This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Isotopes

The different possible

The different possible

versions of the same

versions of the same

element having

element having

different numbers of

different numbers of

neutron.

neutron.

Natural Abundance

Natural Abundance

The relative

The relative

abundance of an

abundance of an

isotope in nature as

isotope in nature as

compared to the

compared to the

other isotope of the

other isotope of the

same element.

same element.

Atomic Weight of

Atomic Weight of

Element

Element

This is defined as the

This is defined as the

average atomic

average atomic

masses of different

masses of different

isotopes of the

isotopes of the

element.

element.

Atomic Weight of

Atomic Weight of

Element

Element

The light metal lithium

The light metal lithium

discovered by Arfvedson have

discovered by Arfvedson have

two stable isotopes. Calculate

two stable isotopes. Calculate

the atomic weight of lithium

the atomic weight of lithium

given the percent abundance of

given the percent abundance of

Lithium-6 to be 7.5% and an

Lithium-6 to be 7.5% and an

atomic mass of 6.015122 amu.

atomic mass of 6.015122 amu.

On the other hand, Lithium-7

On the other hand, Lithium-7

has an isotopic abundance of

has an isotopic abundance of

92.5% and an atomic mass of

92.5% and an atomic mass of

7.016003 amu.

7.016003 amu.

(7.5%)(6.015122) +

(7.5%)(6.015122) +

(92.5%)(7.016003)

(92.5%)(7.016003)

=(0.45113415) +

=(0.45113415) +

(6.489802775)

(6.489802775)

= 6.940936925

= 6.940936925

Powers of ten

•

are used for convenience with

smaller or larger units in the SI

system.

Unit…

Unit…

·

a group or troop

a group or troop

·

a component or

a component or

thing

thing

·

a part or piece

a part or piece

·

a division

a division

·

a quantity

a quantity

Units of

Units of

Measurement

Measurement

There are two types of units:

fundamental (or base)

units;

derived units.

/

There are 7 base units in the

Système International

(SI) system.

/

Derived units are obtained

from the 7 base SI units.

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

PHYSICAL

QUANTITY

Name of Unit

Abbreviatio

n

0

Mass

O

Length

O

Time

O

Electric current

O

Temperature

O

Luminous

intensity

6

Amount of

substance

Kilogram

Meter

Second

Ampere

Kelvin

Candela

Mole

kg

m

s

a

K

cd

mol

Unit of velocity =

—————————

unit of

time

unit of distance

= m/s

meters

seconds

=

¬

they are obtained from the base

units

Derived units

Derived units

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

PHYSICAL

QUANTITY

Name of Unit

0

Area

O

Volume

O

Velocity

O

Acceleration

O

Current density

O

Luminance

6

Magnetic field

strength

Square meter, m

2

Cubic meter, m

3

Meter/second, m/s

Meter/second

squared, m/s

2

Ampere/square meter,

A/m

2

Candela/square

meter, cd/m

2

Ampere/meter, A/m

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

Temperature

Temperature

•Celsius Scale

/Used in science.

/Water freezes at 0

o

C and boils at 100

o

C.

/To convert: K =

o

C + 273.15.

•Kelvin Scale

/Also used in science.

/Same temperature increment as Celsius

scale.

/Lowest temperature possible is zero

Kelvin.

/Absolute zero: 0 K = -273.15

o

C.

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

Temperature

Temperature

•

Fahrenheit Scale

/

Not generally used in science.

/

Water freezes at 32

o

F and boils at

212

o

F.

/

To convert:

32 - F

9

5

C 32 C

5

9

F

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

Volume

BThe units for

volume are given

by (units of

length)

3

.

/i.e., SI unit for

volume is 1 m

3

.

BWe usually use 1

mL = 1 cm

3

.

BOther volume

units:

/1 L = 1 dm

3

=

1000 cm

3

= 1000

mL.

Units of Measurement

Units of Measurement

Density

v

Used to characterize substances.

v

Defined as mass divided by

volume.

v

Units: g/cm

3

.

v

Originally based on mass (the

density was defined as the mass of

1.00 g of pure water).

v

All scientific measures are subject

All scientific measures are subject

to error.

to error.

v

These errors are reflected in the

These errors are reflected in the

number of figures reported for the

number of figures reported for the

measurement.

measurement.

v

These errors are also reflected in

These errors are also reflected in

the observation that two

the observation that two

successive measures of the same

successive measures of the same

quantity are different.

quantity are different.

Points to Ponder?

Precision and Accuracy

v

Measurements that are close to the

“correct” value are accurate.

v

Measurements which are close to

each other are precise.

v

Measurements can be:

accurate and precise;

precise but inaccurate;

neither accurate nor precise.

Uncertainty in Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

Comparison of Precision and

Accuracy

Uncertainty in Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

v

The number of digits reported in a

measurement reflect the accuracy of the

measurement and the precision of the

measuring device.

v

All the figures known with certainty plus

one extra figure are called significant

figures.

v

In any calculation, the results are

reported to the fewest significant figures

(for multiplication and division) or fewest

decimal places (addition and

subtraction).

Uncertainty in Measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement

Significant Figures

v

Non-zero numbers are always

significant.

v

Zeros between non-zero numbers are

always significant.

v

Zeros before the first non-zero digit are

not significant. (Example: 0.0003 has

one significant figure.)

v

Zeros at the end of the number after a

decimal place are significant.

v

Zeros at the end of a number before a

decimal place are ambiguous (e.g.

10,300 g).

v

Method of calculation utilizing a

knowledge of units.

v

Given units can be multiplied or

divided to give the desired units.

v

Conversion factors are used to

manipulate units:

v

Desired unit = given unit ×

(conversion factor)

v

The conversion factors are simple

ratios:

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis

Conversion factor

Conversion factor

unit given

unit desired

factor Conversion

1000

cm

3

1

L

1000

cm

3

1

L

O

R

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis

Example to convert length in meters

to length in inches:

/

(length in m)×(conversion factor for

m→cm)×(conversion factor for cm→

inches).

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis

In dimensional analysis always

ask three questions:

/

What data are we given?

/

What quantity do we need?

/

What conversion factors are

available to take us from what

we are given to what we need?

Question?

Question?

0

We measure length in

We measure length in

meters

meters

using a

using a

meter stick or a ruler

meter stick or a ruler

.

.

O

We measure time in seconds using a

We measure time in seconds using a

clock or a timer

clock or a timer

.

.

O

We measure temperature in

We measure temperature in

°C, °F or K

°C, °F or K

using a

using a

thermometer

thermometer

.

.

O

We measure volume in

We measure volume in

liters

liters

using a

using a

graduated cylinder or container

graduated cylinder or container

.

.

O

We measure speed in

We measure speed in

m/s

m/s

using a

using a

speedometer (or combination of #1

speedometer (or combination of #1

& #2)

& #2)

.

.

We can measure mass, length, time,

temperature, volume, etc. We

measure mass in grams using a

balance or a weighing scale.

0

How can you measure length?

O

How can you measure time?

O

How can you measure temperature?

O

How can you measure volume?

O

How can you measure speed?

We count atoms,

molecules, substances,

particles, and pieces in

MOLES.

How can you measure, or

count atoms, molecules,

substances and/or

particles?

Moles

Moles

0

Defined as the number

Defined as the number

of carbon atoms in

of carbon atoms in

exactly 12 grams of

exactly 12 grams of

carbon-12.

carbon-12.

O

1 mole is 6.02 x 10

1 mole is 6.02 x 10

23

23

particles.

particles.

O

6.02 x 10

6.02 x 10

23

23

is called

is called

Avogadro’s number.

Avogadro’s number.

Representative particles

Representative particles

/

The smallest pieces of a

The smallest pieces of a

substance.

substance.

/

For a molecular compound

For a molecular compound

it is a

it is a

molecule

molecule

.

.

/

For an ionic compound it is

For an ionic compound it is

a

a

formula unit

formula unit

.

.

/

For an element it is an

For an element it is an

atom

atom

.

.

Types of questions

Types of questions

/

How many oxygen atoms in the

How many oxygen atoms in the

following?

following?

CaCO

CaCO

3 3

Al

Al

2 2

(SO

(SO

4 4

)

)

3 3

/

How many ions in the following?

How many ions in the following?

CaCl

CaCl

2 2

NaOH

NaOH

Al

Al

2 2

(SO

(SO

4 4

)

)

3 3

Types of questions

Types of questions

/How many molecules of CO

How many molecules of CO

2 2

are the

are the

in 4.56 moles of CO

in 4.56 moles of CO

2 2

?

?

/

How many moles of water is 5.87 x

How many moles of water is 5.87 x

10

10

22 22

water molecules?

water molecules?

/

How many atoms of carbon are

How many atoms of carbon are

there in 1.23 moles of C

there in 1.23 moles of C

6 6

H

H

12 12

O

O

6 6

?

?

/

How many moles is 7.78 x 10

How many moles is 7.78 x 10

24 24

formula units of MgCl

formula units of MgCl

2 2

?

?

Measuring Moles

Measuring Moles

/

remember relative atomic mass?

remember relative atomic mass?

/

the amu was one twelfth the

the amu was one twelfth the

mass of a carbon-12 atom.

mass of a carbon-12 atom.

/

since the mole is the number of

since the mole is the number of

atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12,

atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12,

/

the decimal number on the

the decimal number on the

periodic table is also the mass of

periodic table is also the mass of

1 mole of those atoms in grams.

1 mole of those atoms in grams.

Gram Atomic Mass

Gram Atomic Mass

/

The mass of 1 mole of an

The mass of 1 mole of an

element in grams.

element in grams.

/

12.01 grams of carbon has the

12.01 grams of carbon has the

same number of pieces as 1.01

same number of pieces as 1.01

grams of hydrogen and 55.85

grams of hydrogen and 55.85

grams of iron.

grams of iron.

/

We can write this as

We can write this as

12.01 g C = 1 mole

12.01 g C = 1 mole

/

We can count things by weighing

We can count things by weighing

them.

them.

Examples

Examples

/

How much would 2.34 moles of

How much would 2.34 moles of

carbon weigh?

carbon weigh?

/

How many moles of magnesium

How many moles of magnesium

in 24.31 g of Mg?

in 24.31 g of Mg?

/

How many atoms of lithium in

How many atoms of lithium in

1.00 g of Li?

1.00 g of Li?

/

How much would 3.45 x 10

How much would 3.45 x 10

22 22

atoms of U weigh?

atoms of U weigh?

Mass of compounds?

Mass of compounds?

/in 1 mole of H

in 1 mole of H

2 2

O molecules there

O molecules there

are two moles of H atoms and 1

are two moles of H atoms and 1

mole of O atoms

mole of O atoms

/

To find the mass of one mole of a

To find the mass of one mole of a

compound

compound

determine the moles of the

determine the moles of the

elements they have

elements they have

find out how much they would

find out how much they would

weigh

weigh

add them up

add them up

Gram Molecular Mass

Gram Molecular Mass

/

What is the mass of one mole of

What is the mass of one mole of

CH

CH

4 4

?

?

/

1 mole of C = 12.01 g

1 mole of C = 12.01 g

/

4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g

4 mole of H x 1.01 g = 4.04g

/1 mole CH

1 mole CH

4 4

= 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g

= 12.01 + 4.04 = 16.05g

/The

The

Gram Molecular mass

Gram Molecular mass

of CH

of CH

4 4

is

is

16.05

16.05

/

The mass of one mole of a molecular

The mass of one mole of a molecular

compound.

compound.

Gram Formula Mass

Gram Formula Mass

/

The mass of one mole of an ionic

The mass of one mole of an ionic

compound.

compound.

/

Calculated the same way.

Calculated the same way.

/

Example, what is the GFM of

Example, what is the GFM of

Fe

Fe

2 2

O

O

3 3

?

?

/

2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70

2 moles of Fe x 55.85 g = 111.70

g

g

/

3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00

3 moles of O x 16.00 g = 48.00

g

g

/

The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g =

The GFM = 111.70 g + 48.00 g =

159.70g

159.70g

Molar Mass

Molar Mass

/

The generic term for the mass of one

The generic term for the mass of one

mole.

mole.

/

The same as gram molecular mass,

The same as gram molecular mass,

gram formula mass, and gram

gram formula mass, and gram

atomic mass.

atomic mass.

/

The number of grams of 1 mole of

The number of grams of 1 mole of

atoms, ions, or molecules.

atoms, ions, or molecules.

/

Using molar mass, we can make

Using molar mass, we can make

conversion factors and;

conversion factors and;

/

We can change grams of a

We can change grams of a

compound to moles of a compound.

compound to moles of a compound.

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

NaOH mol ?

NaOH g ?

NaOH mol ?

NaOH g 69 . 5 =

B

need to change grams to moles

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

B

need to change grams to moles

B

for NaOH:

B

1mole Na = 22.99g

B

1 mol O = 16.00 g

B

1 mole of H = 1.01 g

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

40.00g

mol 1

B

need to change grams to moles

B

for NaOH:

B

1 mole NaOH = 40.00 g

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

?

40.00

mol 1

g 69 . 5 =

g

B

need to change grams to moles

B

for NaOH:

B

1 mole NaOH = 40.00 g

For example

For example

/

How many moles is 5.69 g of

How many moles is 5.69 g of

NaOH?

NaOH?

NaOH mol 0.142 =

40.00

mol 1

g 69 . 5

g

Examples

Examples

/

How many moles is 4.56 g of

How many moles is 4.56 g of

CO

CO

2 2

?

?

/

How many grams is 9.87 moles

How many grams is 9.87 moles

of H

of H

2 2

O?

O?

/

How many molecules in 6.8 g of

How many molecules in 6.8 g of

CH

CH

4 4

?

?

/49 molecules of C

49 molecules of C

6 6

H

H

12 12

O

O

6 6

weighs

weighs

how much?

how much?

Gases and the Mole

Gases and the Mole

Standard Temperature and

Standard Temperature and

Pressure

Pressure

/

0ºC and 1 atm

0ºC and 1 atm

/

abbreviated STP

abbreviated STP

/

At STP 1 mole of gas occupies

At STP 1 mole of gas occupies

22.42L

22.42L

(called the molar

(called the molar

volume)

volume)

Note: Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at the

Note: Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at the

same temperature and pressure

same temperature and pressure

equal volumes of gas have the same

equal volumes of gas have the same

number of particles.

number of particles.

Examples

Examples

/

What is the volume of 4.59 mole

What is the volume of 4.59 mole

of CO

of CO

2 2

gas at STP?

gas at STP?

/How many moles is 5.67 L of O

How many moles is 5.67 L of O

2 2

at STP?

at STP?

/

What is the volume of 8.8g of

What is the volume of 8.8g of

CH

CH

4 4

gas at STP?

gas at STP?

Density of a gas

Density of a gas

/

D = m /V

D = m /V

/

for a gas the units will be g / L

for a gas the units will be g / L

/

We can determine the density of

We can determine the density of

any gas at STP if we know its

any gas at STP if we know its

formula.

formula.

/

To find the density we need the

To find the density we need the

mass and the volume.

mass and the volume.

/

If you assume you have 1 mole

If you assume you have 1 mole

then the mass is the molar mass.

then the mass is the molar mass.

/

At STP the volume is 22.42 L.

At STP the volume is 22.42 L.

Examples

Examples

/

Find the density of CO

Find the density of CO

2

2

at STP.

at STP.

/Find the density of CH

Find the density of CH

4

4

at

at

STP.

STP.

The other way

The other way

/

Given the density, we can find the

Given the density, we can find the

molar mass of the gas.

molar mass of the gas.

/

Again, pretend you have a mole at

Again, pretend you have a mole at

STP, so V = 22.42 L.

STP, so V = 22.42 L.

/

m = D x V

m = D x V

/

m is the mass of 1 mole, since you

m is the mass of 1 mole, since you

have 22.42 L of the stuff.

have 22.42 L of the stuff.

/

What is the molar mass of a gas with

What is the molar mass of a gas with

a density of 1.964 g/L at STP?

a density of 1.964 g/L at STP?44 44

/

2.86 g/L?

2.86 g/L?64 64

What I expected you to have

What I expected you to have

learned:

learned:

/

change moles to grams

change moles to grams

/

moles to atoms

moles to atoms

/

moles to formula units

moles to formula units

/

moles to molecules

moles to molecules

/

moles to liters

moles to liters

/

molecules to atoms

molecules to atoms

/

formula units to atoms

formula units to atoms

/

formula units to ions

formula units to ions

Moles

Mass

Moles

Mass

PT

Moles

Mass

Volume

PT

Moles

Mass

Volume

PT

22.4 L

Moles

Mass

Volume

Representative

Particles

PT

22.4 L

Moles

Mass

Volume

Representative

Particles

PT

22.4 L

6.02 x 10

23

Moles

Mass

Volume

Representative

Particles

6.02 x 10

23

PT

Atoms

22.4 L

Moles

Mass

Volume

Representative

Particles

6.02 x 10

23

PT

Atoms

Ions

22.4 L

Percent Composition

Percent Composition

/

Like all percents

Like all percents

/

Part x 100 %

Part x 100 %

whole

whole

/

Find the mass of each

Find the mass of each

component,

component,

/

divide by the total mass.

divide by the total mass.

Example

Example

/

Calculate the percent

Calculate the percent

composition of a compound

composition of a compound

that is 29.0 g of Ag with

that is 29.0 g of Ag with

4.30 g of S.

4.30 g of S.87n13 87n13

Getting it from the formula

Getting it from the formula

/

If we know the formula,

If we know the formula,

assume you have 1 mole.

assume you have 1 mole.

/

Then you know the pieces

Then you know the pieces

and the whole.

and the whole.

Examples

Examples

/

Calculate the percent

Calculate the percent

composittion of C

composittion of C

2

2

H

H

4

4

?

?86n14 86n14

/

Aluminum carbonate.

Aluminum carbonate.

Empirical Formula

Empirical Formula

From percentage to formula

From percentage to formula

The Empirical Formula

The Empirical Formula

/

The lowest whole number ratio of

The lowest whole number ratio of

elements in a compound.

elements in a compound.

/

The molecular formula the actual

The molecular formula the actual

ratio of elements in a compound.

ratio of elements in a compound.

/

The two can be the same.

The two can be the same.

/CH

CH

2 2

empirical formula

empirical formula

/C

C

2 2

H

H

4 4

molecular formula

molecular formula

/C

C

3 3

H

H

6 6

molecular formula

molecular formula

/H

H

2 2

O both

O both

Calculating Empirical

Calculating Empirical

/

Just find the lowest whole number

Just find the lowest whole number

ratio

ratio

/C

C

6 6

H

H

12 12

O

O

6 6

---> ?

---> ?

/CH

CH

4 4

N

N

/

It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is

It is not just the ratio of atoms, it is

also the ratio of moles of atoms.

also the ratio of moles of atoms.

/In 1 mole of CO

In 1 mole of CO

2 2

there is 1 mole of

there is 1 mole of

carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.

carbon and 2 moles of oxygen.

/In one molecule of CO

In one molecule of CO

2 2

there is 1

there is 1

atom of C and 2 atoms of O.

atom of C and 2 atoms of O.

Calculating Empirical

Calculating Empirical

/

Means we can get ratio from

Means we can get ratio from

percent composition.

percent composition.

/

Assume you have a 100 g.

Assume you have a 100 g.

/

The percentages become

The percentages become

grams.

grams.

/

Can turn grams to moles.

Can turn grams to moles.

/

Find lowest whole number

Find lowest whole number

ratio by dividing by the

ratio by dividing by the

smallest.

smallest.

How do we do it?

How do we do it?

/

Calculate the empirical formula of a

Calculate the empirical formula of a

compound composed of 38.67 % C,

compound composed of 38.67 % C,

16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.

16.22 % H, and 45.11 %N.

Assume 100 g so

Assume 100 g so

/

38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220

38.67 g C x 1mol C = 3.220

mole C

mole C

12.01 g C

12.01 g C

/

16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09

16.22 g H x 1mol H = 16.09

mole H

mole H

1.01 g H

1.01 g H

/

45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole

45.11 g N x 1mol N = 3.219 mole

N

N

14.01 g N

14.01 g N

Example

Example

/

The ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C

The ratio is 3.220 mol C = 1 mol C

3.219 mol N 1

3.219 mol N 1

mol N

mol N

/

The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H

The ratio is 16.09 mol H = 5 mol H

3.219 mol N 1

3.219 mol N 1

mol N

mol N

1 C : 1 N 5 H : 1 N

1 C : 1 N 5 H : 1 N

C

C

1

1

H

H

5

5

N

N

1

1

Example

Example

·

A compound is 43.64 % P

A compound is 43.64 % P

and 56.36 % O. What is the

and 56.36 % O. What is the

empirical formula?

empirical formula?

·

Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15%

Caffeine is 49.48% C, 5.15%

H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O.

H, 28.87% N and 16.49% O.

What is its empirical formula?

What is its empirical formula?

Empirical to molecular

Empirical to molecular

/

Since the empirical formula is the

Since the empirical formula is the

lowest ratio, the actual molecule

lowest ratio, the actual molecule

would weigh more.

would weigh more.

/

By a whole number multiple.

By a whole number multiple.

/

Divide the actual molar mass by

Divide the actual molar mass by

the the mass of one mole of the

the the mass of one mole of the

empirical formula.

empirical formula.

/

Caffeine has a molar mass of 194

Caffeine has a molar mass of 194

g. what is its molecular mass?

g. what is its molecular mass?

Example

Example

A compound is known to

A compound is known to

be composed of 71.65 %

be composed of 71.65 %

Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H.

Cl, 24.27% C and 4.07% H.

Its molar mass is known

Its molar mass is known

(from gas density) to be

(from gas density) to be

98.96 g. What is its

98.96 g. What is its

molecular formula?

molecular formula?

Example

Example

What is its molecular

What is its molecular

formula?

formula?

E.F. = CH

E.F. = CH

2

2

Cl

Cl

E.W. = 49.5

E.W. = 49.5

∴

∴

M.F. =

M.F. = C

2

H

4

Cl

2

The effect of adding gas.

The effect of adding gas.

When we blow up a balloon

When we blow up a balloon

we are adding gas

we are adding gas

molecules.

molecules.

(

(

we can see an increase in

we can see an increase in

size of the balloon

size of the balloon

)

)

Doubling the the number of

gas particles doubles the

pressure.

(given the same volume at

the same temperature)

Pressure and the number of

Pressure and the number of

molecules are directly related

molecules are directly related

~

More molecules means

More molecules means

more collisions.

more collisions.

~

Fewer molecules means

Fewer molecules means

fewer collisions.

fewer collisions.

~

Gases naturally move from

Gases naturally move from

areas of high pressure to low

areas of high pressure to low

pressure because there is

pressure because there is

empty space to move in.

empty space to move in.

1 atm

If you double the number of

If you double the number of

molecules

molecules

You double the pressure.

You double the pressure.

2 atm

If you double the number of

molecules

4 atm

Assuming the

Assuming the

pressure outside

pressure outside

is 1 atm.

is 1 atm.

As you remove

As you remove

molecules from a

molecules from a

container

container

P

atm

= 1 atm

As you remove

As you remove

molecules from a

molecules from a

container the

container the

pressure

pressure

decreases

decreases

2 atm

2 atm

Molecules naturally move from

Molecules naturally move from

high to low pressure

high to low pressure

1 atm

As you remove

molecules from a

container the

pressure

decreases until the

pressure inside

equals the

pressure outside

Changing the size of the

Changing the size of the

container

container

~

In a smaller container,

In a smaller container,

molecules have less room to

molecules have less room to

move.

move.

~

They hit the sides of the

They hit the sides of the

container more often.

container more often.

~

As volume decreases

As volume decreases

pressure increases.

pressure increases.

1 atm

4 Liters

/

As the

As the

pressure on

pressure on

a gas

a gas

increases

increases

2 atm

2 Liters

/

As the

As the

pressure on

pressure on

a gas

a gas

increases

increases

the volume

the volume

decreases

decreases

/

Pressure

Pressure

and volume

and volume

are inversely

are inversely

related

related

Changing

Changing

Temperature

Temperature

~

Raising the temperature of a

Raising the temperature of a

gas increases the pressure if

gas increases the pressure if

the volume is held constant.

the volume is held constant.

~

The molecules hit the walls

The molecules hit the walls

harder.

harder.

~

The only way to increase the

The only way to increase the

temperature at constant

temperature at constant

pressure is to increase the

pressure is to increase the

volume.

volume.

300 K

1L ; 1 atm

If you start with 1 liter of gas at 1

atm pressure and 300 K and heat it

to 600 K one of 2 things happens

300 K

600 K

2L ; 1 atm 1L ; 2 atm

Either the volume will

increase to 2 liters at 1 atm or

the pressure will increase to 2

atm. Or someplace in

between

For this course we

are going to

assume the gases

behave ideally.

vacuum

hole

Effusion

The term used to

describe the passage

of gas through a tiny

orifice into an

evacuated chamber

Diffusion

The term used to

describe the mixing of

gases

Ideal Gases don’t exist

Ideal Gases don’t exist

~

Gas molecules do take

Gas molecules do take

up space

up space

~

There are attractive

There are attractive

forces between them,

forces between them,

otherwise there would be

otherwise there would be

no liquids

no liquids

~

There are no gases for

which this is true. Does not

really exist

~

Makes the math easier and

is a close approximation.

~

Particles have no volume.

~

No attractive forces.

Ideal Gases

Real gases

behave like

ideal gases at

high

temperature

and low

pressure.

Ideal Gases

Ideal Gases

Real Gases behave like Ideal

Real Gases behave like Ideal

Gases

Gases

~

When the molecules

When the molecules

do not take up as big

do not take up as big

a percentage of the

a percentage of the

space

space

~

We can ignore their

We can ignore their

volume.

volume.

~

When the molecules

are far apart

~

This is at low

pressure

Real Gases behave like Ideal

Real Gases behave like Ideal

gases

gases

~

When molecules are moving

When molecules are moving

fast.

fast.

~

Collisions are harder and faster.

Collisions are harder and faster.

~

Gas molecules are not next to

Gas molecules are not next to

each other very long.

each other very long.

~

Attractive forces can’t play a

Attractive forces can’t play a

role.

role.

HOW can we find out the pressure in

HOW can we find out the pressure in

the fourth container?

the fourth container?

2

atm

1

atm

3

atm

6

atm

By adding up the pressure in the

first 3

? atm ? atm

Daltons’ Law of Partial

Daltons’ Law of Partial

Pressures

Pressures

~

The total pressure inside a

The total pressure inside a

container is equal to the

container is equal to the

partial pressure due to each

partial pressure due to each

gas.

gas.

~

The partial pressure of a

The partial pressure of a

gas is the contribution by

gas is the contribution by

that gas.

that gas.

~P

P

Total Total

= P

= P

1 1

+ P

+ P

2 2

+ P

+ P

3 3

~P

P

Total Total

= P

= P

1 1

+ P

+ P

2 2

+ P

+ P

3 3

+ … +

+ … +

P

P

n n

Examples

Examples

/

What is the total pressure in a

What is the total pressure in a

balloon filled with air if the

balloon filled with air if the

pressure of the oxygen is 170 mm

pressure of the oxygen is 170 mm

Hg and the pressure of nitrogen is

Hg and the pressure of nitrogen is

620 mm Hg?

620 mm Hg?

/

In a second balloon the total

In a second balloon the total

pressure is 790 mm Hg. What is

pressure is 790 mm Hg. What is

the pressure of oxygen if the

the pressure of oxygen if the

pressure of nitrogen is 720 mm

pressure of nitrogen is 720 mm

Hg?

Hg?

Boyle’s Law

Boyle’s Law

~

At a constant temperature,

At a constant temperature,

pressure and volume are

pressure and volume are

inversely related.

inversely related.

~

As one goes up the other

As one goes up the other

goes down

goes down

~

P x V =

P x V =

k

k

(

(

k is some constant

k is some constant

)

)

~Easier to use P

Easier to use P

1 1

x V

x V

1 1

= P

= P

2 2

x

x

V

V

2 2

P

V

Boyle’s Law

Boyle’s Law

/

A balloon is filled with 25 L of

A balloon is filled with 25 L of

air at 1.0 atm pressure. If the

air at 1.0 atm pressure. If the

pressure is change to 1.5 atm

pressure is change to 1.5 atm

what is the new volume?

what is the new volume?16.67 16.67

/

A balloon is filled with 73 L of

A balloon is filled with 73 L of

air at 1.3 atm pressure. What

air at 1.3 atm pressure. What

pressure is needed to change

pressure is needed to change

to volume to 43 L?

to volume to 43 L?2.2 2.2

Examples

Examples

Charles’ Law

Charles’ Law

~

The volume of a gas is directly

The volume of a gas is directly

proportional to the

proportional to the

Kelvin

Kelvin

temperature if the pressure is

temperature if the pressure is

held constant.

held constant.

~

V =

V =

k

k

x

x

T

T

(

(

k is some constant

k is some constant

)

)

~

V/T=

V/T=

k

k

~Easier to use

Easier to use

V

V

1 1

/T

/T

1 1

= V

= V

2 2

/T

/T

2 2

V

T

Charles’ Law

Charles’ Law

Examples

Examples

/

What is the temperature of

What is the temperature of

a gas that is expanded from

a gas that is expanded from

2.5 L at 25ºC to 4.1 L at

2.5 L at 25ºC to 4.1 L at

constant pressure.

constant pressure.216 216

/

What is the final volume of

What is the final volume of

a gas that starts at 8.3 L

a gas that starts at 8.3 L

and 17ºC and is heated to

and 17ºC and is heated to

96ºC?

96ºC?10.6 10.6

Gay Lussac’s Law

Gay Lussac’s Law

~

The temperature and the

The temperature and the

pressure of a gas are

pressure of a gas are

directly related at constant

directly related at constant

volume.

volume.

~

P =

P =

k

k

x

x

T

T

(

(

k is some

k is some

constant

constant

)

)

~

P/T=

P/T=

k

k

~Easier to use P

Easier to use P

1 1

/T

/T

1 1

= P

= P

2 2

/T

/T

2 2

P

T

Gay Lussac’s Law

Gay Lussac’s Law

Examples

Examples

/

What is the pressure inside a

What is the pressure inside a

0.250 L can of deodorant that

0.250 L can of deodorant that

starts at 25ºC and 1.2 atm if

starts at 25ºC and 1.2 atm if

the temperature is raised to

the temperature is raised to

100ºC?

100ºC?1.5 1.5

/

At what temperature will the

At what temperature will the

can above have a pressure of

can above have a pressure of

2.2 atm?

2.2 atm?273 273

Combined Gas Law

Combined Gas Law

~

Deals with the situation

Deals with the situation

where only the number of

where only the number of

molecules stays constant.

molecules stays constant.

~(P

(P

1

1

x V

x V

1

1

)/T

)/T

1

1

= (P

= (P

2

2

x V

x V

2

2

)/T

)/T

2

2

~

P

P

1

1

V

V

1

1

T

T

2

2

= P

= P

2

2

V

V

2

2

T

T

1

1

Examples

Examples

/

A 15 L cylinder of gas at 4.8

A 15 L cylinder of gas at 4.8

atm pressure and 25ºC is

atm pressure and 25ºC is

heated to 75ºC and

heated to 75ºC and

compressed to 17 atm. What

compressed to 17 atm. What

is the new volume?

is the new volume?4.95 4.95

/

If 6.2 L of gas at 723 mm Hg

If 6.2 L of gas at 723 mm Hg

at 21ºC is compressed to 2.2

at 21ºC is compressed to 2.2

L at 4117 mm Hg, what is the

L at 4117 mm Hg, what is the

temperature of the gas?

temperature of the gas?321 321

/

The combined gas law contains

The combined gas law contains

all the other gas laws!

all the other gas laws!

/

If the temperature remains

If the temperature remains

constant.

constant.

P

1

V

1

T

1

x

=

P

2

V

2

T

2

x

Boyle’s Law

/

The combined gas law contains

The combined gas law contains

all the other gas laws!

all the other gas laws!

/

If the pressure remains

If the pressure remains

constant.

constant.

P

1

V

1

T

1

x

=

P

2

V

2

T

2

x

Charles’ Law

P

1

V

1

T

1

x

=

P

2

V

2

T

2

x

Gay-Lussac Law

/

The combined gas law contains

all the other gas laws!

/

If the volume remains constant.

Volume and moles

Volume and moles

~

Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at

Avogadro’s Hypothesis - at

the same temperature and

the same temperature and

pressure equal volumes of

pressure equal volumes of

gas have the same number

gas have the same number

of particles.

of particles.

~

V is proportional to number

V is proportional to number

of molecules at constant T

of molecules at constant T

and P.

and P.

~

V is proportional to moles.

V is proportional to moles.

~

V =

V =

k

k

n (

n (

n is the number of

n is the number of

moles

moles

)

)

The Ideal Gas Law

The Ideal Gas Law

~

P

P

x

x

V = n

V = n

x

x

R

R

x

x

T

T

~

This time R does not depend

This time R does not depend

on anything, it is really

on anything, it is really

constant

constant

~

R = 0.0821 (L atm)/(mol K)

R = 0.0821 (L atm)/(mol K)

~

R = 8.3145 J/(mol K)

R = 8.3145 J/(mol K)

~

R = 62.4 (L mm Hg)/(mol K)

R = 62.4 (L mm Hg)/(mol K)

~

We now have a new way to

We now have a new way to

count the number of moles of

count the number of moles of

a gas. By measuring

a gas. By measuring

T

T

,

,

P

P

, and

, and

V

V

. We aren’t

. We aren’t

restricted

restricted

to

to

STP

STP

.

.

~

n = PV/RT

n = PV/RT

The Ideal Gas Law

The Ideal Gas Law

Examples

Examples

How many moles of air are

How many moles of air are

there in a 2.0 L bottle at 19 ºC

there in a 2.0 L bottle at 19 ºC

and 747 mm Hg?

and 747 mm Hg?0.08 0.08

What is the pressure exerted

What is the pressure exerted

by 1.8 g of H

by 1.8 g of H

2 2

gas exert in a 4.3

gas exert in a 4.3

L balloon at 27 ºC?

L balloon at 27 ºC?3918mm5.2atm 3918mm5.2atm

~

The molar mass of a gas can be

The molar mass of a gas can be

determined by the density of

determined by the density of

the gas.

the gas.

~

Density = mass/Volume = m/V

Density = mass/Volume = m/V

~

Molar mass = mass/moles =

Molar mass = mass/moles =

m/n

m/n

~

n = PV/RT

n = PV/RT

Points to Ponder?

~

Molar Mass =

Molar Mass =

m

m

(PV/RT)

(PV/RT)

~

Molar mass =

Molar mass =

m RT

m RT

V P

V P

~

Molar mass =

Molar mass =

D RT

D RT

P

P

Points to Ponder?

At STP

At STP

~

At STP determining the amount

At STP determining the amount

of gas required or produced is

of gas required or produced is

easy.

easy.

~

For example, how many liters of

For example, how many liters of

O

O

2 2

at STP are

at STP are

required to

required to

produce 20.3 g of H

produce 20.3 g of H

2 2

O?

O?14.22L 14.22L

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

~

The volume of the individual gas

The volume of the individual gas

particles can be

particles can be

assumed to be

assumed to be

negligible

negligible

~

The particles are in

The particles are in

constant

constant

motion

motion

~

The particles are

The particles are

assumed to

assumed to

exert

exert

no

no

forces

forces

on each other

on each other

~

The

The

average kinetic energy

average kinetic energy

of

of

the gas is

the gas is

assumed to be directly

assumed to be directly

proportional to the temperature

proportional to the temperature

of the gas

of the gas

Postulates

Postulates

From the theory

PV

n

∝ T

=

2

3

(KE)

av

g

PV

n

∝ T

From the theory

PV

n

=RT

From the experiment

combining

=

(KE)

av

g

RT

3

2

Example

Example

It was found out that 1.0 L

It was found out that 1.0 L

of carbon dioxide (CO

of carbon dioxide (CO

2

2

) took

) took

3 minutes to effuse through

3 minutes to effuse through

a porous filter. How long

a porous filter. How long

will it take 1.0 L of methane

will it take 1.0 L of methane

(CH

(CH

4

4

) to effuse under the

) to effuse under the

same conditions?

same conditions?

Can we predict the distance

Can we predict the distance

traveled by NH

traveled by NH

3

3

and HCl?

and HCl?

1

2

M

M

2 gas of effusion of rate

1 gas of effusion of rate

=

Graham Law

At constant temperature,

the relative rates of

effusion of two gases are

given by the inverse ratio

of the square roots of

their masses

= 0.55 L /min

1

2

M

M

2 gas of effusion of rate

1 gas of effusion of rate

=

2

4

CO

CH

4

2

M

M

CH rate

CO rate

=

2

4

CO

CH

4

MM

MM

CH rate

L/min. 0.33

=

44

16

CH rate

L/min. 0.33

4

=

44

16

CH rate

L/min. 0.33

4

=

= 1.8 min

Can you determine the

Can you determine the

distance traveled by NH

distance traveled by NH

3

3

and HCl?

and HCl?

Establishing Test Reliability

Mathemascian VI Invitation Letter for Schools - Mechanics

BS Mathematics and Science Teaching (MST) Curriculum (2011) Flowchart

Critical Theory

Names and Formulas of Complex Ions (A Lesson Plan)

Effect of the Molecular Weight of a Substance on Its Rate of Diffusion

Historical Development of Teaching as a Profession

Association (categorized under Principles of Teaching)

How to Grease the Waters

Stokes' Law

Solid-Liquid Extraction

The Human Reproductive System

UPLB Filipiniana Dance Troupe - Banyuhay (Exhibit Materials)

HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Drawing Projectiles and the Kinematics of Badminton-Playing

Paschalis Solemnitatis

UPLB Perspective Volume 37 Issue 1

Election Flow Chart

UPLB Perspective Volume 37 Special Election Issue

Ang Daan ng Krus

Rosary Guide

Sosc 1 Deviant Act

by Mark

1.3K views

Download

A slideshow presentation about general chemistry.

A slideshow presentation about general chemistry.

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

by Allen A. Espinosa

Stoichiometry, Chemical Reactions, Chemical Thermodynamics, Chemical Kinetics

Introduction to Chemistry, Matter, Atomic theory, Nuclear Chemistry, The Periodic Table

Comparative Efficiency of Modular Method in the Teaching of High School Chemistry

Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Investigate Secondary School Teachers’ Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

The Sweet and Sour of Cancer (Glycan as Novel Therapeutic Targets)

Ceramic Tiles From Crassostrea Iredalei Oyster Shells

Gene Therapy Can Cure Blindness (15th Gene Discovered, SPATA7)

Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Investigate Secondary School Teachers’ Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

Laws of Chemical Combination

Exercise 5

Pretest in High School Chemistry

CHEM S

Analysis of Division Achievement Tests in Secondary Chemistry and Biology for SY 2009-2010

Properties of Matter

Changes in Matter

History of Chemistry

Matter and its States

Chemical Symbols

Course Syllabus High School Chemistry

Redox Reactions, Applications of Chemistry

Trends and Periodic Variation of Elements in the Periodic Table

Scientific Measurement

Periodic Table Geography

Properties and Uses of Some Group of Elements in the Periodic Table

the periodic table and chemical bonding

Valence Electron and Group Number

Atomic Structure

Scientific Method

Modern Atomic Theory

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

scribd