Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8

Guidelines for Building Private and Public Clouds
September 26, 2011

Abstract

This paper provides guidelines for building private and public clouds by using the next version of Windows Server (code-named Windows Server 8). It provides an overview of the common problems that partners and IT professionals currently face, and describes solutions for cloud-based data centers. This paper also describes the various technologies that are built into Windows Server 8 to enable Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) functionality of cloud-based data centers. This information applies to the following operating systems: Windows Server 8 The current version of this paper is maintained on the Web at: Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8

Disclaimer: This document is provided “as-is”. Information and views expressed in this document, including URL and other Internet website references, may change without notice. Some information relates to prereleased product which may be substantially modified before it’s commerciall y released. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, with respect to the information provided here. You bear the risk of using it. This document does not provide you with any legal rights to any intellectual property in any Microsoft product. You may copy and use this document for your internal, reference purposes. © 2011 Microsoft. All rights reserved.

Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 - 2

Contents
Contents ......................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 3 List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................. 3 Overview of Cloud Services ............................................................................................ 4 Taxonomy of Cloud Services ...................................................................................... 4 The Microsoft Cloud Services .................................................................................... 5 Windows Server 8: Designed for the Cloud ................................................................... 6 Evolution of the Data Center ..................................................................................... 6 Summary of Windows Server 8 Cloud-based Features ............................................. 8 The Multi-Tenant Cloud ............................................................................................... 10 Dynamic Placement of VMs ..................................................................................... 10 Secure Isolation between Tenants........................................................................... 14 Resource Metering................................................................................................... 16 Quality of Service (QoS) ........................................................................................... 17 The Highly Scalable, Low-Cost Data Center ................................................................. 18 Increasing the Data Center Scale ............................................................................. 18 High Availability and Data Protection ...................................................................... 20 Lowering the Cost of Network and Storage ............................................................. 21 Managing and Extending the Data Center ................................................................... 24 Data Center Management ....................................................................................... 24 Open, Extensible, and Standards-Based Cloud ........................................................ 24 Migration Path ............................................................................................................. 26 Summary ...................................................................................................................... 27

September 26, 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. All rights reserved.

Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . having an open platform. The Windows Server 8 open platform allows partners to extend the functionality beyond what is in the platform. it is difficult to build cloud solutions that allow for multi-tenancy. isolation. . scale. a Windows Server 8-based data center decreases the total cost of ownership and reduces susceptibility to failures due to interoperability issues. However. and cost. Windows Server 8 Support for Cloud Capabilities Acronym ACL CA CIM DC TCP DCB DCMS DR FC GbE IaaS LAN LBFO LUN OData PA PaaS Definition Access Control Lists Customer Address Common Information Model Data Center TCP Data Center Bridging Data Center Management Software Disaster Recovery Fibre Channel Gigabit Ethernet Infrastructure as a Service Local Area Network Load Balancing and Failover Logical Unit Number Open Data Protocol Provider Address Platform as a Service September 26. This paper also focuses on IaaS solutions for cloud-based data centers. Hosting providers want to build public clouds and offer Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) solutions to their customers. By using automation. List of Acronyms The following table defines the acronyms that are used in this paper. All rights reserved. reliability.3 Introduction Enterprise customers want to build private clouds and transition to an IT-as-a-service operational mode. performance. The next version of Windows Server (code-named Windows Server 8) introduces a significant number of new features that provide all of the required capabilities for building an effective cloud solution in an open platform. and being standards based. This paper explains these new Windows Server 8 capabilities and clarifies how they relate to other Microsoft cloud initiatives. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. Table 1.

2011 © 2011 Microsoft. All rights reserved. The consumer owns the virtual servers and is responsible for maintaining them and installing applications that might be placed on a physical server. Taxonomy of Cloud Services A common type of cloud service taxonomy is based on the functionality that the services provide and how the customer (or consumer) uses them. September 26. storage. the consumer owns the actual workload in a very traditional way. .Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . a child partition is also known as a VM.4 Acronym PVLAN QoS RDMA RSC RSS SaaS SAN SMB SR-IOV TCO vCPU VHD VLAN VM Definition Private VLAN Quality of Service Remote DMA Receive Segment Coalescing Receive-Side Scaling Software as a Service Storage Area Network Server Message Block Protocol Single Root I/O Virtualization Total Cost of Ownership Virtual CPU Virtual Hard Drive Virtual LAN Virtual Machine In Hyper-V. you should understand the different types of cloud offerings and how they relate to existing Microsoft products and solutions. and networks to the consumer. It includes the following models:  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)—In this model. the service provides servers (often virtualized). VPN WFP WMI Virtual Private Network Windows Filtering Platform Windows Management Instrumentation Overview of Cloud Services Before we start talking about Windows Server 8 support for IaaS-based cloud solutions. Although the service provider owns all aspects of maintaining the physical infrastructure and using it to the maximum possible.

monitoring its servers. September 26. Developers can write their applications to run over the Windows Azure platform and then deploy the application onto the Azure cloud. The platform exposes capabilities for writing cloud-enabled applications such as builtin automatic scalability. and access to cloud resources. resiliency to failures. and so on. the service is extended beyond virtual servers and provides a new platform on which to write applications. All rights reserved. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. Windows Azure is the Microsoft public cloud solution that is currently focused on offering PaaS. all aspects of running and scaling the application are handled by the Azure operations team. the service provider owns an entire solution that is deployed in the cloud and offers the whole solution (software) as a service.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . Once this is done. . Customers buy mailboxes or CRM licenses and can still manage their own application-centric aspects of the service. such as defining their users or managing user configurations. ensuring up time. as a service. we will clarify these offerings and then focus on IaaS cloud-based data centers. Azure also has a virtual machine (VM) role that has some characteristics of IaaS and provides a supporting role in deploying Azure applications. But. The consumer has no notion of servers (with some exceptions) and is focused on managing the application. In return. application multi-tenancy. they are not responsible for running the service.5  Platform as a Service (PaaS)—In this model. That’s all being taken care of by the service. Starting from the top of the stack. Microsoft Office 365 (BPOS) and Microsoft Dynamics CRM online are examples of SaaS solutions. The consumer is a developer who is required to write applications that fit the platform.  The following figure provides an overview of the various types of cloud services. PaaS. Figure 1: Cloud taxonomy The Microsoft Cloud Services Microsoft has several IaaS. the service provider is responsible for all aspects of running the application once it is deployed. The consumer gets a packaged solution but does not have to manage it. and SaaS cloud offerings. Software as a Service (SaaS)—In this model. In this section.

Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . When combined with a set of management tools such as System Center or those offered by third parties. . 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. Windows Server 8 enables a complete IaaS solution. All rights reserved. The following figure provides an overview of how Windows Server 8 supports cloud services. and September 26. Evolution of the Data Center Traditional data centers were built with physical servers running a dedicated workload.6 Customers who want to deploy and own their own Windows Azure-compatible private cloud can opt for the Azure Appliance. This is the core capability required to build efficient IaaS clouds and is the focus of this document. networking. you should understand how the data center evolved into a cloud-based framework and the various cloud-based features in Windows Server 8. deployed. network. But. Windows Server 8 also enables the management layer that is running on it (like System Center) to expose these as a pool of compute. Each server in the data center was designed. Windows Server 8 provides a highly capable and competitive platform with all the functionality to manage physical servers. Customers (enterprises or hosting providers) who want to build their own IaaS platform can use Windows Server 8. This requires a significant investment because it’s designed for large scale deployments (hundreds or thousands of servers). and storage resources. this allows the Enterprise customer or service provider to implement Windows Azure internally without relying on the public service being provided by Microsoft. and storage access. purchased. Figure 2: An overview of how Windows Server 8 supports cloud services Windows Server 8: Designed for the Cloud To understand the detailed requirements of building an IaaS cloud and how the Windows Server 8 new capabilities address these requirements.

Virtualization has enabled a new generation of data centers. such as the following:   The low utilization of servers led to high operational costs due to non-optimized physical space allocation and power consumption. Figure 3: The evolution of the data center September 26. such as the following:    VM placement on physical servers is still a very static process. network. Instead of running workloads on dedicated servers. the physical servers were either repurposed or retired. The cloud-based data center takes virtualization to the next level by treating the compute. a cloud-based data center becomes completely dynamic and enables full decoupling of the physical infrastructure from the logical workloads. If the workload was later retired or upgraded. The provisioning process remains long due to the manual configuration of the virtualized environment to host VMs that are designed specifically to run on them. networking. Long deployment cycles resulted from lengthy purchase processes and manual deployment processes of new servers in the data center for each workload. virtualization introduces new management complexities. Figure 3 shows this evolutionary trend.7 maintained for the sole purpose of running a single workload. All rights reserved.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . you can run multiple workloads on larger and more powerful servers. This addresses the issue of low server utilization and reduces the total number of physical servers in the data center and their power consumption. and storage resources as a flexible pool that can be allocated to any workload. Security. . In this next level. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. and other considerations still dictate dedicated placement of VMs on the physical servers that are running the virtualization platform. However. This approach had several significant pain points.

and extensible. Manageable. September 26. Live Migration provides support for concurrent VM migrations as well as the migration of workloads across clusters and subnets. Table 2. .Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. Storage Migration now provides similar capabilities and allows virtual hard disks to migrate between storage locations. Highly scalable at reduced cost. you can create clouds that have the following features:  Capable of supporting multiple customers (or tenants) through the dynamic and automatic placement of VMs for each tenant. New performance counters provide deep insights into the performance aspects of all new features.   Table 2 summarizes the Windows Server 8 features that support the creation of cloud-based data centers with these capabilities. Cross-Premise Connectivity is a new feature that simplifies creating protected site-to-site connections. Secure Isolation between Tenants The Hyper-V Extensible Switch provides the security and isolation needed for IaaS multi-tenancy through the following capabilities:      Private virtual LAN (PVLAN) support Protection against ARP poisoning/spoofing Protection against DHCP snooping Virtual port access control lists (port ACLs) VLAN trunk mode support Resource Metering The Windows Server 8 resource meters allow measuring system resource usage for chargeback scenarios. All rights reserved.8 Summary of Windows Server 8 Cloud-based Features Windows Server 8 focuses on enabling the cloud-based data center by providing the platform features for building clouds. Each VM is isolated from the services that are deployed by other tenants in the data center. Quality of Service Hyper-V Extensible Switch QoS policies allow IaaS hosting providers to ensure service-level agreements are met and to set minimum and maximum bandwidth limits on VMs. By using this functionality. Windows Server 8 Support for Cloud Capabilities Capabilities Multi-tenant clouds Windows Server 8 cloud-based features Dynamic Placement of VMs Network virtualization provides for easy migration of workloads without reconfiguring IP addresses. open.

Windows Server 8 also uses several industry standards to integrate well with heterogeneous environments. In addition. It also takes advantage of storage offloading technologies. RSC and RDMA. such as copy offload. Storage de-duplication also optimizes the amount of disk-space that is needed for storing VHDs and other files. Open and Extensible The Windows Server 8 Hyper-V Extensible Switch is fully extensible. to free up additional processor cycles and reduce network traffic. This includes network standards such as Data Center TCP (DC TCP). All rights reserved. Combined together with RDMA. Hyper-V over SMB2 supports file servers and storage at a reduced cost compared to traditional SANs. to free up the main processor to handle more workloads. High Availability and Data Protection Windows Server 8 makes it possible to build highly available systems through clustering and the in-box support for network adapter teaming.9 Capabilities Highly scalable and low cost data centers Windows Server 8 cloud-based features Leveraging Modern Hardware Windows Server 8 takes advantage of modern multi-core servers that have support for more logical processors per server and per VM. such as SR-IOV.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . In addition. and thinly provisioned storage. September 26. it allows IaaS hosting providers to take advantage of their builtin availability and provide data protection services to customers by using the new Incremental Backups and Hyper-V failover replication features. with the integration of PowerShell with Windows Workflows. DCB and Hyper-V QoS features enable this move while still guaranteeing predictable network performance. . Because of its use of RDMA. Storage Spaces and Pools. it can also perform as well as alternative solutions. This enables software developers and IT professionals to easily build management tools and automate common tasks. Windows Server 8-based storage for the cloud can have a significantly reduced cost. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. in addition to management standards such as WMIv2 and Open Data (OData). This leads to better utilization of storage capacity. Manageable and extensible Manageability Windows Server 8 is completely manageable using Windows PowerShell and WMIv2. Windows Server 8 takes advantage of network offloading technologies. RSS. security. which is also known as load balancing and failover (LBFO). The Extensible Switch platform allows network partners to easily hook into the switch network flows and build monitoring. and forwarding extensions. Lower Cost of Network and Storage Customers can save money by moving to modern converged networks. the automation is not constrained to a single server and can be used to create complex automation flows across multiple servers.

Once a workload is placed. IaaS hosting providers have to place certain workloads on specific servers or are limited in their ability to place workloads side by side on the same server. especially if you are serving more than one customer. and subnets to do the following: September 26. This is where multi-tenancy comes in. and place them freely on their existing infrastructure. Each tenant has an environment that includes several servers (or services) that might be interconnected. . clusters. Dynamic Placement of VMs Cloud tenants want to easily move their VMs from their corporate network to the cloud with minimum reconfiguration and without renumbering their IP addresses.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . Tenants require that their systems be isolated from other services deployed by other tenants. IaaS hosting providers must be able to take the tenant’s environments. To do this.10 The Multi-Tenant Cloud Designing a data center for dynamic and automatic placement of VMs is not enough. It is also difficult to allocate portions of the data center to different tenants without knowing exactly what environments or workloads the tenants will want to bring onto their cloud and what networks and subnets they will need. it is difficult to design a data center that allows the IaaS hosting provider to carve out resources from the physical infrastructure without knowing the tenants in advance. Because of this. it must be possible to have complete mobility of the VMs. Today’s data centers are still constrained by physical and subnet boundaries. which are often consist of several multi-tier workloads. Currently. several requirements must be met. Figure 4 : A multi-tenant data center To enable such a multi-tenancy scenario. as described in the rest of this section. IaaS hosting providers need the flexibility to place workloads anywhere to maximize their physical infrastructure investment. whereas IaaS hosting providers want to run all these services on the same infrastructure. Figure 4 shows a data center that is required to serve multiple customers (or tenants). All rights reserved. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. VMs should live-migrate across servers.

These portals must also be able to quickly provision and de-provision workloads for the customers. Figure 5 : Network virtualization Windows Server 8 network virtualization is implemented by the Hyper-V Extensible Switch and the Hyper-V parent partition network stack. such as when an IaaS hosting provider process hosts a new customer.11    Enable servicing the data center Provide high availability to customers (within a data center or across geographies) Perform a live migration without sacrificing the Service Level Agreement (SLA) and complete the migration with no. IaaS hosting providers just cannot scale to handle hundreds or thousands of customers.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . all of this has to be completely automatable. It creates September 26. Windows Server 8 includes the following features that support dynamic and automatic placement of VMs on a cloud-based data center:  Network virtualization—Network virtualization enables easy migration to the cloud. . or minimal. downtime To be able to scale the number of workloads running on the cloud. a tenant’s networks can be virtualized and have the illusion of their own IP address space. Manual intervention should only be required when the internal workflow requires manual processing or approvals. All rights reserved. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. Without automation. Self-service portals must be able to completely control the VM placement on the data center without manual intervention. Just like virtual servers that can run on physical servers without being aware that they are actually virtualized. This address space could be different from the IP address space that is used by the IaaS hosting provider to build the cloud infrastructure. This support for network virtualization is shown in Figure 5. This decouples tenants’ logical topologies from the data center’s physical topology by introducing a virtualization layer for the network.

which the cloud provider sees Network virtualization requires the data center management software (DCMS). and a VM must be migrated between these two clusters. together with live migration. By using storage migration to move the VM to a share on a file server that is accessible to both clusters. for reasons such as storage load distribution or storage device services. In addition. when tenants have to communicate with non-virtualized workloads. which provides great flexibility and control over the cloud environment. the VM can be live-migrated between the clusters since both have access to that share.12 separate address spaces for the tenants and provider through the following address spaces: o o The Customer Address (CA) space. September 26. For example. they actually communicate by using a different set of IP addresses provided by the IaaS hosting provider's data center. such as System Center Virtual Machine Manager. also enables moving of VMs between hosts that are on different clusters that are not using the same storage device.  Live migration—The ability to move VMs across Hyper-V hosts is an existing feature of Hyper-V. Storage migration. there are cases in which allocated storage for running VHDs might have to be moved. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. over the network interface. Tenant workloads are not aware that. This provides the ability to migrate several VMs at the same time. This feature enables a network-virtualized tenant to communicate with other servers that have physical IP addresses. When combined with features such as network virtualization. Following the live migration.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . suppose two Hyper-V clusters are each configured to use different storage devices.  Storage migration—Just as VMs might have to be dynamically moved in a cloudbased data center. another storage migration could be used to move the VHD to the storage that is allocated for the target cluster. Windows Server 8 introduces a new feature known as the Network Virtualization Gateway. . Once this is done. tenant VMs can be arbitrarily hosted on any physical host and communicate among themselves using their own IP addresses. enables storage to be moved with zero downtime. live migrations are no longer limited to a cluster and VMs can be migrated across cluster boundaries. Windows Server 8 handles all of the virtualization aspects of the IP addresses. Windows Server 8 builds on that and enhances the ability to migrate VMs with support for concurrent live migrations. VMs can even move between different hosts that are on different network subnets. to configure the IP address mapping tables between the CA and PA address spaces for each networkvirtualized tenant that is moved to the cloud. which the tenants see The Provider Address (PA) space. It allows the administrator to move a VHD of a running VM to a different storage device. All rights reserved. In addition. Storage migration. which is a new capability of Windows Server 8. All of these improvements significantly increase the flexibility of VM placement by allowing for truly dynamic mobility of VMs across the data center.

All rights reserved. workloads do not have to be configured or modified to be able to run in the cloud and can be managed using normal tools. workloads must be able to have a connection back to the enterprise network. This wizard is designed to facilitate setting up a VPN for site-to-site connections between the enterprise network and the virtualized network in the IaaS hosting provider's data center.13 Figure 6 shows how storage migration works. Examples of this are shown in Figure 7. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. at the core networking level.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . Windows Server 8 enables that by introducing support for site-tosite VPN connectivity with the addition of IKEv2 protocol to the Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS) and a wizard. By establishing a VPN connection. Figure 6 : Storage migration  Cross-premise connectivity—To enable migration to the cloud. workloads that run inside a cloud-based data center become an extension of the enterprise network. September 26. As a result. and must be manageable. .

By providing built-in features such as DHCP Guard. Although internal departments all belong to the same organization. Isolation has to be compatible with the isolation in the physical data center to meet customers’ expectations and not be a barrier for cloud adoption. such as the systems for finance and human resources departments. In an enterprise environment. isolation is almost as important as it is to IaaS hosting providers. This also means that they do not have to set up separate physical environments. This means that they have to provide full isolation between different workloads that belong to different customers. It has programmatically managed capabilities to connect VMs to the physical network and apply policies to enforce security. ACLs and more. .14 Figure 7: Cross premise connectivity using VPN gateways Secure Isolation between Tenants IaaS hosting providers must be able to serve multiple customers by providing a shared infrastructure. The following features of Windows Server 8 enable secure isolation between tenants running on a shared infrastructure:  The Hyper-V Extensible Switch is a Layer 2 virtual network switch that provides the foundation for handling network traffic between virtual machines on the Windows Server 8 Hyper-V host. Today. QoS enforcement. and service levels. regardless of what the isolation needs of the customer might be. This requires that IT departments address the same isolation requirements as IaaS hosting providers. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. this network layer can provide Layer-2 connectivity between different workloads that run over the same infrastructure. private VLANs (PVLANs). By default. isolation. it is still often required to isolate certain workloads and environments from others. All rights reserved. but the network layer of the data center is still not fully isolated.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . server virtualization provides a good level of isolation between VMs. the Hyper-V Extensible Switch stands at the September 26. IT departments offering private clouds that move to an IT-in-a-service operational mode have to provide the means for isolating such highly sensitive workloads.

VLANs can be used. This is where PVLANs are useful. see Open. monitoring. PVLANs are designed to reduce the number of IP subnets. For more information about the extensible aspects of the switch. such as ACLs. the Hyper-V Extensible Switch supports third-party extensions.  Isolation policies. These policies also guarantee Layer 2 isolation (when needed) and Layer 2 connectivity (when appropriate). are one of the core capabilities of the new HyperV Extensible Switch. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. . Instead. However. needed for certain network configurations. It can restrict communication between VMs even on the same VLAN or network segment.15 heart of the Windows Server 8-based cloud and provides a highly scalable network infrastructure for VM traffic. and security capabilities. and Standards-Based Cloud. All rights reserved. ACL policies consist of Allow or Deny rules for connectivity between VM IP or MAC addresses. These policies enable the DCMS (either System Center Virtual Machine Manager or other management tools) to configure the isolation between multiple tenants running on the same infrastructure. These extensions can provide enhanced networking. In addition. having too many VLANs causes scalability issues across the data center. Extensible. in addition to VLANs.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . a single VLAN can be used as a primary VLAN that has secondary VLANs. PVLAN settings can be applied on each extensible-switch port to isolate it without requiring a dedicated VLAN ID for each isolated VM.  Figure 8: Sample PVLAN configuration September 26. Figure 8 shows conceptually how PVLAN can work in a Hyper-V switch. The secondary VLAN ID differentiates the various private VLANs while VMs still share the same primary VLAN ID. In cases where isolation between VMs is required and network virtualization is not used. such as Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) and Windows NDIS filter drivers.

These can be used to charge external customers (known as chargeback). For example. network. These require meters for a variety of resources that are measured on a per-VM basis. Figure 9 shows an example of how resource meters can be used.0. This enables partners and IaaS hosting providers to develop their own chargeback solutions according to their needs. Although three VLANs are used (2. or for internal accounting (known as showback) for crossdepartmental budget management scenarios of an enterprise. 4. Resource Metering Once customers are hosted. . Resource meters can be used to measure the incoming and outgoing network traffic on a per VM basis.0/8) instead of three different subnets. Windows Server 8 provides the following meters and counters:  Resource meters—A key requirement for chargeback and showback scenarios is to keep track of resource usage over time and across the life cycle of the VM. All of the VMs are on primary VLAN 2. September 26. there may be a dynamic element that measures the actual resources that are used by any given workload (such as actual vCPU consumption or network bandwidth used). 5). even when it migrates between hosts. and storage) that are consumed by each workload. Chargeback and showback are a combination of static and dynamic metering. these meters can measure storage high watermark usage of a VM over time to enable charging for actual storage usage. Like everything else in Windows Server 8. and are sustained throughout migrations of workloads on the cloud data center. IaaS hosting providers and enterprises must be able to measure the amount of data center resources (compute.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . or over an entire Hyper-V Extensible Switch.0. Windows Server 8 includes a new resource-metering feature that does just that.16 In Figure 8. In addition. All rights reserved. these metrics can easily be accessible through PowerShell and WMIv2 interfaces. the numbers in the box are the primary VLAN and the secondary VLAN(s) for the VM switch ports. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. There is a static element that measures the amount of allocated resources such as the number of virtual CPUs (vCPUs) or the amount of disk space allocated. there is only one IP subnet (10. These meters can also measure the fixed maximum allocation or measure CPU and memory usage of VMs over time to allow for flexible charging on usage of compute resources.

Without such network predictability. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. This is needed to guarantee the SLAs and to adjust them to the nature of the workload and the specific contract with the customer. which can be thought of as minimum guarantees. there is a need for the IaaS hosting provider to set the maximum amount of compute. This includes SMB2 file share usage. By applying QoS policies. and network resources. including virtual CPU.17 Figure 9: Hyper-V resource meters  Performance counters—Windows Server 8 has a number of new performance counters for measuring the performance aspects of all features. each VM (or tenant workload) can get a guaranteed minimum bandwidth. This allows SLAs to be automatically enforced. All rights reserved.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . These counters can be used with resource meters for additional chargeback scenarios and for general health monitoring of a Windows Server 8-based cloud. and storage resources on a per workload basis. IaaS hosting providers are either unable to provide guarantees or are forced to put fewer VMs on capable servers. This abuse could cause degradation of service for other customers. The IaaS hosting provider should also be able to protect itself from resource abuse by some workloads. network traffic and VM metrics. network. storage.  Both of these require applying QoS rules on workloads and being able to either enforce them or just detect when these QoS policies are not met. To provide this protection. RDMA usage. . There is a need to guarantee certain levels of allocation of shared resources. September 26. Quality of Service (QoS) Customers who move their workloads into a cloud expect the IaaS hosting provider to provide the following:  The IaaS hosting provider should also be able to guarantee the SLA. The Windows Server 8 QoS feature allows you to set the bandwidth limits for a specific switch port.

Note QoS policies in Windows Server 8 are manageable either through PowerShell or through DCMS tools. network adapters. it is especially critical for a platform to enable the cloud to scale well. and minimizes the cloud’s total cost of ownership (TCO) over the acquisition costs. and reduces the overall size of the data center and September 26. These features include the following:  Modern Multi-Core Servers—Windows Server 8 supports the use of a large number of logical processors above the 64 logical processor limit of earlier versions of Windows Server. This provides significant benefits to the customer. such as System Center Virtual Machine Manager or third-party tools. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. such as the following:    VM density Leveraging the latest innovations in hardware by running on high-performance servers Taking advantage of hardware acceleration technologies. the dynamic nature of the cloud allows the physical infrastructure considerations to be decoupled from the actual workloads that will run on the cloud. All rights reserved. However. Low-Cost Data Center Clouds can be small or large. In addition. by setting maximum bandwidth for each VM or switch port. and storage devices. in the case of the large cloud deployments. which contributes to the ability to run large scale VMs that are hosted on a Windows Server 8-based cloud. The Highly Scalable. such as:    A mid-market business with a need for a small number of servers An enterprise with hundreds or thousands of servers An IaaS hosting provider with thousands of servers for multiple customers In all cases. the IaaS hosting provider can prevent any one VM from causing other VMs to experience latency issues because of bandwidth starvation. It is also critical that the platform enables high scale operations at the lowest possible cost. Increasing the Data Center Scale Designing for an increase to the data center scale requires that various capabilities be considered.18 In addition. This all leads to increased scalability of the data center and less servers needed to run more VM workloads. Clouds could be deployed by different types of customers. a VM can be associated with a large number of processors. whenever these are beneficial Windows Server 8 includes a significant number of new features that can take advantage of the latest hardware on servers. . This allows for building data centers based on modern hardware with many sockets.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 .

19 moves new types of heavy CPU-bound workloads onto the cloud. or when VHD operations are triggered that require large blocks of data to be copied. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. RSC—Modern network adapters also support a feature known as Receive Segment Coalescing (RSC).  SMB2 Direct and RDMA—The Windows Server 8 SMB2 stack uses the RDMA capabilities of network adapters for reduced CPU utilization with high throughput and low latency file access. This results in increased density and scale of the data center. Windows Server 8 also introduces the ability to live migrate workloads. such as in the case of VHD merges or storage migration. When a large amount of data must be transferred from the Hyper-V node to the file server.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . even when SR-IOV is used. Storage copy offload—This feature allow a storage device to perform a file copy operation without requiring the main processor of the Hyper-V host (or in general. RDMA is a feature that enables network adapters to transfer data directly between them without requiring the primary CPU of the system to be part of that transfer. This ensures faster transfer and frees the CPU to handle VM workloads. This operation is especially significant in the cloud when provisioning new VMs from VM template libraries. It is especially useful in database transaction processing scenarios. This allows a network adapter virtual function to be directly associated with the VM workload. Examples are an offload-capable iSCSI or FibreChannel SAN or a Windows Server 8-based file server.  Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)—In cases in which highly demanding workloads that need low latency network are virtualized. This bypasses the network stack on the Hyper-V parent partition and reduces the latency in addition to the processing power required from the primary server processor. which must be able to perform offloads. the requesting server) to read the content from one storage location and write it to another. Windows Server 8 can check whether the destination server has SR-IOV capabilities and move the workload to   September 26. All rights reserved. This enables the use of standard SMB2 file shares with performance that is comparable to Fibre-Channel SANs. leading to better scalability. This was not possible in earlier versions of Windows Server.  RSS—Modern network adapters support a function called Receive Side Scaling (RSS). These copy operations are then handled by the storage device. This feature takes multiple packets that were received within the same interrupt period and combines them into a single large package to be processed by the network stack. the Windows Server 8 operating system tells the RDMA-capable network adapter to handle the transfer. This reduces the processing overhead for incoming packets and frees up processor cycles. This effectively frees up the main processor to handle VM workloads and reduces overall network traffic. This feature allows multiple CPUs to share the load of servicing networking interrupts. such as when a VM is associated with a file share. . During live migrations. Windows Server 8 enables the use of SR-IOV-capable servers and network adapters. Windows Server 8 detects RSS-capable network adapters and enables this feature by default. This can lead to higher performance in processing incoming network traffic.

It has several settings to adjust the balancing algorithm in addition to the switch configuration. it is incompatible with features that are implemented at the parent partition. At the network level. All rights reserved.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . it is possible to set up a replica for any given VM on another Hyper-V server. allowing for easy switch over to the replica when the primary server fails. Windows Server 8 introduces network adapter teaming functionality in the operating system. This saves network bandwidth by eliminating the need to transfer full VHD content on every backup.20 that server. bandwidth. extensible switch extensions. Since backups are VSS-aware.  Hyper-V Replica—One of the primary reasons to set up a cloud. which saves disk space and reduces the cost of each backup. Windows Server 8 provides the following features:  LBFO—Servers often require full resiliency. regardless of their vendor. which might be very difficult to configure and makes resiliency vendor-specific. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. this means two network adapters should be teamed together to act as one. High Availability and Data Protection Building highly scalable data centers also implies the need for complete redundancy. If one adapter fails the other adapter can still provide connectivity to that server. Or it can be configured to refuse migrations of an SR-IOV-dependent workload to a server that does not have this capability. This allows for the backing up of tenant VMs in an efficient way and for offering an additional layer of service to their customers without the need for a backup agent running inside the VMs. . such as LBFO. IaaS hosting providers can run backups of the whole Hyper-V environment. With Windows Server 8. this functionality required special drivers from the network adapter vendors. It also enables customers to increase backup frequency because it is now faster and smaller so that latest backups are more recent. replacing vendor-specific teaming drivers that have built-in LBFO functionality. This capability is enabled by the Windows Server 8 Hyper-V replica feature. is to enable quick and easy failure replication and recovery. and network virtualization. Note Because SR-IOV completely bypasses the Hyper-V parent partition network stack. the data center can be designed to provide the following support:   Be resilient to failures Help customers who move to the cloud be more resilient and use the cloud as their reliable infrastructure or as their highly resilient backup To this end. or other characteristics. This will replicate the VM to the replica server. Prior to Windows Server 8. No single component in a modern data center can be assumed to work forever.  Incremental backups—Windows Server 8 supports incremental backup of VHDs. It reduces backup sizes. but with the right platform support. LBFO provides resiliency (failover) in addition to load balancing and aggregation of bandwidth. This can be done September 26. Two or more network adapters can be teamed. and for customers to move to the cloud.

building for scale at low cost also implies the need for complete automation to minimize the need for labor. This can include minimizing the need for excessive networking equipment. This feature allows enterprises to increase their resiliency and determine Disaster Recovery (DR) plans and allows IaaS hosting providers to offer DR solutions to their customers as one of the benefits of moving into the cloud. Lowering the Cost of Network and Storage Lowering the cost of building a cloud provides significant benefits to all customers.21 across sites and geographies. This implies a high cost of network infrastructure and heavy use of VLANs. Windows Server 8 provides the following features:  Data Center Bridging (DCB) and OS-level packet scheduling—Today the recommended configuration for Hyper-V clusters is to have separate isolated connections for the Hyper-V host traffic streams of live migration. The economies of scale dictate that an IaaS hosting provider just cannot sustain its hosting business unless they use their scale advantage to drive the costs down. which is difficult to automate and has high operational cost. Naturally. it is possible to switch over to the public cloud replica until full recovery can be achieved. and ending with deploying and managing workload VMs on the data center. high cost hardware infrastructure. when possible. using low cost storage. while ensuring that each receives the right level of guaranteed bandwidth. management. In normal cases.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . This helps reduce the cost and effort required to maintain separate connections in the data center. but becomes an absolute necessity for IaaS hosting providers. and more. to the configuration of the various data center components. This approach also makes it easy to change allocations for different traffic flows when needed. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. this has to be done without sacrificing the performance and resiliency of the system. All rights reserved. September 26. Windows Server 8 takes advantage of Data Center Bridging (DCB)-capable hardware to converge multiple types of network traffic on a single network adapter with a guaranteed level of service to each. In addition to lowering the hardware acquisition costs. This is especially important to reduce costs to a point where it becomes cost-effective for customers to move to the cloud instead of building their own private clouds. because the allocation becomes completely software controlled and therefore flexible and easy to modify. starting from bare-metal deployment. . Everything in the cloud must be automatable. services run in the enterprise’s private cloud. without the need to physically access the data center for anything except hardware installation and maintenance. Lowering the cost can be achieved by using an efficient and low cost platform and eliminating. and it is even possible for an enterprise to set up a replica on a public cloud offered by an IaaS hosting provider. storage. This allows traffic flows to all use the same network. and cluster traffic. To this end. Windows Server 8 allows enterprises and IaaS hosting providers to take advantage of the latest innovations of converged modern network fabric and use 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) interfaces. In case of a disaster. It all has to be remotely automatable.

taking advantage of RDMA for high-speed file transfer over the network. The SMB2 stack in Windows Server 8 takes full advantage of RDMA-capable network adapters that are installed on the Hyper-V host to ensure low CPU utilization and high-speed file transfers. This is shown in Figure 10. reliable. Customers can take advantage of reduced cost Windows Server 8 file servers or NAS (Network Attached Storage) instead of the costlier SANs. All rights reserved. This reduces the overall deployment costs of a private cloud for Hyper-V in Windows Server 8. . Figure 10 : Hyper-V over SMB2  Storage spaces—Windows Server 8 includes Storage Spaces and Pools. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. All of this leads to the ability to build Hyper-V clusters that are using high performance Windows Server 8-based file servers. This feature is a storage virtualization technology that virtualizes commodity hardware.22  Hyper-V over SMB2—Customers in Windows Server 8 can use regular file servers by using the SMB2 protocol as the storage for VHDs. This makes it more cost effective for IaaS hosting providers and enterprises alike. including the following:      Just-in-time provisioning Fault-resiliency through mirroring and parity Better data integrity through intelligent error correction Multi-tenancy support for hosted deployments Integration with failover clustering for increased availability and scale-out scenarios September 26. Storage Spaces and Pools provides flexible capabilities. In addition to file servers being a first class storage option for Hyper-V. Windows Server 8 based file servers can now perform similarly to higher cost SANs by taking advantage of hardware acceleration technologies on the network adapter. and scalable storage. significantly reducing the cost to obtain and manage available.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 .

storage provisioning and storage acquisition are separated. allowing administrators to design deployments according to expected business requirements. and maintaining a single copy of each chunk. The result is an on-disk transformation of each file as shown in Figure 11. identifying duplicate chunks.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . In addition. the operating system will be able to recognize and expose the logical unit numbers (LUNs) of virtual disks as thinly provisioned to the entire storage and application stack. while actual storage can be purchased on demand. and provides more flexibility to administrators when they make storage provisioning decisions. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. .  Storage De-Duplication—De-duplication is the act of finding and removing duplication within data without compromising its fidelity or integrity. chunks are also compressed for additional space optimization. This allows for notifications to administrators when certain storage thresholds are reached.23 Storage Spaces and Pools can be leveraged for building very cost-effective file servers by using commodity storage instead of relying on high cost storage arrays or storage controllers. Files are no longer stored as independent streams of data but instead are replaced with stubs that point to data blocks stored within a common chunk store. This improves manageability and optimizes the storage array to maintain the smallest physical storage footprint (further reducing capital expenditure on physical storage). Its goal is to store more data in less space by segmenting files into small (32-128KB) variablesized chunks. With Windows Server 8. Figure 11: Storage de-duplication September 26. In Windows Server 8. Redundant copies of the chunk are replaced by a reference to the single copy. All rights reserved.  Thin provisioning support—Windows Server 8 delivers full support and optimization of thinly provisioned storage arrays.

it must be fully automated.24 Managing and Extending the Data Center This section describes how Windows Server 8 improves on data center management. Windows Server 8 addresses these needs by making all of the different features and capabilities manageable through the following features:  Windows PowerShell 3. Workflows can be used to create commands and scripts that can restart a computer. or wait for a particular service on the restarted computer to be available. Workflow tasks can be run in parallel and can be interrupted. This is especially true considering the vast amount of servers in the modern data center. Workflows allow you to run robust scripts on multiple servers. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. This allows for the automation of management tasks in a data center. Workflows are long-running tasks that are repeatable and restartable. Workflows go beyond the single-server boundary and allow for complete automation across servers in the data center. and network management. storage. and Standards-Based Cloud Clouds built by using proprietary technologies often pay a penalty in terms of cost or limited functionality. In addition. wait for the computer to resume. to drive the data center operation costs down to a manageable level. a cloud-based data center running Windows Server 8 has much better integration between the different components in a data center infrastructure. the ratio of administrators to servers has to be kept down.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . Extensible. In addition.0 goes beyond scripting and enables you to write workflows. Manually managing server configurations and running administrative tasks is no longer sufficient. By embracing open standards.0 commands can be executed from remote computers. due to its scale. .  Windows PowerShell Workflows —Windows PowerShell 3. This includes Hyper-V.0. PowerShell 3. Data Center Management One of the most important implications of moving to a cloud-based data center is that. Everything in the cloud-based data center must be completely automatable to perform predictably at scale.0—Almost all of the Windows Server 8 features and capabilities are now manageable through Windows PowerShell 3. Open. Windows Server 8 includes thousands of new PowerShell cmdlets that an IT professional can use to create data center automation scripts. This supports new business scenarios and allows customers to choose the right software and hardware components to fit their specific business requirements. and standardized cloud development and deployment. extensible. Also. this can be managed without using a remote desktop connection to a server. the open platform allows partners to extend the functionality. September 26. All rights reserved. This reduces the total cost of ownership by reducing susceptibility to failures because of interoperability issues. This section also describes how Windows Server 8 supports open.

This supports easy extensibility by partners who want to develop additional functionality. such as network monitoring.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . or routing add-ons. In addition to being a fully capable switch. including security. September 26. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft.25 Windows Server 8 supports the following relevant standards:   Network infrastructure standards. In addition. This also further enhances the value that customers are provided through their Windows Server 8-based cloud. management. This makes it very easy to convert existing WFP callout drivers and security filters to filter extensions for Extensible Switch traffic. such as DC TCP and converged network fabric using DCB Windows Server management standards. . the Hyper-V Extensible Switch is built to be open and extensible. Windows Server 8 support of data center clouds supports extensibility through the following features:  Network extensibility through Hyper-V Extensible Switch extensions—Partners can take advantage of the multiple extensibility points of the Hyper-V Extensible Switch. filtering extensions can also take advantage of the Windows Filtering Platform (WFP). such as CIM and OData Windows Server 8 is a differentiated from other cloud platforms by being open for extensibility. These extensibility points are based on interfaces that are very familiar to Windows developers. Partners can also build management solutions that take advantage of the PowerShell support to either extend or completely replace the Windows Server 8 management interfaces. networking. the Hyper-V Extensible Switch has three extensibility points for each of these different extension types. This also allows partners to create innovating Windows Server 8-based solutions in many areas. As shown in the Figure 12. All extensions are developed as NDIS filter drivers. security. This presents a great opportunity for customers to take advantage of the associated benefits. All rights reserved. and more.

Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . and Internet access).  WMIv2—As described in the Data Center Management section. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. this also makes Windows Server 8 much more open from a manageability perspective. Likewise. which exposes a virtual FC adapter to the September 26. during that time. as the evolution toward reduced cost and more efficient storage happens. This also enables partners to easily develop management solutions for Windows Server 8-based clouds. For example. while customers are migrating to use converged 10 GbE networks. customers who have invested in Fibre Channel (FC) storage often want the ability to use this storage from within their VMs instead of having the storage accessed and used only by the Hyper-V host. a combination of previous and next generation technologies have to work smoothly together. cluster. Windows Server 8 fully supports the classic deployments of separated networks for each traffic flow (live migrations. Windows Server 8 introduces a new feature. storage. Migration Path The migration of data center technologies does not happen overnight. Extensions must undergo the Windows Logo Program tests to ensure their quality and proper integration into the switch. For example. . It is a process that takes time and. Windows Server 8 includes several new features to support continued use of currently widespread storage technologies. All rights reserved. in the storage area. Windows Server 8 is fully manageable in a consistent way through WMIv2 and PowerShell. known as Synthetic Fibre Channel.26 Parent Partition Internal Network Adapter Child Partition Child Partition Port Hyper-V Extensible Switch Extensible Switch Protocol Edge Capturing Extension Ingress data path Filtering Extension Forwarding Extension Extensible Switch Miniport Edge Egress data path Port VM Network Adapter VM Network Adapter Port Virtual Machine Bus (VMBus) Port Windows component External Network Adapter Third-party component Figure 12: Extensible Switch Extensibility The Hyper-V switch extensibility mechanism is highly reliable. In addition to the value this brings for IT professionals. management.

and true VM mobility.27 guest VM. This allows the VM to directly connect and consume a LUN that is allocated for it on a FC storage device. network virtualization. Summary Windows Server 8 is optimized for the cloud. 2011 © 2011 Microsoft. It also reduces the cost of building high-scale data centers by using modern hardware and network acceleration techniques. It provides a wide set of new capabilities that IaaS hosting providers can use to build multi-tenant clouds that use features such secure isolation. Windows Server 8 is easily manageable and extensible. and providing partners with ample extension opportunities. It also lowers the cost of storage using standard file shares and features such as storage spaces. All rights reserved. . providing IT professionals with an easy and common way to manage their data centers.Building an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud Using Windows Server 8 . September 26.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful