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Greining raforkukerfa - 08.31.41

1

Models for Transmission Lines. Transmission Capacity HVDC Transmission

10/19/2006

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH

Greining raforkukerfa - 08.31.41

2

Lecture topics

• Transmission line models

– Short lines – Medium lines – Long lines

• Transmission capacity

– Natural loading (Surge impedance loading=SIL) – Thermal limits – Stability limits

**• HVDC (= High Voltage Direct Current Transmission)
**

10/19/2006

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH

Greining raforkukerfa - 08.31.41

3

**The Long Line Model for Transmission Lines - Distributed Parameters
**

(r+jX)∆x i

C∆x C∆x C∆x C∆x

(R+jX)∆x

(R+jX)∆x j

∆x

10/19/2006

∆x

∆x

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH

Greining raforkukerfa - 08.31.41

4

**The Long Line Model for Transmission Lines - Distributed Parameters
**

•Impedance and addmitance per unit length of line:

z = R + jX 1 y = G + jB = 0 − j ωC

1

I + ∆I

V + ∆V

z∆x

I

2

∆I y∆x

V

•Voltage and Current conditions lead to:

V + ∆V = V + z∆x ⋅ I

I + ∆ I = I + y ∆x ⋅ V

∆ V = z ∆x ⋅ I

∆ I = y ∆x ⋅ V

x

10/19/2006

dV = z⋅I dx

dI = y ⋅V dx

∆x

and we get d 2V dx 2 = zy ⋅ V d 2I dx 2 = zy ⋅ I 10/19/2006 .31..... ...08.similarly for the current equation ...Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa ...41 5 Voltage and current equations We differentiate the voltage equation a second time.and plug in the current equation dV = z⋅I dx 1 II+∆ +∆ VV z∆x ∆I y∆x I 2 V d 2V dI = z⋅ 2 dx dx ∆x dI = y ⋅V dx ..

31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.41 6 Propagation constant We can define the propagation γ = constant as follows zy = ( R + jX ) ⋅ (G + jB ) = ( R + jω L) ⋅ (G + jω C ) γ = α + jβ The real part of the propagation constant is defined as the attenuation constant 10/19/2006 The imaginary part of the propagation constant is defined as the phase constant .

..Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 7 Long line model We have 2 identical differential equations regarding bot voltage and current. x along the line These differential equations have a general solution: By using d 2V dx 2 = γ 2 ⋅V d 2I dx 2 =γ 2 ⋅I V = V ( x) = V ( x) exp { jδV ( x)} I = I ( x) = I ( x) exp { jδ I ( x)} V ( x) = A1eγ x + A2 e −γ x 1 dV ( x) γ γx −γ x I ( x ) A e A e = = − 1 2 dV Z dx z = z ⋅ I we get ( ) dx or.08. 10/19/2006 I ( x) = y A1eγ x − A2 e −γ x z ( ) . which are complex phasors and are a function of the location.31.

41 8 Characteristic Impedance We can further define the important concept of the Characteristic impedance (Also called Surge Impedance) Then we get the following general formulas for the voltage and current phasors along the line To calculate the constants A1 and A2 we need to examine the boundary conditions 10/19/2006 Zc = z = y R + jX = G + jB γx R + jω L G + jω C −γ x V ( x) = A1e + A2 e 1 I ( x) = A1eγ x − A2 e −γ x Zc ( ) .08.31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

41 9 Boundary conditions We must implemnet boundary V (0) = V2 conditions to obtain the constants I (0) = I 2 A1 and A2. When x = 0 we have where x is the distance measured from bus #2 and where V2 and I2 V2 + Z c I 2 .31.08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . A1 = are constants. This leads to: 2 V2 − Z c I 2 A2 = 2 The following relation is then obtained V2 + Z c I 2 γ x V2 − Z c I 2 −γ x V ( x) = e + e 2 2 1 ⎛ V2 + Z c I 2 γ x V2 − Z c I 2 −γ x ⎞ I ( x) = e − e ⎟ ⎜ Zc ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ 10/19/2006 .

08.41 10 Model for long lines Next we get the following relations for voltage and current along the line V ( x) = V2 cosh γ x + I 2 Z c sinh γ x 1 I ( x) = V2 sinh γ x + I 2 cosh γ x Zc At bus #1 we get the following relation: V1 = V2 cosh γ A + I 2 Z c sinh γ A 1 I1 = V2 sinh γ A + I 2 cosh γ A Zc A is the line length 10/19/2006 .31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

31.41 11 Conclusion: The “per phase” Equivalent for (Medium) Long Transmission Lines Z ' = Z c sinh γ A 1 2 Y' 1 γA tanh = 2 Zc 2 10/19/2006 = line length Source: Textbook. chapter # 5 . Saadat.08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .31.41 12 The “per phase” Circuit Equivalent for Short Transmission Lines Bus #1 Bus #2 R+jX 1 2 Load impedance 10/19/2006 .08.

31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 13 Conclusion: The “per phase” Equivalent for Medium Length Transmission Lines R+jX 1 2 C/2 C/2 10/19/2006 .08.

08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 14 Long lines • Wavelength at f = 50 Hz • Frequency multiplied wavelength equals the wave velocity: f·λ=c (c is the velocity of light) • Wavelength: λ = 300000 [km/s]/50[Hz] = 6000 km • Line length more than 1000 km is significant compared to the wavelength 10/19/2006 .31.

• SIL is not maximum loading but a “charactersitic loading” 10/19/2006 Qconsumed = X L I 2 = ωL I 2 2 Qgenerated = V 2 Xc V = 1 = ωC V 2 ωC V I S SIL = 2 2 Qgenerated = Qconsumed ω L I = ωC V Zc = L = C X 2 2 L = = Zc2 C = V2 L C (= PSIL ) V2 Zc * ω C .31.41 15 Transmission Capacity (reference): Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) • SIL is reached. when the generated reactive power equals the consumed power in the high voltage line.08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

Sending end R+jX i Receiving end j C/2 C/2 • X is the reactance of the line – (in Ohm/km or in Ohm) • B is the succeptance of the line – (in Siemens/km or in Siemens) 10/19/2006 Surge impedance Zc = L = C X C ω = X B (≅ 250 – 400 ohm) .31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 16 Surge Impedance Loading • Surge Impedance: – Also called characteristic impedance this is the impedance with which you can insert a surge the sending end of the line and not get any reflection back at the receiving end.08.

08.31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 17 Transmission capacity definitions • Thermal limits: – With V being constant. I is the limiting factor (Imax) P = 3 ⋅ V ⋅ I cos φ Pmax = 3 ⋅ V ⋅ I max cos φ • Steady State Stability Limits: • Natural Loading – Surge impedance Loading or (SIL) 10/19/2006 V1 ⋅ V2 P= sin δ X L C V2 Zc * Pmax V1 ⋅ V2 = X Zc = S SIL = = V2 L C (= PSIL ) .

08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .31.41 18 HVDC Transmission High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Orkuflutningar með jafnstraumstækni 10/19/2006 .

Lower cost of AC/DC converters 10/19/2006 .31.08.41 19 HVDC Transmission • Point to point (from “A” to “B”) rather than meshed network.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . No commercially available DC circuit breakers • Used exclusively for long underground/submarine cable transmission • Flexible Computer or Electronic control of power flow • Transmission over long distances by HVDC overhead line • Recently “HVDC light”.

41 20 HVDC projects around the world .org/ .31.conversion to/from DC to AC 50 or 60 Hz 10/19/2006 Source: http://www.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.ieee.spectrum.

11 .31. “HVDC offers the key to untapped hydro potential”.41 21 HVDC submarine projects in Scandinavia 10/19/2006 Gemmell. J. Volume: 22 Issue: 5 .. IEEE Power Engineering Review .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . May 2002 Page(s): 8 . B.08. Loughran.

g.31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08. with 2 * -400 kV and earth/sea return 10/19/2006 .41 22 Different types of HVDC links AC DC AC a) Monopolar with earth/sea return b) Bipolar link e.g. Earth return in the case of a single pole failure c) Unipolar link e. +/400 kV.

50 Hz e.g.08.g.g.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . 50 Hz • HVDC links can be used to connect 2 AC power systems with different frequencies and/or phase • HVDC is and asynchronous connecting link 10/19/2006 .31.41 23 HVDC applications e. 50 Hz e.

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.31.41 24 HVDC terminal station • The design of the terminal station with: – a YY transformer – a YD transformer • A thyristor stack as a 12 pulse Gaetz bridge 10/19/2006 .

08.31.41 25 The functioning of the 12 pulse Graetz bridge 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

31.41 26 Áhrif kveikihorns thýristora Spenna á jafnspennuhlið afeða áriðils fyrir mismunandi kveikitíma (kveikihorn) þýristora. 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.

spectrum.ieee.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 27 Change of power flow in a HVDC system 10/19/2006 Source: http://www.org/ .08.31.

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .31.08.41 28 Symbols and the composition of semiconductor parts • Light triggered thyristor Gate 10/19/2006 .

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . 8. fully protected thyristor levels. each having high power thyristors of up to 125mm diameter.08.5kV rating 10/19/2006 . It consists of seriesconnected.31.41 29 The Cross Section of a High Voltage Thyristor • The valve is the basic powerswitching element of a converter.

41 30 Thyristor characteristics • Anode current as a function of voltage for a thyristor Anóðustraumur Kennilína fyrir straumleiðni áfram Anóðuspenna Kennilína fyrir straumrof áfram Kennilína fyrir straumgegnumbrot aftur á bak 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .31.08.

08.41 31 Thyristor unit • Þýristoreining með 7 þýristorum vatnkældum hitagleypum og viðeigandi spennujöfnunar og tengibúnaði LTT=light triggered thyristor 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .31.

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.41 32 The thyristor valve hall 10/19/2006 .31.

08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 33 Dannebo converter station (Fennoskan) 10/19/2006 .31.

41 34 Baltic Cable converter station AC line Q comp AC switchyard Valve hall DC line AC filter Transformer building Active DC filter 10/19/2006 Smoothing reactor .31.08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

31.41 35 HVDC : Thyristor Valve Technology Valve cooling system diagram 10/19/2006 .08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 36 The evolution of a thyristor’s current and voltage capacity 1970-1995 Straumur (kA) Spenna (kV) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Hæsta lokunarspenna þýristors 8 6 4 Málgildi jafnstraums í gegnum þýristor 2 1970 10/19/2006 1975 1980 1985 1990 .31.08.

31.41 37 HVDC link between Norway and Denmark (Skagerak) Riðstraumsháspennulínur Launaflsvél Thyristor valves Varaaflgjafi Varaaflgjafi Launaflsvél Riðstraumsháspennulínur Yfirtónasíur Thyristor valves Yfirtónasíur Hápasssíur Hápasssíur 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.

41 38 Strengur milli Svíþjóðar og Finnlands (Fennoskan) • Koparleiðarinn er 1200 mm2 • Strengurinn vegur 54 kg/m • Tvöföld armering • Flutningsgeta 500 MW • Spenna 400 kV DC • Lengd 200 km • Gangsetning 1989 10/19/2006 Starfsmaður SINTEF með HVDC strengbút Heimild: http://www.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.energy.31.no .sintef.

41 39 Sæstrengsverkefni í Malasíu 10/19/2006 .31.08.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.31. Sweden 10/19/2006 .41 40 HVDC cable cross section Fennoskan (SwedenFinland) Source: Vattenfall. Stockholm.

J.31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . B. “HVDC offers the key to untapped hydro potential”. Loughran..08.41 41 The Break-even Distance for HVDC 10/19/2006 Gemmell. Volume: 22 Issue: 5 . May 2002 Page(s): 8 -11 . IEEE Power Engineering Review .

31.Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .41 42 Cost of HVDC converter stations The cost of the DC/AC converters shows a significant economies of scale 10/19/2006 .08.

31.41 43 From a HVDC submarine cable factory Sæstrengurinn er vafinn upp á láréttu kefli sem fer síðan í skipið sem leggur hann á sjavarbotninn 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.

41 44 Ractive power ballance of a transmission line • For light loading the line produces more Mvars than it consumes • For heavy loading the line is a net consumer of reactive power 10/19/2006 .Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa .08.31.

Fyrirlestur nr 15/EBH Greining raforkukerfa . Volume: 22 Issue: 5 ..org/ 10/19/2006 . B. Loughran. May 2002 Page(s): 8 –11 • The rise of high-voltage. IEEE Power Engineering Review .31. direct-current systems by Narain G. “HVDC offers the key to untapped hydro potential”. Hingorani. J.spectrum.08.ieee.41 45 References • Gemmell. Consultant (1996) http://www.

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