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. Prove that “A tree G with n vertices has (n–1) edges” Ans. We prove this theorem by induction on the number vertices n. Basic step: If n- 1, then G contains only one vertex and no edge. So the number of edges in G is n –1 - 1 – 1 - 0. Induction hypothesis : The statement is true for all trees with less than ‘n’ vertices. Induction step : Nowlet us consider a tree with ‘n’ vertices. Let ‘e k’ be any edge in T whose end vertices are vi and vj. Since T is a tree, by there is no other path between vi and vj. So by removing ek from T , we get a disconnected graph. Furthermore,T – ek consists of exactly two components (sayT1 and T2). SinceT is a tree, there were no circuits inT and so there were no circuits inT 1 andT 2. ThereforeT 1 andT 2 are also trees. It is clear that |V (T 1)| + |V (T 2)| -|V (T )| whereV (T ) denotes the set of vertices inT .Also |V (T 1)| and |V (T 2)| are less thann .Therefore by the induction hypothesis, we have| | E (T 1)| -|V (T 1)| - 1 and | E (T 2)| - |V (T 2)| - 1. | E (T 1)| - |V (T 1)| - 1 and | E (T 2)| - |V (T 2)| - 1.