UTILITY BATTERY CIRCUITS

Design goals
Safety First
Location E Eyewash h station t ti Non metallic tools Fire protection p Proper signage Hydrogen release and venting Battery room lockout Electrolyte spill Battery racking and enclosures

Design goals
Reliability Cost Simplicity St d di ti Standardization Component Availability

What utility battery’s battery s do .

Parts of the dc bus THE BATTERY THE BATTERY CHARGER THE DC DISCONNECT .

Parts of the dc bus DC DISTRIBUTION .

Simple utility dc circuit .

Create a wire diagram of the schematic FD=Fused Disconnect BC=Battery y Charger g DIS=Distribution p panel .

Adding Redundancy .

Adding Redundancy .

Adding Redundancy .

Adding Redundancy .

•Add disconnects and junctions at key locations. •Battery chargers are increased in size to accommodate added loads. •Add structure to the building for lifting equipment above the batteries batteries. •Plan the floor layout to accommodate a spare battery or test loads. •Think about protecting and removing each element. •Remember that batteries added today may change in size later.Design with the user in mind •Create and examine the wiring diagram of the system system. i t and d temporary t battery b tt chargers. •Add extra breakers in the dc distribution or connectors for remote b tt i batteries. t test t equipment. h .

PART TWO How to size a utility battery charger. .

Half Full? A vessel l twice the h size required…. i d Half Empty? .

•Lower cost at inception.Properly sized chargers will ill result lt in. •More efficient operation. •Lower cost over the life of the system. batteries •Properly maintained loads. . i •Properly charged batteries.

g •IEEE Std 446446-1987.Standards that describe battery y charger g sizing. • known k as the h “Orange “ Book” B k” •IEEE Std 946946-2004 .

.Constant Voltage Charging One of the oldest methods of battery charging – first used for aircraft…….

Constant Voltage Charging Keeps the battery charged without overcharging by maintaining a constant voltage. .

Today y constant potential p charging is used for just y g about everything………. Utility Stationary Communications Oil & Gas G Petro Chemical Chemical Transportation .…..

. this pool the water will evaporate and reduce the storage. Like a battery’s state of charge.Basics terms about charging a battery FLOAT Charge: Charge maintains the battery voltage and prevents self discharge.

Basics terms about charging a battery Equalize Charge – used to cause a battery’s cells to b become more equivalent i l t in their state of charger. . In a string of batteries we are over charging some cells and fully charging others.

f .Basics terms about charging a battery Float Charge & Equalize charge voltages are determined by the battery manufacturer.

DC to DC Converters Control relays SCADA Systems .Basics terms about charging a battery Constant Loads – defined as those loads which remain steady and present.

.Basics terms about charging a battery Transient Loads – defined as those loads which are fleeting.

1. 1.15 •Wet vented Nickel Cadmium – 1.35.4 •Valve Regulated Nickel Cadmium – 1. R = Recharge h F Factor (This (Thi accounts f for losses l i in the h b battery while hil charging) h i ) •Wet Vented Lead Acid – 1.15 •Valve Regulated Lead Acid – 1.The Formula ((Ah x R)/ T) + L = Charger Amperes Ah – (Ampere hours) This is the measurement of a battery’s storage capacity We calculate this amount from a timed event of an ac failure when the loads deplete the battery. 1.3. 1.4 L = Constant Loads supported by the battery charger T= The time required to recharge the battery . We could also use the full value of the battery.

6Adc Current to recharge the battery | added to load current . Now that the ac has returned current needed is to support the dc bus and recharge the battery is… 150Ah x 1. Assume 200AH wet vented lead acid battery y with 150AH removed recharge in 8 hours and a constant load of 25Amps..15(eff) / 8H= 21.6Adc | +25(load)=46.The Formula ((Ah x R)/ T) + L = Charger Amperes Let’s give it a try……………………………………………….

Temperature ..Other Considerations….

Other Considerations…. Temperature ..

Altitude .

Temperature and Altitude are interrelated. •As ambient temperature increases. the charger’s ability to operate at full rating will therefore decrease. •As altitude increases the ambient temperature usually decreases.. •Also as altitude increases the air molecules available to cool the battery y charger g decreases. .Other Considerations….

•Check the manufacture's suggestions. ll . •Note the relationships p between temperature p and altitude it may be acceptable to operate without dede -rating by just adjusting the useful ambient temperature allowance.Other Considerations….. Temperature and Altitude are interrelated. Usually they have a chart that shows the relationship between altitude and temperature.

Anticipated Growth – Did I plan for the future? ..Other Considerations….

.Other Considerations…. •Should I use a larger g charger g now or plan p for redundancy y later? •Perhaps a complete parallel system would make sense? •Is growth budgeted or assumed? .

•Was the battery y sized for future growth g such that the charger g calculation already takes this growth into account? •Finally..Other Considerations…. just adding capacity is not good “insurance” if you really do not need it! Good engineering is the best insurance. insurance .

possible •This means……………. and all associated equipment q p will be properly sized. y. •Insist on getting the facts before sizing the application. •If I plan my application carefully and realistically my charger. use engineering practices. •Doing a thorough job of application engineering will result in a properly sized application that will work correctly and as efficiently as possible. •Separate your transient loads from your constant loads – the charger does not accommodate the transient loads.Summing up…. battery. g . •Use the formula! Don’t assume or use a “standard rule of thumb”. .

Correct size glass! .

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