed that the premier paper available on this topic is by Darshan Desai. 113 43 Ibid. Thus. trust. 114 44 Ibid 45 Ibid 10 . The partnership between customers and marketers should be dynamic. access.45 41 42 Desai. those direct benefits are not relevant to social marketing because the funders and the customers are different and receive indirect benefits in social marketing. Understanding the worth of value co-creation between social marketers and their target audience is crucial for applying customer relationship management in the social marketing framework. and transparency. ―Social marketers need to nourish reciprocity. Darshan (2009). This key difference reduces the importance of customer relationship management in social marketing. p. In his paper he ―explores the role of social marketers and their customers as active relationship partners and describes their interactions as a locus of value co-creations.‖ By doing so. and commitment in their relationships with different kinds of customers.
297 11 . 296 48 Brennan. the concern of sustainability has not always been an important concern. and this is a standpoint many must come to terms with since social marketing activities can conflict with commercial activities.54 The circle size may grow or shrink based on one issue at the rate of the other. Social marketers need to constantly bear in mind that their ultimate goal should be sustainable and durable change. such as a social marketing programs ability to perform or relatedly the sustainability of the environment or consequences of which it creates. 267 51 Ibid 52 Ibid.53 Depending on who is ―right‖ essentially decides what action to take with a marketing program. Linda. Binney. thoughtful discussions should be convened about what is necessary to instigate social change. 297 54 Brennan. Lina (2010). p.50 ―Sustainability‖ is not always about the environment.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata 6 Sustainability Sustainability is the concept of something being supported over time. Wayne (2008).49 As we know. 263-4 50 Ibid. p. and thus social marketers need to be completely responsive to the array of world views. p. when working for environmental stability. sustainable development is categorized by three dimensions: economic. Linda. In social marketing. Wayne (2008). social marketing has an effect on our surroundings.‖56 46 47 Brennan. economic. Binney.52. to affect social change it is difficult to spread the necessary actions to a broader community. 275 55 Ibid.55 When organizations are stimulated by social marketing. 267 56 Pilelienė. 48 With the sphere of influence focused only on the individual. p. Thus. 275 53 Pilelienė. p. and environmental problems‖47 The role of the social marketer in social change and environmental stability should be more closely examined. Wayne (2008). they help uphold the welfare of the society but also satisfy customer‘s needs through their ―products. 51 Much like a series of Venn diagram circles. p. Linda. comprehending the different economic levels (macro. and individual) and social dimensions of the decision making process is imperative (see Table 2). social and environmental. 262 49 Ibid. 261-2 Pilelienė.46 ―The socio-cultural sustainability reflects society's ability of solving social. Yet. p. p. p. group. p. Lina (2010). Binney. in order to begin environmentally sustainable social change. Lina (2010).
8 62 Helmig. it‘s not always the best approach. which is why studying the effectiveness of social marketing is so interesting. organizations have a better chance of gaining the favor of consumers. 58 Since social marketing incorporates the three aspects of sustainable development. which do not interrelate or reflect their basic activities. p. Binney.57 The social expectations of modern society change with time and this effects the role of business not only in terms of retailing and manufacturing. 2. 7. 265 12 . Alan R. people and planet) can be a challenge for organizations when faced with common trends. ―Social marketing effectiveness is indeed the most important aspect of social marketing. Find innovative ways that will be advantageous while improving the environmental condition of production processes and products.‖60 7 Effectiveness and Appropriateness There are many kids of interventions. p. p. (2002). Lina (2010). 276 61 Andreasen. Bernd. Julia (2010). ―Finally. the environmental tradeoffs that are made when aiming to improve the economic and social wellbeing of society in general should be more clearly articulated and debated amongst what are now competing and disparate domains of knowledge. and even though social marketing can be used for many of them. Linda.‖62 According to Andreasen (2002). p. and. in order to derive managerial implications for improving the attempts to solve social issues. Provide social or environmental activities. Wayne (2008).59 The implementation of social marketing programs has two possibilities as seen by Pilelienė (2010). decisions can be made by two criterions: effectiveness and appropriateness. Thaler. 302 Ibid 59 Ibid 60 Brennan.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata Finding a balance between desirable profit and the three aspects of sustainable development (profit. organizations can: 1. 61 Contemporary society faces a diverse list of social issues of which social marketing can be of great assistance.1 Appropriateness Andreasen (2002) tells social marketers that before they begin with a program. they should ask themselves some questions such as: ―is it the best approach in the context?‖ and ―Is it 57 58 Pilelienė.
technology or law. smoking restrictions. 8 66 Ibid 67 Ibid 13 .. Was it truly effective in that it reported actual behavioral outcomes (not just increases in awareness or attitude change)? and 3. caused) the positive result?67 63 64 Andreasen. p. p. the social marketer must decide if a course of addressing individual behavior is the best choice. Managers have to be sure social marketing is the best choice for voluntary individual change. (2010) analyzed 155 articles in an attempt to give supply an answer as to the actual effectiveness. ―It is difficult to assess the relative contributions of promotional messages. (2002). and so forth. (2007) analyzed 54 articles. was it merely a communications campaign? 2. Alan R. 8 Rotfeld. changes in point-of-sale regulations. Herbert Jack (2011). and Helmig et al. ―For public policy. or structural) they should address.‖64 These are difficult choices that social marketers must make and the answers don‘t come easily. 167 65 Andreasen. Alan R. After answering that question. the Surgeon General's Reports and speeches. (2002). many articles arise containing analysis of multiple interventions/social marketing programs. community. or going the route of including education. social marketers can determine what level (individual. the need is to base information programs on how people would or could actually use the information instead of what someone wants to say. Andreasen (2002) recommends the following questions be asked: 1. thus McDermott et al.‖ 66 Thus. (2005) analyzed 200 social marketing articles.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata ethical to use social marketing rather than some other approach?‖63 By answering the first question. p. Was the campaign truly an example of social marketing or.e. 65 When searching for information on the effectiveness of social marketing. for example. Did it demonstrate that social marketing itself played a significant role (i. in order to evaluate the outcomes properly. price increases. It is often said that evidence is self-evident. All of the interventions analyzed in the studies were deemed to have embraced social marketing ideologies in their implementation and design. reduction in the depiction of smoking in movies and on television. media coverage. Stead et al.
Martine. For them. it was interpreted more broadly and included some key generic marketing principles (such as use of the four Ps). Ross. Kathryn and McDermott. Gerard (2005). Hastings.68 Closer inspection of the studies also revealed that -although all self-defined as social marketing . p.73 The paper by Helmig et al.2 Effectiveness The research by McDermott et al. illicit drugs and physical activity. 551 Ibid. 2 71 Ibid. Laura. alcohol use and illicit drug use reported significant positive effects in the short term. and examined 155 articles directly relating to the effectiveness of social marketing. while in others.‖ 70 Their review was conducted to add to the evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing. 35 14 . Stead. 30 72 Ibid 73 Ibid. The authors also examined pure social marketing advertisements in order to 68 69 McDermott. drawing conclusions as to whether a program successfully applied the social marketing criteria or not wasn‘t straightforward and the information in each study was also not enough.71 Overall. not to liken social marketing with further frameworks for developing interventions. social marketing was conceptualized fairly narrowly as a largely communications-based approach. the review has found reasonable evidence that interventions developed using social marketing principles can be effective. Gordon. Yet some programs met the criteria.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata 7. The idea of social marketing was interpreted differently by different authors. p. (2010) identified a possible 337 papers in the research stream of social marketing. In some cases. however by varying degrees. A majority of the interventions which sought to prevent youth smoking.69 The work of Stead et al. Angus. p. p. p. 72 This paper suggests that social marketing is a promising intervention approach. tobacco. (2005) was based on 200 social marketing studies. (2007) involved the analysis of 54 articles with the purpose of reviewing ―the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behavior and bringing about environmental and policy-level changes in relation to alcohol. Laura (2007). Martine. 549 70 Stead.only around half actually attempted to explain what was meant by a social marketing approach.
Social marketers should take care in creating programs that are sustainable in the economic. and thusly many key influential people have trouble believing in it. 105 15 . it has evolved in countless ways. Bernd. As the customers of social marketing cannot be assumed passive.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata pinpoint any part of effectiveness in the field of social marketing. Most importantly. colleagues. The ―product‖ of a social marketing program is behavior change.75 The marketing mix is also important for social marketing. the authors found that: 1. 267 Lagarde. by doing so they will create more pertinent and successful interventions. or clients couldn‘t care less about social marketing. p. environmental and social spheres as this will advocate the welfare of society. The issues with the definition lead to ―poor brand management‖ of social marketing itself. 2. 4. From the onset. The challenge that many professionals face […] is that their bosses. 74 Concerning a social marketing campaign‘s scope. Francois (2009). p. A statewide campaign yielded better behavior change results Culturally sensitive messages should be focused on smaller target groups Targeting the general population increases message impact Gender targeting doesn‘t help Interactive elements of interventions increased knowledge 8 Conclusion Since the 1970s when social marketing was born as a discipline through Kotler and Zaltman. the role of Customer Relationship Management creates opportunities for value co-creation and should be looked at more closely. social marketers must be aware of the appropriateness and effectiveness of their possible program. Julia (2010). It would be of interest to social marketers to watch the progress of such campaigns. 5. Thaler. Various studies were conducted to validate the actual effectiveness of social marketing to conclude that it is a successful and promising approach and field. which for profit businesses have also been trying. 3. The majority of organizations do not focus on social marketing per se. even the top authors in this field have trouble settling on a definition of social marketing. 74 75 Helmig. because it both likens it to traditional marketing but at the same time differentiates it. but rather on ―their‖ social change issue.
p. Gerald (1971). Zaltman. p. Helena (2010). Philip.297 Chart 2 Kotler.10 16 .Social Marketing Muriel Sobata List of Tables Chart 1 Alves.
817 17 . Nora (2011). Ronald P. p.. Moran.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata Table 1 Hill.
Linda. Binney. p. 267 18 .Social Marketing Muriel Sobata Table 2 Brennan. Wayne (2008).
24p 9. Alan R. Andreasen. Journal of Marketing. Roberto. Luca. Nora (2011): ―Social marketing meets interactive media: Lessons for the advertising community‖. Zaltman. 4p 13. p12-12. p3-12. E. B&T Magazine. Nadina Raluca. 22 Issue 4. 15 Issue 2. Wayne (2008): ―Concepts in Conflict: Social Marketing and Sustainability‖. (1994): ―Social Marketing: Its Definition and Domain”. Adam (2009): ―The Six Ps Of Social Marketing‖. Hill. Gerard (2005): ―What Is and What Is Not Social Marketing: The Challenge of Reviewing the Evidence‖. Thousand Oaks. 14p 7. p112-125. Kotler. CA: Sage 11. 14 Issue 2. and When of Social Marketing‖.Social Marketing Muriel Sobata References 1. Martine. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. Vol. 7p 3. p264-287. Vol. p3-13. Laura. Vol. Alves. Lefebvre. 20 Issue 2. (2002): ―Marketing Social Marketing in the Social Change Marketplace‖. 11p 4. International Journal of Advertising. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing. p92-100. 21p 5. Flora. Health Education Quarterly. Thaler. Helmig. L. 15 (3): 299-315 14. Vol. Desai. Social Marketing Quarterly. Suzanne (2010): ―Strategies for the Social Marketing Mix: A Systematic Review‖. p122-149. 15 Issue 4. 24p 2. 21 Issue 5/6. p545-553. p261-281. Social Marketing Quarterly. Andreasen. Stead. Vol. Vol. Vol. p105-108. 35 Issue 3.. Darshan (2009): ―Role of Relationship Management and Value Co-Creation in Social Marketing‖. Vol. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing. Hastings. 9p 19 . 22 Issue 4. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. Helena (2010): ―The Who. Vol. 28p 15.. 30 Issue 5. RC. Dann. Vol. Philip. p815-838. Joseph. Moran. Vol. N. 13 Issue 1. Lee (2002): ―Social marketing: Improving the quality of life‖. Francois (2009): ―What if Your Organization Couldn‘t Care Less About Social Marketing?‖ Social Marketing Quarterly. Kotler. JA (1988): ―Social marketing and public health intervention‖. Vol. 9p 6. Suggs. Julia (2010): ―On the Effectiveness of Social Marketing-What Do We Really Know?‖. Bernd. 59 Issue 2704. Where. P. 16 Issue 4. Alan R. Vol. Linda. Social Marketing Quarterly. 21 Issue 1. Gerald (1971): ―Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change‖. Brennan. Lagarde. Journal of Marketing Management. p108-114. Ronald P. McDermott. Binney. 1/3p 10. 10p 12. 24p 8. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing. p288-311. Stephen (2008): ―Adaptation and Adoption of the American Marketing Association (2007) Definition for Social Marketing‖.
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