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changed invites its own destruction. We prefer a world that can be modified progressively against a background of valued remains, a world in which we can leave a personal the marks of mark aongside
“ What time is this place?” - Kevin Lynch
We express our heartfelt thanks to the Chairman, Council members and Executive officer of the Mamallapuram Town Panchayat for their co – operation in providing valuable data and information . We are grateful to the dept of Tourism, govt. of Tamil Nadu for the inputs given during the project. We extend our thanks to the Archaeological Survey of India for providing background information and the copy of the proposed Master Plan. We are extremely grateful to all the residents of Mamallapuram for being patient and kind in sharing their views with us. We portray our sincere thanks to Dr. S.P.Sekar for his constant encouragement support and valuable guidance for the successful completion of the project. We are thankful to Dean, SAP, Anna University for the continued support and encouragement given to complete the project.
II SEM MPLAN 2004 - 2006
1. INTRODUCTION 2. REGIONAL SETTING 3. TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT 4. DEMOGRAPHY 5. LANDUSE SECTORS 6. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION 7. HERITAGE & CONSERVATION 8. PUBLIC & SEMI PUBLIC USES 9. MUNICIPAL FINANCE 10. POLICIES & STRATEGIES 11. ANNEXURES
01 04 07 09 17 25 31 38 49 58
Mamallapuram on the sea shores of Bay of Bengal has Pagodas, Rock cut caves, and single stone crafted rathas and bas- reliefs, all belonging to the times of the Pallavas, who ruled from 600 to 750 AD with Kanchi as their Capital. An ancient port with a flourishing maritime trade, Mamallapuram, earlier called as Mahabalipuram, stands today as a center of art and as a testimonial to early Dravidian style of temple architecture. Here you can also hear the sound of wind on stone and the swish of waves bathing the shore temple. Globally renowned for its ancient cultural and natural treasures of the exceptional value, Mamallapuram group monuments draw tourists from both our country and aboard by its miles of beach and rock-cut architecture.
Mamallapuram is a wonder show piece of marvel of Pallava art and architecture. This seashore village, Mamallapuram derived its name from Mah - Mamallapuram meaning the city of the great warrior and Mah-Mallan was a title of the king Narasimhavaraman – I in the Pallava dynasty. In the early days, this place was also called as Mallai, Mallapuri, Kadal Mallai and also Seven Pagodas. Mamallapuram was once a flourishing seaport with a brisk maintain trade with countries in South-East Asia and the Mediterranean in the Pallava Dynasty. The monuments in the Mamallapuram town were fashioned in the Pallava dynasty by three different Monarchs viz., Mahendravarman I (600-630 AD), Narasimhavarman I hailed as Mamallan (630 to 688 AD) and Narasimhavarman II called as Rajasimhan (700 to 628 AD). They trace the Mahendra style, Mamalla style and the Rajasimha style in these monuments.
Mamallapuram which is situated about 60 kms south of Chennai on the Bay of Bengal coastline and can be reached from Chennai mainly by road along the sea coast via., the East Coast Road and also by old Mamallapuram road.
Mamallapuram is located within Thirukalukundram taluk of Kancheepuram district and lies approximately between 13°2’24” latitude and 80°15’15” longitude. The Buckingham canal passes on the west of Mamallapuram. On the North are Paiyanur and Saluvankuppam villages. On the South Kadambadi village. Kalpakkam atomic plant is situated on the southern side of the town.
1.3 DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR MAMALLAPURAM
• Mamallapuram Master Plan (revised) – Directorate of Town and Country Planning, 1973. • A study on Mamallapuram – Department of Tourism, 1976. • Mamallapuram New Town Development Plan - New town development authority, 1989. • Report on Special Tourism Development, Mamallapuram - Directorate of Town and Country planning, 1993.
1.4 SALIENT FEATURES OF NEW TOWN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
With a view to employ suitable strategy relevant to the tourism importance of the Mamallapuram town, the Government in G.O Ms.No. : 1454, Housing and Urban Development Department, dated 25.10.78 notified Mamallapuram Township area as a New Town Development Area by carving out the same from the original Mamallapuram local planning area. The salient features of New Town Development Authority are as follows. • Forming a Monument zone – covering all the monuments and restricting vehicular traffic. • Formation of New town district on the west of Buckingham canal in Poonjeri village. • Proposal of bus terminus. • Restriction of height of buildings upto 7m, for buildings that will be coming between canal and the sea. • Prohibition of developmental activities around monument zone.
1.5 CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF NTDA PLAN
There are several departments in the town acting independently, namely the:
1. New town development authority 2. Archeological survey of India 3. Local Panchayat office 4. Tourism development authorities 5. Ministry of environment (CRZ) 6. Fisheries department • Even though the Development Plan was made ready in the year 1989 till now it is not implemented. • The proposal does not deal with future population and their locations. • All wet lands were allocated for residential purpose.
• No empirical data taken into account for proposals.
1.6 WHY DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR MAMALLAPURAM?
• To identify single committee to implement the development plan. • To rejuvenate the dying arts and crafts. • To conserve the heritage monuments • Promotion of tourism by opening fresh avenues. • Promotion of IT based industry on OMR corridor. • To relocate Tsunami affected fishermen. • To relocate people lying under CRZ. • To relocate people from monument regulated zone.
2.0 TOWN PROFILE
Mamallapuram was the second capital of the Pallava kings of Kancheepuram, 60 kms from Chennai on the Bay of Bengal. This seaside village is set in a boulder – strewn landscape. Mamallapuram is a Special Grade Town Panchayat with an administrative area of 12.65sq.kms. and a population of 12,345 persons as per 2001 census. This town Panchayat has got two revenue villages under its control, they are Mamallapuram and Poonjeri. In 1964 Mamallapuram was notified as a village Panchayat and in 1994 it was upgraded to special grade town Panchayat. • Fisherman settlements – Venpurusham, Devaneri • Agricultural village – Poonjeri • Total No. of wards – 15 • Voters population – 7500 persons • Major occupation – Tourist related activities, fishing and Agricultural. • Literacy rate – 70%
• BY AIR – The nearest airport from Mamallapuram is Chennai, located around 60 km away. One can get flights for almost all major destinations in India and abroad. • BY RAIL – The nearest railway station is Chengalpattu, is around 29 km away from Mamallapuram. Trains to Chennai and several other major cities in South India are available from here. • BY ROAD – Mamallapuram is connected by road to Chennai, Thirukkalukundram, Kancheepuram and Pondicherry.
Mamallapuram has warm and humid climate slightly similar to Chennai. The maximum day time temperature varies from 38.2°C in June to 28.4°C in December. While minimum temperature varies from 20.5°C in January to 27.7°C in May. Mamallapuram receives an average annual rainfall of around 1100mm. The months of October, November and December accounts for more than 60% of the total rains in the
area. The sea breeze gives a pleasant and cool temperature which attracts the visitors to stay for a longer while in the beach. (Source : Meteorological data)
2.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
Mamallapuram and its environs form part of coastal belt that forms a continuous stretch of the country, relieved here and there by small rock outcrops. The Thirukalukundram Hills, nearly 17 Km to the West of Mamallapuram rises to a height of 700’. Approximately 17 Km to the south of Mamallapuram the river Palar enters the sea. There is also a rivulet 12 Km South of Mamallapuram. The region surrounding Mamallapuram is liberally dotted with rainfed tanks. The environs of Mamallapuram presents a better prospect with larger stretch of land combined with dry and grazing lands.
2.4 SOIL AND VEGETATION
As the Mamallapuram New Town consists of 2 villages, Mamallapuram and Poonjeri. Mamallapuram village has a varied effect of sandy soil along the coastal region and a good quality of alluvial soil that is helping for the agricultural purpose. The beach resorts that give a greenery mark to the coastal stretch sparingly cover the coastal stretch of the Mamallapuram village. The either side of Buckingham canal helps for the agricultural activities mainly consists of alluvial soil.
2.5 GROUND WATER POTENTIAL
The Ground water potential is the important gift of nature that makes the surveillance of Mamallapuram town in a steady manner. The ground water is the main source of water supply for both the local people and the commercial activities that are catering the tourist people. Also because of running of Buckingham canal in the Mamallapuram town, the ground water source improved a lot.
2.6 LAND OWNERSHIP
Out of 1304 hectares of land in the Mamallapuram New town, 848.51 Hectares of land is under private ownership remaining are under government ownership like monumental hills (areas), Schools, health center, roads and open spaces etc.,
The Sea-coast from the outskirts of Chennai to Mamallapuram is one of the finest beaches in the world and has vast potential to develop as a major tourist and holiday resort. Mamallapuram’s attractions are not merely confined to the immortal art works of the greatest Pallava Kings. A beautiful beach girdled by Casuarina groves also equally attract the tourists. One can have a pleasant bath in the warm blue sea, stroll on the golden sands, watch the beautiful glory of the rise of the sun and the moon and so on. Apart from the historic monuments of Mamallapuram additional recreation facilities to attract more tourist, around Mamallapuram , they are.
a. Golden Beach b. M.G.M
– an amusement park – an amusement park
c. Dakshina chitra – an artist village d. Muttukkadu e. Kovalam f. Thiruvidandai – a back water boating yard by TTDC – a pilgrim centre and seaside resort. – a pilgrim centre
g. Crocodile Farm – a reptile park at Nemili h. Tiger’s cave i. j. – a monument of Pallava period
Thirukkalukundram – a pilgrim centre Vedanthangal – a bird Sanctuary
The flow of foreign tourists is to increase at a steady since 1991. Inflow of visitors and tourists during months of December, January and February and during dance festival and vacation time is very high.
2.8 WORLD HERITAGE CENTRE
The UNESCO has declared certain ancient cultural and natural treasures of the exceptional value as the heritage monuments. Mamallapuram is one among the 13 world heritage centers declared by the UNESCO in India.
3. TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT
3.0 HISTORICAL TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT
Mamallapuram, the portraits of sand and stone was the second capital of Pallava dynasty . In early days this place was called as Mallai, Mallapuri, Kadal malai and also called as Seven Pagodas, Mamallapuram derived its name from Mah-mallapuram meaning the city of great warrior. Here, the great warrior means the monarch Narsimha varam I who had the title of Mah –mallan . The town being a Port Town flourished in Maritime Trade and Merchandise since the ancient times. The monuments in the town were patron aged during the Period of 600-820 A.D. by various kings of Pallava dynasty . Monuments in the town were arranged in bow and arrow fashion enhancing the victories of Pallavan kings. The sculptures of this place is particularly interesting, because it shows the day to day life of people rather than the carvings of gods and goddess as in other parts of Tamilnadu . Mamallapuram with its picturesque location in a rocky outcrop between the beach and lagoon is a combination of history with art and architecture .The town was built by Pallavan kings to increase their sea trade and portray their keen interest and inclination towards patronizing art and architecture in their reign
3.1 GROWTH TRENDS
Mamallapuram town’s growth was naturally around the monuments. Initial approach to the town from Chennai was by Old Mamallapuram road (OMR). Landing at poonjeri, the monuments were reached by ferry across the Buckingham canal. Later the construction of the bridge across the canal and the East Coast Road (ECR) favoured the roadway communication.
Natural features such as the sea, Buckingham canal and regulation measures such as CRZ, sterile zone of Kalpakkam and Heritage zone of ASI limit the development within the town area. After Tsunami the entire equation of CRZ is changed and the state and central government is more focused on the relocation of people within the CRZ zone.
1. Entertainment corridor along ECR 2. IT corridor of OMR 3. Six lane expansion proposal of OMR 4. Administrative town proposal for the Chennai city 5. Chennai city expansion towards the southern direction 6. Proposal of MRTS to Pondicherry via Mamallapuram 7. Proposal of ferry service from Chennai to Mamallapuram
3.4 PRESENT SCENARIO
The population trend of decadal growth shows an out migration from the town. The reasons could be due to un availability of land in main core area , conversation of residential units to commercial, high land cost and regulations in the town.
3.5 FUTURE TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT (FORESEEABLE)
• • • Good prospects to be developed as a tourist town Relocation of people due to CRZ regulation can help to create a planned town with good infrastructure. North western part of the town has good prospects for development due to proximity of land and water availability with good accessibility which could ease for expansion of infrastructural facilities. • • • • With increase in awareness among people on heritage and conservation, Mamallapuram can be declared as a heritage town. With administrative city proposal nearby, the Mamallapuram town can be looked as a service town. As the connectivity with the city is increasing at a rapid speed, the Mamallapuram town can be viewed as a feeder town for Chennai. With the present trend of growth of IT based industry along the old Mamallapuram road , Mamallapuram could be engulfed in no time for services.
The emerging trend in population growth, its characteristics and spatial distribution has profound influence on the structure and size of the cities. It is therefore, essential and interesting to study the dynamics of population growth and structure of cities.
4.1 HISTORICAL GROWTH OF MAMALLAPURAM TOWN
The growth of Mamallapuram town population from 1,746 in 1951 to 12,345 in 2001 is an indicator for development of tourist town.
POPULATION GROWTH IN MAMALLAPURAM
Year MAMALLAPURAM Males Females POONJERI Males Females TOTAL Source : Census of India 1951 1746 862 884 602 297 305 2348 1961 2159 1102 1057 869 429 440 3028 1971 3726 1746 1530 863 419 444 4179 1981 5523 2906 2617 896 445 451 6419 1991 8731 4432 3939 1525 796 729 9896 2001 10,460 5467 4993 1885 995 890 12,345
Total Population Mahabalipuram
10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 1951 1961 1971
Population Growth in Mamallapuram
The growth rate was only 28.96% during 50’s and rose to 55.09% by the end of 70’s. The decadal growth of population of Mamallapuram till 80’s goes in hand to hand with the urbanization trend of TamilNadu.
DECADAL POPULATION GROWTH (PERCENTAGE)
Year MAMALLAPURAM POONJERI TOTAL KANCHEEPURAM DIST STATE URBAN Source : Census of India 1951-'61 23.65 44.35 28.96 1961-'71 51.74 -0.69 36.69 20.53 38.60 1971-'81 68.59 03.82 55.09 18.40 28.00 1981-'91 58.03 70.20 54.17 10.64 19.60 1991-'01 19.80 23.60 24.74 05.50 42.80
80 60 40 0 1 9 5 1 -'6 1 '6 1 -'71 '7 1 -'8 1 '8 1 -'9 1
T o ta l G ro w th R a te P o o n je ri M a h a b a lip u ra m
'9 1 -'0 1
Y e a rs D e c a d a l P o p u la tio n G ro w th R a te
The annexure of Poonjeri village to Mamallapuram by New Town Development authority resulted in flux of population migration from Mamallapuram to Poonjeri. Not much difference can be seen in the total population growth of Mamallapuram town from 1981 to 1991. But with that of Poonjeri, by the end 90’s, population growth rate reached 70.20%, which was contrary to the insignificant steady growth rate till 80’s. Poonjeri showed an increased population which may be due to enforcement of coastal regulations, developmental control rules and increasing domestic and international tourist penetration in Mamallapuram area has pushed the residence to exterior.
It is universally accepted that the sex ratio (females per thousand males) is generally lower for urban population than for rural population and still further low for larger towns marching towards rapid urbanization. According to 2001 census there are 6462 males and 5883 females out of 12345 persons enumerated in Mamallapuram new town. The sex ratio is 910 females per 1000 males.
SEX RATIO (1951 - 2001)
Year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Males 1159 1531 2165 3351 5528 6462 Females Females/1000 Males 1181 1497 1974 3068 4668 5883 1018 977 911 915 844 910
Source : Census of India
Literacy rate in Mamallapuram as on steady increase in the last few decades and it was near to that of state and Kancheepuram district.
LITERACY RATE IN MAMALLAPURAM
1971 1981 1991 2001
1197 2568 3677 5013 728 1715 2332 3742
1925 4283 6009 8755
6000 5013 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1981 1991 2001 2568 1715 3677 2332 3742
66.72 60.72 70.91
Source : Census of India
In Mamallapuram town the distribution of population is more uneven and concentrated in the core area of the town. The gross residential density of the town is 55.91 persons per hectare in 2001 census. The residential density is maximum in Othavadi street and minimum in Kovalam road (ie. Ward No. 4).
The primary occupation of the village comprises of both agriculture and fishing. The town has a workforce of 69% where the working population to the extent 40% are involved in tourism related activities and 27% of the workforce is involved in territory activities.
PATTERN OF EMPLOYMENT
Government Tourism Related Activities Sculpture Industry Industry Agriculture Fishing Commercial Others TOTAL WORKERS Non Workers TOTAL POPULATION
Source : Primary Data
(%) to Pop in Nos. Pop inForce Work
(%) to Pop in (%) Pop in Nos. Pop inForce Work
Pop in (%)
480 3,465 500 50 1,000 575 215 2,260 8,545 3,800 12,345
5.61 40.5 5.85 0.58 11.70 6.72 2.51 26.4 100.0
3.88 28.0 4.05 0.40 8.10 4.65 1.74 18.30 69.12 30.88 100.00
1,800 16,500 3,000 600 2,250 2,250 900 2,700 30,000 10,000 40,000
6.0 55.0 10.0 2.0 7.5 7.5 3.0 9.0 100.0
4.5 41.25 7.5 1.5 5.6 5.6 2.25 6.75 75.0 25.0 100.00
EXISTING OCCUPATION PATTERN_2005
GOVERNMENT 6% TOURISM RELATED ACTIVITY SCULPTURE INDUSTRY INDUSTRY 40% 12% 1% 6% AGRICULTURE FISHING COMMERCIAL OTHERS
PROJECTED OC CU PATION PATTERN _2021
GOVERNMENT 3% 8% 8% 2% 10% 54% AGRICULTURE FIS HING COMMERCIAL OTHERS 9% 6% TOURIS M RELATED ACTIVITY S CULPTURE INDUS TRY INDUS TRY
1. Agricultural workers are likely to reduce by 4%. 2. Tourism and its related activities will increase to 55% of the workforce by 2021. 3. Sculpture industry will increase from 5% to 10% in year 2021.
4.6 INCOME STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION
From the household survey carried out in the town the income structure has been classified as follows.
INCOME DISTRIBUTION EXISTING INCOME MONTHLY INCOME IN RUPEES Less than 25,000 25,000-50,000 Greater than 50,000 Source : Primary data. 43.0 39.0 18.0 (% OF POPULATION)
HUDCO CLASSIFICATION CATEGORY BPL LIG MIG HIG Source : HUDCO INCOME IN Rs. (MONTHLY) 0 – 3,000 3,000 – 5,000 5,000 – 10,000 Above 10,000
Pie chart showing the annual income.
E X IS T IN G IN C O M E P A T T E R N _ 2 0 0 5
18% 43% < 2 5 ,0 0 0 2 5 ,0 0 0 - 5 0 ,0 0 0 > 5 0 ,0 0 0 39%
source: Primary data
4.7 POPULATION PROJECTION
The population projected for the years 2006, 2011, 2016 and 2021 by considering the population of past six decades by adopting the conventional methods. The forecasting population is projected is through three different methods they are, Arithmetic method, Incremental increase method and Geometric increase method. These projections are shown through graphical representations.
Population in thousands
35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 1951 1961
Years P j ti b
The populations for the next two decades are compared by three methods in which Geometric increase methods value are closer to the average growth rate. So Geometric increase method is adopted for population projection.
P O P U L A T IO N P R O JE C T IO N B Y V A R IO U S M E T H O D S
D E S C R IP T IO N S E X IS T IN G P O P U L A T IO N A R IT H M E T IC IN C R E A S E M E T H O D G E O M E T R IC IN C R E A S E M E T H O D IN C R E M E N T A L IN C R E A S E M E T H O D S o u r c e : C e n s u s o f In d ia 2001 1 2 ,3 4 5 1 3 ,3 4 5 1 4 ,6 0 1 1 3 ,5 1 0 1 4 ,3 4 5 1 7 ,2 7 0 1 4 ,7 8 7 1 5 ,3 4 5 2 0 ,4 2 5 1 6 ,4 5 0 1 6 ,3 4 5 2 4 ,1 6 0 1 7 ,6 7 0 2006 2 0 11 2 0 16 2021
Forecasting Population – Geometric Increase Method
This method based on the assumption considering population growth rate as average.
YEAR 2006 2011 2016 2021
PROJECTED POPULATION 14,601 17,270 20,425 24,160
Population in thousands
3 5000 3 0000 25000 20000 15 000 1 0000 5000 1951 1961 1971
Years Population Projections
4.8 ASSUMPTIONS FOR POPUALTION PROJECTIONS BASED ON THE DEVELOPMENT TRENDS
With the opening of new spheres of tourism related activities, educational institutions, offices in and around town. It is assumed that there will be increase in population in addition to the natural increase projected by Geometric increase method.
1. Proposed economic activities
Provision of separate industrial zone for sculptural activities is assumed to increase in the number of persons involved in sculpture industries from 5.8% to 10%.
# E C O N O M IC A C T IV IT IE S
E X IS T IN G D E S C R IP T IO N S W O R K FO R C E S c u lp tu r e A c tiv ity P o p in N o s . P o p in % 8 ,5 4 5 500 6 9 .2 1 5 .8 5 P R O JEC T ED P o p in N o s . P o p in % 1 8 ,1 2 0 1 ,8 1 2 7 5 .0 1 0 .0
2. Tourism activities
The number of persons involved in tourism related activities will increase from 40% of the workforce to 55% of the workforce with the expected tourist population of 50,000 per day.
Year 2011 2016 2021 NORMAL POPULATION INDUCED POPULATION TRA W ork W ork TRA * TRA (%) Tourist Targets/day Force Force(%) 12,434 72.0 5,595 45.0 20,000 3,645 14,910 18,120 73.0 75.0 7,455 9,966 50.0 55.0 35,000 50,000 8,715 13,134
Number of persons involved in Tourism Related Activity
3. IT industries
A population of 1,500 persons is forecast in line with the proposed IT developments along old Mahabalipuram road.
4. Educational Institutions
Opening up of new avenues in education the town is likely to attract 5,00 persons. Total population projected based on developmental trends in 2021 is 40,000 persons
5.0 LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION 2005 (EXISTING) 5.0.1 INTRODUCTION
The new town area which includes Mamallapuram and Poonjeri villages extend over an area of 1304 hectares out of which only 17% mere covered by various developments such as houses, shops, educational etc., The major area comes under agricultural use and water courses. The land use map clearly shows that development is concentrated in the core area of the town and part of Poonjeri village. Undeveloped areas including agricultural fields exists in the southern and north western side of the town. Being a heritage town the establishment of commercial areas agglomerated along the major roads leading to the monuments showing the typical nature of development. The major zone of concentration is all along the major roads like Kovalam road, Thirukalukundram road, East Raja street and Othavadai street.
LANDUSE DISTRIBUTION EXISTING (2005)
Land Use Extent in Hectares % to Developed Area 30.71 35.77 5.49 13.01 15.01 100.00 % To Town Area 5.33 6.21 0.95 2.26 2.61 17.36
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Residential Commercial Educational Public & & semipublic Traffic & transportation Developed area
69.52 80.99 21.44 29.45 33.99 226.39
Agriculture i) dry Ii) wet Area under agriculture 470.61 311.60 782.21 295.40 1304.00 36.09 23.90 59.99 22.65 100.00
Water bodies Total area of the town
295.40 ha 22.65%
69.52 ha 80.99 ha 5.33% 6.21% 50.89 ha 3.21% 33.99 ha 2.61%
311.60 ha 23.90%
470.61 ha 36.09%
LAND USE STRUCTURE
40 30 20 10
Trafic & Transportation
LAND USE PERCENTAGE TO THE DEVELOPED AREA
5.1 RESIDENTIAL SECTOR
The present residential development within this town covers only 69.52 hectares against the overall area of the town 1304 hectares. This means the present residential development area accounts for only 30.71% of the developed area and 5.33% of the total extent of the town area. This situation is much below when compared to the proportion of the area occupied by the residential development in other town in our state. This is mainly due to the distribution of Archeological monuments, commercial activities and a vast stretch extent covered under agricultural and water bodies.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim is to ensure housing accommodation for the relocated and projected
The objectives of which are listed below. • • To access the existing housing accommodations and its allied facilities. To identify areas of relocation of people in restricted zones.
Projection of future requirements of population in the residential sector along with the identification of land suitable for development of residential uses in the future.
• • • The opening of new avenues in tourism related activities and allied industries will increase housing demand. The demand for housing foreseen in future due to the proposed IT development along the Old Mahabalipuram Road. The upcoming educational institutions are likely to witness an increase demand in housing sector.
5.1.3 TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT
Occupational pattern influences the location of residential sectors of the town. The town experience the linear type of development along the coast forming the fishermen settlements. The major agriculture activities are concentrated in the Poonjeri village. Concentration of tourism and the related activities in the town center acts as the inducing factors of development.
• The growth of the town is limited by the location of Buckingham canal in the western side and Bay of Bengal on the eastern side. • The new town development area boundary limits and characterizes the urban form of the town
5.1.5 EXISTING RESIDENTIAL TYPES The land under residential type is classified into three categories. Viz. • The mixed residential type in the core area • The fishermen villages • The residential type in poonjeri village.
5.1.6 INDUCING FACTORS The major inducing factors of developments are listed below
• Accessibility • Occupational pattern • Infrastructure facilities
5.1.7 DEVELOPMENT CONDITIONS
126.96.36.199 Level of development The land use map details at the major zones of concentration i.e, in the core area and part of Poonjeri village. 188.8.131.52 Types of development The housing typology indicates that 35% are pucca, 37% are semi pucca and 28% of them are kuccha houses. Houses in the core area are G+2 storeyed along the major routes leading to monuments. 184.108.40.206 Household industries About 5% of the households are involved in handicrafts & sea shells crafts household industry. They form a significant part in the economic generation of the town.
High density is seen in the core areas particularly in ward no. 11 and ward no.12 comprising of the East Raja street, Thirukulam street & Othavadai street and Anna Nagar respectively. Lowest density can be observed in ward no. 3 comprising of the institutions and resorts. The density pattern of the town can be understood better from the map.
• • • Inadequate drinking water supply in the town after tsunami. No proper drainage system for the sullage water and storm water to drain. Nearby water bodies are polluted, letting in the sullage water both from the housing and commercial activities.
No proper site for the disposal of solid waste in the town area. Nuisances to the residences in the core area due to lack of spatial segregation for tourist activities.
• • • Economic generation is carried out in sculpture industry and handicrafts activity Tourism and allied activities gains high importance in this heritage town Most of the wards have natural gradient for drainage.
According to UDPFI guidelines, the standards prescribed for a medium sized town of population below 5,00,000is given below. Based on that the proposal on each sectors are worked out.
No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
Sectors Residential Commercial Industrial Public & Semipublic Recreational Transportation Agriculture & water bodies
According to standards(%) 40-45 3-4 8-10 10-12 18-20 12-14 12-14
Based on the land use suitability analysis on the major parameters considering accessibility, physiographic constraints, and restricted zones, the land suitable for new developments for the future is identified.
5.2 COMMERCIAL SECTOR
Commercial center is an area of retail stores and related facilities planned to give maximum convenience to the customers and maximum exposure to the merchandise. Being a tourist town, the major activity is commercial and it gives the imageability to the town as such. Commercial activities have a propensity to develop along the margin of major streets. The commercial areas have been concentrated in the core area of the town.
PIC SHOWING THE COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY FOR THE TOURIST POPULACE.
5.2.1 EXISTING PROFILE
The commercial scenario of Mamallapuram poses a different trend varying drastically from that of other towns of the same scale. The land use for commercial amounts to 35.77% of the developed land use (6.21 of the total land), while on the other hand the residential land use is only 30.71. This remains as one main indicator to infer that the town sustains on tourism and tourism related commercial activity. The present commercial trend in Mamallapuram has been analyzed as major spines in the city with similar commercial activity are identified and their character in terms of traffic, people it caters to, type of shops and their problems are identified.
• The major commercial spines are identified to be a. Kovalam road b. TKM road c. East raja street d. Othavadai street e. Sea shore temple road f. Five rathas road
a. Kovalam road This forms the main approach road from the ECR to Mamallapuram characterized by heavy traffic. Comprises of star hotels, beach resorts with huge and lavish frontages. Gives a prelude to the tourist activity inside the town. The public market acts as the higher order market to the adjoining villages.
b. TKM road Approach road from Chengelpet, also characterized by heavy traffic. This road is lined with shops which caters to the local population. eg. Provisional stores, petty shops etc.
c. East Raja Street Forms the main arterial street inside the city and carries the accumulated traffic from both the TKM road and the Kovalam road. Intense commercial activity banking on tourism. Huge displays to attract the tourists.( boutiques, sculpture shops, handicraft showrooms, and service shops to cater to the tourists such as photo studios, foreign exchanges etc.,)
d. Othavadai street Collector street leading to the sea. Few sea view restaurants are there near the sea coast. The street is characterized by minimal vehicular traffic and large pedestrian flow. All the mediocre range hospitality centers are lined along this road.(lodges and restaurants).Other commercial activity along this road include small sculpture shops which produces fashion goods, massage centers etc.
e. Sea shore temple road Thoroughly pedestrianised due to the efforts of ASI. Planned and landscaped area dignifies and adds grandeur to the shore temple. Consists of a continuous organized stretch of boutiques, sculpture shops etc.
f. Five rathas road It is one of the roads leading to the five rathas. All along its stretch we find sculpture activity concentrated. It takes in both vehicular traffic & pedestrian flow. Due to the presence of sculpture activity it attracts both the tourist and sculptural dealers .
5.2.2 • • •
The market place of the town acts as the nodal point for all commercial activities for the neighbouring villages. Huge scope for tourism oriented commercial activity. To act as a regional center for traditional sculpture industry.
5.2.3 • • • • • • •
Location of markets along Kovalam road poses a chaos condition right in the approach road to the city. Shift in the indelibility of the town. Poor drainage condition of the market poses a further aggravation of the problems. Residential frontages changed to commercial land use. Haphazard change in land use adds to the chaotic condition of the TKM road. Heavy traffic mixed with street shopping poses threat to the shoppers. Inadequate parking space to the lodges. Vehicles parked along the road covering shop frontages Haphazard informal shops along the sea shore temple road in continuation to the existing formal shops.
Allocation of exclusive zone for commercial activities catering for the tourist populace.
• • •
Creating a sculpture industry zone. Promotion of exhibition cum sale of sculptures. Creation of informal shopping areas.
AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES
5.3.1 AGRICULTURE USE:
Most of the area of the town is occupied by agricultural lands which are 782.21 Ha and this forms 60% of the town panchayat area. Of this, total agricultural land 60% is dry lands and the rest 40% wet lands. Dry lands constitute 36% of the Town Panchayat area whereas wet lands occupy 24% only. More than 1000 people are employed in agriculture.
5.3.2 WATER BODIES:
Water bodies such as canal, tones and other courses occupy nearly 300 hect and this constitutes 22.65% of the total extent of the town. The Buckingham Canal passes through this town on the North-South direction and on the west of the main monument area.
5.3.3 RESTRICTED ZONES:
The monumental zone consist of three zones namely, Protected zone. Prohibited zone. Regulated zone. The monuments that comes under protected zone are, 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) Shore temple. Five Rathas. Seven Pidaris. Mukundanayanar Temple. Dolotsava Mandapa. Pidari Amman Ratha.
Valayankuttai Ratha. Hillock Monuments.
The area upto 100 meters from the protected limits have been declared as prohibited area and further beyond upto 200 meters as regulated area for the purpose of construction/mining.
The Tamilnadu Nuclear Installation (Regulation of building and use of land) Act, 1978 stipulates that no building activity shall be permitted in the exclusion area which comprises of areas within 1.6 km from any boundary of such nuclear installation. Within 4.8km of the boundary called sterilized area, no construction or re-construction etc., shall be done without license from the nuclear installation Local authority. Only sterilized zone comes within the New Town area and the same has been maintained as sterilized zone in the New Town Development Plan.
COASTAL ZONE REGULATION:
Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Nagur, Ramanathapuram, Tiruchendur and Kanyakumari are classified as CRZ-I where in, building / construction activity of any form is not permissible till 500m from the high tide line.
CRZ-I (CATEGORY I) notifications :
i) Areas that are ecologically sensitive and important such as national parks/ marine parks, sanctuaries, reserve forests, wildlife habitats, mangroves, corals/ coral reefs, areas close to breeding and spawning grounds of fish and other marine life, area of outstanding natural beauty/ Historical heritage areas, areas rich in genetic diversity, areas likely to be inundated due to rise in sea level consequent upon global warming and such other areas as may be declared by the central govn. Or the concerned authorities at the State/ Union Territory level from time to time.
Area between Low tide line & High tide line.
CRZ-I: Permissible activities:
No new construction activities shall be permitted within 500m of the High Tide Line. Permitted for repairs of existing structures before 20.02.1991 not exceeding existing FSI existing plinth area and existing density and existing use. Agriculture, horticulture, garden pastures, parks, playfields, forestry and salt manufacture from seawater are permitted in this zone.
Uses permitted with Special Sanction Of Authority:
Public utility building like sewage pumping station, water works, fire station, telephone exchanges, Government and semi-government offices. Serving the local needs, libraries, bus terminal and depot yard bank.
5.3.4 PROPOSAL OF AGRICULTURE USE ZONE:
a.) All agriculture uses. b.) Rural settlements with allied uses. c.) Public and Private Parks, playfields, gardens, caravan and camping sites and other recreational uses. d.) Dairy and cattle farms. e.) Piggeries and Poultry farms. f.) Water tanks and reservoirs.
g.) Sewage farms and garbage dumps. h.) Airports and broadcasting lubrications. i.) j.) k.) Forestry Cremetries, crematoria and burning and burial grounds. Fish curing
5.3.5 Preservation of Architectural or Historical interest buildindgs:
If a building or premises not under the Archaeological monument Act and in the opinion of the Authority, the historical or Archaeological building is in danger of demolition or alteration may by notification issue order for preservation of such buildings.
TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION
Mamallapuram is about 60 Km away from Chennai along the East Coast Road connecting Chennai to Pondicherry. There is a well connected road network system to Mamallapuram from Chennai, Chengalpattu and other parts of the district and state. The major routes to Mamallapuram from other places are as follows. i. Chennai – Kovalam – Mamallapuram (East Coast Road) ii. Chennai – Navalur – Thirupporur - Mamallapuram (Old Mamallapuram Road) iii. Chengalpattu – Thirukkalukundram – Poonjeri – Mamallapuram iv. Pondicherry – Markkanam – Kalpakkam – Mamallapuram (East Coast Road) v. Apart from these there is an access from the Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam. vi. Within the town, the main spines are Kovalam road, Thirukkalukundram road.
Land occupied by the road and other uses are about 33.99 hectares – which constitutes 15.01% of developmental area and about 2.61% of the total town area. All the roads except the East Coast Road are maintained by the special grade village Panchayat. These roads are mostly of concrete and black – topped roads. Traffic is mainly because of public buses and tourist vehicles.
6.3 LENGTH OF ROADS
• Mud road and gravel road • Metal road • Tar road • Concrete road • Bitumen road
- 2.15 Km - 1.23 Km - 3.75 Km - 7.99 Km - 5.99 km
Source : DTCP Report
6.4 MODAL SPLIT
The modal split shows 75% of the vehicular traffic is due to the tourist vehicles like vans and cars. The next are the public buses and the tourist buses which are of 16%. Remaining are the two wheelers.
16% Buses Vans & Cars Two wheelers
6.5 PASSENGER CAR UNIT
The PCU observed in the ECR at Mamallapuram is 8358 PCU/Day. This clearly demarks the vehicles entering into the Mamallapuram. LOCATION Chennai VGP golden beach Kovalam Mamallapuram Cheyyar 27,000 27197 9788 8358 4102 PCU/Day
Source : Tamilnadu Road Development company ltd.
6.6 TOLL COLLECTED
The toll collected in ECR for the movement from Chennai - Mamallapuram for car and Truck are as follows. Details Opening of ECR Proposed improvement Combined Cars (in Rs.) 71 22 48 Trucks (in Rs.) 67 36 52
Source : Tamilnadu Road Development company ltd.
6.7 VOLUME OF TOURIST TRAFFIC IN MAMALLAPURAM
YEAR VISITOR Domestic 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Source : Directorate of Tourism, Chennai 758240 54624 581001 604883 879370 739887 473097 Foreign 79840 89300 127316 81020 191374 134979 59578 TOURIST Domestic 362200 447183 534468 579342 586379 585893 598976 601962 629301 679170 Foreign 36300 55340 59301 59530 60520 62445 63881 62420 40644 73296
The growth of tourist arrivals in the town have been found to be highly irregular. During holidays and weekends the town draws large number of tourists from nearby areas as a sight seeing and picnic spot. The tourist flow will be more during Pongal and Dance festival , which is organized by the directorate of tourism every year.
6.8 NUMBER OF BUS TRIPS TO MAMALLAPURAM
Route No. Route No. Of Service No. Of Singles
Chennai to Mamallapuram (Via) Kovalam 188v 188A cut 119A 188A 188 188B 19C Chennai to Marakkanam Chennai to Marakkanam Chennai to Kalpakkam Chennai to Pondy Chennai to Anaicut Chennai to Ozhitiyapattu Chennai to Mamallapuram 1 1 4 3 1 1 4 4 4 20 10 4 4 24
Chennai to Mamallapuram (Via) Kelambakkam 119 19A Chennai to Kalpakkam Chennai to Mamallapuram 4 4 20 24
Chennai to Mamallapuram (Via) Mamallapuram, Thirukalukundram, Chengalpattu 108B 108K 108B cut Kalpakkam to Chennai Kalpakkam to Chennai Kalpakkam to Chengalpattu 4 1 1 8 2 2
Kalpakkam to Kancheepuram (via) Mamallapuram, Chengalpattu 212A Kalpakkam to Kancheepuram 1 4
Mamallapuram to Vandavasi (via) Chengalpattu, Kancheepuram 157M Mamallapuram to Vandavasi 1 4
Mamallapuram to Tirupathi (Ivia) Chengalpattu, Tirutani 212H 212H cut Mamallapuram to Titupathi Mamallapuram to Chengalpattu 2 1 6 1
The present fleet of buses are inadequate during peak season on several routes and neccesiating more buses in holidays and special festival days.
6.9 EXISTING CIRCULATION SYSTEM
The circulation system in the Mamallapuram own is categorized into three are as follows. 1. Tourist circulation 2. Local residents circulation 3. Goods circulation 1. Tourist circulation On an average 7500 tourist visit Mamallapuram every day out which 10% are foreign tourists. Foreign Tourist Circulation Mamallapuram is enroute destination from Chennai and also from Pondicherry. Where in most of the tourist use public buses as mode of transport. After getting dropped at Mukundanayanar temple or bus terminus the internal circulation starts. Inland Tourist circulation Inland tourists visit Mamallapuram by public buses, private vehicles, two wheelers and four wheelers. The drop node for the public buses are Mukundanayanar temple, TKM road junction and at the bus terminus. The tourist circulation route is along the major spine roads connecting monument areas namely Arjuna’s penance, Five rathas and Shore temple.
2. Local resident circulation The local residents mainly use public transport to reach other nearby locations to avail service facilities like Schools, Hospitals etc.. Their use of private transport within the town area is limited. The major circulation routes are the main spines – Kovalam road, Thirukalukundram road and East Raja street within the area.
3. Goods circulation Goods movement are two fold. One for the local population and other for sculptors. For the local population the market located at Kovalam road is one of the major active zone. Goods and commodities reach Mamallapuram from nearby villages• • Grocery goods from Chennai, Thirukalukundram Pots from Poonjeri
Perishable goods from Chennai, Kalpakkam Fishes from Venpursham, Devaneri
The catchment area includes nearby villages like Pattipulam, Payanur, Kokilamedu, Kadambadi, Kalpakkam, Poonjeri etc., There is a weekly shandy on Thursday’s, wherein exchange of goods takes place. Goods circulation for sculptors include the movement of raw materials (ie, Stones for chiseling ) from Sankarapuram and Pattimalaikuttam in Kancheepuram district and the delivery of finished sculpture products within the region and also exported to foreign countries.
• • • • • •
The town lacks proper bus terminus. Buses are not plying according to schedule. No organized parking space available within the town. Drop nodes at junction chaos. No significant delineation of an access between the monuments. Insufficient road width.
• • • • • •
To restrict vehicular access within the heritage zone. Proposal of Bus terminus for intra transportation. Provision of adequate parking area catering to the tourist population. Proposal of battery operated vehicles for inter transportation network To develop a waterway communication (Ferry service) between Chennai and Mamallapuram. To make use and take advantage of proposed MRTS between Chennai and Pondicherry (via Mamallapuram) and also the six lane proposal of Old Mamallapuram road.
Provision of adequate and optimum road network for the local population in the residential area ensuring proper accessibility and connectivity.
HERITAGE & CONSERVATION
Mamallapuram the glimpse of the Pallava Kings and creativity of the artisan. It is the ancient port with flourishing maritime trade. Also the second capital of Pallava dynasty. Mamallapuramthe city of mamalla, derived after the King Narasimhavarman I, the great Pallava ruler of 7th century who is responsible for the rock-cut temples and carvings. It is the rich portrait in stone of various Gods, Goddess celestial beauties and epic stories.
7.1 HISTORY AND HERITAGE
Most of the temples and rock carvings of this place were built during the reigns of Narsimha Varman I (AD 630-668) and Narsimha Varman II (AD 700-728). Though the initial kings of Pallava dynasty were followers of Jainism, the conversion of Mahendra Varman (AD 600-630) to Shaivism led most of the monuments to be related with Shiva or Vishnu. Mamallapuram also close to Chennai is on the shores of the Bay of Bengal, along the eastern coast. Mamallapuram known for its rocks carvings and monolithic sculptures has the famous shore temple, the only one to have survived the ravages of nature. Also known as the Seven Pagodas (temples), six now lie submerged in the sea. Known as the Pallava Art, this was built during the period 830 1100 AD. The pallavas designed the monuments in the form of there emblem, Bow and the arrow which starts with the Mukunda narayana temple and the rathas in one cardinal axis and the arjuna’s penance and the shore temple in another axis.
Mamallapuram stands as a centre of art and as a testimonial to early Dravidian style of temple architecture. The tiny sea - side village of Mahabalipuram, is set in a boulder - strewn landscape between the beach and the canal. It is a show case of movement from rock-cut to structural temples. Mamallapuram art can be divided into four categories • • • • Open air bas - relief, Structured temples, Man-made caves, Rathas.
7.3 PLACE OF INTEREST
The monumental zone are mainly divided into Rathas Shore Temple Arjuna’s penance MukundaNarayana Temple
• Rathas are the first phase of Pallava architecture modeled on Buddhist Viharas or monasteries and chaitya halls. The mandapas or pavilions and the rathas shaped as temple chariots are hewn in granite rock face which is a similar rock-cut caves of Ajantha and Ellora. The eight rathas are monolithic temples fashioned as chariots. They remain an architectural mystery, for each is apparently a faithful reproduction of a structure built of wood. In fact, even the grain of the timber beams and rafters has been simulated in stone. • Of the eight rathas, five have been named for the Pandava brothers, the heroes
of the epic Mahabharata, and their shared wife, Draupadi. The largest is the Dharmaraja ratha and it sets the tone for the others. Modeled on a Buddhist vihara or monastery, it sports a square hall topped by a vaulting roof. The Bhima, Arjuna and Nakula-Sahdeva rathas are lesser copies of the Dharma raja ratha. • The Draupadi ratha is the smallest and the quaintest. It is a simple structure,
fashioned as a thatched but borne on the backs of elephants and lions. It was probably the facsimile of a portable village shrine.
7.3.2 Shore Temple
• Perched on a rocky outcrop, it presides over the shoreline, serving, as Percy Brown puts it, 'a landmark by day and a beacon by night'. Designed to catch the first rays of the rising sun and to illuminate the waters after dark, the temple ended up with an unusual lay-out. • As the main shrine faces the sea on the east, the gateway, the forecourt and the
assembly hall of the Shore Temple all lie behind the sanctum. Unusual, too, is the fact that the temple has shrines to both Shiva and Vishnu. The main sanctum and one of the two lesser ones on the west are dedicated to Shiva. The enclosing wall has a series of Nandi bulls on it. Interconnected cisterns around the temple meant that the sea could be let in to transform the temple into a water shrine. But, in recent times, a stone wall as been added to protect the shrine from the rising seas and further erosion. • The Shore Temple was built by Rajasimha who ascended the throne in AD 674.
it is also hewn out of single rocks, the Shore Temple was the first Pallava structure to be built of stone. The greatest improvement in design is in the shikhara or spire, which has moved away from the rounded vihara design to a soaring, tiered style. This seashore shrine also shows a creative leap in temple architecture of the South. Elements like the
vimana or spire, the gopuram or gateway, and animal figures that were to become trademarks of Dravidian architects can all be seen here. And it is largely the use of dressed stone, which gave the architects greater creative freedom. The sound of the wind on stone and swish of waves bathing the shore temple also floodlit its beauty.
7.3.3 Arjuna’s Penance
The exquisitely sculpted scene is an enormous relief made on two huge
boulders. The cleft in the rock depicts the descent of River Ganga, brought to earth by King Bhagiratha to redeem the cursed souls of his ancestors. • One of the biggest open-air rock canvases in the world, this bas-relief is 31m
long and 9m high. The surface of the rock has detailed carvings, showing the most endearing and natural renditions of animals. •
Penance area consists of 25 monuments in it. Varaha cave Mahisasura mardini cave Dharma raja lion throne Krishna mandapam Adhivaraha mandapam
Pancha pandava mandapam Ramanuja mandapam Kodikal mandapam Thirumoorthy mandapam Arjuna's Penance Krishna Mandapam Scupltures of Monkey Gopi's Chrun Sculptures of Monkeys, Elephant and peacock Krishna's Butter Ball Ganesha Ratha Rayala Gopuram Dharmaraja Lion Throne Draupath's Bath Tub Pulipu Thurmandapam Mahishasura Marthini Cave Olakannesvara Temple Arjuna's Pennance (old) Dharamaraja Mandapam Five Celled Temple Adivaraha Temple Light House 24 & 25 Incomplete Rock Caves
7.4 MAMALLAPURAM DANCE FESTIVAL
Mamallapuram Dance Festival is an occasion for the dance lovers to enjoy the performances of the artists from all parts of the country. The festival is celebrated in the month of January/February every year. The Shore Temple forms the backdrop of this festival and the music from the musical instruments mixes with the natural music of wind and the sea. The Mamallapuram Dance festival is an occasion when artists from all over the country come together to perform. Pongal harvest Festival is celebrated on a grand scale during the middle of January and February. These are added attractions at Mamallapuram.
• It has an approach route starting from the group of five monoliths in the extreme south, proceeds to see the monuments on and at the edge of the hill and finally proceed towards the sea for the shore temple. • • • Sculptures depict the scenes of day to day life which differs from the sculptures of other temples. Well maintained landscape facilities around the monuments gives a pleasing appearance. Shore temple with its locational advantage haloing with the sunset and sunrise attract more tourist within itself.
When conservation of architectural heritage of a town is considered certain questions come into existence. Does urbanization affect the historic fabric of the city? How importance is to preserve the old town of historic or architectural value but no contemporary function? The key is Heritage tourism may attract more tourists only if heritage areas are fully equipped with facilities to deal with the increasing tourist inflow. • The immediate concern is to identify a complete heritage zone in an orderly manner to certain heritage guidelines and to prevent the buildings propping up in height and gaining dominance over the monuments and its surroundings. • • Protection and maintenance of the character of the monuments for the future. Revitalize the axis spine between the Mukunda Narayana temple to the rathas and Sthalasayana Perumal temple to Shore temple.
• • • • • •
Delineation of areas exclusively of heritage character as an attribute towards tourists enhancement. Information booths regarding the heritage zone should be provided. Proper linkage with all the monuments & resting hubs to be provided in-between. Provision of adequate parking facilities near the monuments. Infrastructural facilities like drinking water, toilet facilities should be provided. Beach should be maintained properly.
To promote a large inflow of tourists in the near future, proposals should be given to enhance the existing activity. • • • • Organized Shilpa darshan should be arranged within the heritage zone. More nuumbers of cultural festivals should be organized. A permanent exhibition pavilion for the sculptures to be accommodated. Package trip within 5KM radius from Mamallapuram accommodating all important places in turn invite the tourists to lodge.
8 PUBLIC & SEMI PUBLIC USES
Mamallapuram is classified as a small town based on its population (12,345). It is a special grade village Panchayat covering an area of 12 sq.km. The town being a tourist town requires facilities for enhancing tourism. The public and semi public areas classified as, 1. Parks and open spaces 2. Social cultural facilities 3. Utility and services The public and semi public spaces covers about 29.45 hectares and this area forms 5.49% of the developed area and 2.26 % of the total town area.
8.1 PARKS AND OPEN SPACES
8.1.1 EXISTING PARKS : There are no specific spaces meant as parks and play grounds other than the school playground in the core area. OPENSPACES : The prohibited areas of the monuments form the open spaces. A part of the protected area are also considered as the open space. The vast expanse of the beach area also constitutes the percentage of open spaces. 8.1.2 SOCIAL INFRA STRUCTURES
Social infrastructural facilities are provided regarding the regional bearing of the town. Socio cultural facilities of the town of Mamallapuram are classified as follows.
SOCIO-CULTURAL FACILITIES SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES
The provision of social infrastructure amenities should necessarily consider the regional bearings as medium size town, caters to neighboring villages. In order to efficiently cater to the town and regional demand 25%, additional population is considered while providing amenities. 8.2.1 EDUCTIONAL FACILITIES
The town has totally 8 schools and 2 colleges. School Government Higher secondary school Government Panchayat middle school Noon meal school Private schools 3 2 2 Nos 1
COLLEGE 1. Government college of sculpture 2. Royal engineering college •
1. The Government Higher secondary school lacks basic facilities. 2. The teacher student ratio is low when compared with standards.
There is one primary health centre and one maternity centre for the town people. There are two doctors, one for general and one for sidha. There is no inpatient facility in the health center. On an average 80 to 100 patients are treated per day in the heath centre as out patients. In case of emergencies the patient’s are send to Chengalpet medical college or Chennai. There are three private clinics in the town.
No. of units
Existing bed strength
Available No. of beds
Primary health centre Dispensaries and Clinics
5 beds / 1000 population
1. No inpatient facility prevails in the health centre 2. Emergency cases are taken either Chennai or Chengalpattu.
SOCIO CULTURAL FACILITIES
Community halls and Kalyana mandapam meet the demand. There in no provision of community centers in cluster levels. 8.2.4 OTHER SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES
GOVERNMENT OFFICES There are 9 government offices in Mamallapuram town. The location of these facilities are mainly concentrated in the core area of the town. They extend their facilities to the new town area. BURIAL GROUNDS There are 9 burial grounds in and around the town maintained by the town Panchayat. POLICE STATION : There are 3 police station, located much closer to the entry of the town. BANKS : There are 2 banks and an ATM center in the town. PETROL BUNK : There is one petrol bunk located at Devaneri on ECR road. • INFERENCE The town is well served regarding social infrastructure facilities. But they seem to be concentrated, rather than distributed.
UTILITY AND SERVICES
220.127.116.11 WATER SUPPLY The water source for the people of Mamallapuram town, is the ground water that is tapped and stored in the over head tank and supplied to the public. The water is supplied twice a day to the public and water is chlorinated once in two days. There are 2000 service connections in the town out of which 1500 are house service connection and the rest are commercial. At present the town Panchayat supplies water at the rate of 33 lpcd. INSTALLED AND MAITAINED BY LOCAL BODY 1. INFILTRATION WELLS S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pavalakkaara Sathiram Devaneri Opposite to motel Mamalla (Along Kovalam road – ECR) East Raja street Venpurusham village Venpursham fisherman colony Total LOCATION NO. 1 1 4 1 1 1 9
2. SUMP DETAILS There is one 30,000 litres capacity sump opposite to Motel Mamalla along the Kovalam East Coast road.
3. OVER HEAD TANK DETAILS S.NO. LOCATION CAPACITY NO.
1 2 3
Pavalakkaara Sathiram Poonjeri Nearer to Kovalam Road Mandapam
30,000 Litres 30,000 Litres 1,50,000 Litres
1 1 1
East Raja street Venpurusham village Total
50,000 Litres 30,000 Litres
1 1 5
4. PUMP ROOM DETAILS
S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 Pavalakkaara Sathiram Devaneri
NO. 1 1 1 1 1 5
Opposite to motel Mamalla (Along Kovalam road – ECR) East Raja street Venpurusham village Total
5. POWER PUMP DETAILS
S.NO. 1 2
LOCATION Pavalakkaara Sathiram Devaneri
HORSE POWER 3 hp submersible pump 3 hp submersible pump 7.5 submersible pump
Opposite to motel Mamalla (Alon 5 hp submersible pump 7.5 Kovalam road – ECR) submersible pump 5 hp submersible pump 3 hp submersible pump 5 hp submersible pump
East Raja street Venpurusham village Total
1 1 5
INSTALLED BY TWAD AND HANDED OVER TO LOCAL BODY EXISITNG CONDITION
1. INFILTRATION WELLS S.NO. 1 LOCATION Opposite to head pumping station located at western side of Saluvankuppam Kovalam road 2 Opposite to head pumping station located at eastern side of Saluvankuppam Kovalam road Total 3 1 NO. 2
2. SUMP DETAILS
Opposite to head pumping station located at easter 50,000 litres side of Saluvankuppam Kovalam road
Nearer to head pumping station opposite to Motel Mamalla along Kovalam road Total
2 lakhs litres 1
OVER HEAD TANK DETAILS
Deveneri Nearer to head pumping station opposite to Motel Mamalla along Kovalam road
4 lakhs litres 1
Poonjeri Near to five rathas Total
3 lakhs litres 1 2 lakhs litres 1 4
PUMP ROOM DETAILS
LOCATION Nearer to main pumping in the eastern side of the Salavankuppam – Kovalam road
Opposite to western side of Saluvankuppam – Kovalam road in the Main pumping station – I
Opposite to motel Mamalla along the Kovalam road, nearer to main pumping station – II Total
POWER PUMP DETAILS
LOCATION In the well on the western side of Saluvankuppam along the East Coast road
HORSE POWER 3 hp submersible pump
In the well on the eastern side of Salvankuppam along the East coast road
3 hp submersible pump
Along the east coast road in the Eastern side of Saluvankupam nearer to Head pumping station
12.5 hp submersible pump and 1 hp submersible pump
Opposite to model Mamalla along the Kovalam Road, nearer to Main pumping station – II in the 4 lakhs litre sump Total
12.5 hp submersible pump and 7.5 hp submersible pump
POTENTIALS The water supply distribution in the town is satisfactory, they are served through the public fountains & individual connections in the core area.
The water supply for the areas of tourism & its related activities are done effectively.
3. • 1. 2. • 1.
Ground water table @ a depth of 15’ – 20’ INFERENCES After tsunami, existing water sources are contaminated by sea water. Temporary water resource has been tapped near Venpurusham for the town PROPOSALS Provision of overhead tanks of adequate capacity to serve the relocated population with about 50 lpcd.
House service connections are to be provided in the relocated areas Recharge of ground water will be done through effective
implementation of rain water harvesting and restoration of water tanks 4. Provision of adequate number of public fountains in the monument zones. 8.3.2 • SANITATION EXISTING SCENARIO
There is no underground sewerage system in the town. Their own wet latrine connects the houses in the town. The town lacks in a proper drainage system. Around 40% of the roads & streets within the town are provided with storm water drains. Nearly, all the drains are connected to nearby ponds. Hence the environs of the town seems to be dangerous by letting out all the waste from the houses & nearby lodges into the ponds. Hence mosquito’s menace to the people who stay in the town. Type Total No. of streets Total length of streets in Km Total length of streets covered in Km 7.10 Total % of Length of coverage streets yet to cover in Km 4.33 62.37 % of deficiency
Open drainage system
Source : Town Panchayat Mamallapuram
At present there are three public toilets of pay & use type, at • • • Seashore Road Bus Stand Near Five Rathas
For the maintenance of the above toilets every year the local body calls in for tender with the private agencies. The private agencies collect the amount from the users. Other than these are other two toilets specifically for women which are at Devaneri Fisherman kuppam and Venpurusham fisherman kuppam. These two toilets were constructed under “VAMBAY” scheme and then handed over to the self-help groups for the maintenance purpose. • INFERENCE 1. Most of the public toilets are not maintained properly. 2. Lack of proper drainage and under ground sewerage system. 3. Sullage disposal in the near by water bodies, surrounded by the residential zones – are source for mosquito breeding. • PROPOSALS 1. Construction of storm water drains in the relocation area 2. Proposed storm water drains must be linked with major water bodies 3. Proposal of sewage treatment plant in the relocated areas 4. Provision and proper maintenance of public toilets in the monument area
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Since the town is a tourist place. The amount of solid waste generated should be disposed properly and effectively. The township finds it difficult to remove all the solid waste generated in various parts of the town with only just seven scavengers, eleven hired private scavengers, one supervisor and two power tillers with trailer. There are about 200 dust bins provided at various parts of the town. The solid waste generated is collected on alternate days. The solid wastes thus collected are being dumped now at Poonjeri Village.The total extent of this yard is 4 Acres located along TKM road.
Generation of solid waste per head/day
Total Amount of solid waste generated per day
Amount of Clearence/day
Type of Vehicles
No of Vehicles
No of Trips
% of uncleared waste
Source : Town Panchayat Mamallapuram INFERENCES
i. Irregular collection of Waste results in environment degradation ii. The number of public dustbins are insufficient iii. Importance in collection of solid waste is given more prominence in the monument zone than the residential areas
1. Establishment of compost yards and landfill areas for waste management as per the standards with proper infrastructural facilities 2. Proper access load should be provided for the transfer station
3. Segregation of waste at the source 4. The properly segregated biodegradable waste can be used for making manure by composting which can be a good source of revenue to the local body. 5. Movable garbage bins should be procured and placed in the monument zone 6. The non-biodegradable waste can be used for controlled land filling. The sides of the filling area should be retained properly. The waste should be compacted in layers and covered with earth at the end of each day. 7. Women empowerment can also be used for waste collection. 8. Introduce vermi-composting. 9. Provide thick vegetation around compost yard for absorbing carbon di oxide emitted during composting.
Considering the parameters for selection of the garbage disposal and sewage treatment like ;
• • • • • • • • • • •
Wind direction Low lying area for land fill Availability of land Ground water table Accessibility - access road 200 Mtrs from Lake or ponds. 100 Mtrs from River or stream 500 Mtrs. from Residential Area 300 Mtrs from Public Parks 500 Mtrs. from Water Supply Wells 200 Mtrs. from Highway.
With assumed waste generation of 250 g / per capita / day for a population of 40,000 by the year 2021 land fill is for combined solid waste. Area required for solid waste disposal site is , Q = 40,000 x 250/ 103 x 103 = = Area Required 3650 x 20 / 3 = 24320 M2 = Area for other purpose Total Area Required is = = 2.4 Ha. 2.4 Ha x 2 4.8 Ha. 10 Tons x 365 3650 M3 / Year
At present all the streets are provided with street lights. The town Panchayat has a total of 577 street lights.
Type of lights
Sodium Vapour Lamps 4 Nos – Tube lights Halogen Lamps High Mast Light Focus Light
282 276 18 1 4
Focus lights are provided at , • • • Near Shore temple Near Arjuna’s Penance Near Light House
1. Adequate amount of street lights are provided 2. Streets lights are provided at the rate of 37 Nos per KM.
1. Provide underground cables for the major streets of heritage and tourist importance 2. Provide street lighting in relocated areas 3. Proper area should be left alone for locating transformers in newly developing area 4. Efficient management systems to be adopted. 5. High mast lights must be provided at important road junctions and also at junctions of heritage value and tourist importance.
9 MUNICIPAL FINANCE
9.1 MUNICIPAL FINANCE The concept of adequacy of municipal finance has received increasing attention since the municipal bodies are facing a resource crunch and fiscal stress for the delivery of municipal service. The financial operation generally comes under two categories – Resource mobilization and expenditure allocation. 9.2 RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
The resource mobilization in urban local bodies can be discussed under two main categories: Revenue Income : It refers to the items of receipt, which are of recurring nature and are a definite source of income every year. Capital Income: It refers to the revenue derived from a one time transaction and it may not be permanent source of income every year.
GENERAL STREET LIGHTING SCAVENGING EDUCATION
RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL
INCOME FROM PROPERTY & SPECIAL SERVICES
STREET LIGHTING WATER SUPPLY
UNDER GROUND DRAINAGE
9.3 REVENUE INCOME
The present practices of resource mobilization are from the taxes and fees to some extent, fro the assigned revenues. Thus the sources of funds available to municipal bodies generally fall under three catogories: • • • Own sources – Tax and Non tax Assigned Revenue Grants
Own sources of municipal bodies include taxes, charges and fees and other income derived by the municipality through its operations. Accordingly, they may be classified as Tax and Non Tax Resources.
a) Tax Resources
Tax resources include taxes levied and collected directly by he Municipality. Property Tax and Professional Tax are the major own tax sources of the municipal bodies. Property Tax has been the most stable sources of revenue for the Urban Local Bodies for a long time. In addition to these major taxes other taxes that the municipal bodies collect, Professional tax is tax levied on all registered employed professional and establishment in the organized sector. In some state this collected by the state government and is transferred to local bodies are advertisement tax, tax on carriage and animals and pilgrimage tax based on the provision I the Municipal Acts.
b) Non-Tax Resources
Non-tax resources include all non-tax revenues like fees and charges levied against the various services offered by the ULBs, as per the Act. Such revenue sources include water charges; D&O trade license fee income from special services (like education, lighting, medical institutions, etc.), income from remunerative enterprises, interest on investment etc.
9.3.2 Assigned Revenue
Assigned Revenue include revenue transferred to the local body by the state government under special acts. These are transferred to the local body in the form of its share of taxes levied and collected by the state government from establishments/ operations within the Municipal limits entertainment tax, motor vehicle tax, surcharge on stamp duty land revenue magisterial fines etc… are the items under which these revenues are realized by the municipality.
9.3.3 Revenue Grants
The local bodies receive revenue grants from the state government to supplement local body resources for meeting recurring expenses. The relevant parts of the SFC recommendations with respect to the determination of the fund are as follows: 90% of the entertainment tax receipts shall be assigned to the local bodies from the year 1997-98 as against in earlier years. 8% of the total revenue from all state taxes excluding the entertainment tax shall be transferred to the local bodies from the year 1997-98 15% of the amount transferred, would be apart in an equalitarian and incentive und, for correcting deficiencies arising out of the implementation of the principles of distribution and to continue the incentive grants for improving the local bodies would be in he ratio of 60:40 Balance 85% would be allocated between rural and urban local bodies in the ratio of 55:45
Guidelines for utilization of the SFC Devolution:
The amount should be utilized only for revenue expenditure. Accounts should be audited separately and separate audit reports issued. In addition to the above mentioned traditional sources of revenues the SFC has recommended the introduction of new tax domain such as advertisement tax, cable TV tax, tax on luxurious hotels and lodging houses bedding tax, a share in state excise revenue motor vehicle tax, a share in agricultural income tax, sugarcane tax, urban land tax, terminal tax passenger and goods, surcharge on the bus ticket and local body as on passenger traveling by bus.
COLLECTION AND BALANCE STATEMENTS
DCB statements related to mainly tax and non tax items. The demand has been on the increase year by year particularly the tax component. The arrears in demand are more of the taxes, the non-tax portion being almost insignificant.
9.5.1 Income and Expenditure Details of Town Panchayat. Income ( Rs. In Lakhs) Components
Property Tax Professional Tax Vehicle Tax Entertainment Tax Stamp duty Rent from property Bus Fees Advance Deposit Grants Others
4.5468 0.0686 0.0145 0.2628 8.2682 0.8306 2.0537 0.3025 0.9265 2.0000 1.5931
5.5114 2.0192 0.0415 0.1686 5.4482 0.8022 5.2321 1.6907 1.1737 5.7208
4.1726 1.1689 0.0060 0.3426 9.8866 1.3492 2.7742 0.1995 0.5150 5.3336
Expenditure( Rs. In Lakhs) Components
General Electricity Bill Labour Payment Water line repair B.S. Employees payment Road Laying Water Line Extension
9.6806 1.3294 3.1886 0.6154 0.4586 4.1017 0.5917
23.5741 1.4350 3.6705 1.5822 0.5296 0.4989 1.7825
17.5837 2.2278 4.2314 1.4042 0.6043 1.2599 0.7542
Source: Administrative report – Town Panchayat Office, Mamallapuram New Town.
9.5.2 Demand and Collection Performance : 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 Rs. in % of Rs. In % of Rs. In % of Lakhs demand Lakhs demand Lakhs demand
9.432 2.586 6.846 27.41 72.58 8.434 3.589 4.845 42.55 57.44 9.985 2.905 7.08 29.09 70.91
Demand Collection Balance
Source: Administrative Report – Town Panchayat Office, Mamallapuram New Town.
9.5.3 Abstract Revenue S.NO Components
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Tax Revenue Non Tax Revenue Assigned Revenue Grants from government Grants from Government Loan from Government miscellaneous
16,09,153 7,13,493 44,11,198 1,37,400 _ _ _
20,83,057 927,491 51,15,261 87,20,000 _ _ _
26,57,111 19,11,921 36,36,662 10,89,306 _ _ _
6,84,415 7,823 6,83,906 18,21,938 _ _ _
Expenditure S.NO Components
1. 2. 3. 3. Revenue expenditure Capital expenditure Date of Internal Audit Date of Internal Audit by Director of Local Fund Audit Date finalizing of Annual A/C’s
25,75,036 39,28,592 19:11:2003 _
24,06,179 79,70,091 _ _
16,05,779 78,02,520 _ _
14,58,960 21,141378 _ _
9.5.4 Details of Tax Revenue / Non Tax Revenue / Assigned Revenue Grants / Loans Received and Expenditure during the year 2001-2002 to 2004-2005
S.NO I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nature of Receipt Tax Revenue House Tax Advertisement Professional Tax Tax on Agriculture Water Tax 2001-02 744270 5670 140320 _ 1224 2002-03 1105911 _ 144880 _ 1424 2003-04 1271950 _ 165593 _ _ 2004-05 597573 _ 5787 _ 815
6. 7. II 8. 9. 10. III 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. IV 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.
Pilgrimage Tax Other Taxes (if any) Non-Tax Revenue Market Rent Ferry Rent Any other Income Assigned Revenue Local cess Local cess surcharge Duty on transfer of property Entertainment Tax Mines & Minerals Surcharge on sales Tax Vehicle entrance fees Other (devolution funds) Grant from govt. of TN & govt. of India Part II Scheme (Augmentation of Water Supply) VAMBAY Infra structure Facilities 11th Finance commission Grant National Slum Development Pro. SJSRY Water Supply Improvement 11th finance Drainage Improvement Burial Ground improve mental Shandy improvement Improvement to C.C. road Temple Town Development Equalization & incartion grants Drought relief Grant MPLAD Scheme MLACD Scheme Namekku Name Thittam Conversion of Dry Latrine into Flush out latrine Funeral Rites Adidravidar Funeral Rites Backward Classes District Development Programme State Finance Commision Election Grants
483751 _ 229742 _ _ 2122130 _ _ _ 1419000 870068
271839 _ 655652 _ _ 2723244 _ _ _ 895000 1497017
170834 _ 1741087 _ _ 2723244 _ _ _ _ 913418
7823 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 683906
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 50000 _ _ _ _ _ 87400
_ _ 432000 440000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ 88115 170000 354191 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 300000 177000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ 85000 168100 23404 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 565000 225000 _ _ _ _ _ 355434 _ _
41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. V 74. 75. 76. 77. 78.
Bio Gas Scheme Siddha Grant Grant from Street Light Maternity Dept of chief of welfare grant Govt. grant bitumen Education Grant Dispensary Grant Small Savings Grants Makkal Nala Paniyalar Anna Marumalarchi Thittam Employment Assurance scheme (EAS) Samatuvapuram Central sanitation scheme District Health Scheme Sport Grant Local Road Grant Allopathy Grant Irrigation Grant JVVT NABARD Social forestry grant JISY IAY Million well scheme SISY Jawahar Rozgar Yojana scheme Chula Grant Paradan Mantri Grammodhya Yojana Jawahar Gram Samidhi Rural Water Supply SGSY Credit Cum Subsidy Grant Any other Grant DD Plan Loans from Government / Others Improvement to Roads from NABARD Conversion of dry latrine into flush out latrine TUFIDCO own fund loan IDSMT Loan HUDCO
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 400000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
79. 80. VI
TNUIFSL Other Loan (if any)
Total Expenditure During the year (Including Establishment charges but exceeding investment made, Transfer of funds from one account to another account and advances paid to the Staff)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
REVENUE ACCOUNT A.) Salaries including conservancy staff a.)Provincialised b.)Non Provincialised c.)Terminal Benefits
398499 2179537 _
237945 2141838 26396
331660 1245083 29036
101987 1356973 _
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. B.)Obligatory Services (Maintenance) a.)Water Supply Materials & Labour Water Supply maintenance Payable to TWAD & Other Public Health Sanitation & Sewage Solid Waste Disposal Street Light Roads Storm Water Drain Burial & Burning Ground Office Management Expn. Subsidy paid under SJSRY Self Employment Library Chess Remitted Others Fund Change
703820 _ 379466 66270 189815 _ _ _ _ 78631 _ _ 655768 225000
201075 _ 289820 _ _ 83800 _ _ _ 130904 _ _ 170098 347000
622507 _ 565380 _ 106610 262066 _ _ 150539 55630 _ _ 95474 _
205434 _ 179376 _ _ 231296 _ _ _ 88578 _ _ _ _
20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. C.)Discretionary Service Parks & Play Grounds Library & Reading Room Markets / Bus Stand Shops & shopping complex Building properties Others Total
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ 170098 32575 92409 2687200 _ 2982282
_ 195613 _ 37461 106270 225000 564344
_ _ _ _ _ 132000 132000
Total (A+B+C Revenue Expn.)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Roads Culverts Strom water drain Water Supply Street light Public Health sanitation Solid waste & Dustbin Drought 237877 91568 _ _ _ 130654 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 797504 _ _ _ _ 224527 1482130 _ _ 147692 _ _ _ _ 174503 _ _ 318020 1362807 865782 _ _ 149000 _ _ _ _ _ 895000 _ _ _ _ _ 3765112 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 954555 474673 450000 15954 1266668 500000 _ _ _ _ 136104 _ 1000000 76939 350000 _ _ _ _ _ 5224893 _ _ 155077 _ _ _ _ _ _ 249605 _ _ 686389 114890 226810 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1277694 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Slaughter House Burial & Burning Ground Retaining wall Community toilet Community Hall School Building Market Bus stand Shops & Shopping Complex Bus shelter Foot path Rest house Other MP Fund Total 2 ( Capital account) Water Supply Govt. Loan Water supply LIC Loan IUDP IDSMT Mega city CMDA Other loan Repayment
Total (1 to 3)
Closing Balance Without Deposits & advances
10376270 9408299 10376270 9408299
POLICIES & STRATEGIES
The New town development authority should form a joint committee with the representation from following departments,
• • • • •
Archeological Survey of India Tourism Department Local Bodies Ministry of Environment Fisheries Department
A Joint Committee could address the issues of the tourists, local residents, environment, coastal regulations etc. in a phased and a systemic manner.
MACRO LEVEL ISSUES
The macro level issues to he addressed are : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Implications of CRZ Monument regulations Kalpakkam Sterile Zone Ferry Service between Chennai & Mamalapuram Extention of MRTS till Pondicherry Sculpture Industrial Zone Extending 6 lane proposal of OMR till Mamalapuram ECR Archeological excavations
Implications of Coastal Regulation Zone
Though coastal regulation zone was formulated in the year 1991 by the central government few state governments were against it because its implications could create huge loss in terms of economics along the coastal stretch.
But the devastrations caused by Tsunami on 26th December 2004 has changed the entire equation on implementation of coastal regulation zones by the State Government.
Two fisherman's settlement and a few resorts in Mamalapuram have incurred huge loss on property as far as Tsunami was concerned.
Policy decision to be taken are :
Relocating the existing population living under the CRZ. New sites have to be identified within the town of Mamalapuram and government through the new town development authority could provide basic infrastructure facilities (sites and services) and soft loans could be provided for the construction of houses.
The heritage town of Mamalapuram has no. of structures declared as monuments. The archeological survey of India lay's down there zone's in and around the monument.
• • •
The Protected Zone The Prohibited Zone The Regulated Zone
The Protected Zone
The protected zone is the monument as such where in no developmental of building activities is permitted (Landscaping, Borewells etc are permissible).
The Prohibited Zone
Hundred meters radius around the monument (Protected Zone) where in construction activity of any form is prohibited. Existing buildings are frozen for future developments and building permissions are denied. The policy decision to be taken
Remove the existing building entirely The alternative sites to be identified and people have to be relocated. The concept of sites and services could be applied here for the benefit of the relocating people. The area coming under the prohibited zone are to be landscaped and basic facilities for the tourist population such as public fountains, resting shelters, parks, play areas, etc.
The Regulated Zone
In the regulated zone the building activities could be carried out with building permission from the archeological survey of India. (Permissible Till Ground and First). After enforcement of all the regulations area left out for commercial activities catering tourist population is very less.
So the regulated zone can be demarcated for commercial purpose with restricted FAR.
Kalpakkam Sterile Zone
Around 200 ha. of land falls under sterile zone presently few residential buildings are propping up in the sterile zone which are unauthorized. Sewage treatment plant and garbage disposal sites are presently identified by local bodies in the sterile zone of Poonjeri area.
Ferry Service between Chennai and Mamallapuram
The sea coast of Bay of Bengal has the finest beaches whose potential has not been utilized on the aspect of tourism.
Policy decision to be taken are : To promote tourism in Mamallapuram a ferry service can be introduced between Chennai and Mamallapuram.
A study has to be done for identification of the jetty on the coast of Mamallapuram.
A ferry service along the Buckingham Canal can also be explored.
Extension of MRTS till Pondicherry
The railways is one of the major and consistent mode of transport in India. As per the press release by the Railway Minister A.K.Moorthy in the year 2000 government has plans to propose a rail connectivity from Chennai to Pondicherry Via. Mamallapuram. With the proposal of administrative city in Thiruvadanthai and Tayur the chances of implementing the scheme is more.
Policy decision to be taken are :
Allocation of land for the railway station in Mamallapuram has to done at the earliest in consultation with the railways department.
Sculpture Industrial Zone
Considering Mamallapuram has a heritage and tourist town the development of new industries seems to be very remote. More over the rules laid by the new town development authority does not permit any large scale industrial activities within the town. The sculpture activities is happening in Mamallapuram for hundreds of years. The projection forecasts a tremendous increase in the tourist population which is very essential for the survival of sculpture activities.
• • • • •
Presently the sculpture activities are spread around the monument zones in bits and pieces. The work space are inadequate and working conditions are poor. The residential powers supply load is being utilized for the machineries used for sculpture related activities. Proper show rooms are not their to display their products. Road side encroachments.
To sum up the sculpture related activities are dying in Mamallapuram and for rejuvenate of the sculpture related activities a exclusive zone for sculpture industry has to be created with considering the following parameters.
2. 3. 4. 5.
Access road connecting highway for transport of stones and sculpture through lorry or containers. Adequate storage space for raw stones and finished sculptures. Clean work environment and adequate work space. Accessibility for the tourists to view the displays under one roof. Building or Hall where in day to day workshops can be conducted for the tourists, quality improvement programmes for laborers.
An exhibition hall to display though sculptures.
Extending the 6 lane proposal of OMR till Mamallapuram ECR
The existing 6 lane proposal on OMR from Chennai till Sirucheri should be extended till Mamallapuram with the given speed of growth of IT industries along the OMR it would engulf Mamallapuram town in no time. Few sites along the OMR in Mamallapuram has been plotted for IT development.
Policy decision to be taken are : An exclusive IT corridor zone on both sides of OMR should be allocated on town of Mamallapuram. h) Archeological Excavations
History of Mamallapuram states there had been around seven temples near the shore temple which mere said to have submerged under the sea. Recently marine archeological survey of India has conducted some studies off the shore of Mamallapuram and have identified few sculptures and temple bases. On shore excavation along the coast of Mamallapuram had led to new findings. Grabha graha of two more temples has been found which does not belong to the style as that of the shore temple.
Policy decision to be taken are :
Restoration of the 2 temple basis which has found near the shore temple and new studies have to be conducted in and around the town of Mamallapuram.
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