Azas Teknik Kimia II


Latifa Hanum Lalasari, ST., MT Program Starta – 1, Teknik Kimia - ITI 2012

• • • Isolated system: No mass transfer and no energy transfer across the system boundary. Closed system: No mass transfer, transfer across the system boundary. but energy may

Open system: Both mass and energy allowed to transfer across the system boundary.


Energy balance without chemical reaction :

No mass transfer and no energy transfer across the system boundary, but only transfer between bodies within the system. solated (Insulated) System: U = constant Since there is no mass change, Q = 0 Finding Equilibrium Temperature: T From DQ = 0 Qw + Qb = 0 mwcw(T-Tw) = - mbcb(T-Tb) T = (mwcwTw + mbcbTb) / (mwcw + mbcb)

Task 1 :
A 1.8 Kg steel block at 475 oC is placed in an insulated container of 15 L of water at 20 oC. Find the equilibrium temperatur ?


A solid is a closed system (no mass transfer across boundary)

Expanding or compressing a gass can also be a closed system if there is no flow or major leakages. U2-U1 = Q - W

Non-flow Energy Equation (1st Law of Thermodynamics); Where U = internal energy (J) Q = heat transfer (J) (+ = heat IN) W = work transfer (J) (+ = work OUT)

Non-flow, No phase change, Constant c; U2-U1 = mcDt Where U = internal energy (J) m = mass (kg) c = specific heat capacity (J/kgK) = (t2-t1) = (tfinal-tintitial) = temperature change (K or oC)


Non-flow, With phase change, Constant c; U2-U1 = mc1(t1-t0) + mcphaset1 + mc2(t2-t1) t0 = initial solid temperature t1 = fusion temperature (melting/freezing) t2 = final liquid temperature (For example, melting ice.... Energy change (or heat added) = (heat ice from ? to 0oC) + (latent heat of fusion) + (Heat water to ?oC)

Taks 2 :

A tank holds 2.3 kg of water at 24 oC and absorbs 178 KJ of heat. The final temperatur is 47 oC. (a) Find internal energy change. How much work must have been done?

1. Sensible heat : associated with simple temperature changes. No phase changes (liquid to vapor or liquid to solid) and no chemical reactions are considered. Latent heat is the heat effect associated with a phase change (heat of vaporization or heat of fusion) Heats of reaction involve energy produced or consumed by chemical reactions. This heat is negative for exothermic and positive for endothermic reactions

2. 3.

Sensible Heat

Untuk gas Ideal :

Cp – Cv = R

Dimana :

Task :
Ethane gas is to heated from 400 oF to 600 oF in a heat exchanger. The flow rate of the gas is 40.000 lbm/hr. Assuming constant-pressure operation and the methane is an ideal gas. How much heat must be transferred into the gas to raise its temperatur ?

Latent Heat
Persamaan Clausius-Clapyron :

Untuk Penguapan : DV = Vv - VL

Heat of Reaction :
DHR = H products – H Reactans

DHF = H compounds – ∑H elements forming the compound

Dimana: Panas pembentukan dari elemen murni seperti H2, O2, N2, C adalah nol

Enthalpies of vapor and liquid for a pure components

Enthapy of saturated vapor : Enthapy of saturated liquid :

H = Cv (T – To) + DHv
h= CL (T – To) H = ∑ yiHi h = ∑ xiHi

Multicomponent systems :

Contoh Aplikasi NE untuk Tugas Akhir :

Neraca Energi pada HE :

Counter current Panas keluar hot stream

Cocurrent Cold Stream

Jika Cp = Konstan, maka Q = Fc. Cp (Tc out – Tc in)

Neraca Energi untuk proses reversible dan irreversible:
Proses reversible :prosese dimana pengaruh luar diabaikan, ditunjukkan tidak ada friksi,viscositas, dan lain-lain. Atau pengaruh luar tidak begitu besar. Proses irreversible : pengaruh luar diperhatikan karena menunjukkan perubahan yang signifikan. Akibatnya menghasilkan kerja yang tidak maksimum

Energy balance around the Heat Exchanger
Inputs: Temperature of the entering reactant stream = 11 °C Temperature of the entering glycol stream = 252 °C Sensible heat of the reactant stream =m.CP.ΔT= 9.3182×3.8353×(11-0) =362 kW Sensible heat of the glycol stream =m.CP.ΔT= 9.3182×4.0124×(252-0) =9413 kW Total Sensible heat entering the heat exchanger = 9775 kW

Temperature of the leaving reactant stream = 200 °C Temperature of the leaving glycol stream = 70 °C Sensible heat of the reactant stream = m.CP.ΔT = 9.3182×3.8353×(200-0)=7148 kW Sensible heat of the glycol stream = m.CP.ΔT = 9.3182×4.0124×(70-0)= 2627 kW Total heat leaving the heat exchanger = 9775 kW

LMTD Method

- The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method • A form of Newton’s Law of Cooling may be applied to heat exchangers by using a log-mean value of the temperature difference between the two fluids:

A Methodology for Heat Exchanger Design Calculations

q  U A D T1m

D T1m 

D T1  D T2 1n  D T1 / D T2 
depends on the heat exchanger type.

Evaluation of D T1 and D T2

• Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger:

D T1  Th,1  Tc,1
 Th,i  Tc , o

D T2  Th,2  Tc ,2
 Th, o  Tc ,i

LMTD Method (cont.)

• Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger:

D T1  Th,1  Tc,1
 Th,i  Tc ,i

D T2  Th,2  Tc,2
 Th, o  Tc ,o

 Note that Tc,o can not exceed Th,o for a PF HX, but can do so for a CF HX.  For equivalent values of UA and inlet temperatures,

D T1m,CF  D T1m, PF
• Shell-and-Tube and Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers:

D T1m  F D T1m,CF

Energy Balance

Overall Energy Balance

• Application to the hot (h) and cold (c) fluids:

• Assume negligible heat transfer between the exchanger and its surroundings and negligible potential and kinetic energy changes for each fluid.  q  m h  ih,i  ih,o 

q  m c  ic ,o  ic ,i 

i  fluid enthalpy
• Assuming no l/v phase change and constant specific heats,

q  m h c p , h Th,i  Th,o   Ch Th,i  Th,o 

q  m c c p ,c Tc,o  Tc ,i   Cc Tc,o  Tc ,i 

Ch,Cc  Heat capacity rates

Tugas : Text book : David M. Himmelblau, edisi 6 Soal : Hal. 422, soal No : 1,3,4,5,6,8 Hal. 438, soal No : 1,3,5,6 Dikumpulkan : Hari Minggu, Tgl 12 Februari 2012 Pada saat Presentasi group Membawa ringkasan 1 lembar A4 (persiapan UTS)

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