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Walt Rostow and Daniel Learner were the chief proponents of the Unilateral model. According to Rostow, a traditional society suffered from many limitations such as limited production facilities, superstitions, non-application of science and technology and rigid social structures. The traditional people also had irrational attitudes. In his work, The Stages of Economic Growth : A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960), Rostow offered a model of development that contained five stages. At the outset a traditional society exists with all its inherent limitations. From this condition, it has to be converted into a society which is modern and industrial. Advancement in modern science and technology and their application to the farm and industrial sectors are very essential for the attainment of development. When people get the information that economic progress will bring in good life, they will approach the sources for such help. Development in transport and communication sectors will lead to better infrastructure. These are the preconditions for take-off. The take-off stage is the stage of development. Obstacles to development crumble. Economic growth becomes a normal activity and modern institutions expand. During this stage, the rate of investment will grow from 5 to 10 percent of the national income. New industries come up and enormous profits flow facilitating re-investment. Labour will become more and more skill oriented and finally, the farm sector will achieve phenomenal growth as a result of the development in other sectors. The next stage is drive to maturity. Here the economic growth rate is sustained. Production outpaces population growth, technology improves and foreign trade flourishes. The last stage is that of high mass consumption. People opt for luxury goods and services. The United States, Western Europe and Japan can be listed under this category. Similarly Daniel Learner suggested that urbanisation, literacy, political participation, empathy and mass media would bring about modernisation. He also identified social mobility as another important factor in the modernisation process.
DIFFUSION MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT
Communication effects research has given scope for the diffusion model. As you already are aware of, the mass media and opinion leaders pass on the information on innovations to the masses. In other words, they diffuse the knowledge of new practices and innovations among the target audiences. There was a long debate on the question whether ideas were developed separately in each culture or were borrowed by others. The evolutionary school contended that each major culture developed individually and independently. By the end of the nineteenth century, the evolutionary theory came into criticism for its inconsistencies. The new protagonists contended that most cultures exhibited elements of borrowed culture more than what had developed from within their own culture. Later researchers by 1940s identified the role of mass media in national development. The external influence on societies for development became the basis of diffusion model. Rogers defined the development of individuals as 'the process by which individuals change from a traditional way of life to a more complex, technologically advanced, and rapidly changing life style'. Everett is an important contributor to diffusion studies.
In the early stages of awareness mass media play a vital role. but posing the problem to the people. The diffusion model was criticised because: a. It concentrated mostly on media and their messages. The rational knowledge is also considered as useful and relevant. b. The model considers participation of the people in the developmental process as never-ending. the Western knowledge is described as superior. Pro-source bias. they can help themselves. Pro-innovation bias. The process that makes them help themselves is called empowerment. ORGANIC MODEL The other extreme to the mechanistic model is organic model. Inevitably. Here the agent of change is either the policy-maker or researcher. and g. decision. evaluation. This model considers that people need to be helped because they lack abilities and sources to develop on their own. In effect. people do not depend upon charity. However. implementation and confirmation. The first stage is awareness. he lacks complete information. Here the individual is exposed to the innovation. but at the evaluation and adoption stages interpersonal sources of information carry more influence than others. c. trial and adoption. The process of adopting innovations depended upon several factors. This is also known as problem-solving model which considers the strategist knows everything and the target audience has no knowledge whatsoever. it finally results in adoption. The knowledge of the adopters or target audience was not properly measured. as listed by livas Melkote. For them. When he decides to continue the use of innovation. One-way flow of message. People themselves are change agents. interest. Leaders are appointed by higher authorities and mass media are used to carry the messages of development. Never identified the real causes behind backwardness. both present and future.The diffusion model contained five stages of adoption. delegation and adaptability. The five stages are awareness. he seeks more information to understand the innovation. He may decide to try the innovation little and this can be called the trial stage. The attitude is not problem solving. it never paid any attention to the media content. who is an advocate of participatory approach to development. it had a bias of communication efforts. Consequently. Leaders are selected by people themselves and leadership ilifications were co-operation. In fact. he evaluates the innovation in the light of his needs. According to the organic model. In the next stage. and are considered as subjects and actors as well. It is in total variance with the mechanistic model. has identified two streams of strategies for development and compared them. Rogers also identified these five stages as knowledge. At the second stage of interest. Accordingly. f. The communication process is top-down and one-way. They also share knowledge since everyone has something to offer. MECHANISTIC MODEL Jan Servas. the first one is called mechanistic. d. e. persuasion. people are nothing but targets. The organic model emphasised on the integrated media . The whole process is designed to be of short-term and prefers evolutionary changes in the society for development.
6. Ashcroft and other thinkers suggested a development communication model called knowledge-sharing model. after its detailed evaluation. While the mechanistic model opted for rarchical and vertical organisation structure. This facilitated listening to people and also trans-sion of information both ways. paucity of funds. However. lack of local leadership and institutions. feudal & dictatorial system that does not promote democratic participation. The development support communicator was the link between the technical experts and the people. The participatory model looks interesting and relevant. They can be: 1. Quasi participation was less focused and laid less emphasis on two-way communication. It has horizontal knowledge sharing mechanism between experts and receivers. 2. Nair and White framed a transactional communication model to support this idea. 8. open ended its evaluation is done by participants themselves. The organic model ed at the removal of causes of underdevelopment and also at making ctural changes in the society. 4. which emphasized on big media and government-people communication. which is also known as participatory model has its own jlems. 7. His job was to bring them together to interact with co-equal partners. control of production means by a few. emerged. an unwilling government. The experts argued that both the benefactor and the beneficiary by sharing knowledge had an equal chance of influencing each other. Development Support Communication model has the characteristics which are listed here: 1. development support communication. In development communication. a new concept. infrastructural inadequacies affecting grassroot participation. 3. The practitioners of development projects and beneficiaries are attempting to solve the problem. However. it is found that a common communication language was absent. several factors affect its efficacy. It was to be on a co-equal basis. the organic model preferred fo-horizontal structure. participation has different meanings for different people. organic model. f• 5. The model identified three levels of participation was active. Basically it is development agency based.6 DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT COMMUNICATION Initially the focus was on communication for development. total marginalisation of the down-trodden sections of the society. gender inequity.The planning is of long-term. 2. . and 9.and two-way Communication. creative and continuous. 2. unstable and non-receptive political climate in the country concerned. However. Low participation did not pay much attention either to the need for change or communication.
brought political independence to India from the British rule. film strips. 4. Exploitation of the villages and villagers by the urban people should stop. He proposed a holistic approach to development. Aims at grassroots level development. 2. 3. True India can be seen only in its villages. small media like video. Mahatma Gandhi knew the needs of the people in a country of villages. For communication. 5. villagers could buy . People should opt for indigenously (swadeshi) produced products and institutions.3. It envisages a pro-active role for the common people in development process. GANDHIAN MODEL__________________________ Mahatma Gandhi. Then everyone understands the real dignity of labor. The ethical balance between ends and means was greatly emphasised by Gandhiji. This was essential to the success of non-violence. and 5. not in cities. 4. Physical labor is compulsory for all and they should earn their living through such labor. The core assumptions on which the Gandhian model was based were: 1. Gandhiji combined moral and spiritual values with economic goals that contributed for an overall development of both the individual and society. The ultimate objective of DSC is to create a lasting mutual trust between the benefactors and beneficiaries. The focus is on participatory method. the apostle of non-violence. traditional forms. Minimum needs or basic needs of the people should be fulfilled first. he had his own thesis of development. group and interpersonal communication are used. The Gandhian model underscored the importance of village economy for not only its self-sufficiency but also of the entire country. At the same time. When needed.