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**BJT Amplifier Frequency Response
**

Bandwidth of an Amplifier Most amplifiers have relatively constant gain over a certain range (band) of frequencies, this is called the bandwidth (BW) of the amplifier.

Fig. 1 Typical frequency response of an amplifier

As the frequency response curve shows, the gain of an amplifier remains relatively constant across a band of frequencies. When the operating frequency starts to go outside this frequency range, the gain begins to drop off. Two frequencies of interest, fC1 and fC2, are identified as the lower and upper cutoff frequencies. The Bandwidth is found as: BW = fC2 – fC1

The operating frequency of an amplifier is equal to the geometric center frequency fo, fo = √(fC1 fC2 ) Notice that the ration of fo to fC1 equals the ratio of fC2 to fo , this is: fo / fC1 = fC2 / fo Therefore we also have that: fC1 = fo2 / fC2 ; fC2 = fo2 / fC1

1

2 Typical frequency response of an amplifier in dB Bode Plots The Bode Plot is a variation of the basic frequency response curve. 2 . Fig. 3 Representation of a Frequency Response using Bode Plots Bode plots are typically used because they are easier to read. A Bode plot assumes the amplitude (transfer function) is zero until the cutoff frequency is reached. Then the gain of the amplifier is assumed to drop at a set rate of 20 dB/decade (this is true for first order transfer functions (or one RC time constant).ELEC 356 Electronics II Amplifier Frequency Response Fig.

The lower cutoff frequency of a given common emitter amplifier will be given by the highest of the individual transistor terminal circuits. R’in = R1 ║ R2 ║ RS In most cases RE >> ( re + R’in / hfe ) and we can approximate Rout = ( re + R’in / hfe ) f1E = 1 / (2π Rout CE ) Refer to Fig. Fig. Rout = RE ║ ( re + R’in / hfe ). Refer to Fig. 5. CC1 The Collector Circuit of the BJT amplifier works as the same principle as the Base Circuit. f1C. Rin = R1 ║R2 ║hie C = value of the Base coupling capacitor. f1E ) 3 . The cutoff frequency of the Collector Circuit is: f1C = 1 / [2π (RC + RL ) C] RC + RL = sum of the resistance in the collector circuit C = value of the Base coupling capacitor.5. 4 The Base Circuit of a typical amplifier The lower cutoff frequency of the Base Circuit is: f1B = 1 / (2π RC) where : R = Rs + Rin . CC2 For the Emitter Circuit cutoff frequency. this is. re = V T / I E fC1 = MAX(f1B.ELEC 356 Electronics II Amplifier Frequency Response Cutoff frequencies of an RC-coupled amplifier. we need to refer to the following relationships derived in previous chapters.

CE = 10 μF. R2 = 4. CC2 = 0. 111. 5 Typical Common Emitter Amplifier Ans. 650) = 650 Hz 4 .22 μF. f1B = 61.7 kΩ.2 kΩ. CC1 = 1 μF. hie = 4. Determine the value of the lower cutoff frequency for the following amplifier. Vcc = 10 V Fig. RL = 5 kΩ.2 Hz f1C = 111 Hz f1E = 650 Hz Lower cutoff frequency of the amplifier = fC1 = max (61.ELEC 356 Electronics II Amplifier Frequency Response Example. R1 = 18 kΩ. hfe = 200. RC = 1.2.4 kΩ. Consider the following component values: RS = 600 Ω.5 kΩ. RE = 1.

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