CLASSIFICATION NOTES

No. 30.1

BUCKLING STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF BARS AND FRAMES, AND SPHERICAL SHELLS
APRIL 2004

DET NORSKE VERITAS
Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Høvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11

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......................................................... 1................................. general ........No..3 1...........7 3... 15 Buckling of dished ends convex to pressure ... 2..... 14 Introduction ..................................................................1 3.. 9 Buckling of beam-columns .........................................1 2....... 14 Stresses ...........................................4 Buckling strength analysis..................... 10 Buckling of frames ........6 2................................ 15 Shell buckling....................3 BUCKLING OF STRUCTURES ..........2 2............8 2.......................................1 April 2004 3 CONTENTS 1........ 11 Overall buckling of built-up members .... 4 Introduction........... 13 UNSTIFFENED SPHERICAL SHELLS......4 Fabrication tolerances............... 30..........Classification Notes .......4 Usage factor ...2 1...........................................5 Column buckling ..................................5 BARS AND FRAMES ....................... 15 DET NORSKE VERITAS ...4 2............................................. 3...........................2 3...................3 3........................................... 5 Introduction.........5 2.........1 1..4 2.............4 Lateral-torsional buckling of beam ...............................5 Characteristic buckling resistance ..................................

actual instabilities may be expected to occur at limit points rather than at bifurcation points.2 Typical non-dimensional buckling curve 1. Fig. A typical buckling strength curve is shown in Fig. at which another solution to the equilibrium equations exists.3 However. Fig. For relatively small loads. The type of instability shown in Fig. 1.2. see Fig.4 Classification Notes .2. 1. — Typical buckling strength curves are characterized by a plateau. — The critical stress may be defined relative to the yield stress. — The most general definition of structural slenderness is the reduced slenderness: λ = σF ----σE where σE is the elastic buckling stress.No.1b. σ. The structure collapses when the load is increased beyond the limit point.1 Types of instability 1. σF. The other type of instability shown in Fig. σE should be modified in such a way that imperfections within specified tolerances are accounted for.4 Because geometric imperfections of various shapes are inevitable in fabricated structures. 1. σcr.1.0. or a defined “equivalent” stress. When the load is increased a bifurcation point is reached.1 Introduction 1.1 In the rules for classification of ships (henceforth referred to as the rules). 1. This may be one single stress component.1. 1. — The buckling strength of the structure is defined as the critical value of the reference stress.l a is known as snap-through buckling and is characterized by a load-deflection curve as indicated. if the structure contains an initial geometric imperfection in the shape of the buckling mode. 1. In such cases it may be concluded that buckling is not relevant when λ < λo.3 The general procedure for buckling strength analysis according to this Note may be described as follows: — The state of stress in the structure under consideration is characterized by a reference stress.2. 1.2 The characteristic buckling strength is to be based on the lower 5th percentile of test results. 1. The post buckling behaviour then depends on the characteristics of the secondary path. 1.l b is known as classical or bifurcation buckling.1 Buckling strength analyses are to be based on the characteristic buckling strength for the most unfavourable buckling mode.2.3. in such a way that the ratio σcr/σF is determined as a function of the reduced slenderness parameter.1.2 Buckling strength analysis 1. but for structures which are sensitive to imperfections in the elastic range. λ. the equilibrium state of the structure is called the prebuckling state or the fundamental state.2. 30. Beyond the bifurcation point the prebuckling path is unstable. In lieu of more relevant information or more refined analysis.Whether the bifurcation-point load of the perfect structure is close to the limit-point load of the imperfect structure depends on the shape of the secondary path of the perfect structure.1 April 2004 1. for values of λ less than λo. DET NORSKE VERITAS . characteristic buckling strength values may be obtained from this Note. σcr/σF = 1. It is seen that an imperfect structure may lose its stability at a limit point that corresponds to a lower load than the bifurcation point of the perfect structure. it is required that structural stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each structural member. l. Buckling of Structures 1.2 There are basically two ways in which a structure may lose its stability.3 Usage factor 1. 1. For a number of cases it has been found convenient to derive explicit slenderness limitations based on this criterion.1 The buckling stress analysis given in this Note is based on the allowable usage factor method.1.1. In general σE may be determined from classical buckling theory. the load-displacement curve may be as indicated in Fig.

These limits are specified in Sec.1. Depending on the loading condition.2 The reduced slenderness. Members with arbitrary cross-sections are subject to special considerations.7 Lateral-torsional buckling may be the critical mode when a beam is subjected to bending about its strong axis and not braced against bending about the weak axis.4. σcr.6 Flexural-torsional buckling may be the critical mode of columns whose shear centre and centroid do not coincide and which are torsionally weak (thin-walled open sections in contrast to closed thick-walled or solid shapes).3 The maximum allowable value of the usage factor. or if it can be proved by adequate methods that the buckling strength of the imperfect structure is sufficient.2. Poisson's ratio.1. Young's modulus. shear modulus (G = E/2 (1 + ν)) moment of inertia.3 A compression member is defined as “stocky” if the reduced slenderness with respect to the critical column buckling mode is less than 0. yield stress of the material as defined in the rules.1.1. It should be emphasized that flexural-torsional buckling analysis is only needed when it is physically possible for such buckling to occur. 2.8 In this Note it is assumed that the cross-section of the member under consideration has at least one axis of symmetry (Z axis).2 A fabricated structure with imperfections exceeding the limits given in Chapter 7 of this Note should only be accepted if the actual usage factor with respect to buckling is found to be small compared to the allowable usage factor. 2.3. 2. where σE is the elastic buckling stress for the buckling mode under consideration. 2.2.No.4 Fabrication tolerances 1. anti-symmetrical Z-shapes. thin-walled short columns in which shear centre and centroid coincide (doubly-symmetrical I-shapes. cruciforms etc.5 Torsional buckling may be the critical mode of certain open.2.4.2.Classification Notes . λ.).1 April 2004 5 1.1 The buckling strength of most structures depends on size and shape of geometric imperfections.1. η is defined as the ratio between the actual value of the reference stress due to design loading and the critical value of the reference stress.1. In general the effect of imperfections is only implicitly incorporated in the formulae for characteristic strength. 30.2 Buckling modes for bars are categorized as follows (see Fig. is determined by use of the reduced slenderness. Lateral-torsional buckling of beams: simultaneous twisting and bending.1 The characteristic buckling resistance of a compression member. In general ηp depends on: — loading condition — type of structure — slenderness of structure. 2.e.4 Flexural buckling may be the critical mode of a slender column of doubly symmetrical cross-section or one which is not susceptible to.3.1.1): Flexural buckling of columns: bending about the axis of least resistance. shell-buckling). ηp is defined in the rules. 2.: σ η = ------σ cr 1. This means that it has been assumed that the imperfections do not exceed certain limits. or is braced against twisting.1.3 The buckling mode which corresponds to the lowest buckling load is referred to as the critical buckling mode. Torsional buckling of columns: twisting without bending.1 This chapter treats the buckling of bars and frames. λ. 1. Local buckling: buckling of a thin-walled part of the cross-section (plate-buckling. 2.1 Introduction 2. 2. 2. 2.2 The usage factor. is defined by: λ = σF ----σE 2.9 The following symbols are used without a specific definition in the text where they appear: 1.Flexural-torsional buckling of columns: simultaneous twisting and bending.1. Bars and Frames 2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . A E G I = = = = σF = ν = cross-sectional area. 2.2 Characteristic buckling resistance 2. i.5 of this Note. 2. a bar may be referred to as follows: Column Beam Beam-column bar subject to pure compression bar subject to pure bending bar subject to simultaneous bending and compression.

35 2. 2.6 α 0. The governing thicknesses in each case are shown in Fig.2.2 0. 2.2.2.0 σF If λ > λo 2 2 2 2 σ cr 1 + µ + λ – (1 + µ + λ ) – 4λ ------.1 April 2004 Table 2-1 Numerical values of λo and α Curve a b c d e λo 0.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 σF 2λ Fig.65 0.6 Classification Notes . 2. For computations σcr/σF may be obtained form: — If λ ≤ λo σ cr ------.No.3. 30.2 0.2 Non-dimensional buckling curves where µ = α (λ .2 shows the assignment of commonly used structural sections to column curves “a”. “b” or “c”.= 1.5 0.1 Buckling modes of columns and beams 2.35 0.2 0.6 The yield stress to be used is that of the most highly compressed part of the cross section during buckling.5.20 0. Fig. Curve “e” applies to lateral-torsional buckling of beams.2 0. Curve “d” is a non-dimensional buckling curve for sniped plate stiffeners which is referred to in 3.λo) The coefficients α and λo are given in Table 2-1.5 Fig.4. 2. 2.4 Non-dimensional buckling curves are given in Fig. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2.2.

2.3 Column selection chart DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 April 2004 7 Fig.Classification Notes .No. 30.

2. 2.8 In cases where the geometric proportions are such that local instability may occur. see 2. In cases where only the axial stress component is different from zero or of any significance for local buckling. which is a basic assumption in connection with plastic design methods.7 A section may be considered as “compact” for the purpose of this Note if the reduced slenderness with respect to local buckling of any part of the section is less than: — 0. σacr.≤ ( 3.= ----. A Recommended values for K are given in Table 2-2 for a number of cases. The characteristic buckling stress.10 A compression member which may be defined as both “stocky” and “compact” is not susceptible to buckling. the yield stress must be substituted by the characteristic local buckling stress. Theoretical values and recommended values when ideal conditions are approximated.2 For members which may fail by flexural buckling.3 Column buckling 2.1.8 Classification Notes .≤ 0.9 The requirements given in 2. Fig. For compression members in frames.for -1 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 -. Venant torsional constant warping constant.7 are not sufficient to secure development of full plastic hinges. the buckling stress is obtained from Fig.----π E σE a E. 2. 2.2.= elastic torsional bucklin stress 2 Ip Ip le le = Ip = IT = CW = K = effective length with respect to warping polar moment of inertia about the shear centre St.= radius of gyration. 2 DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 April 2004 2. 2. the cross section may be considered as compact if the following requirements are satisfied (see Fig.0 ----d σF l le = Kl = effective length I --.5. the buckling stress is obtained from Fig.3 For members which may fail by torsional buckling. 30. Local instability need not be considered for “compact” sections as defined in 2.1.4.4 ----t σF Compressed flange in a box girder: 2. 2.7 for plane parts of the cross section — 0.2 with λ defined by: λ = π E σE = --------= Euler stress 2 λk i e λk = --2 λk σF σF ----.3.35 ----t σF Web plate with linear distribution of axial stresses: h E. 2. see 2.2. 2.No. there are three different buckling modes to be considered: — flexural buckling — torsional buckling — flexural-torsional buckling. for members subjected to pure compression is the buckling stress corresponding to the critical buckling mode.5 for curved parts of the cross section.2.≤ --------t 9 σF Shear buckling of the web plate at a position with only shear stresses may be disregarded if: h E -.6.3. i = Table 2-2 Effective length factors. 2. see 2.3.2.2.1 For members which are not susceptible to local buckling. Methods for evaluation of the reduced slenderness with respect to local buckling are given in the subsequent chapters.2 curve “e” with λ defined by: λ = σF --------σ ET GI T π EC W σ ET = --------+ -----------------.4 Cross sectional parameters 2.≤ 1.35 – 2 ( 1 + ψ ) ) ----d σF Tubular cross sections: D E --.4): Outstands: f E .≤ 2.7.

ηp. which is given by: DET NORSKE VERITAS . 2. 2.6. σEFT = elastic flexural-torsional buckling stress.3 for commonly used cross sections. σbcr. Table 2-3 Cross sectional properties where σE is the Euler stress for lateral buckling about the weak axis.tb ⎜ --------------------------⎟ b) I f = ----12 ⎜ ⎛ d -⎞ t ⎟ ⎝ 1 + ⎝ g -b⎠ ⎠ 2. 2. σEF = elastic torsional buckling stress. This result is also obtained from 2.3. = polar moment of inertia about the shear centre. = distance from centroid to shear centre along the zaxis. see 2.) σET ~ σE Fig.5 Ae = effective cross sectional area.3.3.3 under the assumption that IT = 0 and Ip = A (h/2)2.4 In lieu of more accurate analysis.4 Lateral-torsional buckling of beam 2.4. (This simplified approach yields for doubly-symmetrical Hand I-shape sections: 2 2. 2.No.2 curve “b” with λ defined by: λ = σF -----------σ EFT 2 1σ EFT = ----[ ( σ E + σ ET ) – ( σ E + σ ET ) – 4 βσ E σ ET ] 2β β A Ip zo σE = Euler stress for buckling about the z-axis.5.5 For members with one axis of symmetry (z-axis) and which may fail by flexural-torsional buckling.1 April 2004 9 The parameters ITand CW are given in Table 2. see Fig. is defined in the rules (Type 3 structure).3. 30. see 2.1 A beam which is subjected to bending about its strong axis (y-axis) and not restrained against buckling about the weak axis (z-axis) may fail by lateral-torsional buckling. the buckling stress is obtained from Fig. σET may be taken as: π EI f σ ET = ------------2 Ae le If = moment of inertia of flange. 2.1. zo A = 1 – ----------Ip 2 = cross sectional area. Failure takes place when the largest compression stress reaches a critical value.5 Cross-sectional properties to be used for simple evaluation of the torsional buckling strength 1.6 The usage factor for members subjected compression is defined by: σa η = --------σ acr The maximum allowable value of the usage factor.Classification Notes .3 a) I f = ----tb 12 ⎛ 1 + 4⎛gd --⎞ t⎞ ⎝ b⎠ ⎟ 1 3⎜ .

4. Venant torsional constant. Otherwise notation as under 2. 2.4). = Euler buckling stress always about weak axis (z-axis).4 yields for doubly-symmetrical H. ηp.5.+ ------------------------------σa ⎞ σ acr ⎛ 1 – ----. see Fig.2 and 2. Reduced slenderness as calculated critical for σacr. the usage factor for members subjected to compression and bending may be taken as: σa ασ b η = --------.+ --------------------------σa⎞ σa ⎞ σ acr ⎛ ⎛ 1 – ----.3 for commonly used cross sections.----leo = 0. = Characteristic buckling stress for pure bending as defined in 2.-------------------------c = -----. λv.σ ⎝ σ ⎠ bcr ⎝ σ ⎠ F E E = effective axial stress due to bending about strong axis (y-axis).and I-shape sections: σEV ~ σE where σE is the Euler stress for lateral buckling about the weak axis.7 Lateral supports of the compression flange are to be designed for 2% of the total compression force that exists in the compression flange.55b --------Z yc σ F le = laterally unsupported length Ac = cross sectional area of compression flange b = width of compression flange. If bending about weak axis (z-axis) then σbcr = σF.2 For doubly symmetrical H. σEV may be taken as: π EI zc h σ EV = ------------------2 Z yc l e Izc = moment of inertia of the compression flange (for doubly-symmetrical H.8 The usage factor for members subjected to pure bending is defined by: σb η = --------σ bcr The maximum allowable value of the usage factor. σv.4. 2.σ ⎝ σ ⎠ bcr E 2.1 In lieu of more refined analysis.5 Buckling of beam-columns 2.5 The simplified approach given in 2. 2 2 σa σb σacr σE σbcr α = Axial stress due to compression.6.5. may be obtained from curve “e” in Fig.4. This result is also obtained from 2. = Effective axial stress due to bending. 2. 2. The parameters Cw and IT are shown in Table 2.3 For a beam with constant bending moment (bending moments applied at the ends): le Cw IT 2 .4.+ ---2 Iz Iz 2 π ( 1 + ν ) Cw = warping constant IT = St. is defined in the rules (Type 2 structure). = Characteristic buckling stress for axial compression as defined in 2.3. = Coefficient depending on type of structure and reduced slenderness according to the rules. the usage factor may be taken as: σa ασ by ασ bz η = --------.σ 1 – ----.4. bending moment distribution and position of load with respect to the neutral axis.4 In lieu of more accurate analysis.3 under the assumption that IT = 0 and Zyc = Ah / 2 (see also 2.4.6 or le < leo Ac h E .and I-shape and rectangular box sections which are subjected to simultaneous axial compression and bending about two axes.1 April 2004 The lateral torsional buckling stress. 2. 2. 2.No. σF --------σ EV π EI z c . 2.6 Lateral-torsional buckling need not be considered if: lv < 0.4.1.4.and I-shape sections Izc = Iz/2) h = web height.10 Classification Notes . σby DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 The reduced slenderness with respect to lateral-torsional buckling is defined by: λv = 2 σbcr = σv 2.4.+ ------------------------------. For compression members which are braced against joint translation.5.4. 30.4.2 by use of the reduced slenderness with respect to lateral-torsional buckling.1.3. Bending about weak (z-axis) or strong axis (y-axis) see options for σbcr.= elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress σ EV = ---------------2 Z yc l e le Zyc Iz c = = = = Kl = effective length with respect to warping section modulus with respect to compression flange moment of inertia about the weak axis parameter depending on geometric proportions. 2. σb is the maximum bending stress within the middle third of the length of the member. σbz = effective axial stress due to bending about weak axis (z-axis).

6. At each end of the compressed member the following parameter is defined: ∑ --lc Ic 2.8b DET NORSKE VERITAS . K is obtained by constructing a straight line between the appropriate points on the scales for GA and GB. see Fig. le = Kl.8 are based on the following assumptions: — — — — behaviour is elastic all members have constant cross section all joints are rigid for the sidesway prevented case.7 The significance of effective length. lb = moment of inertia and length of the uncompressed members (beams). 2. Ic. lc = moment of inertia and length of the compressed members (columns) Ib.6 Effective bending stress for beam-columns 2.1 April 2004 11 Fig.4 The alignment charts given in Fig.8. 2. 2.8a — for the sidesway unprevented case.6. rotations at the far ends of restraining beams are equal in magnitude but opposite in sense to the joint rotations at the columns ends (single curvature bending).5. see Fig. rotations at the far ends of the restraining members are equal in magnitude and in the same sense as the joint rotations at the column ends (reverse curvature bending). Fig. σb. it is necessary to evaluate the usage factor with respect to yielding at the position of maximum bending stress.3 The maximum allowable value of the usage factor. 2. 2. is illustrated in Fig. G = ----------Ib --lb ∑ Σ indicates summation for all members rigidly connected to that joint and lying in the plane in which buckling of the column is being considered. 30. the value of K exceeds 2. 2.3 Having determined GA and GB for end A and end B of the member under consideration. The physical significance of the effective length. For the case shown in this figure.0. ηp. 2.5.2 A procedure for determining K for braced and unbraced rectangular frames is based on the use of the alignment charts. 2.7.4 When the buckling analyses of a beam-column has been carried out by use of an effective bending stress.6 Buckling of frames 2. 2.Classification Notes . which is less than the maximum bending stress. Kl 2.6. 2.No.6.1 Effective length factors for columns in a frame may be determined by computing the critical load for the complete frame or for a portion of the frame. is defined in the rules (Type 3 structure). shown in Fig.

Fig. 2. provided that G is determined as: G = ----------Ib --lb ∑ --lc Ic ∑ where α is a correction factor depending on the boundary conditions at the far end on the beam. 2. 30. K DET NORSKE VERITAS . 2.must be identical for — the column stiffness parameter l ----EI all columns — the restraining moments provided by the beams at an end of a column are distributed between the columns in the ratio of the I/l values of the columns — all columns in the frame buckle simultaneously. see Fig.9.No.8 Alignment charts to be used for evaluation of the effective length factor.12 Classification Notes .6.8 may be used in more general cases.5 The alignment charts shown in Fig.1 April 2004 P . 2.

G must be determined as: ∑ --lc Ic Fig.--. 2. where β is a correction factor depending on the relative joint rigidity: 1 β = --------------Cb 1 + ----Cj Cb = beam stiffness parameter Cj = joint stiffness parameter.33 < r/R < 0. 2.7.1 A built-up member is here assumed to be composed of two or more sections (chords) separated from one another by intermittent transverse connecting elements (bracings).35 – 1.11.7 Overall buckling of built-up members 2. 2.01⎞ C j = 0.2 with λ defined by: For the T-joint out-of-plane bending case shown in Fig.02⎞ ⎝ ⎠ R⎠ ⎝ R 3⎛ r⎞ ⎛ 2. 10 Tubular T-joints subjected to bending G = ------------------Ib αβ --lb ∑ 2.8 and 10 < R/T < 30 Fig.9 The modification factor α for different boundary conditions 2.No. see Fig. The beam stiffness parameter is given by: — For the sidesway prevented case: EI b C b = 2 α ------lb — For the sidesway permitted case: EI b C b = 6 α ------lb For the T-joint in-plane bending case shown in Fig. the joint stiffness parameter may be taken as: 3 T . 2.10. 11 Built-up compression member 2.45 – 1. It is assumed that all connections are welded.5 --⎝ R⎠ Fig.– 0.Classification Notes .7. The characteristic buckling stress may be obtained from Fig. 30.43ER ⎛ --⎝R ⎠ r⎞ ⎛ 2.216 ER 1.6 --⎝ R⎠ The expressions for Cj are only valid if: 0.6. 2.6 When the moment connections between columns and beams are not fully rigid.59 – --.10.2 Overall buckling of a built-up member corresponds to flexural buckling of a homogenous member.1 April 2004 13 r⎞ ⎛T C j = 0. the joint stiffness parameter may be taken as: DET NORSKE VERITAS .– 0.

7.5 Bracing members.= Euler stress 2 ( 1 + ω )λ k I ω = 2 π ( 1 + υ ) -------------2 le AQ 2 2 = shear stiffness modification factor = le = column slenderness of the built-up member regarded as homogenous I i = --. Table 2-4 Equivalent shear area of plane built-up members λk σcr x = characteristic overall buckling stress of the built-up member determined in accordance with 2.No.3. 2.3.7.7.1.------------x PE – P K l Kl P = average axial force in each leg = Euler buckling stress for the beam column PE Mmax = maximum 1st order bending moment i.3 In addition to the overall buckling analysis. see Fig. effective shear area.e.11.5 K = effective length factor to be determined in accordance with 2. and moment of inertia. I = cross sectional area. 2. AQ. shall be designed to resist the effect of an overall shear force. the overall buckling analysis is to be based on a reduced yield stress equal to the characteristic buckling stress of this chord element.4 and 2.14 Classification Notes .1 Introduction 3. 2.cos ----Q o = π --------------. Qd. 30. given by: 3. out of straightness π E σ E = -------------------------. it is necessary to carry out buckling analysis for each single element of the built-up member. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 = distance from zero bending moment.1 This chapter treats the buckling of unstiffened spherical shells and dished end closures.1 April 2004 λ = σF ----σE Qd = Q + Q o where Q is the maximum shear force due to design loading and Qo is defined by: P M max π.4 If the characteristic buckling stress of a single chord element is less than the yield stress.6.= radius of gyration A = Kl = effective length le A.7.2 or 2. Table 2-5 Cross-sectional properties of three-dimensional built-up members 2. Unstiffened Spherical Shells 3. see Tables 2. due to: — lateral load — eccentric axial load — initial def.

N. reaches DET NORSKE VERITAS . is defined in the rules (Type 5 structure). a critical value. the thickness should not be less than 1. The critical stress may be taken as: σF σ cr = ----------------------------------------2 4 1–ψ+ψ +λ where ψ = σ2 ----.1 Buckling of an unstiffened spherical shell occurs when the largest compressive principal membrane stress. the stresses are given by: pr σ φ = σ θ = ---2t These equations are only valid if the edges are reinforced. 3.2 Torispherical ends are to be designed as a complete sphere with radius equal to the crown radius.1 Hemispherical ends are to be designed as a complete sphere under uniform pressure.2.+ ----------------------------σ φ = ---2 2 2t ( sin φ ) 2 π rt ( sin φ ) The circumferential membrane stress is given by: σ θ = pr ---.= stress ratio (-1 ≤ ψ ≤ 1) σ1 σF ----.2 For the spherical shell segment shown in Fig. ηp. defined by: pr σ 1 = σ 2 = ---2t 3.2 The following symbols are used without a specific definition in the text where they appear: = = = = = σF = E N p r t Young's modulus axial load lateral pressure middle radius of the shell shell thickness yield stress of the material as defined in the rules.4.1 Spherical shell segment 3. 30. If the axial force is due to end pressure only. general 3. the required crosssectional area of the reinforcement is: sin 2 α rt A = ------------------2(1 – υ) λ = σ1 = largest compressive principal membrane stress σ2 = principal membrane stress normal to σ1 (compressive σE = elastic buckling stress. where H is the short axis and r is the long axis of the ellipsoid.4.3. Fig.5 ρ = ---------------------r t1 + -------100 or tensile) 3. σ1 and σ2.2 Stresses 3.3.2. the thickness should not be less than 1.Classification Notes . However. However.--------------------------------------------------. 6. 6.3 The elastic buckling stress σE may be taken as: t σ E = 0.4. is due to end pressure alone.2 times the thickness required for a structure of the same shape subjected to internal pressure. and the expressions given above for σcr and ρ may be written as: σF σ cr = -----------------4 1+λ 0.= reduced slenderness σE 3.3. For a complete spherical shell subjected to uniform lateral pressure the state of stress is defined by the principal membrane stresses.– σφ t If the axial force.4 For a complete sphere subjected to uniform external pressure the stress ratio is ψ = 1.3 Shell buckling.606 ρ E r In lieu of more detailed information ρ may be taken as: 0.No.3 Ellipsoidal ends are to be designed as a complete sphere with radius equal to r2/H.5 ρ = ---------------------------------------------1 r -1 + ----------------------------100 ( 3 – 2 ψ ) t 3.4 Buckling of dished ends convex to pressure 3.1 Spherical shells are usually designed to resist lateral pressure.2 The usage factor for shell buckling is defined by: σ1 η = ------σ cr The maximum allowable value of the usage factor.3. the meridional membrane stress is given by: pr sin ( φ + α ) sin ( φ – α ) N . 3. σ1.1 April 2004 15 3. σcr. 3.1. 3.2 times the thickness required for a structure of the same shape subjected to internal pressure.1.

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