F
is a partial factor
is either 1,00 or
0
,
1
or
2
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Design Values GeoParameters
X
d
= X
k
/
M
(Eq.(6.3) of EN 1990)
where
X
k
is the characteristic value of the geotechnical parameter
M
is a partial factor for the geotechnical parameter
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Design Values Geometrical Data
a
d
= a
nom
+ Aa (Eq.(2.3) of EN 19971
& Eq.(6.5) of EN 1990)
where
a
nom
is the nominal value of geometrical data
Aa is the deviation in geotechnical data
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Design Values Material or Product
Concrete
f
cd
= o
cc
f
ck
/
C
(Eq.(3.15) of EN 19921)
f
ctd
= o
ct
f
ctk,0,05
/
C
(Eq.(3.16) of EN 19921)
Reinforcement
f
yd
= f
yk
/
S
(Figure 3.8 of EN 19921)
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Verification of Static Equilibrium (EQU)
E
dst;d
E
stb;d
+ T
d
(Eq.(2.4) of EN 19971)
where
E
dst;d
= E{
F
F
rep
; X
k
/
M
; a
d
}
dst
(Eq.(2.4a) of EC71)
E
stb;d
= E{
F
F
rep
; X
k
/
M
; a
d
}
stb
(Eq.(2.4b) of EC71)
T
d
is the design total shearing resistance around a block of
ground where a group of tension piles is placed
Use Tables A.NA.1 and A.NA.2 of UK NA to EN 19971!
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Verification of Static Equilibrium (EQU)
Effect of actions for EQU
(Eq.(6.10) of EN 1990)
d G,j k,j P Q,1 k,1 Q,i 0,i k,i
j 1 i 1
" " " " " " E G P Q Q
> >
= + + +
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Verification of Static Equilibrium (EQU)
Table A.NA.1 of UK NA to EN 19971
Partial factors on actions (
F
)
Partial factors on actions (
F
)
Permanent Variable
Action
Unfavourable
a
Favourable
b
Unfavourable
a
Favourable
b
Symbol
G;dst
G;stb
Q;dst
Q;stb
Recommended 1,1 0,9
Alternative 1,35 1,1
1,5 0
a
Destabilising;
b
Stabilising.
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Verification of Static Equilibrium (EQU)
Table A.NA.2 of UK NA to EN 19971
Partial factors for geotechnical parameters (
M
)
Note: The values of partial factors for soil parameters in the
brackets are quotes from Table A.2 of EN 19971.
Partial factors for geotechnical parameters (
M
)
Geotechnical
parameter
Angle of shearing
resistance
(applied to tan')
Effective
cohesion
Undrained
shear strength
Unconfined
strength
Weight
density
Symbol
'
c'
cu
qu
Value 1,1 (1,25) 1,1 (1,25) 1,2 (1,4) 1,2 (1,4) (1,0)
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Verification of resistance for structural and
ground limit states (STR and GEO)
E
d
R
d
(Eq.(2.5) of EN 19971)
where
E
d
= E{
F
F
rep
; X
k
/
M
; a
d
} (Eq.(2.4a) of EC71)
E
d
=
E
E{F
rep
; X
k
/
M
; a
d
} (Eq.(2.4b) of EC71)
E
is the partial factor for the effect of actions
Use Tables A.NA.3 and A.NA.4 of UK NA to EN 19971!
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Verification of resistance for structural and
ground limit states (STR and GEO)
Effect of actions for STR and GEO
(Eqs.(6.10a) and (6.10b) of EN 1990)
0,1
j
G,j k,j P Q,1 k,1 Q,i 0,i k,i
j 1 i 1
d
G,j k,j P Q,1 k,1 Q,i 0,i k,i
j 1 i 1
" " " " " "
" " " " " "
G P Q Q
E
G P Q Q
> >
> >
+ + +
=
+ + +
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Verification of resistance for structural and
ground limit states (STR and GEO)
Table A.NA.3 of UK NA to EN 19971
(Tables NA.A1.2(B) and NA.A1.2(C) of UK NA to EN 1990)
Partial factors on actions (
F
) or on the effects of action (
E
)
Permanent Variable
Action
Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable
Symbol
G
Q
Set A1 1,35 1,0 1,5 0
Set A2 1,0 1,0 1,3 0
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Verification of resistance for structural and
ground limit states (STR and GEO)
Table A.NA.4 of UK NA to EN 19971
Partial factors for geotechnical parameters (
M
)
Note: The values of partial factors for soil parameters in the
brackets are quotes from Table A.4 of EN 19971.
Geotechnical
parameter
Angle of shearing
resistance
(applied to tan')
Effective
cohesion
Undrained
shear strength
Unconfined
strength
Weight
density
Symbol
'
c'
cu
qu
Set M1 1,0 (1,0) 1,0 (1,0) 1,0 (1,0) 1,0 (1,0) (1,0)
Set M2 1,25 (1,25) 1,25 (1,25) 1,4 (1,4) 1,4 (1,4) (1,0)
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Verification of resistance for structural and
ground limit states (STR and GEO)
Design resistance R
d
(ground properties X
d
)
R
d
= R{
F
F
rep
; X
k
/
M
; a
d
} (Eq.(2.7a) of EC71)
R
d
= R{
F
F
rep
; X
k
; a
d
}/
R
(Eq.(2.7b) of EC71)
R
d
= R{
F
F
rep
; X
k
/
M
; a
d
}/
R
(Eq.(2.7c) of EC71)
where
R
is the partial factor for a resistance
Use Tables A.NA.5 to A.NA.8 and A.NA.12 to A.NA.14 of
UK NA to EN 19971!
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Verification of resistance for STR and GEO
Tables A.NA.5, A.NA.13 & A.NA.14 of UK NA to EN 19971
Partial resistance factors (
R
)
Resistance Bearing Sliding Earth
Symbol
R;v
R;h
R;e
For spread foundations
Set R1 1,0 (1,0) 1,0 (1,0) /
Set R2 (1,4) (1,1) /
Set R3 (1,0) (1,0) /
For retaining structures
Set R1 1,0 (1,0) 1,0 (1,0) 1,0 (1,0)
Set R2 (1,4) (1,1) (1,4)
Set R3 (1,0) (1,0) (1,0)
For slopes and overall stability
Set R1 / / 1,0 (1,0)
Set R2 / / (1,1)
Set R3 / / (1,0)
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Verification of Uplift (UPL)
V
dst,d
G
stb;d
+ R
d
(Eq.(2.8) of EN 19971)
with V
dst,d
= G
dst;d
+ Q
dst;d
where
G
dst;d
is the design destabilising permanent actions;
Q
dst;d
is the design destabilising variable actions.
Use Tables A.NA.15 and A.NA.16 of UK NA to EN 19971!
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Verification of Seepage of Ground Water (HYD)
u
dst;d
o
stb;d
(Eq.(2.9a) of EN 19971)
S
dst;d
G'
stb;d
(Eq.(2.9b) of EN 19971)
where
u
dst;d
is the design value of the destabilising total pore water
pressure at the bottom of the column
o
stb;d
is the design stabilising total vertical stress
S
dst;d
is the design value of the seepage force in the column
Q
dst;d
is the design value of the submerged weight of the
column
Use Table A.NA.17 of UK NA to EN 19971!
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Verification of Serviceability Limit States
E
d
C
d
(Eq.(2.10) of EN 19971 or
Eq.(6.13) of EN 1990)
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Verification of Serviceability Limit States
Characteristic combination (Prescriptive method for spread)
(Eq.(6.14b) of EN 1990)
Normally used for irreversible SLS.
Frequent combination (Direct method for foundation size)
(Eq.(6.15b) of EN 1990)
Normally used for reversible SLS.
Quasipermanent combination (Direct method for settlement)
(Eq.(6.16b) of EN 1990)
Normally used for longterm effects and appearance of the structure.
k,j k,1 0,i k,i
j 1 i 1
" " " " " " G P Q Q
> >
+ + +
k, j d 1,1 k,1 2,i k,i
j 1 i 1
" " " " " " " " G P A Q Q
> >
+ + + +
k, j 2,i k,i
j 1 i 1
" " " " G P Q
> >
+ +
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Approaches for Geotechnical Design
Design Approach 1 (Adopted in the UK!)
(not applicable for axially loaded piles and anchors)
Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R1
where
+ denotes to be combined with;
A denotes actions;
M denotes ground strength;
R denotes ground resistance.
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Approaches for Geotechnical Design
Design Approach 1 (Adopted in the UK!)
(applicable for axially loaded piles and anchors)
Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
Combination 2: A2 + (M1 or M2) + R4
where
+ denotes to be combined with;
A denotes actions;
M denotes ground strength;
R denotes ground resistance.
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Approaches for Geotechnical Design
Design Approach 2 (Adopted in France!)
Combination: A1 + M1 + R2
where
+ denotes to be combined with
A denotes actions
M denotes ground strength
R denotes ground resistance
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Approaches for Geotechnical Design
Design Approach 3 (Adopted in Germany!)
Combination: (A1
a
or A2
b
) + M2 + R3
where
a
F
on structural actions
b
F
on geotechnical actions
+ denotes to be combined with
A denotes actions
M denotes ground strength
R denotes ground resistance
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Geotechnical Design Report
(from Ground Investigation Report)
a description of the site and surroundings
a description of the ground conditions
a description of the proposed construction, including actions
characteristic and design values of soil and rock properties
statements on the codes and standards applied
statements on the suitability of the site for the proposed construction and
the level of acceptable risks
geotechnical design calculations and drawings, e.g. limit states,
combinations, etc.
foundation design recommendations
a note of items to be checked during construction or requiring
maintenance or monitoring
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Geotechnical Design Report
the purpose of observations or measurements
the parts of the structure to be monitored and observed
the frequency of readings
the methods of evaluation
the range of expected results
the period of postconstruction monitoring time
the parties responsible for making measurements and
observations, for interpreting the results obtained and for
maintaining the instruments
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Spread Foundations
Pad foundations
Square pad
foundation
Rectangular pad
foundation
Square pad
foundation
Rectangular pad
foundation
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Spread Foundations
Combined foundations
Rectangular combined
foundation
Trapezoidal combined
foundation
Reversed Tsection
foundation
Combined rectangular
foundation
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Spread Foundations
Strip foundations
Strip
foundation
Strip
foundation
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Limit States for Spread Foundations
Ultimate Limit States (ULS)
loss of overall stability
bearing resistance failure, punching failure, squeezing
failure by sliding
combined failure in the ground and in the structure
structural failure due to foundation movement
Serviceability Limit States (SLS)
excessive settlements
excessive heave due to swelling, frost and other causes
unacceptable vibrations
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Methods for Spread Foundation Design
Direct method: Separate analyses are carried out for each
limit state. For ULS, the model should be close to the failure
mechanism. For SLS, a settlement calculation should be
used.
Indirect method: Experience and field or laboratory are
used to determine SLS loads.
Prescriptive method: A presumed bearing resistance is
used where calculation models are not available or not
necessary. These involve conventional and generally
conservative rules in the design, and attention is paid to
specification and control of materials, workmanship,
protection and maintenance procedures. (UK!)
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Presumed Allowable Bearing Values
For Category 1 and Category 2 structures (BS 8004)
Category Types of soil Presumed allowable
bearing values (kN/m
2
)
Remarks
Dense gravel, or dense sand and gravel > 600
Medium dense gravel, or medium dense sand and gravel
< 200 to 600
Loose gravel, or loose sand and gravel
< 200
Compact sand
> 300
Medium dense sand
100 to 300
Non
cohesive
soils
Loose sand
< 100
Foundation width
not less than 1 m.
Groundwater level
assumed to be
below the base of
the foundation.
Very stiff boulder clays and hard clays 300 to 600
Stiff clays 150 to 300
Firm clays 75 to 150
Soft clays and silts < 75
Cohesive
soils
Very soft clays and silts Not applicable
Susceptible to
longterm
consolidation
settlement.
Note: These values are for preliminary design purposes only.
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Effects of Actions for Foundations
Horizontal forces due to lateral loading or friction between
the underside of the base and the soil
Vertical forces from columns and/or walls and bearing
pressure from the ground underneath
Moments due to loading from columns and/or walls, etc.
V
M
H
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Base Pressure Distribution at the ULS
V
M
V/B(L
2e)
V
e
e = M/V
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Middle Third Rule at the SLS
If the eccentricity e of the load lies within the middle third of
the base length, i.e. e L/6, then no tension will occur under
the base.
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Base Pressure Distribution at the SLS
Case 1 (uniform full compression): e = 0
Uniform compression and no tension
L
B
V
/
BL
V
V
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Base Pressure Distribution at the SLS
Case 2 (full compression): e L/6
Linearly distributed compression and no tension
e = M/V
L
B
V
M
 

\ .
6
1
V e
BL L
P
max
 

\ .
6
1
V e
+
BL L
P
max
V
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Base Pressure Distribution at the SLS
Case 3 (partial compression): e > L/6
Linearly distributed partial compression and no tension
V
L
B
V
M
4
3 2
V
B(L  e)
e = M/V
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Design Procedure for Shallow Foundations
1. Start the design process.
2. Obtain soil parameters from Ground Investigation Report.
3. Decide if Direct Method is used. If not, go to Step 5.
4. Determine the foundation size (geotechnical design) using the worst of
Combinations 1 or 2 (ULS) for actions and geotechnical material properties.
Combination 2 will usually govern. Go to Step 6.
5. Use Prescriptive Method to determine the foundation size (geotechnical
design) using SLS for actions and presumed bearing resistance.
6. Check if there is an overturning moment. If not, go to Step 8.
7. Check overturning using EQU limit state for actions and GEO Combination
2 for material properties.
8. Design foundation (structural design) using the worst of Combinations 1
and 2 (ULS) for actions and geotechnical material properties.
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Pad Footings
sufficient reinforcement to resist bending moments
punching shear strength
direct shear strength
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Critical Shear Surfaces for Pad Foundations
Punching shear perimeters,
(load within deducted from V
Ed
)
h
d
d
2d
Bends may be
required
Direct shear faces
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Punching Shear for Pad Footings at ULS
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Critical Punching Shear Checks for Pad
Foundations
At the column perimeter, or the perimeter of the loaded area
v
Ed
< v
Rd,max
Punching shear reinforcement not required
v
Ed
v
Rd
Punching shear reinforcement required
v
Ed
> v
Rd
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Net Punching Shear Force V
Ed,red
V
Ed,red
= V
Ed
 V
Ed
Eq.(6.48) of EN 199211
where
V
Ed
is the design value of the applied shear force;
V
Ed
is the design value of the net upward force within the
control perimeter considered, i.e. upward pressure from
soil minus selfweight of the base.
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Design Punching Shear Stress v
Ed
v
Ed
=  V
Ed,red
/ (u
1
d) Eq.(6.51) of EN 199211
where
d is the mean effective depth of the pad footing, which may
be taken as (d
y
+ d
z
)/2
d
y
, d
z
are the effective depths in the y and zdirections of the
control section
u
1
is the length of the control perimeter being considered
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Typical basic control perimeters around
loaded areas, u
1
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Basic control perimeters for loaded areas
close to or at edge or corner, u
1
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
u
1
u
1
u
1
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For concentric loading to the control perimeter
 = 1,0 (Eq.(6.49) of EC211)
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For eccentric loading to the control perimeter
(Eq.(6.51) of EC211)
where
k is a coefficient dependent on the ratio between the column
dimensions c
1
and c
2
, its value depending on the proportions of
the unbalanced moment transmitted by uneven shear and by
bending and torsion, see Slide 62
W
1
corresponds to a distribution of shear as shown in the figure in
Slide 62 and is a function of the basic control perimeter u
1
as
dl is a length increment of the perimeter
e is the distance of dl from the axis the moment M
Ed
acts about
Ed 1
Ed,red 1
1
M u
+k
V W
=
1
1
0
u
W e dl =
}
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Parameters k and W
1
For rectangular column
(Eq.(6.41) of EC211)
2
2
1
1 1 2 2 1
4 16 2
2
c
W +c c + c d d d c = + +
c
1
/c
2
s 0,5
1,0 2,0
> 3,0
k 0,45 0,60 0,70 0,80
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Parameter 
For internal circular columns
(Eq.(6.42) of EC211)
where D is the diameter of the circular column
1 0, 6
4
e
D d
= +
+
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Parameter 
For edge columns
(Eq.(6.44) of EC211)
where
u
1
is the basic control perimeter, see the figure in Slide 59
u
1*
is the reduced basic control perimeter, see the figures in Slides 65 and 66
e
par
is the eccentricity parallel to the pad edge caused by a moment about an
axis perpendicular to the pad edge
k may be determined from the table in Slide 62 with c
1
/c
2
replaced by c
1
/2c
2
W
1
is calculated for the basic control perimeter u
1
, see the figure in Slide 62
1 1
par
1* 1
u u
k e
u W
= +
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
u
1
u
1
u
1
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Parameters W
1
and u
1*
For a rectangular column
(Eq.(6.45) of EC211)
2
2
2
1 1 2 1 2
4 8
2
c
W +c c + c d d d c = + +
c
1
c
2
2d
2d
u
1*
1,5d
0,5c
1
2d
c
2
c
1
u
1*
1,5d
0,5c
2
1,5d
0,5c
1
2d
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Parameter 
For corner columns
(Eq.(6.46) of EC211)
1 1*
/ u u =
c
1
c
2
2d
2d
u
1*
1,5d
0,5c
1
2d
c
2
c
1
u
1*
1,5d
0,5c
2
1,5d
0,5c
1
2d
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Punching Shear Resistance Without Shear
Reinforcement
(Eq.(6.47) of EC211)
where
k is a parameter considering size effect and k = min [ 1+ ; 2,0]
1
is a tension reinforcement ratio and
1y
,
1z
are the tension reinforcement ratios relating to the bonded tension
steel in y and zdirections respectively
A
c
is the area of concrete according to the definition of N
Ed
C
Rd,c
is a parameter and C
Rd,c
= 0,18 /
C
= 0,18 / 1,5 = 0,12
a is the distance from the column periphery to the control perimeter
1/ 3
Rd Rd,c l ck min
(100 ) (2 / ) (2 / ) v C k f d a v d a = >
200/ d
( )
1 1y 1z
= min ; 0, 02
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Punching Shear Resistance with Shear
Reinforcement
v
Rd,cs
= 0,75v
Rd,c
+ 1,5(d/s
r
) A
sw
f
ywd,ef
[1/(u
1
d)] sino
(Eq.(6.52) of EC211)
where
A
sw
is the area of one perimeter of shear reinforcement around the column
s
r
is the radial spacing of perimeters of shear reinforcement
f
ywd,ef
is the effective design strength of the punching shear reinforcement,
according to f
ywd,ef
= 250 + 0,25 d f
ywd
, see the table in Slide 70
d is the mean of the effective depths in the orthogonal directions in mm
o is the angle between shear reinforcement and the plane of pad footing
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Punching Shear at Periphery of the Column
(Eq.(6.47) of EC211)
where
u
0
is the periphery for calculations
u
0
= length of column periphery in mm for an interior column
u
0
= c
2
+ 3d c
2
+ 2 c
1
in mm for an edge column
u
0
= 3d c
1
+ c
2
in mm for a corner column
c
1
, c
2
are the column dimensions as shown in the figure of Slide 62
 see Clauses 6.4.3 (3), (4) and (5)
Ed,red
Ed Rd,max
0
=
V
v v
u d

s
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Maximum Design Punching Shear Strength
(UK NA to EC211)
where
v is the strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear
(Eq.(6.6) of EC211)
ck ck ck
Rd,max cd cc cc ck
C
0, 5 0, 5 0, 6 1 0, 2 1
250 250
f f f
v f f v o o
( (
= = =
( (
ck
0, 6 1
250
f
v
(
=
(
f
ck
(MPa) 20 25 28 30 32 35 40 45 50
v
Rd,max
(MPa) 3,13 3,83 4,23 4,49 4,74 5,12 5,71 6,27 6,80
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Design Procedure for Checking Punching Shear
Capacity of Pad Foundations
1. Start the design process.
2. Determine the value of .
3. Determine the punching design shear stress at column face, v
Ed,max
, from
Eq.(6.53)
v
Ed,max
=  (V
Ed
AV
Ed
) / (u
0
d)
4. Determine the value of v
Rd,max
from the table in Slide 70.
5. Check if v
Ed
< v
Rd,max
. If yes, go to Step 6. Otherwise redesign the pad
footing.
6. Determine the punching design shear stress, v
Ed
, from Eq.(6.51)
v
Ed
=  (V
Ed
AV
Ed
) / (u
1
d)
The control perimeter is normally located at 2d from the column surface.
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Design Procedure for Checking Punching Shear
Capacity of Pad Foundations (cont.)
7. Determine concrete punching shear capacity without shear
reinforcement, v
Rd
, for a = 2d
where
l
= (
ly
lz
)
0,5
.
8. Check if v
Ed
v
Rd
.
If yes, punching shear reinforcement is not required. Go to Step 9.
Otherwise either increase main steel area, or provide punching
shear reinforcement required. However, there are no
recommendations for foundations.
9. Finish.
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Design of Raft Foundation
Lightly loaded structures on soft ground
Heavy structures on normal ground
Structures on ground with uneven
settlement
Mining subsidence
Raft foundation
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Piled Foundations
Often used for transferring loads through strata with a low bearing
capacity to strata with a higher capacity or to rock.
Also used for resisting high uplift forces or to transfer horizontal
loads through poor soil.
Essentially long, slender members, mostly under compression.
Pile cap: resisting vertical and
horizontal loads and moments
Piles
Column
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Design of Piled Foundations
Both direct shear and punching shear should be checked
/5
/5

Direct shear: d from column
face
Punching shear: 2d from column
face
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Design of Piled Foundations
When assessing the shear capacity in a pile cap, only the
tension reinforcement placed within the compressed zone
should be considered as contributing to the shear capacity.
A
A
Compressed zone
50
mm
45
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Design of Plain Concrete Foundations
o
cc,pl
= 0,6 and o
ct,pl
= 0,6 should be taken.
The following needs to be verified
Eq.(12.13) of EC211
where
h
F
is the foundation depth
a is the projection from the column face
o
gd
is the design ground pressure
gd
F
ctd
9
0, 85h
a f
o
>
a a
b
F
h
F
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Crack Control: Crack width w
k
w
k
= 0,3 mm for all exposure classes under the quasi
permanent combination, in the absence of specific
durability requirements (e.g. water tightness)
w
k
= 0,4 mm for exposure classes X0 and XC1, in the
absence of requirements for appearance
w
k
= 0,2 mm for prestressed members with bonded
tendons under the frequent load combination.
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Crack Control
Maximum bar size 
s,max
or spacing s
r,max
to w
k
Crack width w
k
= 0,4 mm Crack width w
k
= 0,3 mm Crack width w
k
= 0,2 mm Steel stress
o
s
(MPa)


s,max
(mm)
s
r,max
(mm)

*
s,max
(mm)
s
r,max
(mm)

*
s,max
(mm)
s
r,max
(mm)
160 40 300 32 300 26 200
200 32 300 25 250 16 150
240 20 250 16 200 12 100
280 16 200 12 150 8 50
320 12 150 10 100 6 /
360 10 100 8 50 5 /
400 8 / 6 / 4 /
450 6
or
/ 5
or
/ /
or
/
Notes:


s,max
is the maximum bar diameter, and s
r,max
is the maximum bar spacing.
The values in the table are based on the following assumptions
c = 25mm; f
ct,eff
= 2,9MPa; h
cr
= 0,5; (hd) = 0,1h; k
1
= 0,8; k
2
= 0,5; k
c
= 0,4; k = 1,0; k
t
= 0,4 and k' = 1,0.
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Minimum area of principal steel
A
s,min
= max [0,26 f
ctm
b
t
d/ f
yk
; 0,0013 b
t
d ]
(Eq.(9.1(N)) of EC211)
where
b
t
is the mean width of the tension zone
f
ctm
is the mean tensile concrete strength which should be
determined with respect to the relevant strength class
according to Table 3.1 of EN 199211
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Maximum area of reinforcement
A
s,max
= 0,04 A
c
where A
c
is the crosssectional area of the concrete
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Minimum Spacing of Reinforcement
s
min,slabs
= s
min,clear
+ 
s
= max [(k
1

s
); (d
g
+ k
2
); 20 mm] + 
s
where

s
is the bar diameter in mm
d
g
is the maximum aggregate size in mm
k
1
is a parameter which is recommended as k
1
= 1,0
k
2
is a parameter which is recommended as k
2
= 5 mm
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Deep elements (Section 9.7 of EN 199211)
A reinforcement ratio of 0,2% provided in each face
The distance between adjacent bars of the mesh not
exceeding the lesser of twice the beam depth or 300 mm
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Thank you!