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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER - 10 PAINTING 10-1 10-2 10:3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 Paint Ingredient of Paint Essel and Specific Properties of Good Quality Paint Elements of a Good Painting Job Surface Preparation Kinds of Paint, Uses and Area Coverage Estimating Your Paint Failures and Remedy CHAPTER- 11 AUXILIARY TOPICS 4 11-2 11-3 11-4 145 116 1-7 18 ‘Accordion Door Cover Glass Jalousie ‘Water Tank ‘Wood Piles Bituminous Surface Treatment Filling Materials Nipa Shingle Roofing ‘Anahaw Roofing 297 300 301 305 311 317 323 325 326 331 332 334 338 CHAPTER CONCRETE 1-1 PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE Concrete is either Plain or Reinforced. By definition, Plain Concrete is an artificial stone as a result of mixing cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water. The conglomeration of these materials producing a solid mass is called plain con- crete. Reinforced Concrete on the other hand, is a concrete with reinforcement properly embedded in such a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. ‘The Different Types of Concrete Used in Construction are : 4. The Ordinary Portland cement. 2. The Rapid Hardening Portland Cement whi when high early strength concrete is desired, 3. The Blast Furnace or Sulfate Cement used on concrete structures designed to resist chemical attack. 4. The Low Heat Portland Cement used for massive sec- tions designed to reduce the heat of hydration. 5. The Portland Pozzolan Cement with a low hardening characteristic concrete, 6. The High Alumina Cement. is preferred ‘The High Alumina Cement is sometimes called aluminous ‘cement or cement fundu. Its chemical composition is different from that of Portland cement for having predominant alumina ‘oxide content of at least 32% by weight. The alumina lime is within the limit of 0.85% to 1.3%. ‘SIMPLIFIED CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATE ‘This type of cement has a very high rate of strength devel- opment compared with the ordinary Portland cement. Aside from its rapid hardening properties, it can resist chemical attack by sulfate and weak acids including sea water. It can also with- stand. prolonged exposure to high temperature of more than 4,000°C. Alumina cement however, is not advisable for mixing with any other types of cement. ‘The Main Composition of Cement are: 16 to 65% Lime 18.0 - 25% Silica 3,0 - 8% Alumina 3.0 - 5% Iron oxide 2.0 - 5% Magnesia 1,0 - 5% Sulfurtrioxide AGGREGATES, ‘Aggregates for concrete work are classified into two: 4. Coarse Aggregate such as crushed stone, crushed gravel or natural gravel with particles retained on a 5 mm sieve. 2. Fine Aggregate such as crushed stone, crushed gravel, sand of natural sand with particles passing on a 5 mm sieve. Size of Aggregates. - For coarse aggregate (gravel), the ‘maximum nominal size varies from 40, 20, 14 or 10 mm diame- ter. The choice from the above sizes depends upon the dimen- sions of the concrete member more particularly, the spacing of the steel bars reinforcement or as specified. Good practice demand that the maximum size of coarse ag- gregate (gravel) should not exceed 25% of the minimum thick- ness of the member structure nor exceed the clear distance between the reinforcing bars and the form. 2 CONCRETE ‘The coarse aggregate should be small enough for the con- crete mixture to flow smoothly around the reinforcement. This is. referred to as workability of concrete. 1-2 THE PRINCIPLES OF CONCRETE MIXING ‘The purpose in mixing concrete is to select an optimum pro- portion of cement, water and aggregates, to produce a concrete mixture that will meet the following requirements: 4. Workability 3. Durability 2. Strength 4. Economy ‘The proportion that will be finally adopted in concrete mixing has to be established by actual trial and adjustment processes to atiain the desired strength and quality of concrete required under the following procedures: 4. The water cement ratio is first determined at the very first hhour of mixing to meet the requirements of strength and durability 2. ‘The cement-aggregate ratio is then chosen and estab- lished to satisfy the workability requirements. Workability, ‘means the ability of the fresh concrete to fill all the voids between the stee! bars and the forms without necessarily exerting much effort in tamping. Laboratory tests showed that the water-cement content ratio Is the most important consideration in mixing because it deter- mines not only the strength and durability of the concrete but also the workability of the mixture. Concrete mixtures in a paste form, is preferred than those, ‘mixtures which are flowing with water. ‘The ACI Requirements for Concrete are as follows: 1. Fresh concrete shall be workable. Meaning, that fresh con- 3 ‘SIMPLIFIED CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATE crete could freely flow around the reinforcements to fill all ‘the voids inside the form. 2. That, the hardened concrete shall be strong enough to carry the design load. ‘3, That, hardened concrete could withstand the conditions to which itis expected to perform. 4. That, concrete should be economically produced. Concrete Mixture may be classified as either: a. Designed Mixture 'b. Prescribed Midture Designed Mixture. Where the contractor Is responsible in establishing the mixture proportion that will achieve the required strength and workability as specified in the plan. Prescribed Mixture. Where the designing engineer specify the mixture proportion. The contractor's responsibility is only to provide a mixed concrete containing the right propor- tions as in the plan. 1-3 THE UNIT OF MEASURE Prior to the worldwide acceptance of Metrication, otherwise known as System International (SI), materials for concrete structures were estimated in terms of cubic meter although, the ‘components thereof like; cement, sand, gravel and water, are measured in pounds, cubic foot and gallons per bag respec- tively. Lately however, under the SI measures, the 94 pounds per bag cement equivalent to 42.72 kilograms was changed and fixed at 40 kilograms per bag. The traditional wooden box used ‘to measure the sand and gravel is 12 inches wide by 12 inches long and 12 inches high, having eriet volume of 1 cubic foot. 4 CONCRETE ‘Today, instead of the traditionial measuring wooden box, the empty plastic bag of cement is popularly used to measure the volume of sand and gravel for convenience in handling aggre- ‘Gates during the mixing operations. TABLE 1-1 CONVERSION FROM INCHES TO METER Nentec| Acarae | Apponmat | sumer | Aciam | prorat vin | ee a | PR + | case [as [anf sae | aes 2 | vse | 60 | ze | fee | So 3 | ome | oe | & | seo | oe 4 | ‘oe | so | i | soo | 5 | ‘ao | fos | 2 | seo | s | ss | 150 | 25 | sos 7 | ime | as | my | gee | 88 & | zz | 200 | oe | Hee | Sp 9 2286 228 29 7366 725 10 | 20 | 250 | 2 | temo | Teo | 20 | a | ot | sem | rs 12 | Soa | 30 | S| ate | toe 3 | Sooo | 0 | Ss | Go | oe ia | 3s | 50 | Ss | Gow | SS 1 | 30 | ae | 3 | tom | 28 1s | 404 | 400 | a bo v7 | doe | fos |e [aS | $2 ie | ‘er | 450 | se | ose | oon to | 4a | 47s | 3 | oom | oe wm | S000 | so | fo | toe | too 1 ‘The values presented in Table 1-1 could be useful in: 1. Finding the accurate conver Metric sion of length from English to 2. Determining the approximate value to be used in our simplified methods of estimating. Getta