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Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Jul., 1998), pp. 387-398 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20097533 . Accessed: 22/01/2013 17:48
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this conception cosmopolitan proffers political approach advocate of realism. a problem it is a limited angle. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The end politics of globalization and the 'postmodern turn' have of the Cold War. Power in the structure of the of units within be located the behaviour shapes even when it thinks in But most for is interested the realism the units. a prominent and assess the strengths and limits of both the merits of their respective positions as frameworks for understanding realism and cosmopolitanism contemporary global I for transformation. Realism is a theory that divides the globe into two different domains. it is a theory of the state. There is the domain states?the and where inside the state which society can evolve. Now to that. focused on power politics. part about system structure it does so in terms of the units. 387 This content downloaded on Tue. or about the relative strengths of different units compared to each other. the interests of these units and the way they define them. A common of much about world contemporary preoccupation writing concerns the dynamic interrelation between continuity and change. the key political unit in the international system. politics separation a more In unified of life. of the system?actually the way in which the system itself?that is. the arrangement can it. What are its constituent elements? fundamentals of contemporary The key thing about realism is that it is a political theory and you need to B. but there is.B. 387-398 Copyright ? British International Studies Association Realism vs cosmopolitanism* DAVID HELD. the intensification to the orthodoxy the most of realism.Mc. of course. and its began by asking Barry to explain the politics potential realism. to the Present. BARRY BUZAN AND A DEBATE BETWEEN BY ANTHONY McGREW CONDUCTED A. realist texts understand that first and foremost. 24. And it is very much fixated on the state because the state is. Hence. The titles of the two best-known Politics among Nations and Waltz's Theory of make this very clear: Morgenthau's International Politics.Review of International Studies (1998). most about how we define 'power' and there are lots of different approaches of which can be comfortably contained within realism in one way or another. where politics operates and there is a domain outside the state or between relations domain?which is not seen as progressive but as * This D316. to some extent. Realism gives you a particular angle on the world system. it might also be about structural power. international is often seen as progressive. and David Held debate discussion Barry Buzan. Among delivered powerful challenges is the cosmopolitan significant of these challenges approach advocated by David to realism. discussion Democracy: was recorded in December Times From Classical 1996 by the BBC for the Open University course. of course. Power might be about the capabilities of units to do things. In contradistinction within and amongst the strict analytical between states. or about. It has been adapted and extended for publication. realism is a political theory. which assumes a Held. Andrew Linklater and others. system.
but traditionally power and the do not think realism is necessarily wedded in realism because the international system is military have been closely associated own In kind of of their unmediated interests. especially so Is this your view? in an age of intense globalization.B. So I would say that an account of the structure of dimensions account. and that because there is no overarching government in the conduct of states toward each then the use of force is always a possibility I other. But I am in agree ment with a great deal of what Barry has said. I think 'the division' D. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tical phenomena. it defines what is central because the state is. the twentieth century. is certainly called into question. and the centrality of war in the the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. B. despite all its if not the has been one of the most violent of all centuries. states may resort to force in relation to each other. power systems and power conflicts in all these realms. it is perspective states and among states. which realism. various reasons.Mc. argue that state power This content downloaded on Tue. the relations between system characteristic A. So that as long as the inter states will have this national is divided into states. that those interests will clash at various times and places and for in the system. and between the domestic domain hard and sharp political distinction the domain of relations between states. is but one (albeit important) I would Contra realism. highlights a number of key things. what are you talking about exactly? a conflictual I am emphasizing view of the international system. in which power politics works. and so on. and it indeed is. Thus. The realist focus on political power in illuminating the dynamic relations between states.B.What the cosmopolitan says is that if power is important. social phenomena. In the cosmopolitan account the separa A. therefore. B.388 Barry Buzan et al. is insufficient to examine the complexity of the world in which we live. sovereignty. has been extremely important nature in of the growth relations among states. pursuit by any defence of their own interests. sovereignty inside states. This is not the way in which the inter it is the modern national way of system has always been organized. or in global authority. One is that the single is so much at the centre of minded focus on political power and the state. will always work. and force is a kind of ultimate test of power. But the perspective perspective' purposes of the discussion. David. After all. tion of the domestic and external spheres no longer seems sacrosanct. Is this why sovereignty is so central to the realist view of the world? A. the 'cosmopolitan for the violent. The idea of Sovereignty as I to is which understand the claim exclusive it. but across other to be found not just in relations within of social life as well. One finds power. Realism that states are all locked into their own survival and into the pursuit of interests. does have a strong military component.Mc.H. Let me come to you now. European was as on a rest of the world condition of the imposed organizing politically which a own The European powers left behind them world remade in their decolonization. When you talk about power politics. in static. assumes their own of being about power politics. This is the domain the view of a very committed realist. most I take. has always worked and. Power in the realist view. technological phenomena. cultural phenomena. power must be a multidimensional poli looking at economic phenomena.Mc. claims to civilization. self-government. is what makes a very political image in terms of sovereign states. means in terms of its ability to exert absolute political that the state is defined authority over a given territory and people. to this.
How the nature of this age. the state and state power? transforming D. processes. there are globalizers have misunderstood has changed for the last. I is and about the view that I ought to say something briefly about what globalization take of it. not the exercise of power. its power is denuded by world markets. account deliver a fundamental this cosmopolitan challenge to realist of political power and the centrality of the sovereign state in world politics? it raises very interesting questions and I think it goes back to the Well. by the growth of regions. Goldblatt 1998). Rather. and that the relations between states are. less complex than they were during the British Empire. in order to tell you why.hundred years. finance and multinational to take just changing corporations. for example. on particular communities. For me globalization involves a shift in the spatial form of human organization or interregional patterns of activity. in other words. globalization yourself.Mc. initial caveat that I made when talking about realism: that it is a political theory. After all. transformed by the growing importance of other (less territorially based) power A. but the hyper live at a moment that can indeed be characterized satisfactorily. Does systems. is being repositioned. This content downloaded on Tue. but. recontextualized and. and Jonathan Perraton. who assert that the nation-state it is locked into a variety of complex central to the modern world: it is displaced. I think this sceptical view is also wrong. and so on. those who think that nothing fundamentally international than it was. Global Transformation: Politics. by structures environmental of international law. I call these the 'hyperglobalizers'. by processes. importance cosmopolitans. On the other hand. can we three phenomena. in some senses. the British Empire was an extraordinary political system which stretched across many regions and territories of the world. interaction and and activity to transcontinental a case of saying there was no globalization. and that aspects of all of these dimensions if the nature and prospects of state politics are themselves does need to be to be grasped account relate to the this multidimensional of power to Is attach like globalization.Mc. show how in the late twentieth century live in a world you more are states in which enmeshed in global processes and flows than they have ever been before. these dis (In making impact of these phenomena in research tinctions I am deploying concepts colleagues and I have been developing on globalization for some time. hand. I changing think this view exaggerates the nature of the global changes with which we live. notions B.We as 'a global age'. many power people is no longer world. The issue of globalization does raise particular questions about political we one in a global claim live On the and nation-states. because if you are thinking in 1 See David (Cambridge. it is a case of saying we can examine and distinguish different historical in terms of the extensity of networks of social relations and forms of globalization the intensity of the flows and links within these networks. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the connections.)1 I believe if you trace out within this framework the structure of trade. Political power. Economics and Culture. A. to a degree. Accord ingly. Being a purely political theory it is stuck inside a relatively narrow domain. during the gold that the world is no more standard era.B.Realism dimension understood vs cosmopolitanism 389 of power. It is there is now. much of what David has said I can agree with.H.
that the state embraces a particular presupposes society and a particular more or own a less its that contained Mercantilism economy. Very few. all of these assumptions although is the because economy away clearly becoming globalized. I'll have more separates of a world of a world economy. Imean if states have become as interconnected the between the 'domestic' what is members of the European Union. own to their still wish societies and many preserve identity in some senses.Mc. In traditional realist thinking.B. so I not much think that To it is that the somewhat elsewhere. as I would call it. But is that the whole world is unhelpful. then Where of development. Can realism accommodate B. to assume that the whole world has I think it would be a mistake Accordingly. which realist theory largely focuses upon. I think that in those parts of the world where the old model of the relatively closed. is that the boundary the state?that which the problem around been cut through by a whole load of the inside from the outside?has by trade. There are questions these things. But other things have become more important and one has to judge realism in relation to the elements importance of these other areas. In such circumstances. it is clearly society. and to some extent the development emergence even terms in communication of and and systems. put differently: point to assume that the state is disappearing. a good part of realist theory no as. the realist logic still applies. therefore. transportation states of which 'contain' naive now to think of a world made up sovereign everything. So what you find is that the political/military sector. if any. In relation least for some states.390 realist Barry Buzan terms et al. at to the to say about that later. the longer tells us very much. more 'multiculturalism' to be asked about all of of an emergent world society. and in that sense the whole realist model states have become very open and interdependent. reformed itself in the same way that the most advanced parts of the world have. The state is realism is wrong. it is a mistake still there. and to some extent. sealed state has faded away. and by finance in particular. my politics are in which the realist rules of the game still There plenty of parts of the world apply. different because the level of globalization is very differently This content downloaded on Tue. and the problem is they fall a little outside realist theory because realist as it were. The idea of a nation-state culture. theory focuses on the state. and also historically. states now have any pretence at all to autarky or a self-contained economy. and there ismore exchange. boundary just than international and 'international'? A lot of EU politics feels more like domestic is hard put to deal with that kind politics. These are things things. has become a bit less important in relation to what is going on in the world. Yes and no. more migration. society presupposed are rather falling there may be some trade. some of the realist theorizing about the balance of power (and all that) is clearly less relevant. this changing world? A. If you look at. say. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . thinking about states in terms of traditional power sense is not going that way. And although use the state to do this. there was some validity to the view that the state did contain an economy and society. Now. or North and South Korea. or indeed Japan to both China it. which realists are not all that well equipped to think about. say. this has an awful lot still of the flavour of realism about and the Koreas. relations in East Asia. and all of these other things are happening. by communication. My view is that the world is really divided into two or three spheres in which the rules of the game are quite distributed. if you think about the way in which China and Taiwan relate.
And. itself. be dealt with within states? Clearly. The urgency of the problem today can be highlighted if we return to something raised earlier: the whole question of what is a domestic affair and what is a foreign issue. if we think for a moment was a to it extension of tremendous the certain Western ideas and impetus Empire. the notion of itself. question global implications? These problem? involve complex ramifications with for the very types of questions implications notion of what is now a proper. and I think it is a more pressing one perhaps than Barry does. of the British and eighteenth indeed. What is the proper realm of global issue? It clearly has implications jurisdiction for resolving this problem? Another example at the heart of our future Is AIDS to health as well isAIDS. secular conceptions practices. This content downloaded on Tue. legitimate subject for sovereign states to deal with. These rules have been contested in parts of Africa.Mc. I'd be interested in his reflections on this. as Barry has concept rights were in Western all ideas which followed the wake of indicated. is absolutely right. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Can I return to you. Globalization is essentially contested. I think there is little doubt that the development of states in economic. take the issue of energy usage. a more chronic problem than it used to be. of law. Well. a 'global shift'. But now that we have relatively settled nation-states with dense and relations with each the issue of what is and what isn't a domestic other. because AIDS has ramifications for populations around the world. one would want to qualify this remark. and around There is little doubt that think of expanded pushed as part of an essentially Western of the processes elements of globalization However. in. that Zimbabwean issue? Take last say. that the 'realist' part of the in more complex power systems that have become more world is now sandwiched And important relative to state power. having said this. The idea of sovereignty of individual and the the nation-state duties. The use of areas of the West has direct in the industrialized energy heavily concentrated nature for the of the industrial development weather. development. This is a fundamental matter. it something can't be dealt with within individual states alone. it was understandable for them to think that there was a clear division between the domestic and the international. I believe. as it were. The BSE crisis today. Or. inmany regions today. connectedness. complex me a few issue is problematic. in Prague or Bangkok Is this a meeting paedophiles or a it Czech Thai Or is with British. This is. agriculture. I do not think the West has ever been in a position simply to 'run' the world own terms to of reference?its 'rules of the its according game'. British I think this is because there has been. David? should globalization be understood primarily as aWestern phenomenon? of global relations D. and the growing enmeshment cultural and social flows received an enormous impetus from the expansion of Europe from the seventeenth centuries. example: the question of to abuse children. The issue has always been to some and they remain contested extent what form global relations should take and what forms of accountability and law might govern relations among states. Is that an English issue? A British issue? A European issue? An international issue? A the world over. as it already one can the world. States have in more in denser become enmeshed of inter relations. In the era in which states were being forged. It is contested in diverse regions of the world. A.Realism vs cosmopolitanism 391 In the light of Barry's defence of realism. I think Barry's formulation. implications a one Is Zimbabwe. power. they've been contested in Latin America and Asia. patterns complex In this sense. the internal and the external.H. Let just give you examples.
You can think of it to some extent in terms of power politics by looking at issue power. The realist line of defence the emphasis on politics? politics?again And there is nothing that stops them from or a at with each other. It will another. high and war. for realists the centrality of state power and power politics cosmopolitanism. this becomes prob been fairly agile. whereas for cosmopolitans the democratization of world order is a central ideal? Does not realism assume that regimes and struc can never be effectively democratized. their behaviour. And at the moment. Who are the big players in relation to loses out? any big issue? Who are the people who have any kind of control? Who an etc. then the state loses control over aspects of its economy elements of democracy become those irrelevant. This they are dominated by states. to the extent that David is right. to discuss a a can out set set hammer of of of rules of the game. in relation to one issue or another. between realism and brings us to one of the defining differences Surely. in one domain or another. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . normatively in the management of world order. realists. If you are thinking about as something based on individual rights?the right to vote and to the whole the shape of the political universe?then realist approach is in in this regard because. Barry Buzan et al. least of realists. to wish politics away. aspects of life for which there is a problem about the efficacy and relevance of democracy. Now. power politics a I it element of and does retain state-centrism. But what do we mean by democratization 'define your terms' question! I can answer this in two ways. for realists. Thus. therefore. life and death. seeks to But would not a realist response be that the very issues David are to the central dilemmas of world politics? The highlight largely marginal issues of war and peace. but it will always be there.Mc. where is politics? Where is it located? You would say: if you discount seem to do. the people installed democratic control. speaking.Mc. the proper political domain very problematic sit is the state. There of in element this whole notion of is. There is a problem about how this notion gets which individuals translated upward. think the realist strong regimes. It will be politics and it will be the state is still an important player in about relative power.B. sometimes issues of joint concern. But the realists have would be that in most areas of world states are still the principal authorities. the state. Again. that is a difficult question for realism because in traditional B. as regimes in the system. just with other states. is not going to generate results. and sometimes they policies. as This content downloaded on Tue. get together sometimes with the basic holders of political authority other actors.392 A. state interests and power politics? in this context?the famous B. between there was a rather clear distinction 'high' and 'low' politics. the state is no longer controlling In this context. good proportion cooperating can live quite comfortably with the idea of international in which states. that democracy determine and of its society. this certainly does not feel enable them to coordinate like traditional power politics realism. the game. critical realism politics low politics and being about economics and disease. as some liberals sometimes which away. democratic politics and practices have no place implies that. Yes. To wish the state cannot eliminate politics. The good dyed-in-the is a permanent wool realist would argue that power politics condition of human or come one in form existence. and being about diplomacy issues the weather and like many society the importance of the different sectors lematic for realism. and there is also a problem.B. And because of the change in that Imentioned earlier. tures of global governance precisely because A.
Certainly. parti the development of in the history of state insofar as it organization terms. the development of global financial markets.Mc. with contributions. but in practice it is run on a wide range of might in principle be a democratic issues by dominant US and British of interests. for example). the collaborative relations of some regions.Realism But. if you like. to some of the leading cities of Renaissance It was during first elaborated in antiquity the Renaissance in relation was It reinvented with the Italy. This content downloaded on Tue. even if they are not equal powers. Council have built into them the veto power of the 'big five' states. This percentage has fallen now a are states less third of all the than and number of authoritarian. Democracy It was re-elaborated in relation to city-states. there are rules of voting which bear very close resemblance rules of procedure. The United Nations. dramatically. the world order is in some sense already partially democratized. But there is something more important to stress than this. In a world which has a certain shift away from the sovereign nation-state?marked undergone by the internationalization of the economy. that extent representatives of peoples of the world negotiate and they are very important. relations. We should not be despondent about this! is not simply one fixed notion. Do you in it. they build the hierarchy of state relations and of interests into their very structures. cularly European signals beginnings democratic relations among states which is unprecedented in addition. which vs cosmopolitanism 393 if you focus on the principle of democratic voting and think about the way in are actually other international Nations and most the United agencies were to it that formed then becomes they important by demo recognize organized. significant the procedures of the Security course. agree? D. as human (such developments rights regimes) have in balance and the nature of regional blocs. in the international the that relate way system. Further. from other powerful nation-states. the emergence the the Union. They are all. democracies is growing rapidly. cratic states and they do reflect democratic principles. But the process of democratization has a long way to go. world. and the development interests can be represented systematic global warming?the plurality of democratic different kind of world order. new infrastructures of communication (the Internet. and institutions like the UN. the elaboration of human of important transborder problems such as rights law. is a remarkable on equal at states in least principle. brings together. as it were. and they give priority organizational particular state interests. they are partial achievements and have some strong drawbacks and clear limits. the United Nations existing geopolitical forum. So. Moreover. a kind of international democracy amongst states which is based on the notion of sovereignty which sees all states as legally equal. The the world order has significant elements of democracy Certainly late twentieth century has seen a phase of massive around the democratization over two-thirds than ever before. But I think. A. These and related some respects altered the of of states and the way in which relations the among treat To each other. This can be built on some ally only in a fundamentally of the strengths of existing institutions: the democratization of the nation-state. but there is in some sense an element of democracy available within the realist vision of states to each other as legal equals. In the mid-1970s. more states are democratic of all states could reasonably be called authoritarian. to systems based by and large on states. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thus. Up to a point inmost of these to democratic agencies. There is. One might object to this as a fudge.H. at the same time.
democracy. As I would to do with transportation It is also in part a logistical phenomenon phenomenon.B. And. inconsistency cratic. Even because of globalization. Historians may look back in a hundred years' time and say liberal representative democracy was that that emerged in the late seventeenth and eighteenth form of government centuries an to in become somewhat of anachronism the late twentieth and only twenty-first resources and activities were as. I am not sure. 'representation' upwards and downwards some can notion of sovereignty which remain the foundation of while still keeping I think it is fair to say that the inter the legal and political order internationally? national system or the global system is certainly more pluralist than it has ever been. The project of cosmopolitan democracy. A. globalization is primarily structured politically. So it may be that the state is in crisis but there is not yet a very clear alternative available. thing. respect political optimistic pessimistic centuries developments. the world's fundamental across think that democracy nation-states boundaries. etc. democracy deepening perhaps dox realist might respond to this cosmopolitan argument? I am glad you make that distinction! In a variety of ways I think there is B. cosmopolitan respond just or a more between and within how ortho of states. we development are on the edge of a new fundamental democratic transformation. very problematic thinking here European construct. move to and communication and the ability ideas. of course. or how indeed we would make the alternative political transition from the current order to another. I to the of the wondered how would notion you Barry. it's going to be made and. Luhmann).Mc. But it is not clear what the structure to the state is. not surrender idea of democracy. of the and extending it across involving democracy within nation-states deepening nor to is neither with these borders. quite a bit of the time democracies If you look at the United States there is a great problem with foreign policies. but quite how aggregate sovereignty to work is very problematic. or can be I do not have any problem with that. world much faster and much more easily than before. one look for a model of the future. about how the world an economic see it. and it is not just a problem for realists. one of the key themes of that is the so-called 'democratic deficit'. It seems like a good idea.394 Barry Buzan et al. to different How do you move levels. But whether it ismore democratic. I would agree that to the extent that more states become demo then there will be a spill-over effect and that will have some democratizing or always a good for the world consequences system. peoples. and I'm in the place where might plausibly as a political of the it is still Union. national system. is clearly a problem. Some is people organized a in world dominated and fundamentally dysfunctional by regional global processes and structures the German social theorist. around the goods. view and may reject concerns with managing self-centred see this as a problem at the moment. more and more. Realists the rest of the inter I am thinking here of This content downloaded on Tue. I believe the contemporary world is one in which we need to reinvent the However. A realist would look at the foreign policy consequences do not behave very well in terms of their well. so. It is a position of advocacy. today. I would like to come back to the essence of the cosmopolitan ideal later.. democratic polities can take a rather inward-looking. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Niklas (for instance. and isolationism. but this is not necessarily of democracy and say. We do not know what the political relationship is when you try and dis into different levels. as liberal representative of nation-states. it.
tions to address them. New. so fundamentally important in a more and so on.TINA . but it also recognizes governments as elements of the environment. rapidly only generally. a possibility This content downloaded on Tue.Realism North vs cosmopolitanism 395 do not sense in 'I'm not America. the argument is that this can be achieved only through a cosmopolitan account of democracy. They are all rather inward-looking. And yet two the background of a very unpromising it hundred years later. They are of what Barry was fallible sets of processes and institutions. this: how can the idea of the modern state. such global security and economic that need new institu concerns. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . itwas largely against set of historical circumstances. although. a legitimate alternative. Hobbes and others. Europe and Japan. that may problem simply a So the essence. But the counterfactual to the of be taken that non-democracies the world would be could suggesting imply more noble or wise under some circumstances could be considered and.H. and so on. There is a in order to win an American election. world. are not only a necessity but border context. develop the idea of the modern shaped and to the diverse conditions circumscribed and law'. At the moment secular state was first elaborated. If we accept. when significantly cannot resolve the issues in question and when the issue of the accountability of a matter in hand can only itself be understood cross and redeemed in a transnational. that we live now in a world in which the state has become somewhat decentred and fragmented. candidates now have to say. in my view. simply noble or wise. that. specific regions. then. then we must begin to consider the political meaning it seems to me is living at another fundamental point of transition. One is are not necessarily of democracies course. legal and technological of this. which seeks to state into a conception of governance. is a structure away from the state. processes economic.Mc. accountability I would want to make transnational world? In response.if use to that remember the Thatcher era! alternative. and adapted by 'democratic interconnections of different peoples and nations. I think there are at least two things I would want to say about that. you phrase D. certain problems and policies as appropriate for local and national others as appropriate for states. The notion of cosmopolitan interconnected democracy recognizes our complex. world health questions regulation. They like casualties. innovative political arrangements in the light of the changing organization of regional also. of course. And the question to law. of realist be that there is no A. Deliberative and political decision-making centres beyond or transnational national territories are justified when cross-border groups are affected 'lower' levels of decision-making by a public matter. in theory and in of course. The issue in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that we do not have an alternative principle of legitimacy for political affairs other than that It is the principle of legitimate authority of the principle of democracy. How you actually rejig the global political they would probably or in any other form. We be with states per se. accepted. accordingly. political. by contrast and extension. and still others. whether democratically not stuck has been solved. became the dominant element in the organization of nation states. in which the idea of the But the second thing I would stress is this. lose the election. position might . be best nurtured and rearticulated democracy. of power. a to be foreign policy president'. because if they indicate that kind of going interest. they do not like spending money on foreign issues. by Bodin. locked into complex transnational of cultural. there are great debates about what exactly this means practice. which. and has one if not is become the that universally. It recognizes.
and there This content downloaded on Tue. but there democratization or global are also very normative issues at stake. adequate representation position? B. like to comment but I would picture that David is painting. So is cosmopolitan are at there small incremental the level certain things that would example. I detected in your and about the argument Barry. deepens and I don't dispute that this is the world we are living in and therefore strengthens?and is going to raise serious questions for that this is a time of transformation?this are to I in structure. counterfactual sharpen the implications advocating a world of fascist states or totalitarians or whatever. people must have access to. it also carries with it a little on the kind of answers to these problems.396 and Barry Buzan et al. Cosmopolitan important even was not to terms of in if it be the best feasible. It is not an issue of all or nothing. global evolving political decision-making new and demands for forms of Union. may way democracy. My sense is that in the most developed most democratic parts of the system. European growing political political delibera In this emerging world. Now. But I would say to you that state was in the seventeenth and it is no more Utopian than the idea of the modern an was the latter idea with short-term and long-term (and is) eighteenth centuries. conflict resolution and decision-making.Mc. regulated. First. the capacity enhancing the creation of a UN peace-keeping and rights law to be enforced. could all have distinctive but regional assemblies and global authorities parliaments. and nationally. We need to develop link and that issues. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of human A. and of a institutions that reflect the cosmopolitan global community. global make a difference now: the reform of the Security Council. centres such as the processes. regionally globally?are to be democratically in. questions multiple problems people together regardless of the were or in which nation-states born they particular brought up. as the process of globalization unfolds. They should be citizens of their own communities. and membership communities. It does seem to me (and I am taking my realist hat off here. Put differently. for the new millennium diverse political democracy should describe a world where citizens enjoy multiple citizenships. universal good. of the wider regions in which they live. am I to not of my argument. likeWestern Europe and North America. national tion.B. If many contemporary forms of power are to become accountable and if many of the complex issues that affect us all?locally. globalization of world order that it is not only a question of feasibility. For democracy. be answered different think these ways going questions political in different parts of the global system. on concerns would be less the force that of dependent peacemaking existing to a programme of cosmopolitan is interests. of course not! I am out that democratization should not be seen as some kind of merely pointing a I do not claim to have the set of problems. because at this point I am leaving behind the great bulk of realists) that there are two things to say. cities. That is a difficult requires me I think that David is right that posing the question. implications. a framework interlinked roles within of democratic and public accountability decision-making. you could immediately object to this as Utopian. A commitment democracy geopolitical a commitment to the extension and adaption of the idea of the modern democratic to the new global circumstances state and of the idea of democratic accountability we in which live. proceed an be Would that of your human political organization.
fundamental challenges that might arise in the next century may well follow from the attempt by many parts of the world to emulate Western systems of lifestyle. They have a really tough game to play. However. resource environmental use. this is already the case. thereof. Central Africa.Realism is probably vs cosmopolitanism 397 going to be a layering of power so that there will be. It is not quite clear to me what is going to happen to these latter states. but there will still be plenty of power politics itmay be structured in all kinds of around. This content downloaded on Tue. Political authority will move upwards unpacking disaggregation on several different levels. D. Fascism.H. all right. parts of the world which had politically collapsed. fundamental that are fragile such as threats. One could imagine there being no effective state structures. one cannot be complacent about the continued democratization either of the West or of other parts of the world. consumption patterns and so on. Itmay be pluralist. One of the most Africa. I can ahead a bit further and trying to wear David's hat a bit more. not simply threats from nation-states those in sub-Saharan but again from the West itself. And what globalization system is becoming stronger and stronger in relation to the old political units within the system may survive by adapting and it. India. understand we might be in the post-state world. It seems to me extremely important to bear in mind that the West itself nearly destroyed democracy just fifty years ago. if you like. Hedley Bull and downwards. Now. In some places tribalism or gangsterism. indeed no effective political structures at all in such places except for some kind of reversion or combinations to warlordism. however. and will exist simultaneously once referred to this as neo-medievalism in some and that is not a bad metaphor most accounts the for those of This. Looking no now a sense we states at in in world which there might be all the that imagine one could still wear a realist hat and say well. I think what has been said is reasonably cautious. So the circumstances A. and Stalinism almost destroyed this 'democratizing civilization'. postmodern perhaps. Well. and then bits in between like China. Some of them are already falling to pieces and it would not surprise me. I do not think that would be an entirely accurate summary of what has just been said! In any case. and who could disagree with an element of caution? One might perhaps be even more cautious than has been suggested so far. parts developed only because what you are looking at here is the interplay between the political units of is telling us is that the the system and the system itself. itmay be democratic. Against one can anticipate other this background. and it would not surprise me to see this phenomenon spread so that one had a part of the world which was very highly organized.Mc. ways. if a number features of quite substantial unstable zones opened up and became semi-permanent one inWest Africa. its conditions of There may come a point where the West's interest in life may bring it into sharp conflict with other parts of tradition will remain intact. There will be fundamental obstacles defending to their extension. putting on a futurist hat. but what about the rest? There are adopting a lot of weak states in the international system and these are going to have much more difficulty dealing with life in the strong system. and one in of the system: perhaps one centring on Afghanistan. system. the so-called modern developing world. but the logic of power politics will go on and to that extent the realist are not terribly for cosmopolitan democracy propitious. an or of sovereignty. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . odd ways. the strong political units within some kind of neo-medieval framework. them. Nazism The contingency and unpredictability of politics is with us at all times. accordingly.
is to rethink can be resources which our political and to create new conceptual concepts as it state The idea of world. a with the can which is consistent to in cohere multidimensional way world. and to the contributions to lay down new normative extent that these debates are open it becomes possible some bite when people new have which normative resources. begin principle of democratic legitimacy. 22 Jan 2013 17:48:23 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . reflexively applied by political structures of the eighteenth. The task of the political theorist. own could and serious conflict in its is the world of interests. of transition.398 Barry Buzan et al. might conceptions. I think ideas such as ideas as well?are other parallel there are many democracy?but cosmopolitan to new debates about what these structures will look like. has Liberalism with difficulty. This content downloaded on Tue. costs of Western the world. the extension of industrialization demand for raw materials in many and the unmanaged and environmental growth of population degradation. and new energy sources. contemporary reflexively applied new to state the was and theorists elaborated were. in the sovereignty. then. Many of our political ideologies are at the point of bankruptcy. nineteenth and twentieth centuries. in a come to think about how a more multilayered system of authority. fraught in order to build environmental markets State socialist theories are worn thin if We live in a moment are of the old political ideologies Many no conception of how one might regulate concerns systematically into market forces. necessarily parts follow. The environmental lifestyles may well make the pursuit The West may well not think that the rising of them elsewhere unsustainable. not dead.
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