Base-Station-Antennas for optimized Mobile Communication Networks Norbert Ephan, Roland Gabriel KATHREIN-Werke KG, Postfach

100 444, 83004 Rosenheim, Germany

Kathrein-Werke KG
Rosenheim PO Box 10 04 44 Phone:+ 49 (0)8031 184 - 0 Fax: +49 (0)8031 184 991
antennas.mobilcom@kathrein. de www.kathrein.de

Content
• 1. Polarization - Diversity-Antennas • 2. Site-Sharing with Multiband-Antennas • 3. Remote Electrical Tilt • 4. Adaptive Antennas and Tower Top Electronics

History: Base Station Antennas

Evolution from Eurocell V-Pol. to A-Panel XX-Pol.

1. Polarization Diversity Antennas

2 0 0 CrossCrossCorrelation Correlation .8 0.6 0.Level difference .6 0.4 0.Diversity combining Diversity with two antennas 10 5 Signal Level [dB] 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Time 8 8 1 Rx 2 Rx 1 .2 0.8 0.4 0.Correlation DiversityGain Gain[dB] [dB] Diversity 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 3 5 7 5 7 9 11 9 11 13 15 13 15 17 19 Signal Difference Signal Difference[dB] [dB] 17 19 21 21 23 23 25 25 Combined Signal 10 5 Signal level [dB] 0 -5 1 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 Time Maximal MaximalRatio RatioCombining Combining Diversity Diversitygain gainGSM GSM 1 1 0.

E-02 1. ratio comb.E-03 max.E+00 Div-gain 7 dB 1. uncorrelated. equal level) Outage Probability (y<x) 1.E-04 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 10 log (x/Γ ) [dB] ./ uncorrelated signals 1.E-01 Pr ( <x) single signal 1.System (max.Diversity •Typical Diversity Gain for GSM .

Diversity • Space Diversity Arrangement – uses two vertical polarized Rx antennas (Rxa and Rxb) with a horizontal spacing of 12-15 λ – Omni base station : 3 omni antennas with the Tx antenna on a higher level 3m 3m .

Polarization-Diversity: Xpol construction 65° 90° .

Polarization Diversity Antennas: Radiators -45°-Polarization +45°-Polarization Reflektor „Vektor“-dipol -halfpower beamwidth 65°.2170 MHz) .level -broadband design(1710 .90° -low crosspol.

Polarization Diversity Antenna Arrangements Space-Diversity-Arrangement Polarization-DiversityArrangement .

Vector Dipole Characteristic Co-/Cross Pol.60° Sector) 1710 . behavior 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 0 345 330 315 300 285 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 60 45 Frequency behavior 15 30 0 345 330 315 300 285 Primary radiator design -30 -20 -10 dB 270 255 240 225 -30 -20 -10 dB 270 255 240 co-pol cross.2170 MHz .pol 210 > 25 dB (main direction) > 10dB (+/.X-Pol Array Antennas .

Site-Sharing with Dual and Triple-Band Antennas .

430 MHz 450 MHz 512-860 MHz 824 .3.1880 MHz 1920 .890 MHz 880-960 MHz 1710 .2170 MHz 2500 .Dualband Antennas / XXpol System Major Mobile Communication Frequencies TETRA GSM DVB-H AMPS GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS UMTS LTE WiMax 380 .8 GHz .2700 MHz 3.4 .

Site Sharing and Multi-Band Antennas Single-Band-Antennen für GSM900 und GSM1800 GSM900 (D-Netz) GSM1800 (E-Netz) XXPol-Dual-Band mit Combiner .

Site Sharing and Multiband Antennas .

Dualband antennas: XXpol construction .

430 MHz 450 MHz 512-860 MHz 824 .2170 MHz 2500 .8 GHz Independent adjustable Downtilt .3.2700 MHz 3.890 MHz 880-960 MHz 1710 .1880 MHz 1920 .Triple-Band Antennas Major Mobile Communication Frequencies TETRA GSM DVB-H AMPS GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS UMTS LTE WiMax 380 .4 .

Systems.independently independentlyadjustable adjustable --GSM GSM900 900--GSM GSM1800 1800--UMTS UMTS .Band Antennas 6 6Systems.Triple.

Triple.Band Antennas .

2170 MHz Scheme of Triple-Band-Antenna .Adjustable Electrical DT Combined radiators 806-960/1710-2170 MHz C-Filter-Combiner 1710-1880 MHz 1920-2170 MHz DPS-Differential Phase-Shifter Single radiators 1710 .

Triple.Band Antennas Downtilt GSM 900 Crosspolar level Halfpower beamwidth Sidelobe level Tracking. squint isolation Isolation +/-45° Triple-Band-Antenna Complex design: Optimization Parameter of Triple-Band Antennas VSWR frequency Downtilt GSM 1800 Downtilt UMTS 45 43 41 39 37 Isolation 35 33 31 29 27 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Downtilt 900 MHz 6 4 2 0 Downtilt 1800 MHz . Tracking.

Remote Electrical Tilt .

Adjustable Electrical Downtilt • maximum flexibility is achieved with adjustable electrical downtilt by combining the adjustability of the mechanical DT and the technical advantage of the electrical DT Ф Ф Ф Ф .

Adjustable Electrical Downtilt • Network Extension • Support of traffic dependent cell breathing and regulation of softHandover areas • Hot spots during special events • Dynamical traffic adaptive regulation of cell load „Hot Spot“ High traffic area „Cell Brathing“ .

Adjustable Electrical Downtilt – Electrical Tilt instead of Mechanical Tilt – Manual Adjustable: Team has to climb up the tower – RET offers flexible remote control (on site ore via O&M Network) RET .

Adjustable Electrical DT Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna Triple-Band Antenna system 900 MHz +45° .

Adjustable Electrical DT Schemes of Triple-Band-Antenna C-Filter-Combiner Passive Differential Phase Shifter DPS-Differential Phase-Shifter Triple-Band Antenna system 2000 MHz +45° .

UMTS / WCDMA-Network Optimization of Service 98 96 Service Propability 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 Number of Subscribers Without RET RET optimized Azimuth optimized Influence of Downtilt-Optimization . Pilot Power and Azimuth adjustment Based on study results by Symena Software & Consulting GmbH Wien: www. publishing with allowance of Symena .b) RET.symena.a) RET and Pilot Power .com „ The value of automated optimization“ .

Scenarios Network-Planing Tool „Dynamical“ Predefined Modus Scenarios -Optimization Time -Reaction Time -Administration OMC Control Network Smart-BIAS-T Network-Extension Changed Load Situation (Rush Hour) Antenna RCU TMA BTS Central Control unit Feeder lines .RET.

Roll-Out of RET-System in Taipei/Taiwan .

Adaptive Antennas and Tower Top Electronics .

-Increased IncreasedCapacity Capacity .-"SMART" "SMART".-Antennas Antennas .-„MultiBeam“„Multi Beam“-Antennas „Multi-Beam“-Antennas .-Reduction Reductionof ofaverage averageEM EM fields fields but but -Expensive -ExpensiveBTS BTS -n x Feeder Cables -n x Feeder Cables -Higher -HigherSize Size .-Reduced ReducedSite SiteSharing SharingCapabilities Capabilities Transmit the power to the correct destination. .Adaptive Antennas Antennas -forming: beam Antennaswith withbeambeam-forming: .-Reduced TransmitPower Transmit Reduced Transmit-Power .-Adaptive AdaptiveAntennas Antennas .-Reduced interference Reduced interferencelevel level .

..Control principles Adaptive Antenna Control Options Standard BTS Control via: -Handover (Switched) -Soft Handover (MakroDiversity) -Backbone network takes over high traffic -or increased handovers required -2X.4X array antennas option: flat frequency phasedependency for FDD ..Adaptive Antennas ..4X dual beam antennas -common 6-sector arrangements Special BTS for n Sensors Beam-Forming Algorithm -Switched fixed beam -MRC principle Pilot carrier (BCCH) has to been distributed within the whole cell 2X.

E-06 4 sensors 1. uncorrelated carriers: BER MRC-Receiver.E+00 Pb.E-03 BER 1. noncorrelated signals 1.Multiple Input.Single Output MRC M=4 M=8 .E-05 1.E-02 µ= Pt 2 Pt + σ n Tx-Power noise 1. MRC  2r  1 − µ 2  1 µ    = − ∑    2 2 r =0  r  4   M −1 r 1.E-01 Diversity-gain 1.Adaptive Antennas For QPSK-Modulation.E-07 -19 -17 -14 -12 -10 -7 -5 -3 0 2 5 7 9 12 14 16 19 21 24 26 28 31 SNR [dB] MISO.E-04 Single Sensor 2 sensors 3 sensors 1.

11 dB .5 dB 13 dB 4...5 dB 6..10 dB 8.Adaptive Antennas Array Gain 14 12 10 Gain [dB] 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ..4 sensors offer attractive ratio of gain/costs Array Gain (correlation=1) typical gain max gain(correl=0) Number of sensors 8 Antenna /Sensor T yp Single Path Two Path Four Path 8-Path Array gain (total correlated) 0 dB 3 dB 6 dB 9 dB M axim um T ypical G ain (non gain correlated) 0 dB 0 dB 8 dB 10.2.

reduced Tx power .Adaptive Antennas: 4x-solution Dual-polarized Array-Antenna 4x 4 x Tx +4 x Rx Diversity Digital data processing Beam steering algorithm (1x phase calibration) M=8 Improved Rx-signal.

41d3sect area subscriber ≈ = cons sec tor sec tor ⇒ r6 sec t = 2 r3sec t Required additional gain for increased radius (OkumarataHata-Model) 4..5.6 dB .6-Sector-Arrangement: „Switched Beam“ Adaption 6-Sektor Arrangements: -Increased Coverage -Equivalent Traffic/Cell -Reduced Interference d6sect=1.

3 0. Okumurata-Hata Increased coverage h= 10 m h=20m h=40m h=100m ∆h .9 1.3 1.7 1.5 0.1 0. gTx=18 dBi.1 1.6-Sector Ultra High sites Increased Coverage due to increased height of the Tx Antenna path loss „Ultra High sites“ Path loss [dB] 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 0.5 1.9 Distance [km] f=2GHz.7 0.

Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (2X) Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 2 Columns) 3dB-Hybrid .

Adaptive Antenna: Dual Beam (4X) Dual-Beam-Antenna ( 4 Columns) Beam 1 Beam 2 Frequenz HPBW Azimuth Frequenz HPBW Azimuth 4x2 Butler-Matrix .

Adaptive Antennas: Tracking 2X Smart Antenna ( 2 Columns. 65° HPBW) Phase Shift (Columns) 0 degree 30 degree 60 degree 90 degree 120 degree Horizontal Scan-Width 0 degree 5 degree 10 degree 15 degree 20 degree .

Adaptive Antennas: MIMO-Systems MIMO-System: Combination of Pattern and Polarization-Diversity .

Tower Top electronics transmission= 20 W M CPA TM A dissipation2= 5W No ise Fig ure MultiRRH dissipation1= 25 W CPRIInterface PTx= 50 W η= 10% BTS BTS Pin= 500 W .

Top Electronics: Multi-RRH 4x Antenna Array Adaptive Antenna Array with Multi-RRH 4 x Tx.Tower. Re Im DownConv Digital Predist. CPRI CPRI RET control Tx-Linearization control Power Supply RET Power CPRI Rx2-Control of Amplitude/Phase Tx Rx1 Rx2 . 8 x Rx Re IM Up-Conv Re Im DownConv.

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