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33 Reports on Media Gender Bias in 2012 Addendum to EEOC

33 Reports on Media Gender Bias in 2012 Addendum to EEOC

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Published by Ariel Dougherty
During 2012 so many reports, articles and documents about gender bias in different mainstream media prompted me to create this table. 33 are from 2012. 14 more reports around out a comprehensive view of how persistent the bias is.
During 2012 so many reports, articles and documents about gender bias in different mainstream media prompted me to create this table. 33 are from 2012. 14 more reports around out a comprehensive view of how persistent the bias is.

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Published by: Ariel Dougherty on Apr 24, 2013
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ADDENDUM to Public Comments to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

Submitted by National Council on Women's Organizations/Media & Technology Task Force

Plethora of Reports on Gender Bias in Media – Mostly During 2012 – compiled by Ariel Dougherty Media Equity Collaborative @mediaequity
The number – 25 – of reports that came out during the first six months of 2012 prompted collection of this data into a table. The sheer number, range of different forms of media, and the persistence lack of change speak to deeply entrenched cultural attitudes of bias against women in all aspects of the media & culture. Here are listed 47 separate reports that collectively map out extensive gender bias in all aspects of media. The field of feminist media producers has demanded a broad definition of media to be inclusive of all forms of cultural making as well as the more traditionally perceived mainstream venues of print, radio, films and television.

Name of Report
Press Freedom Index 2011/2012


Sponsoring Org
Reporters Without Borders article:
http://en.rsf.org/pre ss-freedom-index20112012,1043.html

Media Focus
International Press Freedom USA ranks #47


December 2012

http://en.rsf.org/IMG/CLASS EMENT_2012/CLASSEME NT_ANG.pdf The Learning Resource Kit for Gender-Ethical Journalism and Media House Policy http://whomakesthenews.org/ Conceptual Issues Practical Resources Sarah Macharia, Editor

World Association for Christian Communication (WACC) & the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)

Tools for Change: December Outgrowth of the 2012 Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP) that creates Who Makes The News. EXCELLENT ! List of Policy in many many countries; analysis about reporting on gender violence; more Film & TV: + “Children!s programs
(30.5%) and comedy series (31.5%) are the most imbalanced genres in prime time, with less than a third of all on screen speaking characters coded as girls or women.”

Gender Roles & Occupations: A Look at Character Attributes and Job-Related Aspirations in Film and Television http://www.seejane.org/rese arch/

Stacy L. Smith, PhD | Marc Choueiti | Ashley Prescott | Katherine Pieper, PhD

Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism University of Southern California


for Geena Davis Institute on Gender In Media

+ “not one speaking
character plays a powerful American female political figure across 5,839 speaking characters in 129 family films” + ….etc. page 1

47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

Article: Girls Fight Guns With By Ashfaq Yusufzai Books

IPS Inter Press Service http://www.ipsnews .net/2012/10/girlsdetermined-tofight-guns-withbooks/ Discussion sponsored by Guardian Sustainable Business PLOSOne.org

The struggle for girl education. While this example is of Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan, the issue is universal, including Sandy Hook Elementary School.


Women Leaders on Sustainability http://www.guardian.co.uk/sust ainable-business/womenleaders-sustainabilitydiscussion-highlights There Is No News Like Bad News: Women Are More Remembering and Stress Reactive after Reading Real Negative News than Men

Tim Smedley, writes up discussion

Sustainability in business: Women to lead in innovation, collaboration, community centered; shift “policy-culture” Effects of 24 hr news via TV, devices: “negative news....led to a
significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only. Also, women in the negative news condition experienced better memory for these news excerpts compared to men.”


Marie-France Marin, JulieKatia MorinMajor, Tania E. Schramek, Annick Beaupré, Abstract: Andrea Perna, http://www.plosone.org/article/ Robert-Paul info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fj Juster, Sonia J. ournal.pone.0047189 Lupien

October 10, 2012

Broadband Commission Report
Article w/ link to pdf on report:

http://www.undp.org/content/u ndp/en/home/ourperspective/ou rperspectivearticles/2013/01/10 /the-internet-gender-gapmagdy-martinezsoliman.html?utm_source=feed burner&utm_medium=email& utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ung en+%28UN+gender+equality+ news+feed%29&utm_content= "Positive Female Role-Models Christopher J. Eliminate Negative Effects of Ferguson Sexually Violent Media”

A Report by the Broadband Commission

Internet access and cell phone use “women are 21% less likely to own a mobile phone than men”

September 2012

“Journal of Communications” Article: The Atlantic

Sexual Violence in media
Women who watched sexually violent media were more anxious, and males who watched sexually violent media had more negative attitudes toward women,.....

August 2012

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ doi/10.1111/j.14602466.2012.01666.x/abstract

Study done at Southern University

http://www.theatlantic.c om/health/archive/2012 /08/study-we-benefitfrom-seeing-strongwomen-on-tv/261790/

47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

page 2

Independent Women: Behind-the-Scenes Representation on Festival Films

By Martha M. Lauzen, Ph.D

Center for the Study of Women in Television & Film, Univ of San Diego

Independent Film

August 2012

Pdf of Ex Sum in O Rpt file

++ Women 39% of the people working on http://www.pdfdownloa documentaries ++ 18% d.org/pdf2html/pdf2ht ml.php?url=http%3A% on narrative features.
2F%2Fwomenintvfilm. sdsu.edu%2Ffiles%2F2 012_Independent_Wom en_Exec_Summ.pdf&i mages=yes

Gender Diversity and Corporate performance

Credit Suisse

Tropes vs Women in Video Games http://kck.st/JijdIr

Anita Karkeesian

Leadership: August ...the evidence suggests 2012 https://infocus.credi that a bit more balance ton the board [women to suisse.com/.../csri_ men] brings with it a bit gender_diversity_a less volatility and a bit nd_ more balance through the cycle.... Feminist Frequency VIDEO GAMES: May-June Kickstarter campaign to 2012 feministfrequency.c raise $6K: stereotyping of women in video games. om
Huge uproar of misogyny followed. Ultimately 6,968 backers supplied $158,922 to see project realized.

Racial and Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Children’s Television Use and Self-Esteem: A Longitudinal Panel Study

Nicole Martins and Kristen Harrison

First published, Communications Research
http://crx.sagepub.com/ content/39/3/338.abstra ct

effects of television consumption on global self-esteem; esp adverse effects on boys of color & all girls. New media – numerous examples of bias

June 2012

Article: New Media—but Familiar Lack of Diversity:
Women, people of color still marginalized online

Janine Jackson

FAIR fair.org/index.php? page=4551

June 2012

Article: Challenges for NonSexist Communication in Cuba GIRL TECH REPORT 20102011

By Ivet González

IPS - GenderWire
http://ipsnews.ne t/news.asp?idne ws=108111

Estalblished Policy: Journalism & film in CUBA Report on skills building for young women of color

June 2012

Media Literacy Project
http://medialiteracyproj ect.org/programs/girltech-collective

June 2012

47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

page 3

SILENCED Gender Gap in the 2012 Election Coverage http://www.4thestate.net/femal e-voices-in-media-infographic/ <WOMEN RULE>

4th Estate –
Visualizing how Media Influences Us

MSM – print & TV

May 2012

Women Who Tech
http://www.womenw hotech.com/womenin techinfographic.html

Tech data & women owned companies

May 2012

Enuf Already!

Linda Stein

Have Art: Will Travel, Inc Newsletter 4th Estate
http://www.4thestate. net/gender-gapamong-top-printjournalists/

Art Market: for women May 29, painters yield vastly 2012 under that of men!! Reporters on the election! May 25, 2012

Gender Gap Among Top Journalists

Article: The Price of Being Female

By S.T.

The Economist
http://www.economis t.com/blogs/prospero/ 2012/05/post-warartists-auction

Women artists (visual) auction prices

May 20, 2012

Gender Report esp see this: http://genderreport.com/2012/1 1/04/byline-report-who-writesthe-news-online-3-months/ Article; Women Artists Still Face Discrimination

Jasmine Linabary

GenderReport.com a blog... A closer

look at gender and online news TruthOut.org
http://truthout.org/news/item/89 71-women-artistsstill-facediscrimination

On-line news that reports this discrimination

Weekly Updates esp: Nov 4, 2012

Eleanor J. Bader

Various data on visual arts

May 10, 2012

The Status of Women In the US Media, 2012

Robin H. Pugh Yi, PhD; Craig T. Dearfield, MA

Women’s Media Center www.womensmedi acenter.com/pages/t he-problem Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

news, literature, and television and film entertainment: “Women comprised just 5% of directors, 15% of writers, and 4% of cinematrographers” Women-owned companies

March 2012

“A Rising Tide: Financing Strategies for Women-Owned Firms,”
47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

May 2012

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

page 4

Women of Color Directed 1 Percent of TV Episodes Last Season, Make $23,325 Less Than Male Writers

By Alyssa Rosenberg

Think Progress http://thinkprogress .org/alyssa/2012/04 /20/468432/women -of-color-intelevision-part-1the-numbers/ Women and Hollywood

“women of color directed just 1 percent of 2,600 television episodes that aired during that period (men of color drirected 11% of those espisodes” This premiere film festival showcases NO women directed films in competition.


“Four Steps Back-NO Women Directors in Competition at Cannes” http://blogs.indiewire.com/wo menandhollywood/four-stepsback-no-women-directors-incompetition-at-cannes Infographic: The Gender Pay Gap http://www.americanprogress.o rg/issues/women/news/2012/04 /16/11435/infographic-thegender-pay-gap/ Not A Pretty Picture: The Economics of Feminist Culture
Presentation at Sarah Lawrence College

Melissa Silverstein

April 19, 2012

Matt Separa

Center for American Progress

Median INCOMES 2010

April 16, 2012

Ariel Dougherty

Media Equity Collaborative

Update 1980s data of March NEA support of women 2012 arts organizations – 2010 support: 1/3 of peak in 1980! By lines in literary publications: +The New York Review of Books -- 19 women to 133 male writers. Hollywood Films: +“..of 1,425 speaking characters only 32.6% are female...” + “The most recent best picture nominated (2007-10) have nearly as many femle directors as those spanning 30 years (1977-2006) Feb 2012

The Count [2012] annual analysis by this literary arts organization

VIDA- Women in Literary Arts http://www.vidawe b.org/the-count Stacy L Smith, Marc Chourceiti & Stephanie Gall University of Southern California, Annenberg School of Communications & Journalism

Asymmetrical Academy Awards2: Another Look at Gender in Best Picture Nominated Films from 19772010 annenberg.usc.edu/.../News/~/.. ./Asymmetrical2012Report.ash

Feb 22, 2012

47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

page 5

THE CELLULOID CEILING: BEHIND-THESCENES EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN THE TOP 250 FILMS OF 2011 Article: Sundance Institute and Women in Film Spotlight Challenges Facing Women Filmmakers

Martha M. Lauzen, Ph.D.

Center for the Study of Women in Television & Film, Univ of San Diego http://womenintvfil m.sdsu.edu/researc h.html We Are Movie Geeks (also @) http://www.sundan ce.org/presscenter/release/sund ance-institute-andwomen-in-filmspotlightchallenges-facingwomen-film/ Free Press Pdf link in article: http://www.huffingt onpost.com/timothy -karr/campaignads2012_b_1233354.ht ml

Annual film industry breakdown of women to men – women directors at 5%

Feb 2012

Melissa Howland

Independent Film: Jan 23, only 16.7% submissions 2012 to Sundance by women

Citizen Unindated: How bigmoney politics and broadcast media are poisoning democratic discourse and undermining U.S. elections ... and what we can do about it

Timothy Karr

“political influence money that begins with contributions from wealthy corporations and individuals and ends up in the bank accounts of some of the most powerful television conglomerates in the United States.”

January 2012

EARLIER THAN 2012 – BUT IMPORTANT Race and GenderConsciousness Policies; Toward A More Egalitarian Communications Future By Carolyn M. Byerly, Yong Jin Park & Reginald D. Miles The Howard Media Group, Published in Journal of Information Policy, Vol 1.
“Women have found the greatest difficulty gaining legal ground for gender equality in communications policy.”

Late 2011

+Women own-5%TV; 6%Radio +Minorities own Development of highspeed internet and its correlation w/ net access and economic growth Nov 2011

Exploring the Digital Nation Computer and Internet Use At Home

Economics and Statistics Administration & National Telecommunicati ons and Information Administration

U.S. Department of Commerce

47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

page 6

Social Justice Documentary Designing for Impact www.centerforsocialmedia.org/ designing-impact

Jessica Clark and Barbara Abrash

Center for Social Media, American University and Center for Media, Culture and History, New York University Center for Women Policy Studies http://www.centerw omenpolicy.org/pro grams/contract/The ContractwithWome noftheUSAReportJ une2011.asp International Women’s Media Foundation

Case study of six documentaries for their social impact – esp interesting comment regarding women's organizations lack of awareness about social uses of media

Sept 2011

The Contract with Women of the USA State legislators Initiative 1996-2011

Examination of 12 points of Beijing Platform for Action; Media is Platform J

June 2011

Global Report on the Status of Women in New Media http://iwmf.org/pioneeringchange/global-research-onwomen-in-the-newsmedia.aspx Behind the Scenes of Women's Broadcast Ownership

By Carolyn M.Byerly

Global survey on news, heavy on print, less radio & TV-forms a baseline + “73 percent of the top management jobs are occupied by men”
Women own less than 6% of broadcast stations: how do they enter this market & how do communications policy, economics and sexual politics exclude women from ownership

March 2011

By Carolyn M. Byerly

Howard Journal of Communications http://www.tandfon line.com/doi/full/10 .1080/10646175.20 11.546740

Name It Change It, sexism and Equality Don’t Mix www.lakeresearch.com SNAPSHOT: Foundation Support for Gender Justice Media Organizations www.mediaequity.org Where Are The Women? http://www.npr.org/blogs/omb udsman/2010/04/where_are_th e_women.html
47 Reports on Media Gender Bias

Lake Research Partners

Ariel Dougherty

Media Equity Collaborative

Suvey of 800 votes on hypothetical Congressional contest between a female & male candidate In examinating 20 sample women directed media orgs & their support, underscores lack of core, sustained support for this field “when it comes to female voices from outside NPR, the network is not as diverse on air as it would like to think”

Sep 2010

June 2010

Alicia C. Shepard

National Public Radio by their Ombudsman

April 2010

compiled by Ariel Dougherty

page 7

WHO MAKES THE NEWS http://whomakesthenews.org/

Forward by Margaret Gallagher

Global Media Monitoring Project

MOST SIGNIFICANT GLOBAL STUDY every-5-yr report on gender in global media 24% - women in print and airtime (Globally) 28% - (US & Canada)
“profiles of eight key research findings that point to environmental and social barriers – including stereotypes, gender bias and the climate of science and engineering departments in colleges and universities – that continue to block women’s participation and progress in science, technology, engineering, and math.”

Feb 2010

“Why So Few: Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics”

Catherine Hill

American Association of University Women (AAUW) http://www.aauw.or g/learn/research/wh ysofew.cfm


Gender in Televised Sports: News and Highlight Shows, 1989-2009. http://www.usc.edu/dept/cfr/ht ml/home.htm Digital Inclusion: Working Both Sides of the Equation
Chapter in Communications Research in Action: Scholar-Activist Collaborations for a … By Philip M. Napoli

Michael Messner and Cheryl Cooky

University of Southern California

Women’s sports news coverage has evaporated to an appalling 1.6% (2009) from an abysmal high of 8.7% (1999) Excellent activist project that develops creative media policy models within a community setting. All women participants in project


By Dorothy Kidd with Eloise Lee

Department of Media Studies, University of San Francisco a project of Media Alliance


Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualizat ion.html

Eileen L.Zurbriggen,PhD (Chair) Rebecca L.Collins,PhD Sharon Lamb,EdD Tomi-Ann Roberts,PhD Deborah L.Tolman,EdD L.Monique Ward,PhD Jeanne Blake (Public Member)

GERMINAL STUDY American Psychological Association
750 First Street,NE, Washington,DC 20002-4242.

Germinal study –
“Virtually every media form studied provides ample evidence of the sexualization of women, including television, music videos, music lyrics, movies, magazines, sports media, video games, the Internet and advertising”


Contact, Media & Technology Co-chairs: Shireen Mitchell, 202.642.1881 digitalsista@gmail.com Ariel Dougherty, 575.740.5868 ArielCamra@gmail.com @MediaEquity MTTF, NCWO 714 G Street, SE, Washington, DC 20003
47 Reports on Media Gender Bias
compiled by Ariel Dougherty page 8

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