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Continuation to Periodic Table, Measurement, Dimensional Analysis, Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

Continuation to Periodic Table, Measurement, Dimensional Analysis, Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

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Isotopes

Isotopes
The different possible
The different possible
versions of the same
versions of the same
element having
element having
different numbers of
different numbers of
neutron.
neutron.
Natural Abundance
Natural Abundance
The relative
The relative
abundance of an
abundance of an
isotope in nature as
isotope in nature as
compared to the
compared to the
other isotope of the
other isotope of the
same element.
same element.
Atomic Weight of
Atomic Weight of
Element
Element
This is defined as the
This is defined as the
average atomic
average atomic
masses of different
masses of different
isotopes of the
isotopes of the
element.
element.
Atomic Weight of
Atomic Weight of
Element
Element
The light metal lithium
The light metal lithium
discovered by Arfvedson have
discovered by Arfvedson have
two stable isotopes. Calculate
two stable isotopes. Calculate
the atomic weight of lithium
the atomic weight of lithium
given the percent abundance of
given the percent abundance of
Lithium-6 to be 7.5% and an
Lithium-6 to be 7.5% and an
atomic mass of 6.015122 amu.
atomic mass of 6.015122 amu.
 On the other hand, Lithium-7
On the other hand, Lithium-7
has an isotopic abundance of
has an isotopic abundance of
92.5% and an atomic mass of
92.5% and an atomic mass of
7.016003 amu.
7.016003 amu.

(7.5%)(6.015122) +
(7.5%)(6.015122) +
(92.5%)(7.016003)
(92.5%)(7.016003)
=(0.45113415) +
=(0.45113415) +
(6.489802775)
(6.489802775)
= 6.940936925
= 6.940936925
Powers of ten

are used for convenience with
smaller or larger units in the SI
system.
Unit…
Unit…
·
a group or troop
a group or troop
·
a component or
a component or
thing
thing
·
a part or piece
a part or piece
·
a division
a division
·
a quantity
a quantity
Units of
Units of
Measurement
Measurement
There are two types of units:

fundamental (or base)
units;

derived units.
/
There are 7 base units in the
Système International
(SI) system.
/
Derived units are obtained
from the 7 base SI units.
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
PHYSICAL
QUANTITY
Name of Unit
Abbreviatio
n
0
Mass
O
Length
O
Time
O
Electric current
O
Temperature
O
Luminous
intensity
6
Amount of
substance
Kilogram
Meter
Second
Ampere
Kelvin
Candela
Mole
kg
m
s
a
K
cd
mol
Unit of velocity =
—————————
unit of
time
unit of distance
= m/s
meters
seconds
=
¬
they are obtained from the base
units
Derived units
Derived units
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
PHYSICAL
QUANTITY
Name of Unit
0
Area
O
Volume
O
Velocity
O
Acceleration
O
Current density
O
Luminance
6
Magnetic field
strength
Square meter, m
2
Cubic meter, m
3
Meter/second, m/s
Meter/second
squared, m/s
2
Ampere/square meter,
A/m
2
Candela/square
meter, cd/m
2
Ampere/meter, A/m
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
Temperature
Temperature
•Celsius Scale
/Used in science.
/Water freezes at 0
o
C and boils at 100
o
C.
/To convert: K =
o
C + 273.15.
•Kelvin Scale
/Also used in science.
/Same temperature increment as Celsius
scale.
/Lowest temperature possible is zero
Kelvin.
/Absolute zero: 0 K = -273.15
o
C.
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
Temperature
Temperature

Fahrenheit Scale
/
Not generally used in science.
/
Water freezes at 32
o
F and boils at
212
o
F.
/
To convert:
32 - F
9
5
C 32 C
5
9
F
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
Volume
BThe units for
volume are given
by (units of
length)
3
.
/i.e., SI unit for
volume is 1 m
3
.
BWe usually use 1
mL = 1 cm
3
.
BOther volume
units:
/1 L = 1 dm
3
=
1000 cm
3
= 1000
mL.
Units of Measurement
Units of Measurement
Density
v
Used to characterize substances.
v
Defined as mass divided by
volume.
v
Units: g/cm
3
.
v
Originally based on mass (the
density was defined as the mass of
1.00 g of pure water).
v
All scientific measures are subject
All scientific measures are subject
to error.
to error.
v
These errors are reflected in the
These errors are reflected in the
number of figures reported for the
number of figures reported for the
measurement.
measurement.
v
These errors are also reflected in
These errors are also reflected in
the observation that two
the observation that two
successive measures of the same
successive measures of the same
quantity are different.
quantity are different.
Points to Ponder?
Precision and Accuracy
v
Measurements that are close to the
“correct” value are accurate.
v
Measurements which are close to
each other are precise.
v
Measurements can be:

accurate and precise;

precise but inaccurate;

neither accurate nor precise.
Uncertainty in Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement
Comparison of Precision and
Accuracy
Uncertainty in Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement
v
The number of digits reported in a
measurement reflect the accuracy of the
measurement and the precision of the
measuring device.
v
All the figures known with certainty plus
one extra figure are called significant
figures.
v
In any calculation, the results are
reported to the fewest significant figures
(for multiplication and division) or fewest
decimal places (addition and
subtraction).
Uncertainty in Measurement
Uncertainty in Measurement
Significant Figures
v
Non-zero numbers are always
significant.
v
Zeros between non-zero numbers are
always significant.
v
Zeros before the first non-zero digit are
not significant. (Example: 0.0003 has
one significant figure.)
v
Zeros at the end of the number after a
decimal place are significant.
v
Zeros at the end of a number before a
decimal place are ambiguous (e.g.
10,300 g).
v
Method of calculation utilizing a
knowledge of units.
v
Given units can be multiplied or
divided to give the desired units.
v
Conversion factors are used to
manipulate units:
v
Desired unit = given unit ×
(conversion factor)
v
The conversion factors are simple
ratios:
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Conversion factor
Conversion factor
unit given
unit desired
factor Conversion
1000
cm
3
1
L
1000
cm
3
1
L
O
R
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Example to convert length in meters
to length in inches:
/
(length in m)×(conversion factor for
m→cm)×(conversion factor for cm→
inches).
Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
In dimensional analysis always
ask three questions:
/
What data are we given?
/
What quantity do we need?
/
What conversion factors are
available to take us from what
we are given to what we need?
Question?
Question?
0
We measure length in
We measure length in
meters
meters
using a
using a
meter stick or a ruler
meter stick or a ruler
.
.
O
We measure time in seconds using a
We measure time in seconds using a
clock or a timer
clock or a timer
.
.
O
We measure temperature in
We measure temperature in
°C, °F or K
°C, °F or K

using a
using a
thermometer
thermometer
.
.
O
We measure volume in
We measure volume in
liters
liters
using a
using a
graduated cylinder or container
graduated cylinder or container
.
.
O
We measure speed in
We measure speed in
m/s
m/s
using a
using a
speedometer (or combination of #1
speedometer (or combination of #1
& #2)
& #2)
.
.
We can measure mass, length, time,
temperature, volume, etc. We
measure mass in grams using a
balance or a weighing scale.
0
How can you measure length?
O
How can you measure time?
O
How can you measure temperature?
O
How can you measure volume?
O
How can you measure speed?
We count atoms,
molecules, substances,
particles, and pieces in
MOLES.
How can you measure, or
count atoms, molecules,
substances and/or
particles?
Moles
Moles
0
Defined as the number
Defined as the number
of carbon atoms in
of carbon atoms in
exactly 12 grams of
exactly 12 grams of
carbon-12.
carbon-12.
O
1 mole is 6.02 x 10
1 mole is 6.02 x 10
23
23

particles.
particles.
O
6.02 x 10
6.02 x 10
23
23
is called
is called
Avogadro’s number.
Avogadro’s number.
Representative particles
Representative particles
/
The smallest pieces of a
The smallest pieces of a
substance.
substance.
/
For a molecular compound
For a molecular compound
it is a
it is a
molecule
molecule
.
.
/
For an ionic compound it is
For an ionic compound it is
a
a
formula unit
formula unit
.
.
/
For an element it is an
For an element it is an
atom
atom
.
.
Types of questions
Types of questions
/
How many oxygen atoms in the
How many oxygen atoms in the
following?
following?

CaCO
CaCO
3 3

Al
Al
2 2
(SO
(SO
4 4
)
)
3 3
/
How many ions in the following?
How many ions in the following?

CaCl
CaCl
2 2

NaOH
NaOH

Al
Al
2 2
(SO
(SO
4 4
)
)
3 3
Types of questions
Types of questions
/How many molecules of CO
How many molecules of CO
2 2
are the
are the
in 4.56 moles of CO
in 4.56 moles of CO
2 2
?
?
/
How many moles of water is 5.87 x
How many moles of water is 5.87 x
10
10
22 22
water molecules?
water molecules?
/
How many atoms of carbon are
How many atoms of carbon are
there in 1.23 moles of C
there in 1.23 moles of C
6 6
H
H
12 12
O
O
6 6
?
?
/
How many moles is 7.78 x 10
How many moles is 7.78 x 10
24 24

formula units of MgCl
formula units of MgCl
2 2
?
?
Measuring Moles
Measuring Moles
/
remember relative atomic mass?
remember relative atomic mass?
/
the amu was one twelfth the
the amu was one twelfth the
mass of a carbon-12 atom.
mass of a carbon-12 atom.
/
since the mole is the number of
since the mole is the number of
atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12,
atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12,
/
the decimal number on the
the decimal number on the
periodic table is also the mass of
periodic table is also the mass of
1 mole of those atoms in grams.
1 mole of those atoms in grams.
Gram Atomic Mass
Gram Atomic Mass
/
The mass of 1 mole of an
The mass of 1 mole of an
element in grams.
element in grams.
/
12.01 grams of carbon has the
12.01 grams of carbon has the
same number of pieces as 1.01
same number of pieces as 1.01
grams of hydrogen and 55.85
grams of hydrogen and 55.85
grams of iron.
grams of iron.
/
We can write this as
We can write this as
12.01 g C = 1 mole
12.01 g C = 1 mole
/
We can count things by weighing
We can count things by weighing
them.
them.
Examples
Examples
/
How much would 2.34 moles of
How much would 2.34 moles of
carbon weigh?
carbon weigh?
/
How many moles of magnesium
How many moles of magnesium
in 24.31 g of Mg?
in 24.31 g of Mg?
/
How many atoms of lithium in
How many atoms of lithium in
1.00 g of Li?
1.00 g of Li?
/
How much would 3.45 x 10
How much would 3.45 x 10
22 22

atoms of U weigh?
atoms of U weigh?
Mass of compounds?
Mass of compounds?
/in 1 mole of H
in 1 mole of H
2 2
O molecules there
O molecules there
are two moles of H atoms and 1
are two moles of H atoms and 1
mole of O atoms
mole of O atoms
/
To find the mass of one mole of a
To find the mass of one mole of a
compound
compound

determine the moles of the
determine the moles of the
elements they have
elements they have

find out how much they would
find out how much they would
weigh
weigh

add them up
add them up
Gram Molecular Mass
Gram Molecular Mass
/
What is the mass of one mole of
What is the mass of one mole of
CH
CH
4 4
?
?
/
1 mole of C = 12.01 g
1 mole of C = 12.01 g
/
4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g
4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g
/1 mole CH
1 mole CH
4 4
= 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g
= 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g
/The
The
Gram Molecular mass
Gram Molecular mass
of CH
of CH
4 4
is
is
16.05
16.05
/
The mass of one mole of a molecular
The mass of one mole of a molecular
compound.
compound.
Gram Formula Mass
Gram Formula Mass
/
The mass of one mole of an ionic
The mass of one mole of an ionic
compound.
compound.
/
Calculated the same way.
Calculated the same way.
/
Example, what is the GFM of
Example, what is the GFM of
Fe
Fe
2 2
O
O
3 3
?
?
/
2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70
2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70
g
g
/
3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00
3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00
g
g
/
The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g =
The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g =
159.70g
159.70g
Molar Mass
Molar Mass
/
The generic term for the mass of one
The generic term for the mass of one
mole.
mole.
/
The same as gram molecular mass,
The same as gram molecular mass,
gram formula mass, and gram
gram formula mass, and gram
atomic mass.
atomic mass.
/
The number of grams of 1 mole of
The number of grams of 1 mole of
atoms, ions, or molecules.
atoms, ions, or molecules.
/
Using molar mass, we can make
Using molar mass, we can make
conversion factors and;
conversion factors and;
/
We can change grams of a
We can change grams of a
compound to moles of a compound.
compound to moles of a compound.
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?
NaOH mol ?
NaOH g ?
NaOH mol ?
NaOH g 69 . 5 =








B
need to change grams to moles
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?
B
need to change grams to moles
B
for NaOH:
B
1mole Na = 22.99g
B
1 mol O = 16.00 g
B
1 mole of H = 1.01 g
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?








40.00g
mol 1
B
need to change grams to moles
B
for NaOH:
B
1 mole NaOH = 40.00 g
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?
?
40.00
mol 1
g 69 . 5 =








g
B
need to change grams to moles
B
for NaOH:
B
1 mole NaOH = 40.00 g
For example
For example
/
How many moles is 5.69 g of
How many moles is 5.69 g of
NaOH?
NaOH?
NaOH mol 0.142 =
40.00
mol 1
g 69 . 5








g
Examples
Examples
/
How many moles is 4.56 g of
How many moles is 4.56 g of
CO
CO
2 2
?
?
/
How many grams is 9.87 moles
How many grams is 9.87 moles
of H
of H
2 2
O?
O?
/
How many molecules in 6.8 g of
How many molecules in 6.8 g of
CH
CH
4 4
?
?
/49 molecules of C
49 molecules of C
6 6
H
H
12 12
O
O
6 6
weighs
weighs
how much?
how much?
Gases and the Mole
Gases and the Mole
Standard Temperature and
Standard Temperature and
Pressure
Pressure
/
0ºC and 1 atm
0ºC and 1 atm
/
abbreviated STP
abbreviated STP
/
At STP 1 mole of gas occupies
At STP 1 mole of gas occupies
22.42L
22.42L
(called the molar
(called the molar
volume)
volume)
Note: Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at the
Note: Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at the
same temperature and pressure
same temperature and pressure
equal volumes of gas have the same
equal volumes of gas have the same
number of particles.
number of particles.
Examples
Examples
/
What is the volume of 4.59 mole
What is the volume of 4.59 mole
of CO
of CO
2 2
gas at STP?
gas at STP?
/How many moles is 5.67 L of O
How many moles is 5.67 L of O
2 2
at STP?
at STP?
/
What is the volume of 8.8g of
What is the volume of 8.8g of
CH
CH
4 4
gas at STP?
gas at STP?
Density of a gas
Density of a gas
/
D = m /V
D = m /V
/
for a gas the units will be g / L
for a gas the units will be g / L
/
We can determine the density of
We can determine the density of
any gas at STP if we know its
any gas at STP if we know its
formula.
formula.
/
To find the density we need the
To find the density we need the
mass and the volume.
mass and the volume.
/
If you assume you have 1 mole
If you assume you have 1 mole
then the mass is the molar mass.
then the mass is the molar mass.
/
At STP the volume is 22.42 L.
At STP the volume is 22.42 L.
Examples
Examples
/
Find the density of CO
Find the density of CO
2
2
at STP.
at STP.
/Find the density of CH
Find the density of CH
4
4
at
at
STP.
STP.
The other way
The other way
/
Given the density, we can find the
Given the density, we can find the
molar mass of the gas.
molar mass of the gas.
/
Again, pretend you have a mole at
Again, pretend you have a mole at
STP, so V = 22.42 L.
STP, so V = 22.42 L.
/
m = D x V
m = D x V
/
m is the mass of 1 mole, since you
m is the mass of 1 mole, since you
have 22.42 L of the stuff.
have 22.42 L of the stuff.
/
What is the molar mass of a gas with
What is the molar mass of a gas with
a density of 1.964 g/L at STP?
a density of 1.964 g/L at STP?44 44
/
2.86 g/L?
2.86 g/L?64 64
What I expected you to have
What I expected you to have
learned:
learned:
/
change moles to grams
change moles to grams
/
moles to atoms
moles to atoms
/
moles to formula units
moles to formula units
/
moles to molecules
moles to molecules
/
moles to liters
moles to liters
/
molecules to atoms
molecules to atoms
/
formula units to atoms
formula units to atoms
/
formula units to ions
formula units to ions
Moles
Mass
Moles
Mass
PT
Moles
Mass
Volume
PT
Moles
Mass
Volume
PT
22.4 L
Moles
Mass
Volume
Representative
Particles
PT
22.4 L
Moles
Mass
Volume
Representative
Particles
PT
22.4 L
6.02 x 10
23

Moles
Mass
Volume
Representative
Particles
6.02 x 10
23

PT
Atoms
22.4 L
Moles
Mass
Volume
Representative
Particles
6.02 x 10
23

PT
Atoms
Ions
22.4 L
Percent Composition
Percent Composition
/
Like all percents
Like all percents
/
Part x 100 %
Part x 100 %


whole
whole
/
Find the mass of each
Find the mass of each
component,
component,
/
divide by the total mass.
divide by the total mass.
Example
Example
/
Calculate the percent
Calculate the percent
composition of a compound
composition of a compound
that is 29.0 g of Ag with
that is 29.0 g of Ag with
4.30 g of S.
4.30 g of S.87n13 87n13
Getting it from the formula
Getting it from the formula
/
If we know the formula,
If we know the formula,
assume you have 1 mole.
assume you have 1 mole.
/
Then you know the pieces
Then you know the pieces
and the whole.
and the whole.
Examples
Examples
/
Calculate the percent
Calculate the percent
composittion of C
composittion of C
2
2
H
H
4
4
?
?86n14 86n14
/
Aluminum carbonate.
Aluminum carbonate.
Empirical Formula
Empirical Formula
From percentage to formula
From percentage to formula
The Empirical Formula
The Empirical Formula
/
The lowest whole number ratio of
The lowest whole number ratio of
elements in a compound.
elements in a compound.
/
The molecular formula the actual
The molecular formula the actual
ratio of elements in a compound.
ratio of elements in a compound.
/
The two can be the same.
The two can be the same.
/CH
CH
2 2
empirical formula
empirical formula
/C
C
2 2
H
H
4 4
molecular formula
molecular formula
/C
C
3 3
H
H
6 6
molecular formula
molecular formula
/H
H
2 2
O both
O both
Calculating Empirical
Calculating Empirical
/
Just find the lowest whole number
Just find the lowest whole number
ratio
ratio
/C
C
6 6
H
H
12 12
O
O
6 6
---> ?
---> ?
/CH
CH
4 4
N
N
/
It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is
It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is
also the ratio of moles of atoms.
also the ratio of moles of atoms.
/In 1 mole of CO
In 1 mole of CO
2 2
there is 1 mole of
there is 1 mole of
carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.
carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.
/In one molecule of CO
In one molecule of CO
2 2
there is 1
there is 1
atom of C and 2 atoms of O.
atom of C and 2 atoms of O.
Calculating Empirical
Calculating Empirical
/
Means we can get ratio from
Means we can get ratio from
percent composition.
percent composition.
/
Assume you have a 100 g.
Assume you have a 100 g.
/
The percentages become
The percentages become
grams.
grams.
/
Can turn grams to moles.
Can turn grams to moles.
/
Find lowest whole number
Find lowest whole number
ratio by dividing by the
ratio by dividing by the
smallest.
smallest.
How do we do it?
How do we do it?
/
Calculate the empirical formula of a
Calculate the empirical formula of a
compound composed of 38.67 % C,
compound composed of 38.67 % C,
16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.
16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.
Assume 100 g so
Assume 100 g so
/
38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220
38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220
mole C
mole C
12.01 g C
12.01 g C
/
16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09
16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09
mole H
mole H
1.01 g H
1.01 g H
/
45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole
45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole
N
N
14.01 g N
14.01 g N
Example
Example
/
The ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C
The ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C
3.219 mol N 1
3.219 mol N 1
mol N
mol N
/
The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H
The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H
3.219 mol N 1
3.219 mol N 1
mol N
mol N
1 C : 1 N 5 H : 1 N
1 C : 1 N 5 H : 1 N
C
C
1
1
H
H
5
5
N
N
1
1
Example
Example
·
A compound is 43.64 % P
A compound is 43.64 % P
and 56.36 % O. What is the
and 56.36 % O. What is the
empirical formula?
empirical formula?
·
Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15%
Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15%
H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O.
H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O.
What is its empirical formula?
What is its empirical formula?
Empirical to molecular
Empirical to molecular
/
Since the empirical formula is the
Since the empirical formula is the
lowest ratio, the actual molecule
lowest ratio, the actual molecule
would weigh more.
would weigh more.
/
By a whole number multiple.
By a whole number multiple.
/
Divide the actual molar mass by
Divide the actual molar mass by
the the mass of one mole of the
the the mass of one mole of the
empirical formula.
empirical formula.
/
Caffeine has a molar mass of 194
Caffeine has a molar mass of 194
g. what is its molecular mass?
g. what is its molecular mass?
Example
Example
A compound is known to
A compound is known to
be composed of 71.65 %
be composed of 71.65 %
Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H.
Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H.
Its molar mass is known
Its molar mass is known
(from gas density) to be
(from gas density) to be
98.96 g. What is its
98.96 g. What is its
molecular formula?
molecular formula?
Example
Example
What is its molecular
What is its molecular
formula?
formula?
E.F. = CH
E.F. = CH
2
2
Cl
Cl
E.W. = 49.5
E.W. = 49.5


M.F. =
M.F. = C
2
H
4
Cl
2
The effect of adding gas.
The effect of adding gas.


When we blow up a balloon
When we blow up a balloon
we are adding gas
we are adding gas
molecules.
molecules.
(
(
we can see an increase in
we can see an increase in
size of the balloon
size of the balloon
)
)
Doubling the the number of
gas particles doubles the
pressure.
(given the same volume at
the same temperature)
Pressure and the number of
Pressure and the number of
molecules are directly related
molecules are directly related
~
More molecules means
More molecules means
more collisions.
more collisions.
~
Fewer molecules means
Fewer molecules means
fewer collisions.
fewer collisions.
~
Gases naturally move from
Gases naturally move from
areas of high pressure to low
areas of high pressure to low
pressure because there is
pressure because there is
empty space to move in.
empty space to move in.
1 atm
If you double the number of
If you double the number of
molecules
molecules
You double the pressure.
You double the pressure.
2 atm
If you double the number of
molecules
4 atm


Assuming the
Assuming the
pressure outside
pressure outside
is 1 atm.
is 1 atm.


As you remove
As you remove
molecules from a
molecules from a
container
container
P
atm
= 1 atm


As you remove
As you remove
molecules from a
molecules from a
container the
container the
pressure
pressure
decreases
decreases
2 atm
2 atm


Molecules naturally move from
Molecules naturally move from
high to low pressure
high to low pressure
1 atm
As you remove
molecules from a
container the
pressure
decreases until the
pressure inside
equals the
pressure outside
Changing the size of the
Changing the size of the
container
container
~
In a smaller container,
In a smaller container,
molecules have less room to
molecules have less room to
move.
move.
~
They hit the sides of the
They hit the sides of the
container more often.
container more often.
~
As volume decreases
As volume decreases
pressure increases.
pressure increases.
1 atm
4 Liters
/
As the
As the
pressure on
pressure on
a gas
a gas
increases
increases
2 atm
2 Liters
/
As the
As the
pressure on
pressure on
a gas
a gas
increases
increases
the volume
the volume
decreases
decreases
/
Pressure
Pressure
and volume
and volume
are inversely
are inversely
related
related
Changing
Changing
Temperature
Temperature
~
Raising the temperature of a
Raising the temperature of a
gas increases the pressure if
gas increases the pressure if
the volume is held constant.
the volume is held constant.
~
The molecules hit the walls
The molecules hit the walls
harder.
harder.
~
The only way to increase the
The only way to increase the
temperature at constant
temperature at constant
pressure is to increase the
pressure is to increase the
volume.
volume.
300 K
1L ; 1 atm
If you start with 1 liter of gas at 1
atm pressure and 300 K and heat it
to 600 K one of 2 things happens
300 K
600 K
2L ; 1 atm 1L ; 2 atm
Either the volume will
increase to 2 liters at 1 atm or
the pressure will increase to 2
atm. Or someplace in
between
For this course we
are going to
assume the gases
behave ideally.
vacuum
hole
Effusion
The term used to
describe the passage
of gas through a tiny
orifice into an
evacuated chamber
Diffusion
The term used to
describe the mixing of
gases
Ideal Gases don’t exist
Ideal Gases don’t exist
~
Gas molecules do take
Gas molecules do take
up space
up space
~
There are attractive
There are attractive
forces between them,
forces between them,
otherwise there would be
otherwise there would be
no liquids
no liquids
~
There are no gases for
which this is true. Does not
really exist
~
Makes the math easier and
is a close approximation.
~
Particles have no volume.
~
No attractive forces.
Ideal Gases
Real gases
behave like
ideal gases at
high
temperature
and low
pressure.
Ideal Gases
Ideal Gases
Real Gases behave like Ideal
Real Gases behave like Ideal
Gases
Gases
~
When the molecules
When the molecules
do not take up as big
do not take up as big
a percentage of the
a percentage of the
space
space
~
We can ignore their
We can ignore their
volume.
volume.
~
When the molecules
are far apart
~
This is at low
pressure
Real Gases behave like Ideal
Real Gases behave like Ideal
gases
gases
~
When molecules are moving
When molecules are moving
fast.
fast.
~
Collisions are harder and faster.
Collisions are harder and faster.
~
Gas molecules are not next to
Gas molecules are not next to
each other very long.
each other very long.
~
Attractive forces can’t play a
Attractive forces can’t play a
role.
role.


HOW can we find out the pressure in
HOW can we find out the pressure in
the fourth container?
the fourth container?
2
atm
1
atm
3
atm
6
atm
By adding up the pressure in the
first 3
? atm ? atm
Daltons’ Law of Partial
Daltons’ Law of Partial
Pressures
Pressures
~
The total pressure inside a
The total pressure inside a
container is equal to the
container is equal to the
partial pressure due to each
partial pressure due to each
gas.
gas.
~
The partial pressure of a
The partial pressure of a
gas is the contribution by
gas is the contribution by
that gas.
that gas.
~P
P
Total Total
= P
= P
1 1
+ P
+ P
2 2
+ P
+ P
3 3
~P
P
Total Total
= P
= P
1 1
+ P
+ P
2 2
+ P
+ P
3 3
+ … +
+ … +
P
P
n n
Examples
Examples
/
What is the total pressure in a
What is the total pressure in a
balloon filled with air if the
balloon filled with air if the
pressure of the oxygen is 170 mm
pressure of the oxygen is 170 mm
Hg and the pressure of nitrogen is
Hg and the pressure of nitrogen is
620 mm Hg?
620 mm Hg?
/
In a second balloon the total
In a second balloon the total
pressure is 790 mm Hg. What is
pressure is 790 mm Hg. What is
the pressure of oxygen if the
the pressure of oxygen if the
pressure of nitrogen is 720 mm
pressure of nitrogen is 720 mm
Hg?
Hg?
Boyle’s Law
Boyle’s Law
~
At a constant temperature,
At a constant temperature,
pressure and volume are
pressure and volume are
inversely related.
inversely related.
~
As one goes up the other
As one goes up the other
goes down
goes down
~
P x V =
P x V =
k
k
(
(
k is some constant
k is some constant
)
)
~Easier to use P
Easier to use P
1 1
x V
x V
1 1
= P
= P
2 2
x
x
V
V
2 2
P
V
Boyle’s Law
Boyle’s Law
/
A balloon is filled with 25 L of
A balloon is filled with 25 L of
air at 1.0 atm pressure. If the
air at 1.0 atm pressure. If the
pressure is change to 1.5 atm
pressure is change to 1.5 atm
what is the new volume?
what is the new volume?16.67 16.67
/
A balloon is filled with 73 L of
A balloon is filled with 73 L of
air at 1.3 atm pressure. What
air at 1.3 atm pressure. What
pressure is needed to change
pressure is needed to change
to volume to 43 L?
to volume to 43 L?2.2 2.2
Examples
Examples
Charles’ Law
Charles’ Law
~
The volume of a gas is directly
The volume of a gas is directly
proportional to the
proportional to the
Kelvin
Kelvin
temperature if the pressure is
temperature if the pressure is
held constant.
held constant.
~
V =
V =
k
k
x
x
T
T
(
(
k is some constant
k is some constant
)
)
~
V/T=
V/T=
k
k
~Easier to use
Easier to use
V
V
1 1
/T
/T
1 1
= V
= V
2 2
/T
/T
2 2
V
T
Charles’ Law
Charles’ Law
Examples
Examples
/
What is the temperature of
What is the temperature of
a gas that is expanded from
a gas that is expanded from
2.5 L at 25ºC to 4.1 L at
2.5 L at 25ºC to 4.1 L at
constant pressure.
constant pressure.216 216
/
What is the final volume of
What is the final volume of
a gas that starts at 8.3 L
a gas that starts at 8.3 L
and 17ºC and is heated to
and 17ºC and is heated to
96ºC?
96ºC?10.6 10.6

Gay Lussac’s Law
Gay Lussac’s Law
~
The temperature and the
The temperature and the
pressure of a gas are
pressure of a gas are
directly related at constant
directly related at constant
volume.
volume.
~
P =
P =
k
k
x
x
T
T
(
(
k is some
k is some
constant
constant
)
)
~
P/T=
P/T=
k
k
~Easier to use P
Easier to use P
1 1
/T
/T
1 1
= P
= P
2 2
/T
/T
2 2
P
T
Gay Lussac’s Law
Gay Lussac’s Law
Examples
Examples
/
What is the pressure inside a
What is the pressure inside a
0.250 L can of deodorant that
0.250 L can of deodorant that
starts at 25ºC and 1.2 atm if
starts at 25ºC and 1.2 atm if
the temperature is raised to
the temperature is raised to
100ºC?
100ºC?1.5 1.5
/
At what temperature will the
At what temperature will the
can above have a pressure of
can above have a pressure of
2.2 atm?
2.2 atm?273 273
Combined Gas Law
Combined Gas Law
~
Deals with the situation
Deals with the situation
where only the number of
where only the number of
molecules stays constant.
molecules stays constant.
~(P
(P
1
1
x V
x V
1
1
)/T
)/T
1
1
= (P
= (P
2
2
x V
x V
2
2
)/T
)/T
2
2
~
P
P
1
1
V
V
1
1
T
T
2
2
= P
= P
2
2
V
V
2
2
T
T
1
1
Examples
Examples
/
A 15 L cylinder of gas at 4.8
A 15 L cylinder of gas at 4.8
atm pressure and 25ºC is
atm pressure and 25ºC is
heated to 75ºC and
heated to 75ºC and
compressed to 17 atm. What
compressed to 17 atm. What
is the new volume?
is the new volume?4.95 4.95
/
If 6.2 L of gas at 723 mm Hg
If 6.2 L of gas at 723 mm Hg
at 21ºC is compressed to 2.2
at 21ºC is compressed to 2.2
L at 4117 mm Hg, what is the
L at 4117 mm Hg, what is the
temperature of the gas?
temperature of the gas?321 321
/
The combined gas law contains
The combined gas law contains
all the other gas laws!
all the other gas laws!
/
If the temperature remains
If the temperature remains
constant.
constant.
P
1
V
1
T
1
x
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
x
Boyle’s Law
/
The combined gas law contains
The combined gas law contains
all the other gas laws!
all the other gas laws!
/
If the pressure remains
If the pressure remains
constant.
constant.
P
1
V
1
T
1
x
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
x
Charles’ Law
P
1
V
1
T
1
x
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
x
Gay-Lussac Law
/
The combined gas law contains
all the other gas laws!
/
If the volume remains constant.
Volume and moles
Volume and moles
~
Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at
Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at
the same temperature and
the same temperature and
pressure equal volumes of
pressure equal volumes of
gas have the same number
gas have the same number
of particles.
of particles.
~
V is proportional to number
V is proportional to number
of molecules at constant T
of molecules at constant T
and P.
and P.
~
V is proportional to moles.
V is proportional to moles.
~
V =
V =
k
k
n (
n (
n is the number of
n is the number of
moles
moles
)
)
The Ideal Gas Law
The Ideal Gas Law
~
P
P
x
x
V = n
V = n
x
x
R
R
x
x
T
T
~
This time R does not depend
This time R does not depend
on anything, it is really
on anything, it is really
constant
constant
~
R = 0.0821 (L atm)/(mol K)
R = 0.0821 (L atm)/(mol K)
~
R = 8.3145 J/(mol K)
R = 8.3145 J/(mol K)
~
R = 62.4 (L mm Hg)/(mol K)
R = 62.4 (L mm Hg)/(mol K)
~
We now have a new way to
We now have a new way to
count the number of moles of
count the number of moles of
a gas. By measuring
a gas. By measuring
T
T
,
,
P
P
, and
, and
V
V
. We aren’t
. We aren’t
restricted
restricted
to
to
STP
STP
.
.
~
n = PV/RT
n = PV/RT
The Ideal Gas Law
The Ideal Gas Law
Examples
Examples

How many moles of air are
How many moles of air are
there in a 2.0 L bottle at 19 ºC
there in a 2.0 L bottle at 19 ºC
and 747 mm Hg?
and 747 mm Hg?0.08 0.08

What is the pressure exerted
What is the pressure exerted
by 1.8 g of H
by 1.8 g of H
2 2
gas exert in a 4.3
gas exert in a 4.3
L balloon at 27 ºC?
L balloon at 27 ºC?3918mm5.2atm 3918mm5.2atm
~
The molar mass of a gas can be
The molar mass of a gas can be
determined by the density of
determined by the density of
the gas.
the gas.
~
Density = mass/Volume = m/V
Density = mass/Volume = m/V
~
Molar mass = mass/moles =
Molar mass = mass/moles =
m/n
m/n
~
n = PV/RT
n = PV/RT
Points to Ponder?
~
Molar Mass =
Molar Mass =
m
m


(PV/RT)
(PV/RT)
~
Molar mass =
Molar mass =
m RT
m RT
V P
V P
~
Molar mass =
Molar mass =
D RT
D RT

P
P
Points to Ponder?
At STP
At STP
~
At STP determining the amount
At STP determining the amount
of gas required or produced is
of gas required or produced is
easy.
easy.
~
For example, how many liters of
For example, how many liters of
O
O
2 2
at STP are
at STP are
required to
required to
produce 20.3 g of H
produce 20.3 g of H
2 2
O?
O?14.22L 14.22L
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
~
The volume of the individual gas
The volume of the individual gas
particles can be
particles can be
assumed to be
assumed to be
negligible
negligible
~
The particles are in
The particles are in
constant
constant
motion
motion
~
The particles are
The particles are
assumed to
assumed to
exert
exert
no
no
forces
forces
on each other
on each other
~
The
The
average kinetic energy
average kinetic energy
of
of
the gas is
the gas is
assumed to be directly
assumed to be directly
proportional to the temperature
proportional to the temperature

of the gas
of the gas
Postulates
Postulates
From the theory
PV
n
∝ T
=
2
3
(KE)
av
g
PV
n
∝ T
From the theory
PV
n
=RT
From the experiment
combining
=
(KE)
av
g
RT
3
2
Example
Example
It was found out that 1.0 L
It was found out that 1.0 L
of carbon dioxide (CO
of carbon dioxide (CO
2
2
) took
) took
3 minutes to effuse through
3 minutes to effuse through
a porous filter. How long
a porous filter. How long
will it take 1.0 L of methane
will it take 1.0 L of methane
(CH
(CH
4
4
) to effuse under the
) to effuse under the
same conditions?
same conditions?
Can we predict the distance
Can we predict the distance
traveled by NH
traveled by NH
3
3
and HCl?
and HCl?
1
2
M
M
2 gas of effusion of rate
1 gas of effusion of rate
=
Graham Law
At constant temperature,
the relative rates of
effusion of two gases are
given by the inverse ratio
of the square roots of
their masses
= 0.55 L /min
1
2
M
M
2 gas of effusion of rate
1 gas of effusion of rate
=
2
4
CO
CH
4
2
M
M
CH rate
CO rate
=
2
4
CO
CH
4
MM
MM
CH rate
L/min. 0.33
=
44
16
CH rate
L/min. 0.33
4
=
44
16
CH rate
L/min. 0.33
4
=
= 1.8 min
Can you determine the
Can you determine the
distance traveled by NH
distance traveled by NH
3
3

and HCl?
and HCl?

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