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Milk Production

UNIT 5 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY PRACTICES


AND HEALTH CARE
Structure
5.0 Objectives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Management of Down Calvers and Calf Raising
 Care and Management of Down Calver Cows and Buffaloes
 Care and Management of Calf at the time of Birth.
 Management and Feeding Practices for Growing Calves.
5.3 Heifer Management and Feeding Practices
5.4 Breeding Management of Dairy Animals
 Sexual Maturity and Onset of Estrus cycle
 Symptoms of Heat and Heat Detection
 Artificial Insemination and Time of Breeding
5.5 Management and Feeding Practices for Milking Cows and Buffaloes
5.6 Management and Feeding Practices for Dry Cows and Buffaloes
5.7 Healthcare Practices of Dairy Animals
 Signs of Ill-Health.
 Common Diseases and their Control Measures
 Vaccination for the Prevention of Diseases
5.8 Let Us Sum Up
5.9 Key Words
5.10 Some Useful Books
5.11 Answers to Check Your Progress

5.0 OBJECTIVES
After reading this unit, we shall be able to:
 describe the management and feeding practices of dairy calves, heifers, milking
and dry cows and buffaloes.
 explain the estrus cycle, symptoms of heat, methods of heat detection and
artificial insemination in dairy animals.
 outline the common diseases of dairy animals and measures for their prevention
and control.

5.1 INTRODUCTION
The animal husbandry or the rearing of animals for their economic utilization is as
old as human civilization. The Neolithic (New Stone Age) man first domesticated
the various present-day animal species and started practicing animal husbandry.
Under domestication, the animals are dependent on humans for their sustenance
and performance. They need to be provided with appropriate levels of feeding,
suitable housing, breeding, timely healthcare and management so as to obtain desired
productivity.

The cattle and buffaloes are the two major milk producing species in India. The
cattle initially domesticated primarily as draft animal and later on some of the cattle
breeds were developed as milch animals through selection. The buffalo, though
30 domesticated much later, is the most important milk producing species in India.
Together they contribute more than 95 per cent of 91.1 million tonnes of milk Animal Husbandry
Practices and
currently produced in India. Therefore, their feeding, housing, healthcare and routine Health Care
management based on scientific recommended practices is essential for obtaining
higher profit from dairy farming. The care and management of a dairy farm starts
with the birth of a healthy calf. The healthy female calves born have to be fed and
cared well to grow at a faster rate and become a producing cow or buffalo at an
early age. Once in production, the dairy animals are managed for breeding regularly
and to produce milk at higher level so that their rearing becomes profitable to the
dairy farmer.

5.2 MANAGEMENT OF DOWN CALVERS AND CALF


RAISING
The dairy farming starts with the birth of a healthy and vigorous calf. The care of
calf starts in the womb of cow itself. The cows during last 6-8 weeks of pregnancy,
called “down calvers” become slow and gentle separating themselves from the
general herd and avoid fights so as to guard against any injury to the fetus inside
the womb. Therefore, the advanced pregnant cows especially during the last 15
days of pregnancy need special care and attention of the dairyman.

i. Care and Management of Down Calver Cows and Buffaloes


a) Shifting the cows and buffaloes to the calving pens: The advance pregnant
cows should be separated from the general herd and should be shifted to
individual calving pens (maternity pens) about 1 to 2 weeks before the expected
date of calving. The keeping of down calver cows and buffaloes individually in
calving pens provide the pregnant cows with better climatic protection and the
disturbance from other cows is avoided. The cows in these pens are given
individual attention and kept under the watch round the clock. These pens can
be disinfected which prevent chances of infection gaining entry at the time of
calving. Chances of contamination of the general herd by infected cows and
healthy cows contacting diseases of genital tract are minimized.
Small farmers who have only one or two animals must tie the cow in advanced
pregnancy separately in a clean area where it will not be disturbed. Good straw
bedding should be provided. In farms where abortions and calf diseases are
common, the calving pen should be sterilized regularly. The floor and walls
should be scraped and scrubbed with 4 per cent washing soda in hot water and
disinfected before the cows are brought in. Once in the calving pen, the cows
should be provided a good quality laxative feed and ample amount of clean
drinking water.
b) Care at calving: The cow should be kept under constant watch for the signs
of parturition like swelling of the udder, swelling of the vulva and drooping away
ligaments around the tail head. At the first sign of calving, the first two fore
feet followed by the muzzle will appear after the water bag has burst. Birth
usually takes place 2 to 4 hours. If the labour prolongs for more than four
hours, abnormal presentation may be suspected and veterinary aid may be
called for immediately.
After parturition wash the udder and hindquarters with lukewarm water
containing an antiseptic and dry with a clean cloth. Watch for the expulsion of
afterbirth (placenta). It will be expelled within 2 to 4 hours after the calving.
If it is not expelled within 8 to 12 hours, help of a veterinarian may be sought.

ii. Care and Management of Calf at Birth


a) Attending to the newly born calf: Immediately after the birth of the calf, all
phlegm (mucus) sticking in the nostrils, mouth and on the body should be
removed and the calf should be wiped dry with a clean cloth. Normally the calf
starts respiration immediately after birth on its own. However, sometimes the 31
Milk Production respiratory tract of the calf may be blocked by mucus and the calf may not
start breathing. Under this situation, hold the calf head down by lifting it
holding the back. The mucus may flow off and the calf may start breathing.
The new born calf should be protected from inclement weather conditions
especially during winter months and be provided with plenty of dry bedding like
straw.
b) Disinfecting the navel cord: The navel of the calf should be painted with
antiseptics like tincture of iodine soon after birth to prevent infection gaining
entry through the navel. If the umbilical cord is not broken, a ligature may be
put 2-3 cm away from the body with a sterile thread and cut 1 cm distal to
the ligature with a clean sterile scissors. A small amount of antiseptic lotion
may be painted at the cut end and protected from flies.
c) Colostrum feeding: The calf should be fed with colostrum (first milk of cow
after calving) for the first 3 to 4 days of its birth. The feeding of colostrum is
very essential as the antibodies present in colostrum provide passive immunity
to the calf against many diseases. It should be fed within half to one hour after
birth of the calf at the rate of 1/10 of its body weight per day. In conditions
where there are no facilities to weigh the calf, a quantity of 2.5-3.0 kg colostrum
per day per calf may be offered. So as to reduce the feeding and labour costs,
the calves of crossbred cows may be weaned at birth and maintained in an
individual pen for the first few weeks. In case weaning is not practiced, the
calves should be allowed to suckle for 5 minutes 4-5 times a day.

iii. Management and Feeding Practices for Growing Calves


The husbandry practices and feeding of the calves born at the farm are aimed at
attaining a higher rate of growth with a lower morbidity and mortality.
a) Management practices: The new-born calves should be provided with
individual housing for 4-6 weeks after birth for better protection and care.
These houses should have the provision for warming in winter season and
cooling in summer season along with the provision of a good bedding on the
floors. Later on they may be kept in small groups. The new born calves are
given an identification number during the first 3-4 days generally by tattooing
the number in the left ear or by tagging. At large farms, dehorning of crossbred
calves may be done by removing the horn buds with an electric dehorner
within 1 to 2 weeks of birth. Any extra teats present on the udder of female
calves called “supernumerary teats” are removed within first 1 to 2 months
after birth.
b) Feeding of growing calves: The feeding of weaned calves after initial
colostrum period shall be as per the following feeding schedule: (Table 5.1)

Table 5.1: Feeding schedule for calves

Age Whole milk Skim milk Concentrate Green fodder


mixture (kg)
5-30 days 1/10th b.wt*. — — —
1-2 month 1/15th b.wt. 1/25th b.wt. 0.120 ad libitum
th th
2-3 months 1/25 b.wt. 1/15 b.wt. 0.250 -do-
3-4 month — 6.5 kg 0.650 -do-
4-5 month — 6.5 kg 1.000 -do-
5-6 month — 5.0 kg 1.500 -do-
* body weight

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From 6 months onwards, the calves may be offered a good quality green fodder Animal Husbandry
Practices and
free choice along with the supplementation of 1.0 to 1.5 kg of concentrate mixture Health Care
per calf daily. The deworming of the growing calves is to be done regularly. The
following calf deworming schedule may be followed at the dairy farm (Table 5.2).

Table 5.2: Deworming Schedule for Calves

Age of calf (day) Name of medicine Dosage


3rd Piperazine adipate 1 gm/4 kg Body weight
th
7 -do- -do-
8 th Sulmet course for 3 days 1st day — 30 ml
2nd day — 15 ml
3rd day — 15 ml

Later on whenever infection of endoparasites is suspected broad spectrum


anthehelmintic drugs like albendazole, fenbendazole or thiobendazole should be used
at the rate of 5-10 mg/ kg body weight depending on the severity of infection. The
growing calves may also need to be protected from ectoparasites click, tick by
periodically spraying of animals and calf houses.
Check Your Progress 1

1) Why the down calvers should be housed separately?


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2) What care and management should be provided to the down calvers in the
calving pen?
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3) List the practices for care and feeding of a new born calf.
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4) Give the feeding schedule of weaned calves.
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5.3 HEIFER MANAGEMENT AND FEEDING


PRACTICES
Heifer is a female animal of cattle and buffaloes from one year of age up to first
calving. Thus, heifers are future cows of the herd. On most dairy farms, 20-25
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Milk Production per cent of the cows are replaced every year with freshly calved heifers. Therefore,
proper nutrition and management of heifers are necessary to provide adequate
number of healthy and genetically superior herd replacements. Under Indian
conditions the goal of dairy farmer should be raise well grown heifers that calve
at an average age of about 30 months in case of crossbred cows, 36 months in
indigenous cows and about 40 months in case of buffaloes.

The nutrition during this period shall mainly comprise ad libidum. feeding of good
quality green fodders supplemented with some amount of concentrate mixture so
as to obtain a daily growth rate of 500-550 gm in crossbred heifers and 450-500
gm in heifers of indigenous cattle breeds and buffaloes. The heifers may be fed
mostly on roughages and allowed to remain lean until pregnancy. During the last
half of pregnancy, they can be fed at a higher plane of nutrition to achieve rapid growth
which could cause maximum development of ducts and alveoli in the heifer’s udder.

The loose system of housing for heifers is generally followed through out the
country except in heavy rainfall and coastal areas. For better growth, the heifers
need to be protected from summer stress especially under North Indian conditions.
Water sprinkling or splashing during hotter parts of the day twice or thrice daily,
provision of ceiling fans in the sheds, provision of mist cooling devices and wallowing
especially in buffalo heifers are some of the practices to be followed for the
protection of heifers from heat stress. For protection from cold stress in winters,
the heifers are offered a well balanced nutritious diet. In severe cold weather
conditions, the allowance of concentrate mixture may be increased by 0.5 to 1.0
kg per heifer daily so that their growth is not adversely affected. Provision of
adequate bedding is essential during winter.

Heifers having stunted growth, late maturing, anatomical defects or bad disposition
should be regularly culled from the herd. They need to be protected against
ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, etc. by spraying with insecticides like 1 % malathion
at monthly intervals. The floors, walls and roofs of the heifer sheds should also be
sprayed to make them free from these ectoparasites. The heifers at the age of
puberty should be observed for signs of heat every day and should be inseminated
with the semen of superior bulls. Attainment of 60 per cent of mature body weight
(about 300 kg) is the stage at which the heifers should be bred. The advance
pregnant heifers should be trained for milking by taking them to the milking parlour
along with the milking cows and allowed to go through the milking routine. This will
give them an opportunity to get adapted to the milking routine. Such heifers will not
get excited and thus will not give any difficulty in milking after calving.

5.4 BREEDING MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY ANIMALS


After milk production, reproduction is the most economically important trait in dairy
animals. Therefore, the maintenance of high fertility rate is basic to the success of
any dairy farming enterprise. The practices adopted for the breeding management
of dairy cows and buffaloes should aim at bringing about higher breeding efficiency.
The breeding efficiency is the measure of the capacity of an adult cow or buffalo
to reproduce. It can be measured in terms of number of services taken by a cow
or buffalo per conception, length of calving interval, percentage of non-returns and
percentage of pregnancies in a breedable period.

i. Sexual Maturity and onset of Estrus Cycle


a) Puberty and sexual maturity: The stage of life in which animals become
sexually mature and the secondary sexual characteristics first become clearly
visible is known as “puberty.” In cow and buffalo heifers, this is the stage of
first estrus (heat), and in the bull calf it is the stage when it starts giving semen
34 with viable sperms. The term “sexual maturity” means that the heifers are
capable of reproduction. At this stage, reproductive organs undergo a marked Animal Husbandry
Practices and
increase in size. Health Care
Puberty occurs before mature body size is attained. Under good feeding, a calf
attains puberty approximately at 66 per cent of adult body size. Breed, genotype,
climate and level of feeding influence the age at puberty. The time of onset of
puberty appears to be a function more of body size than of age. The sudden
increase in size and weight of reproductive tract associated with puberty involves
hormonal action.
b) Estrus cycle: Every 21±3days from the time of puberty, the cow prepares for
a pregnancy. A mature ovum is liberated from the ovary, the cervix becomes
receptive to the spermatozoa, the female exhibits behavioural adjustment and
attraction to receive the male in copulation, the uterus and fallopian tubes
produce the secretions which are conducive to the transport of ovum and
sperms and the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares to receive and nourish
a fertilized ovum. The events listed above in sum total are known as “estrus
cycle.”

The estrus cycle has two major phases viz. estrogenic phase and progestational
phase. The estrogenic phase or the period of follicle includes the proestrus and
estrus and lasts for about 4 days of the cycle. The progestational phase or the luteal
phase includes the metestrus and the diestrus and lasts for about 17 days.

ii. Symptoms of Heat and Heat Detection


The estrus or the heat is the period in which the animal exhibits sexual desire. The
length of estrus period is between 8 to 24 hours in cows with an average of 18
hours. In buffaloes, the estrus period varies between 5 to 27 hours with an average
of 20 hours. During summer the buffaloes have very short estrus period.
a) Symptoms of Heat: The cows in early stages of heat will show activities like
smelling other cows, attempting to mount other cows and bellowing. They will
be restless and their vulva will be moist, red and slightly swollen. After a time
lapse of 6 to 8 hours, the heat will become more pronounced. The cow will
stand to be mounted by other cows or bulls. Due to this, this period is termed
as ‘standing heat’. This extends for 14 to 16 hours and shows other symptoms
like bellowing, nervousness, anorexia, reduction in milk yield, clear mucus discharge
and dilated pupil of eye.
b) Detection of Cows in Heat: The heat detection work may be carried out
twice daily, once early in the morning and once in the evening. Disturbances
like noise, visitors or other activities on the farm may be avoided at the time
of detecting heat. Use of heat detection chart and breeding history of the cow
should always be made while detecting heat. Parading of a teaser (vasectomized)
bull amongst the cows in early morning and evening hours by a skilled person
will greatly enhance the heat detection rate. Also keenly observing the expected
cows and buffaloes while milking and while leaving the milking barn can improve
heat detection rate. The other aids suggested to improve heat detection include
the use of chin ball markers, heat mount detectors and pedometers.

iii. Artificial Insemination (AI) and Time of Breeding


a) Artifical Insemination: AI is the technique in which semen with living sperms
is collected from the male animals and introduced into the female genital tract
at proper time by mechanical means. The semen is collected from the bulls
commonly by the artificial vagina technique. Then it is examined to judge its
suitability for insemination by physical, microscopic, chemical and bacteriological
tests. The good quality semen is extended further with an appropriate diluent
to increase its utility in fertilizing more females. The freshly diluted liquid semen
is then used for inseminating the cows and buffaloes in heat or preserved in
frozen state for future use. 35
Milk Production Advantages of AI: The AI technique offers many advantages over natural
mating. It enables an individual bull to sire a large number of progeny. This
reduces the number of bulls required for breeding purpose. The services of
superior bulls are greatly extended allowing for the genetic evaluation of bulls
through progeny testing. It is a major aid in crossbreeding work and in preventing
the spread of genital diseases. Due to economic reasons, small farmers may
not be in a position to maintain a bull. They can avail AI services at nominal
cost.
b) Time of breeding: The time of breeding cows naturally or by AI is very
important as it greatly influences the conception rate. The best time to breed
cattle is from the middle of standing heat and six hours following that. Three
or four hours perceeding or succeeding this excellent period also gives good
results. As a routine practice, if a cow is seen showing early heat in the
morning, it may be inseminated in the evening. If heat signs are first manifested
in the evening, the cow may be bred next day morning. A cow is expected to
show heat in 30-40 days after calving. Cows that fail to show heat even after
50 days have generally some problems and need examination.
Check Your Progress 2
1) What do you understand by estrus cycle?
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2) What are the symptoms of heat in cows and buffaloes?
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3) Describe artificial insemination (AI). Also give its advantages.
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5.5 MANAGEMENT AND FEEDING PRACTICES FOR


MILKING COWS & BUFFALOES
The freshly calved cows should be shifted to the milking herd after 4-5 days of
colostrum period. The management and feeding during the lactation is of paramount
importance as the level of production and profitability from dairy farming depends
largely on the amount of care and judicious feeding provided during this period.
a) Housing: The milking cows should preferably be housed in loose houses
having a covered area of 3.5-4.0 sq. m. and an open area of 7-8 sq. m. per
cow. The floors of these loose houses should be non-slippery and a good dry
bedding material should be provided especially in rainy and winter seasons. All
the milking cows should be divided into 2-3 groups depending on their level of
production as high, medium and low producers. When housed in groups, the
number of cows in each paddock should not be more than 50. Frequent shifting
of the animals between different groups should be avoided.
The loose housed milking cows and buffaloes need to be protected against the
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summer heat stress especially in Northern Indian conditions by suitable means. Animal Husbandry
Practices and
Water splashing / sprinkling on the animals body for 5-10 minutes twice or Health Care
thrice daily during the hotter parts of the day, provision of ceiling fans in cow
sheds or installation of mist cooling devices specially for crossbred cows and
wallowing of buffaloes twice daily for a period of about 1 hour are some of
such means. During winter the cows need to be protected against direct cold
drafts especially during nights.
b) Feeding: The feed and fodder requirements of dairy cows and buffaloes are
calculated based on their dry matter (DM) content. The dry matter requirement
of milking dairy animals varies between 2.5 to 3.5 per cent of their body
weights depending on the level of milk production. Two-thirds of the total
requirement of DM of the milking animal should be met through a mixture of
cereal and leguminous green fodders and dry roughages. The remaining one-
third of DM should be fed through concentrate mixture. As a thumb rule the
producing cows should be fed concentrate mixture at the rate of 1 kg for every
2.5 kg of milk produced and buffaloes at the rate of 1 kg for every 2 kg of
milk produced over and above the maintenance requirement of the animal.
c) Milking: The milking of the dairy animals should be done at the same time
daily as per the routine. The buffaloes and low producing cows are milked
twice daily and high producing crossbred cows thrice daily maintaining a constant
interval between each milking. For better milk production, the milking should be
done gently, quietly, quickly and completely. For clean milk production, the
milking should be done at a clean place or in a separate milking parlour. Before
milking, the cow or buffalo should be washed with water and the udder and
teats should be wiped dry with a clean cloth. The milker should also wash his
hands and milk the cow after proper let down of milk in clean dry narrow
mouthed milking bucket. Milking should be completed within 5.7 minutes.
All milking animals should be observed for signs of heat from 45 days after
calving and should be bred by 60 days of calving. Cows not coming into heat
after 60 days of calving should be examined for any reproductive problems.

5.6 MANAGEMENT AND FEEDING PRACTICES FOR


DRY COWS AND BUFFALOES
The day from which the cow stops giving milk to the day it calves is called as dry
period. A normal dry cow does not give milk but it should be in advance pregnancy.
The importance of dry period is to give rest to the cow’s udder. It also gives an
opportunity to the cow to recuperate its body condition lost during the lactation.
Allowing dairy cows a dry period thus results in higher milk production in the
succeeding lactation.

An ideal length of dry period is about 60 days. However, in Zebu cattle and
buffaloes it is much higher. These animals do not normally need to be dried as they
are low milk producers and have shorter lactations which end on their own accord.
The high producing crossbred cows and purebred exotic cows need to be dried by
using a suitable method.
a) Methods of drying-off cows: There are three methods of drying cows viz.
abrupt cessation of milking, intermittent milking and incomplete milking. In
abrupt cessation method, the milking of cows is stopped all of a sudden. The
build up pressure of milk in the udder causes regression of milk secretary cells.
This method is suitable for low to medium milk producing cows. In intermittent
milking method, the cows are milked once every second or third day till milk
production completely ceases. In incomplete milking, the cows are milked
gradually, smaller and smaller quantities of milk spread over a week or so. This
method is preferred for high yielding cows.
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Milk Production b) Feeding and management of dry cows: The feeding of the dry-pregnant
cow should be aimed at making up the condition of the cow lost during the
lactation. Cows that have been properly fed during the dry period produce up
to 25 per cent more milk than the cows which have not been conditioned.
Cows which gain about 500 gm of body weight per day during dry period have
high milk production in the ensuing lactation. The feeding of cows during dry
period should mainly comprise of good quality ad libitum green and dry fodders
which may be supplemented with 1-2 kg of concentrate mixture per cow per
day depending on the condition of the cow.

The dry-pregnant cow should be housed in a separate comfortable paddock at a


lesser stocking rate than for the milch or growing stock. About 15 days before the
expected date of calving, the pregnant cows should be transferred to maternity
pens for better care and feeding.
Check Your Progress 3
1) Briefly describe the housing, feeding and milking management practices of
lactating cows and buffaloes.
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2) What is dry period? Describe its importance and list methods of drying off.
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5.7 HEALTHCARE PRACTICES OF DAIRY ANIMALS


Maintaining dairy animals in proper health is essential for obtaining desired
productivity and higher profitability from dairy farming enterprise. Animals can be
kept healthy if they are purchased from the healthy herd and are quarantined for
45 days before entry into the herd. Further, they are to be kept under proper
sanitation, management and feeding and use of appropriate vaccines for the
prevention of diseases should be made so that losses from diseases could be
minimized.
i. Signs of ill health
The animals that are not in good health, will show several behavioural changes and
other symptoms which can be observed by any experienced person. Every farmer
should be aware of the common signs of illness of dairy animals so that he/she is
able to identify the unhealthy animals at an early stage. Some of such symptoms
are described below:
a) The general posture of the animal, its movement and behaviour will change in
case of illness. The animals separating from the herd, showing weariness, lack
of alertness and keeping head down are likely to be sick.
b) Stoppage of rumination and off-feed are the earliest signs of ill-health. The
muzzle and nostrils will be moist and devoid of any discharges in healthy
animals. Sunken eyes with fixed staring look, redness in the eyes, paleness or
yellow colouration of eye membrane are indicative of disease.
c) The dung in healthy animals is semi-solid in consistency with a dark green
colour. Urine of healthy animals is clear and straw coloured. If variation to
38 deep yellow, bloody or coffee colour is noticed it can be a sign of disease.
d) The skin of healthy animals should be soft, elastic and pliable and the hair coat Animal Husbandry
Practices and
should be glossy and lustrous. Health Care
e) Change in quality and quantity of milk produced is an early indicator of disease.
Milk yield in dairy cows fall when they are sick. The purulent and creamy discharges
from the reproductive tract are indicative of diseased reproductive tract.
f) Change in the normal rectal temperature indicates illness. The average normal
rectal temperature of cattle is 101.5 ºF and in buffaloes it ranges from 98.3 ºF
in winter to 103 ºF in summer.
g) Variation in the nature and rate of pulse can be indicative of disease. The
normal pulse rate varies from 50-60 counts per minute in cattle and 40-50
counts per minute in buffaloes.
h) The rate of respiration and the manner of breathing deviate in disease conditions
and ailments of respiratory system. The normal respiration rate varies from 20-
25 counts per minute in cattle and 15-20 counts per minute in buffaloes. Incidence
of coughing, whistling, crackling and grunting with pain are the signs of diseases
of the respiratory system.

ii. Common Diseases and Control Measures Against them


The disease conditions commonly affecting cattle and buffaloes, their causes, modes
of transmission, symptoms and the measures for their prevention and control are
given in table 5.3.
Table 5.3 Common Diseases and their Control
Name of disease Cause Mode of Principal symptoms Prevention and
transmission control

Foot-and-mouth Small filterable Contact with infected Principal symptoms Seggregation and other
disease (Muh- virus of 7 types animals or material Salivation, sores on sanitary measures, pre-
khur) contaminated with feet, tongue and inside seasonal vaccination
discharge from lesions of mouth, stamping of with polyvalent
feet, lameness, off- vaccine.
feed, drop in milk
production

Haemorrhagic A bacteria - Ingestion through Sudden attack, high Segregation,avoidance


septicaemia Pasteurella contaminated feed, fever, painful, hot of infected pasture,
(galghotu) boviseptica in water and pastures, swellings on throat, feed and water
Cattle and contact with infected neck and dewlap, sources, pre-monsoon
Pasteurella animals, organism swollen tongue and vaccination, adequate
bubalisepta in usually present in the laboured breathing. sanitation.
Buffaloes respiratory tract of
apparently healthy
animals and cause
disease when the
animal's resistance is
lowered.

Black Quarter or Bacteria- Water and food Lameness, swellings Annual vaccination
Black Leg (sujua) Clostridium contaminated with over shoulders and before rainy season
chauvoei blood and excretions. thighs, high
temperature, death in
three days.

Brucellosis Bacteria - Brucella Feed, water etc. Incidence of abortions Elimination from herd
abortus contaminated by during 7th to 9th of carriers, calfhood
discharge and aborted month of pregnancy, vaccination at 6
foetus. full-time still-births, months of age
retained placenta etc.
in the herd.

Anthrax (Gorhi) Bacteria - Bacillus Water and food History of sudden death, Annual vaccination
anthracis contaminated with high fever, rapid brea- before rainy season
blood and excretions thing, swelling over body
or by wound infection especially around neck.
39
Milk Production
Mastitis (Than Infectious mastitis Bacteria from dirty Uneasiness in cow Follow proper dry
pakka) is due to the floor, milker's hands, when milked, udder hand milking, washing
entrance of cow's body etc. enter swollen, hot and or wiping of udder
bacteria into the into udder through painful in acute cases, and teats with mild
gland. Non- injuries on udder and milk whey-like with antiseptic before and
infectious mastitis teats. milk clots or even after milking. Clean
is due to blood clots, barns and sheds,
improper milking, temperature of animal prevent overcrowding
injury, burns, rises. in cow sheds
chilling etc.

Milk fever A metabolic Occurs generally Loss of appetite, Feed mineral


(Zichighi-ka disorder - due to during the early stages constipation, general supplements to high
bukhar) acute fall in of lactation depression, animal lies yielders during late
calcium (and with its head resting on pregnancy and early
magnesium) level the chest wall and the lactation. To prevent
possibly due to nose pointing towards further secretion of
draining of the the flank, temperature milk - stop milking.
same at the onset sub-normal, animal may
of lactation develop nervousness
through milk. and die in 6-24 hours if
unattended.

Tuberculosis A bacteria - Infection occurs either Usually lungs and Seggregation and other
(Kashaya rog) Mycobacterium directly or indirectly lymph glands are sanitary measures.
tuberculosis from infected animals, affected. In cows, the
their secretions or udder becomes
excretions -bacteria infected sometimes
enter system by There may be loss of
ingestion or inhalation. weight, swelling of
joints, a chronic cough
and laboured breathing

Calf scour Mostly Overfeeding, Severe diarrhoea with Hygienic calf feeding
Escherichia coli underfeeding, feedeing light coloured, foul practices, clean calf
from dirty pails, smelling, watery or pens, segregation of
feeding milk at foamy faeces. Many infected calves and
temperature below calves are affected at disinfection of
body temperature, a time and may die premises
housing in unclean quickly.
pens are predisposing
factors.

Pneumonia Many micro- Generally pneumonia Initially chill followed Avoid sudden
organisms, occurs when animals by high temperature, exposure to cold or
inhalation of water are exposed to breathing becomes rain. Avoid
or medicine unfavourable weather faster and laboured, overcrowding of
drenched by conditiond and when dry and painful animals. Keep animals
untrained person, their resistance is coughing, watery or in neat, clean and dry
exposure to cold lowered. mucus like discharge houses.
drafts from nostrils.

Bloat (Aphara) Accumulation of Greedy feeding on Greatly distended Care in feeding green
gas / foam in lush green fodders, abdomen especially on fodders, feeding after
rumen obstruction in the left side. wilting, feeding dry
oesoghagus. fodders with green
fodders.

Retention of As a consequence ---- A portion of Clean the hind


placenta of abortion, membrane hangs out quarters of cow with
difficult from the vulva, warm water and take
parturition etc. chocolate coloured care that the hanging
discharge with foul part of the membrane
smell, milk yield goes does not get pulled
down. out. Seek veterinary
aid.

40
iii. Vaccination for the Prevention of Diseases. Animal Husbandry
Practices and
Health Care
Vaccination is a procedure for artificially inducing active immunity in animals against
specific infectious diseases by introducing biological agents called vaccines into
their systems. The vaccine is an antigenic substance from a particular microorganism.
A vaccine when introduced into the animal system produces antibodies in the
animal against the disease and thus protects the animal from the attack of that
disease. A chart showing the programme for vaccination at a dairy farm is presented
in Table 5.4. Vaccination is carried out routinely on animal farms so as to prevent
the outbreak of diseases in the herd. The vaccination is not done at a locality where
the disease has already broken out.

Table 5.4 Vaccination schedule

Name of the Type of vaccine Time of vaccination Duration of


disease immunity
imparted
Foot and Polyvalent tissue At about 6 months of age One season
mouth culture vaccine with a booster dose 4 months
disease later. Thereafter, yearly once in
the month of September-
October
Haemorrhagic Oil adjuvant vaccine Once in a year (pre-monsoon) One season
Septicaemia
Black Quarter Polyvalent vaccine Once in a year (pre-monsoon) One season
Tuberculosis B.C.G. vaccine At about 6 months of age to One to two
be repeated every 2-3 years years
Brucellosis Strain - 19 Calfhood vaccination, in case Life long
herd is suspected of infection

Check Your Progress 4


1) Enumerate major signs of ill health in dairy animals.
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
2) List the common diseases of dairy animals. Also describe their symptoms and
control measures.
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
3) What is vaccination? Give a schedule of vaccination to be followed at a dairy
farm.
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................

41
Milk Production
5.8 LET US SUM UP
The dairy business comprises of performing several practices in a synchronized
fashion. These include feeding, breeding, housing, healthcare and day-to-day
management of all categories of dairy animals such as calves, heifers, lactating as
well as dry cows and buffaloes. The feeding of a balanced ration comprising both
fodders and concentrates in required quantities and at proper time shall result in
better health and growth performance. Likewise, proper heat detection and
insemination of estrus cows at the right time shall result in higher breeding efficiency
and better reproductive performance. For better productive performance, the dairy
animals are to be kept in sound health by practicing regular deworming and
vaccination and attending to the sick animals promptly. Proper care and management
of lactating cows and buffaloes and following of a good milking routine shall result
in higher milk production which ultimately determines the profitability of dairy farming.

5.9 KEY WORDS


Herd : A group of cows or buffaloes.
Umbilical cord : A band of tissue connecting the foetus with its
placenta.
Placenta : An organ that attaches the foetus to the wall
of uterus.
Colostrum : The first secretion (milk) produced by mammary
gland in each lactation.
Alveoli : The cells responsible for the secretion of milk
in the mammary gland
Weaning : Separating the calves from their mothers at
their birth or later and rearing them artificially.
Mortality : The incidence of death in a population in a
given period.
Morbidity : The state of being diseased.
Tattooing : A method of identifying individual animals by
the use of numbered pins and indelible ink.
Breeding : The mating (artificial insemination) of animals
to produce young ones under controlled circum-
stances.
Anorexia : Complete loss of appetite.
Conception rate : The number of animals pregnant as a proportion
of the total number mated or inseminated.
Ad libitum : Free choice
Zebu cattle : The humped cattle breeds of Indian origin.
Skim milk : The milk from which fat has been separated.
Genotype : The genetic constitution of an individual or group
as determined by the particular set of genes it
possesses.
Teaser bull : A vasectomized bull used for estrus detection.
Purulent : Containing pus.

42
Animal Husbandry
5.10 SOME USEFUL BOOKS Practices and
Health Care
Thomas, C.K. and Sastry, N.S.R. (2000). Dairy Bovine Production. Kalyani
Publishers. New Delhi.
Sastry, N.S.R., Thomas, C.K. and Singh, R.A. (1999). Livestock Production
Management. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
Prasad, Jagdish (1997). Principles and Practices of Dairy Farm Management.
Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, New Delhi.
Banerjee, G.C. (2000). A Text Book of Animal Husbandry. Oxford & IBH Publishing
Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
ICAR, (2002). Handbook of Animal Husbandry. Publications and Information
Division, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan
Bhawan, Pusa, New Delhi.
Foley, R.C., Bath, D.L., Dickinson, F.N. and Tucker, H.A. (1973). Dairy Cattle:
Principles, Practices, Problems, Profits. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
Battaglia, R.A. and Mayrose, V.B. (1987). Handbook of Livestock Management
Techniques. Surjeet Publications. Delhi.

5.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


EXERCISES
Yours answers should include following point
Check Your Progress 1
1) i. For better climatic protection and avoidance of disturbance from other
cows
ii. For giving them individual attention and keeping under constant watch.
iii. For preventing the chances of infections to cows and calves at the time
of birth.
iv. For preventing the injury to the new born calves and cows
2) i. Provision of bedding and laxative feed.
ii. Watching for the signs of approaching parturition
iii. Assisting the cow in delivery if needed
iv. Washing the udder and hindquarters and their drying
v. Watching for the expulsion of placenta
3) i. Care of new born calf: Removal of mucus and drying of calf, ensuring
normal respiration, protection against extreme weather conditions,
disinfection of the navel
ii. Feeding of new born calf: Time and amount of colostrum to be fed D
duration of colostrums feeding
4) i. The feeding schedule for growing calves including the feeding of whole
milk, skim milk, concentrate mixture and fodders.
Check Your Progress 2
1) i. Attainment of puberty D onset of estrus D showing of physiological and
behavioural symptoms of heat D shedding of ovum from the ovary D
repeating of estrus after about 21 days if case the cow has not conceived
D called estrus cycle.
2) i. Cows will be restless, their vulva swollen, red and moist, eyes dilated.
ii. Bellowing and mounting by cows with mucus discharge from vulva.
iii. Nervousness with reduced feed intake and milk yield. 43
Milk Production 3) i. Semen collection from bulls D its quality evaluation D semen dilution
insemination with liquid semen ’! freezing for future use.
ii. a. Reduces the requirement of bulls
b. Aid to crossbreeding programme of cattle
c. Reduces the spread of diseases
d. Small farmers can avail breeding services at low cost
Check Your Progress 3
1) i. Type of housing D space requirements D grouping of animals D summer
and winter protection measures. ii) Dry matter (DM) requirement D
DM to be fed through concentrate mixture, green & dry roughages D
thumb rule of concentrate feeding. Ii) Regularity of milking D cleanliness
of cows, milkers and milking utensils.
2) i. Definition of dry period ii) Giving rest to cow’s udder D improving the
body condition of cow D higher milk yield in next lactation iii) Abrupt
cessation of milking intermittent milking and incomplete milking D suitability
of each method.
Check Your Progress 4
1) i. The posture of the animal D condition of the muzzle, nostrils and eyes
D consistency and colour of dung and urine D Change in milk production
and quality of milk D change in body temperature, pulse rate and respiration
rate D loss of appetite.
2) i. Name various diseases of cattle and buffaloes D give their major
symptoms and the steps to be taken for their control.
3) i. Introduction of vaccines into the animal body D production of antibodies
against the disease D protection of the animal against that disease.
ii. Give the chart showing the vaccination programme to be followed at a
dairy farm.

44