CCNA – Semester1

Module 11 TCP/IP Application and Transport

Objectives

• Functions of the TCP/IP transport layer • TCP concepts and processes

• TCP/IP application layer

TCP/IP Transport Layer

Why we need a transport layer?
• Layer 1 allows bit streams to be created and to travel. • Layer 2 packages those data packets into frames to be converted to bit streams and makes data-link delivery possible. • Layer 3 packages data from upper layers in packets and makes routing and network delivery possible.
But they made no provision for assuring But they made no provision for assuring our data reliably travels end-to-end across our data reliably travels end-to-end across the vast network path. the vast network path.

Introduction to transport layer
• The transport layer data stream is a logical connection between the endpoints of a network. • Its primary duties are to transport and regulate the flow of information from source to destination reliably and accurately. • Transport services include the following basic services:
– – – – – Segmentation of upper-layer application data Establishment of end-to-end operations Transport of segments from one end host to another end host Flow control provided by sliding windows Reliability provided by sequence numbers and acknowledgments

Flow Control
• Avoids the problem of a host at one side of the connection overflowing the buffers in the host at the other side. • The two hosts then establish a data-transfer rate that is agreeable to both. • Ensures the integrity of the data

Session Establishment

• Multiple applications can share the same transport connection in the OSI reference model. • Different applications can send data segments on a firstcome, first-served basis. This is referred to as the multiplexing of upper-layer conversations.

TCP and UDP

• The emphasis of this curriculum is on TCP/IP Ethernet networks. • The TCP/IP protocol of the OSI model Layer 4 (transport layer) has two protocols - TCP and UDP.

TCP/IP Protocol Stack

Port

00 -17 C RF

• Both TCP and UDP use port (or socket) numbers to pass information to the upper layers.

Range of ports
• 2 bytes: 0 – 65535.
– Numbers below 255 : for public applications. – Numbers from 255 - 1023 : assigned to companies for marketable applications. – Numbers above 1023 : are unregulated.

• End systems use port numbers to select proper applications. • Originating source port numbers are dynamically assigned by the source host; usually, it is a number larger than 1023.

TCP
• TCP supplies a virtual circuit between end-user applications. These are its characteristics:
– connection-oriented. – reliable. – divides outgoing messages into segments. – reassembles messages at the destination station. – re-sends anything not received.

• Protocols that use TCP include FTP, SMTP, HTTP, Telnet

TCP Header format

61 7 CRF

• Protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission.

TCP Header format: Port number

•• Source Port 16 bits. Source Port 16 bits. •• Destination Port 16 bits. Destination Port 16 bits.

TCP Header format: Sequence

•• Sequence Number: 32 bits Sequence Number: 32 bits
– The sequence number of the – The sequence number of the first data octet in this segment first data octet in this segment (except when SYN is present). (except when SYN is present).

TCP Header format: Acknowledgment

•• Acknowledgment Number: 32 bits Acknowledgment Number: 32 bits
– This field contains the value of the – This field contains the value of the next sequence number the sender of next sequence number the sender of the segment is expecting to receive. the segment is expecting to receive.

TCP Header format: Code bits

•• Control Bits: 8 bits Control Bits: 8 bits
– ACK: Acknowledgment field significant – ACK: Acknowledgment field significant – RST: Reset the connection – RST: Reset the connection – SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers – SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers – FIN: No more data from sender – FIN: No more data from sender

TCP Header format: Window

•• Window: 16 bits Window: 16 bits
– The number of data octets beginning – The number of data octets beginning with the one indicated in the with the one indicated in the acknowledgment field which the sender acknowledgment field which the sender of this segment is willing to accept. of this segment is willing to accept.

Three-way handshake

TCP: Simple acknowledgment

TCP: Sliding window acknowledgment

TCP: Sequence and acknowledgment

UDP
• UDP transports data unreliably between hosts. Following are the characteristics:
– Connectionless. – Unreliable. – Transmit messages (called user datagrams). – Provides no software checking for message delivery (unreliable). – Does not reassemble incoming messages. – Uses no acknowledgements.

• Protocols that use include TFTP, SNMP, DHCP, DNS

UDP Header format

8 76 CRF

• UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams, without acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery.

TCP/IP Application Layer

Application Layer: TCP/IP vs. OSI
• The session and presentation layers from the OSI model were bundled into the application layer of the TCP model. • This means that issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control are handled in the application layer rather than in separate lower layers as in the OSI model.

Session: Functions

Presentation: Functions

TCP/IP Application Layer
• Handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control. The TCP/IP combines all application-related issues into one layer, and assures this data is properly packaged for the next layer.
– FTP, HTTP, SMTP, DNS, SNMP ... – Format of data, data structure, encode … – Dialog control, session management …

Interfaces
• Direct network application:
– The application layer provides a direct interface for the rest of the OSI model by using network applications. – Client server: WEB, FTP, Mail

• Indirect network application:
– The application layer provides an indirect interface for the rest of the OSI model by using standalone applications. – The redirector directs requests from local computer to the proper network resources. Applications on client never have to recognize the network. – Redirector: network driver, network printer

Client-Server application

•• The client side is located on the local The client side is located on the local computer and is the requestor of the computer and is the requestor of the services. services. •• The server side is located on a remote The server side is located on a remote computer and provides services in computer and provides services in response to the client’s requests. response to the client’s requests.

Network driver

•• The applications on the client never have The applications on the client never have to recognize the network. to recognize the network. •• Redirectors expand the capabilities of Redirectors expand the capabilities of non-network software. non-network software.

Make and Break a connection
• The connection to the server was maintained only long enough to process the transaction.
– Example : WWW, E-mail

• The connection to the server was maintained until the user determines that he/she has finished.
– Example : FTP, Telnet

DNS
• The Domain Name System (DNS) is a system used on the Internet for translating names of domains and their publicly advertised network nodes into IP addresses. • A domain is a group of computers that are associated by their geographical location or their business type. • The DNS system is set up in a hierarchy that creates different levels of DNS servers. • Eg: http://www.cdit.com.vn/itc/

DNS: System

..

com com

edu edu

gov gov

vn vn

fr fr

uk uk

vnn vnn

com com

edu edu

gov gov

DNS: Resolve www.yahoo.com
Request Request Reply Reply

..

vn vn vnn vnn
Address of Address of www.yahoo.com www.yahoo.com

Address Address of com of com server of server Address of Address yahoo.com yahoo.com server server

com com

yahoo yahoo

Address of Address of www.yahoo.com www.yahoo.com

FTP
• File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a reliable, connection-oriented service that uses TCP to transfer files between systems that support FTP. • When files are copied from a server, FTP first establishes a control connection between the client and the server. Then a second connection is established, which is a link between the computers through which the data is transferred.

TFTP
• Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a connectionless service that uses UDP. • TFTP is designed to be small and easy to implement. • TFTP is used on the router to transfer configuration files and Cisco IOS images and to transfer files between systems that support TFTP. • TFTP can read, write, or mail files to or from a remote server but it cannot list directories and currently has no provisions for user authentication.

HTTP
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) works with the World Wide Web, which is the fastest growing and most used part of the Internet. • A Web browser is a client-server application, which means that it requires both a client and a server component in order to function. • A Web browser presents data in multimedia formats. A hyperlink is an object, word, phrase, or picture, on a Web page. When that hyperlink is clicked, it directs the browser to a new Web page. • The Web page contains, often hidden within its HTML description, an address location known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).

Telnet
• Telnet client software provides the ability to login to a remote Internet host that is running a Telnet server application and then to execute commands from the command line. • Telnet works at the application layer of the TCP/IP model. Therefore, Telnet works at the top three layers of the OSI model. The application layer deals with commands. The presentation layer handles formatting, usually ASCII. The session layer transmits.

SMTP
• Email servers communicate with each other using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send and receive mail. The SMTP protocol transports email messages in ASCII format using TCP. The most popular mail client protocols are POP3 and IMAP4, which both use TCP to transport data. A good way to test if a mail server is reachable is to Telnet to the SMTP port (25) or to the POP3 port (110).

SNMP
• The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. An SNMP managed network consists of the following: – Network management system (NMS) – Managed device – Agents

Lab Companion

• 11.2.4 Protocol Inspector, TCP and HTTP

Summary
• • • • • • TCP/IP transport layer functions TCP concepts and processes TCP and UDP header format TCP and UDP port TCP/IP application layer functions TCP/IP application layer protocols

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