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Science and Justice
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / s c i j u s
Geophysics and the search of freshwater bodies: A review
Rachael Parker a, Alastair Ruffell a,⁎, David Hughes b, Jamie Pringle c
a b c
School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen's University, Belfast, BT7 1NN, United Kingdom School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Belfast, BT7 1NN, United Kingdom School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom
a r t i c l e
i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Geophysics may assist scent dogs and divers in the search of water bodies for human and animal remains, contraband, weapons and explosives by surveying large areas rapidly and identifying targets or environmental hazards. The most commonly applied methods are described and evaluated for forensic searches. Seismic reﬂection or refraction and CHIRPS are useful for deep, open water bodies and identifying large targets, yet limited in streams and ponds. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) on water (WPR) is of limited use in deep waters (over 20 m) but is advantageous in the search for non-metallic targets in small ditches and ponds. Large metal or metal-bearing targets can be successfully imaged in deep waters by using towﬁsh magnetometers: in shallow waters such a towﬁsh cannot be used, so a non-metalliferous boat can carry a terrestrial magnetometer. Each device has its uses, depending on the target and location: unknown target make-up (e.g. a homicide victim with or without a metal object) may be best located using a range of methods (the multi-proxy approach), depending on water depth. Geophysics may not deﬁnitively ﬁnd the target, but can provide areas for elimination and detailed search by dogs and divers, saving time and effort. © 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Received 17 July 2009 Received in revised form 19 September 2009 Accepted 23 September 2009 Keywords: Geophysics Search Body recovery Sunken objects
Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The problem — The need to search water bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogeophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1. Seismic methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1. Seismic reﬂection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2. Seismic refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2. CHIRP sub-bottom proﬁler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3. Side scan sonar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4. Ground penetrating radar (GPR, here used as WPR or water penetrating radar) 4.5. Magnetometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6. Other techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Published case studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1. Search for a victim of drowning: Gregory Reedy, Oregon USA . . . . . . . 5.2. Search for sunken snowmobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3. Evaluation of polluted pond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4. Search for sunken jetski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5. Search for diseased animals in a ditch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6. Search for a homicide victim in a reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7. Search of a ditch for the body of a badger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8. Search for explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 2. 3. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 142 142 142 142 143 143 144 144 145 146 146 146 146 147 147 148 148 148 148 148 148 149
⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: email@example.com (A. Ruffell). 1355-0306/$ – see front matter © 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.scijus.2009.09.001
This knowledge gap may be that the investigator does not know of the existence of water-borne geophysics. yet the search can prove difﬁcult. is a challenging environment. especially in water and often in freshwater. ‘Geophysics ﬁlls the void of mesoscale data via its depth of exploration and spatially dense sampling. tarpaulins) at the same location as the body /contraband. carpet.e. divers.e. such that other methods (e. In shallow waters. deployment of scent dogs and divers may all be considered.. customs. or may be that they over-estimate the capability of the method. The problem — The need to search water bodies Common methods of disposing of homicide victims . Mallet used containers of mercury at various spacing distances and recorded the time it took each container to ripple after an explosion. Unlike land. or cadaver (victim recovery) dogs and boats are available . yet without access to a pier/jetty or boat large enough to carry the suspect material. ponds. marking and equal coverage of any water search is challenging. The shallow water environment poses several operational problems that have a detrimental effect on the results of a geophysical survey .142 R. 3. Likewise. Nonetheless. saving time and effort. Geophysical methods measure the Earth's physical properties providing speciﬁc information governed by their own make-up. search dogs. Thus it is essential that the water body be searched in an appropriate (i. Thus we felt the need for a review paper that examines a recurrent request made to us: what geophysical devices can be deployed on and in freshwater? This question is asked because of a lack of knowledge amongst those conducting the search regarding the capabilities of geophysics. scrapped cars or buildings. trawling with grappling hooks. Parker et al. as freshwater has minimal inﬂuence on acquisition. ditches. objects and the ability of a geophysicist to interpret the data. as a result geophysics has been adapted for exploration of this medium (see references below). Seismic methods Two seismic methods are considered: reﬂection and refraction. engineering faults and failures . geophysicists and other Earth scientists. Whilst water-borne physical evidence (microorganisms. Nonetheless. by its very nature.’ . explosives ) may include: burial in soil or sediment.g. Boyd  details how seismic experiments were ﬁrst conducted by Robert Mallet. using a method that is ﬁt for purpose) and efﬁcient manner. and the military) and search and rescue personnel. river or pond. it is the suitability of the method for locating different materials that will be considered in detail.g. 4. utility surveying or target identiﬁcation [6. environment agency.. used to using geophysics on land or from an airborne platform. The principal beneﬁt can be identiﬁed as ‘geophysics may provide spatially distributed data models of physical properties in regions that are difﬁcult to sample. Introduction Geophysicists are sometimes asked by law enforcement ofﬁcials (police. 0–20 m water depth) survey methods perform on and in water.’ . Objects are readily identiﬁed when a contrast is sufﬁciently large to alter the geophysical signal depicting the anomaly as an ‘alien’ feature of the subsurface. (dogs and divers) are ideal when used conjunctively with geophysics as a means of target deﬁnition. The unknown nature of the subsurface is increased due to the water body covering the land. may not be aware of how different shallow (typically. layers. The latter is critical. benthic mapping  and aquatic engineering . slipping on mud. as it is common for the perpetrator to dispose of weapons. CHIRPs.7]. For each method. but may be used to exclude areas of the lake. Most water bodies have ﬂow movements and therefore positioning.g. due to the principle of minimum effort expenditure . Seismology with relation to this work is the scientiﬁc study of seismic waves propagating through the Earth. side scan sonar. in a scrapped vehicle) and deposition in a deserted or covert location  (caves. each geophysical method not only characterises the subsurface but can identify inhomogeneous features or objects that are not characteristic of the surrounding ‘host’ material in water. in deeper waters the search is difﬁcult unless the water is clear. reservoirs) is easier for the perpetrator. Seismic methodologies (whether reﬂection or refraction) are used to measure the travel time of propagating acoustic waves created by a sound source resulting in ground movement which is then recorded by an array of ground sensors. Furthermore the nature of moving waters makes accuracy of search by any means (scent dogs. groundwater ﬂow modelling . / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 1. Hydrogeophysical methods that may be adapted for the forensic search include study of sedimentation archives . best known to investigators when searching soil and sediment. access to freshwater bodies (lakes. water-covered sediment or soil. Draining the water body. The success of geophysics is dependent upon the presence of a contrast between features. different physical and/or chemical properties than the surroundings in which it is located. magnetometry and multi-sensor platforms. both of which are typically applied to exploration seismology. Consequently. However it is still a research technique that can be referred to as ‘state-of-the-practice’  rather than ‘state-of-the-art’ meaning it is developing and geophysicists are still learning the organisation of the multitude of parameters to enhance data output. cremation. still-born neonates. usually hydrophones. diseased animals and incriminating materials (contraband. i. ground penetrating radar (GPR). Hydrogeophysics Geophysics plays a vital role in exploring the aquatic environment. 1845.. draining) may be targeted. which. The latter location presents particular opportunities and challenges for the investigator because preservation of the material and associated evidence may be better than some of the other environments mentioned. making these. which may be exposed to view and may not provide much of a challenge for the search team. Geophysics Geophysics encompasses a range of non-destructive and non invasive means of remotely investigating subsurface of the Earth. it is often the case that the technique will not necessarily ﬁnd the sunken object. Geophysical surveying will not always remove the need for invasive studies but by ‘maximising the rate of ground cover’  surveying with the use of geophysics means any need for invasive methods will be minimal. Identiﬁcation of these anomalies is often the objective of a geophysical survey e. the subsequent search of this water body may prove challenging if possibly very rewarding in terms of evidence recovery. encasement in concrete. rivers. sometimes enclosed from view locations common disposal sites . divers or trawling) the most difﬁcult. to provide advice on assisting searches of water. becoming stuck) and disturb the scene/deposition site . On the latter point. water bodies deeper than wading depth (about 1 m) cannot easily be searched by teams of personnel. The hydrogeophysical methods most applicable to surveying freshwater bodies will be considered: seismic: reﬂection and refraction. trawling may not be efﬁcient and may damage and compromise evidence. scent dogs may not react to well-wrapped materials and divers may not have good visibility. the perpetrator is dependant on disposal from the shoreline. From this date it has been accepted that the acoustic energy 2. commonly deployed in forensic searches . sediment classiﬁcation . sediment) can be used in the same way as soil to potentially exclude a suspect from all but one location . crushing (e. Draining may be impractical for environmental and cost reasons.. wading may obscure visibility by sediment stirring. drugs. freezers. can be hazardous (tripping on objects. The deposition of homicide victims in marine waters has been considered previously . coverings (bags. as mentioned above.1. The use of geophysical methods on (or in) water is slightly different to land in that freshwater is chemically less variable (vertically and horizontally) than soil yet is mobile over shorter periods of time. dissolution. the latter two methods . 4. weapons. abandoned mines or body of water).
e. For this reason. Seismic reﬂection Anselmetti  describe seismic reﬂection as a method which ‘… provides an image of the subsurface and is particularly useful in delineating sedimentary layers.’ It is a measurement of the travel time of an acoustic wave which reﬂects from an interface between differing densities . In relation to small (less than a few tens of metres) and shallow (less than the draft of the survey boat. see below) to allow comparison of the data outputs. As the ray path of the p wave intersects the boundary it causes a change in direction ultimately due to a change in velocity. Wave reﬂections are ultimately caused by ‘…sudden change in elastic properties or density of a medium. This limitation is not a major problem when the survey is used for target deﬁnition.5 to 14KHz whilst low frequencies are 300 to 2000 Hz. Velocities obtained from the survey may be 10% and can be up to 20% inaccurate of their true velocities . One advantage of seismic reﬂection proﬁling is the ‘continuity of a cross section proﬁle’  giving a continuous visualisation of the water base and sediments below.1. Frequency resolution is inversely proportional to depth penetration . resulting in inaccurate depth measurements and exact feature locations.e. In a small shallow water body this may not always be possible and seismic reﬂection output will be of poor quality as a result. deep water bodies when sediment penetration (e.. to be followed by extraction of the feature/object being researched. Lack of user knowledge and interpretation ability is a large limitation to any research objective.. shallow water and some on shore settings. An accepted rule of frequency is high frequency waves constitute short wave lengths which result in low penetration depths but increased resolution output. Signal processing is required to remove ringing which is a common feature in shallow water bodies. Body waves can then be further divided to p waves which propagate through the subsurface medium at a faster rate and s waves which are slower in propagation ability..g. Parker et al. or WPR. The seismic refraction method measures ‘travel time of waves refracted along an acoustic interface’ . The success of seismic reﬂection proﬁling is dependent on a frequency selection that best ﬁts the research objective . ‘hemispherical propagating waves’ . Seismic reﬂection and refraction use acoustic wave (short duration and constant frequency) propagation to measure changes in acoustic impedance .1. 4. Frequency determines the depth of penetration but also the given resolution.g. As previously described. the path recorded is the quickest ray path which the wave would travel between interchanging boundaries of differing velocities . Changes are detected by piezoelectric transducers or hydrophones on the surface where they are then converted to frequency. there are no publications on the forensic use of seismic reﬂection in freshwater. These environments share many common characteristics to marine locations. P waves are generally used as the recording source for seismic surveys .1. However. i. Furthermore continuous surveying gives an effective horizontal resolution based on the selection of suitable pre-determined survey line spacing. i. The transmitted acoustic waves and in particular the p wave are described as wave fronts and raypaths (wave fronts are perpendicular to raypaths) at a given frequency selected by the researcher. seismic reﬂection may prove problematic as it requires a survey spacing of several metres. particularly in shallow subsurface surveys as they can record high amplitudes which impede the recording of the true body waves (p waves) within the Earth. As a result the researcher must select a frequency best suited to their research objective.. The inﬂuence of gas or air bubbles causes an increased rate of scattering of the propagated wave resulting in a poor output. Seismic waves travel through the subsurface as body waves. ﬁltered and displayed.e. Seismic reﬂection data interpretation is a skill which requires a qualitative approach and is labour intensive resulting in the need for an experienced researcher who has interpreted previous (similar) data. seismic source and array of geophone detectors is required (Fig. The output of a seismic reﬂection survey is greatly superior to that of refraction however it does come at an economic cost. these methods are state-of-the-practice and in analogous search environments  may prove useful for locating speciﬁc objects. such as that recorded by Anselmetti  when using the method to research Western Swiss Lakes (to reﬁne the Holocene lake level curves). Seismic energy travels through the material until a point at which reﬂections are generated. causing the p wave to be reﬂected from the boundary. deep water bodies. Furthermore it is imperative that ‘the receiver spacing is adapted to the frequency range to avoid spatial aliasing of the data’ . The penetration of the wave into the boundary and subsequent strata is similar to that of a light beam penetrating a glass prism and therefore it is governed by Snell's Law . with attendant restrictions on perpetrator activity (see above) and thus. It is also necessary in reﬂection surveying to suppress the surface waves. One great advantage of seismic refraction proﬁling is that it is generally a cheaper alternative to that of its sister method however it is still relatively expensive in relation to other geophysical surveys . whilst they travel along the Earth's surface as surface waves. size of survey lines/survey boat and the problem of gas-prone sediment.2. change in acoustic impedance’ .R. A general limitation of seismic reﬂection proﬁling is the inadequate ability for a precise depth measurement to be made. in concurrence with cost. It is the body waves which are of relevance for reﬂection and refraction success. it is highly dependent on the frequency selected as a best ﬁt for the research objective . / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 143 wave's travel through the subsurface can be likened to that ﬁrst noticed in the mercury containers by Mallet. below) objects in large. The transmitted acoustic waves (and in particular the p wave) travel through the surface until a point at which the wave reaches an acoustic boundary. this can become a limitation when knowledge and experience lacks resulting in poor horizontal resolution . Anselmetti  recognise that ‘… seismic surveying is difﬁcult in gas-ﬁlled sediments. generally a few metres) water bodies. Seismic reﬂection as a solo technique is most successful in open. non-metallic (see the use of magnetometers. The success of seismic refraction proﬁling is similar to that of reﬂection. 1). Seismic reﬂection can be applied to hydrogeophysics in that the ‘inability of water to transmit shear waves makes collection of high quality reﬂection data possible even at very shallow depths that would be impractical to impossible on land’ . Generally within seismic reﬂection high frequencies are 3. Materials of similar density to the host water or sediment will not be imaged: small targets (e. as yet.’ Alternatively Anselmetti  also acknowledge the beneﬁt of acquiring seismic reﬂection in conjunction with ground penetrating radar (or rather water penetrating radar. Seismic reﬂection and refraction measure different elastic properties: both methods can be adapted for water surveying by means of ﬂoatation devices or bank side layout of equipment using waterproofed cables . i. Data interpretation is much simpler and data . Seismic reﬂection can be expensive and computer intensive . seismic reﬂection may only be required for specialist forensic searches of large. depth to acoustic basement and other geological features beneath the water–sediment interface. bedrock outcrops. Refraction surveying is similar to that of the reﬂection method with relation to the p wave principle however it differs in measurement: a similar boat. Interpretation of seismic data yields subsurface velocity information attributable to each subsurface material with differing acoustic impedance values. Seismic refraction Refraction surveying is a popular method for land surveying .e. submerged and sediment-covered targets) is required. frequency determines the depth of penetration but also the given resolution. i. cadavers) require high frequency seismic inputs that will not achieve good sediment penetration. A further limitation of seismic reﬂection for use in shallow water bodies is the hindrance caused to acoustic waves by gas or air bubbles. Frequency resolution is inversely proportional to depth penetration. as stated above. 4. Alternatively low frequency waves constitute long wave lengths that result in high penetration depths but low resolution outputs. Data collection size can at times be overwhelming causing an over complication of a survey site and ultimately leading to survey failure and wrong interpretations . A 3-D seismic reﬂection survey produces an image of the subsurface geometry for ‘imaging small objects and complex subsurface geometries’ .
CHIRP sub-bottom proﬁler A compressed high intensity radar pulse or ‘CHIRP’ is a sub-bottom proﬁler which transmits a linear. The survey was modiﬁed after. An important limitation is that refraction is only successful if the speed of propagation through the Earth increases with depth . Seismic refraction does produce adequate depth resolution for the depiction of subsurface features. notably so in shallow waters. Overall. However as with many other methods. CHIRP. depths less than 100ft (appx.144 R. Similar larger-boat and towﬁsh arrays are used for the CHIRP and towﬁsh magnetometer systems discussed in text.. rocks and boulders as well as covertly-sunken objects. The acoustic waves measure acoustic impedance vertically through the subsurface via the reﬂective nature of each differing material type it comes into contact with. the system requires the same sort of boat and towﬁsh. like seismic reﬂection is also affected by gas bubbles in the sediment or water body. ‘boat draft and depth of towﬁsh limit the survey… to the navigable channel’ . 70 m). For example they show evidence that a mixed gravel and ﬁne sediment lake bottom results in ‘chaotic internal reﬂections’ whilst gravels provide ‘irregular strong signals’. A frequency modulated pulse effectively means that the frequency of the transmitted pulse adjusts linearly with time. The CHIRP can project long pulses into the water and thus increase the range and effectiveness of the method but retain resolution quality. Shallow water bodies may not be sufﬁciently navigable to ﬂoat the towﬁsh . The size and in particular type of acoustic source can become problematic especially in shallow sheltered areas: the shot energy required to produce the acoustic wave for depths greater than 100ft could ultimately lead to too large an explosive charge causing concern over safety . described by Gutowski .2.3. The ﬁrst boundary reﬂection recorded by CHIRP is between the water and sediment followed by the sequential layers beneath.21].e. Additionally refraction often requires an acoustic source which is much larger than that for seismic reﬂection. Side scan sonar Side scan sonar is similar to CHIRP however it sends a ‘focussed acoustic beam at right angles to the vessel's track’ . Side scan sonar surveys the lithology and terrain of the water body ﬂoor. It is typically a narrow beam with only 2° width and a vertical angle of approximately 50° .org). above and WPR. each individual interface reﬂects the acoustic wave and is recorded. It is a method by which a continuous vertical survey of the sedimentary make-up of a water body can be recorded . The main advantage of the CHIRP sub-bottom proﬁler is the dependence on the bandwidth of the transmitted pulse and not the wave length . the larger the spread of geophones.e. Some material will reﬂect better Fig. where the surface is ﬂat and velocities increase with depth . continuous surveying gives an effective horizontal resolution based on the selection of suitable pre-determined survey line spacing. seismic reﬂection. This larger source is required to be able to be detected between the source and receiver. it ‘provides a graphic representation of how materials on the lake ﬂoor interact with acoustic energy’ . Seismic refraction is limited by the presence of air and gas-prone water and sediment: the inﬂuence of gas or air bubbles causes an increased rate of scattering of the propagated wave resulting in a poor output.  whilst researching for engineering applications. In relation to array displacement. They also describe the affect of sediment types on the acoustic wave of CHIRP. The beam design enables the sea ﬂoor to be imaged in similar detail to a photographic image. The use of an FM pulse results in an improvement in signal to noise ratio which is problematic in other seismic methods. Most side scan sonar systems measure approximately 100–200 m either side of the vessel.. It essentially reduces the ‘trade-off’ between signal range and resolution quality and can provide imaging of up to 20m of the subsurface. Limitations of CHIRP in relation to use in shallow water bodies is the depth required to tow the towﬁsh. i. The CHIRP source (‘towﬁsh’) is positioned directly in the water and towed beneath the water surface at a given speed. University of Rhode Island. Side scan sonar requires a raised surface in order for a return signal. It has been noted by Cha et al. The seismic reﬂection survey. CHIRP is versatile in that it can be readily applied to both shallow waters and marine environments. as a result a fairly ﬂat and smooth sea ﬂoor does not produce a good output on the data display. 2008 (www. as the seismic method (Fig. below). that a possible advance in seismic refraction is to deploy the hydrophones directly on the sub-bottom thus removing the ray path within the water body however this requires a more complicated surveying technique as well as an increase in costs and risks (possible loss of equipment). processing is less than that of reﬂection. Furthermore.dosits. 4. Parker et al. Laverty and Quinn  describe ‘acoustic blanking’ where reﬂections are faint or absent due to gas absorption of acoustic wave energy. As a result the sedimentary type may require to be known before the CHIRP is implemented and poor results retrieved as a result.g. 1). 1. . Like seismic reﬂection it propagates through the water surface and then the subsurface using acoustic waves. the refraction method's application to aquatic environments is limited. A further advantage of seismic refraction proﬁling is the continuity of a cross section proﬁle giving a continuous visualisation of the water body bottom [12. but without the geophone array. Survey size is a trade-off between penetration and resolution similar to frequency selection (as in reﬂection. i. the more degraded the recorder resolution becomes. As a method it yields reliable results when applied to a lake or lagoon. correct ﬁltering (compression of the swept FM signal into short duration wave) and efﬁcient surveying methods ultimately leads to increased resolution in conjunction with penetration which results in successful data interpretation by the researcher . / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 4. this can become a limitation when a lack of knowledge and experience results in poor data output. frequency modulated (FM) acoustic pulse with a desired frequency bandwidth that is inversely proportional to the resolution which will be output . The combination of FM pulse. Furthermore the return signal is affected by the material in which it has come into contact with. Greater lengths of array displacement across the survey site (‘at least three times the length of the desired depth’ ) would aid a greater depth of penetration however in small survey areas this is not possible. Seismic refraction is limited by depth penetration. It is the irregularities of the lake ﬂoor which will cause increased back scatter of the signal to be recorded and depicted more readily on a side scan sonar image e.
Transmitting antennae are transducers. Further advantages of WPR include the high resolution pseudo image of the subsurface which is similar in . In relation to shallow water surveying side scan sonar is possible but again is dependent on the water body size. here used as WPR or water penetrating radar) The ﬁrst use of radar as a general application for surface variance was by Christian Hulsmeyer. usually placed on the ground. size and dimensions of features (the stratigraphic resolution required). however there are variations in which the antennas can be orientated  although the effect of these variants on freshwater surveying has not been documented. civil engineering.R. Standard dipole antennas radiate energy into the ground in an elliptical wave taking on the appearance of a cone like shape or ‘conical beam’ . Second. When electromagnetic wave energy makes contact with an object within the subsurface energy is reﬂected and traces a feature on the GPR trace known as a ‘hyperbola’. Dobinson and McCann  describe how shallow water systems are available but are limited to a frequency range of 100 to 500 KHz resulting in a range resolution of 20–50 cm of the subsurface lake ﬂoor. GPR consists of one transmitting antenna and one receiving antenna. Sediment-covered objects may not be resolved unless still upstanding. where the angle of reﬂection is equal to the angle of incidence)—where the wave impinges on an interface it scatters according to the shape and roughness. Depending upon the location of the object and the location of the antenna above it on the surface the hyperbola develops a cone like appearance. As a result GPR is not a viable choice for surveying in clay rich areas where 5–10% clay content can reduce penetration depth to less than 1m . site access. This is ﬁrst known use of surface penetrating radar or GPR as we now know it. the amplitude of the return energy is illustrative of the degree of contrast at the interface of the differing materials.. The major limitation of side scan sonar in shallow water is the depth of the water body. Resonant Scattering (Ringing)—occurs when the wave bounces back and forth between boundaries of the object. reservoirs) is its strongest advantage over many of the other geophysical methods. In 1910 Gotthelf Leimback and Heinrick Lowy attained a patent for use of radar for detection of buried objects. Its ability to be used in a variety of locations (for example small dams. electrical conductivity and magnetic permittivity).4. Side scan sonar is ideal for rapid searching for surface objects in moderately-deep (more than a few metres. / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 145 than others whilst some may absorb a signiﬁcant part of the energy resulting in poor backscatter for example ﬁne sediments. The main advantages of WPR are that it is a sub-bottom proﬁler meaning it can be used for sedimentation studies. Low frequency antennas have a long wave length and thus greater penetration yet poor resolution compared to higher frequency antennas. Lowy and Leimback used a continuous radar wave via surface antennas before Hulsenbeck in 1926 patented a pulse radar. Whilst dielectric permittivity controls velocity it is also true that electrical conductivity controls/affects attenuation. whilst high frequency antenna of 450–900 MHz achieve penetration of one to several metres . Antenna selection plays a large role in determining penetration depth and resolution quality. General purpose GPR systems use dipole antennas that typically have a two octave band width  meaning that frequencies vary between one half of the centre frequency and double the same value. such as 500 KHz to 1 MHz give excellent resolution but the acoustic energy travels a shorter distance’  and vice versa for low frequencies. 2003 ). 4. presence of possible outside interference. The convexity of the cone will be dependent upon the travel distance. Additionally as a sub-bottom proﬁling method it provides a continuous reading of the subsurface giving clarity of the ground surface or lake bed as an entirety rather than selected locations. i.. GPR is a ‘high resolution electromagnetic technique that is designed primarily to investigate the shallow subsurface of the Earth…’ . such as a ship. then some of those waves would be reﬂected back to a receiver adjacent to the transmitter. creating semi-coherent energy patterns which disperse in several directions. if positioned directly above the object the convexity will be acute and become more obtuse with distance from it. Permittivity therefore determines travel time. Energy is returned to the surface to be received at the receiving antenna anytime there is a contrast in dielectric properties. Specular Reﬂection Scattering (based on the laws of reﬂection. depth necessary for survey. Refraction Scattering—some of the wave is refracted back into the material based on Snell's Law. Parker et al. The wave will travel through the host material at a velocity determined by the dielectric permittivity of the material. hydrological studies and many more. Resolution is therefore determined by the period of the emitted pulse which is controlled by the frequency. The pulse length is inversely proportional to the centre frequency .e. Ground penetrating radar (GPR. with the apex of the cone at the centre of the transmitting antenna resulting in the ability to trace a hyperbola . Fourth. The patent can be summarised: ‘if a beam of radio waves were transmitted which impinged on an object. Antenna orientation will also play a role in the quality of the data collected. Antenna frequencies generally range from 10–1000 MHz and selection of the correct operating frequency is necessary for a successful visual output. It is the reﬂection of a pulse from electromagnetic radiation by which homogeneous and inhomogeneous material can be recorded. The wave will continue at the same velocity until such time that it meets a material with a different permittivity to the host. Diffraction Scattering—the bending of EM waves when the wave is partially blocked by a sharp boundary. Dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity are complex frequency dependent parameters that describe the microscopic electromagnetic properties of materials. The length of time taken for the signal to return depends upon the permittivity contrasts. loughs. Hulsmeyer patented the ﬁrst worldwide use of radar technology in 1904. The transmitter antenna sends out a single pulse (wavelet) which will contain a number of frequencies based on the antenna being used but will be referred to by the central frequency. an antenna with a central frequency of 300 MHz generates an overall frequency of 150 MHz to 600Mhz. they convert electric currents on the metallic antenna elements to transmitted electromagnetic waves that propagate into the subsurface (vice versa of this description for receiving antennae that capturing electromagnetic radiation).. It is a methodology which uses electromagnetic radar waves that propagate into the Earth's surface. In low conductivity settings such as dry sand and gravels. However as previously stated they are referred to as the centre frequency by users . i. ‘High frequencies. i.. Third. The key factors to consider when selecting antenna frequencies for surveys are as follows: presumed electrical properties of the ground at the site. thus revealing the presence of the object’ . the EM properties of the Earth material (dielectric permittivity. As previously mentioned upon impingement with an object/feature the wave scatters and this can occur in four ways. an engineer from Dusseldorf. From this subsequent decisions can then be made without any previous means of invasive research. A GPR wave records the interaction between the initially transmitted electromagnetic wave and several factors  namely: the spatial variation within the complex/material. An extremely shallow water body will not provide sufﬁcient depth to attach and ﬂoat the sonar beneath the boat. The GPR technique is ‘similar in principle to seismic and sonar methods’ . and less that hundreds of metres) waters. As expected higher frequencies consist of shorter wave lengths and thus shorter penetration depths are only possible. low frequency GPR systems of 50–100 MHz can achieve penetration depth of up to several tens of metres. Germany. It is the ‘reﬂected events in a radar section that trace out a hyperbola’ (Huisman et al. WPR may be used to measure large areas quickly resulting in good coverage of the survey location. First. but these devices can also be lowered on long cables down boreholes and wells. The velocity of the travelling wave is determined by the dielectric permittivity of the material: put simply a wavelet of the same central frequency governed by the same antenna being used on the same GPR machine when passed through two differing materials over the same distance will inevitably arrive at the receive antenna at different times.e.e. the two orientations are parallel and perpendicular to the traverse. At the point of interaction with an inhomogeneous material the wavelet is scattered and detected by the receiving antenna.
Magnetometers The search for ferrous objects. 2.  to identifying unexploded objects by Pope et al. Tidal estuarine environments are presumed to be not possible locations for GPR application.146 R. or be used by the operator in a rubber boat. Gravimetrics is the study of the gravitational ﬁeld or in particular the changes in gravitational pull or acceleration. 3) on a platform that can be rowed (with plastic oars) or towed by a metal-free operator. with many commercial companies advertising their use in cable and pipe detection. or where the towﬁsh may become snagged. dams and upper sections of rivers. In addition to direct water surveying by means of ﬂoatation on a boat or water prooﬁng. 2). This is due to conductivity resulting high attenuation and little penetration producing excessive ‘ringing’. antennas have also been suspended by cable over river courses . However this results in a large air wave and is perhaps only a solution when safety is an issue with regards to water currents and water velocity. The pulse used is typically 4 to 10 kHz. here placed in a small boat for water penetrating radar surveys. LiDAR can be affected further by aquatic vegetation and air entrainment. With relation to shallow water surveys WPR is at an advantage due to the equipment being of a compact size in comparison to the other geophysical techniques described. avoiding the energy loss caused by deep water: the dis- advantage is that the antenna and cable can get caught on objects and possibly lost. . A regular ground penetrating radar system. Radiometrics and gravimetry are two further techniques which may be considered. In shallow water. Increasingly smaller GPR devices are becoming commercially available making them a viable option for lock surveying and dam surveying. / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 quality to that of seismic reﬂection. Parker et al. However the accuracy of this technique is hindered when the water becomes ‘optically dirty’ . The latter has proven to be useful in enclosed ponds.g. Waterprooﬁng of the antenna removes the presence of air providing better coupling resulting in a peak frequency change. Both techniques can be complex and difﬁcult to obtain but in a survey situation where they are believed ‘ﬁt for purpose’ they can be sources of invaluable data. wherein 38-year-old Gregory Reedy waded into the weed-infested Herbert's Pond (Douglas County. is best conducted using a boat-borne magnetometer. LiDAR is a method which utilises laser projection to determine distance. Published case studies 5. In open water of substantial depths (over 5 m) the magnetometer may be deployed as a towﬁsh: the device looks similar to the CHIRP largely and is deployed away from metallic objects in the boat.3 (below) for a description of the use of boat-borne magnetometer surveys. WPR is relatively cost effective. Such data may provide improved resolution of data in areas which are problematic to survey. Density variations of the Earth's materials cause changes in the force of gravity meaning they can be measured in terms of gravitational changes. Unlike the search for buried objects. Several water surveys have been conducted. A further problem with GPR in shallow water is the coupling of the antenna to the water surface. This is perhaps due to the need for perfect coupling of water and antenna interfaces to remove an impedances and thus attenuation of the radar signal. Search for a victim of drowning: Gregory Reedy. terrestrial magnetometers may be placed on a ﬂotation device (Fig. 5. the above works did not need to consider antenna efﬁciency. are limited in their use to open waters with reasonable (a few metres) depth to allow manoeuvring and avoid snagging. ditches and streams: see Case study 5. 4. Data collection requires minimal effort depending on survey size however interpretation does require geophysical knowledge.  suggest a range of 100–500 MHz based on depth with depths as little as 1–2m being successfully surveyed with 500 MHz.  successfully surveyed objects using 100 MHz antennae but found direct ﬂoatation problematic as wave movement causes alteration of hyperbola. The examples mentioned previously use low frequency antenna and gained mixed results: there appears to be no consistency of data. Two methods of deployment are possible. Conductivity of the water should be considered before application of GPR. 4. The prevalence of metal in submerged objects of forensic. It is a sub-bottom proﬁler which under homogeneous water conditions can penetrate water depths of up to 60 m . and orientation in shallow waters. or of subtle differences in magnetic potential. Oregon) in order to retrieve a broken remotely-controlled Fig. WPR equipment can be loaded onto a small inﬂatable boat  and towed through shallow waters which are not able to host surveys such as seismic or CHIRP (Fig. having a towﬁsh. This makes the application of WPR limited to freshwater lakes. Pope et al.1. Both are complex methods for calculation of physical parameters of the Earth material/objects under survey. Forde et al. .e. Magnetometers may use a total ﬁeld sensor and or electromagnetic induction: Nelson and McDonald  describe a dual-sensor device (deploying both types) for the discovery of unexploded ordnance and mines in water. when compared to other geophysical methods described in this work. i. The measurement is based on ‘the round trip travel time for the laser pulse’ . The main limitation of WPR is its inability to be used in saline environments. At locations of excellent water clarity ‘the main advantage of bathymetric LiDAR over passive imaging systems is its capacity to measure at two to three times the Secchi Depth’. The common devices.6. documented surveys range from identifying inﬁlled scour holes by Forde et al. although this requires testing. Radiometric surveying measures Earth materials which contain radio-emitting isotopes to obtain gamma-ray data. Other techniques In addition to those geophysical methods already mentioned several other techniques may be considered.. Borehole antennae have the advantage of being waterproof and able to be lowered into water. and it is generally accepted that the cost of surveying is justiﬁed by the effective 3D outputs gained. disasterrelated (e. However many water surveys ﬂoat the antenna in a dinghy or similar object causing a gap between the water surface and the antenna. frequency. Oregon USA Alaimo (2003: ) reports on this tragic case. 3). or more readily in this case water depth (infra-red for position of water surface and blue-green for depth of water column). shipwreck bounty reclaims and the search for lost or disposed of valuables. ponds.5. shipwrecks) and archaeological interest makes the device very useful indeed . type. A terrestrial magnetometer system has been deployed (Fig.
and Brandon Sardi as they search for the body of 38-year-old Gregory C. Reynolds  considers these targets and demonstrates the deployment of a boat-borne magnetometer (for location of metal targets) and a seismic survey (for the geometry of the lagoon). Mr. GPR) would not have achieved the accuracy or penetration of such material as the acid tar that most likely occurred in the lagoon. Three views of the MagCat system — a regular terrestrial magnetometer deployed from a ﬂoating platform (see ‘Published Case Studies: Evaluation of Polluted Pond’. Alaimo continues in the photo caption: “Search and rescue personnel Scott Robbins of Eugene. The results. / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 147 who disappeared in 1998.2. Evaluation of polluted pond Reynolds (2002: ) provides a case study that is equally-well suited to the search for hidden waste. The tenth proﬁle to be gathered displayed a clear hyperbolae. a lagoon in North Wales (United Kingdom) had been used for over 180 years as a dumping ground for coal waste. He was buried some three weeks later. Electrical methods (resistivity. Right after the accident some GPS coordinates where taken on the edge of the ice to keep a reference … The problem here was that the snowmobile [had] sunk. running GPR at the same time. Reedy had not returned to shore. by Reynolds. Search for sunken snowmobile Sjöström (2002: ) provides an account of the use of GPR in the search for a snowmobile in an Arctic lake. hence the site was referred to as an ‘acid tar lagoon’. 3. He  continues “One snowmobile accident happened in the spring of 2002 in a lake near Ammarnäs. The description of conditions in Alaimo's article  demonstrates the usefulness of GPR in providing targets in these types of environments: “The weeds grow nearly to the surface of the … pond and were so thick that divers described the environment as one of the most difﬁcult they have ever searched through. tar and predominantly heavy oil (mixed with bentonite). The antennas were placed at the bottom of a small plastic boat and a survey grid of 150 m length lines. pers comm. Sjöström states that such accidents are common. metals drums (numbering at least 1000) of unknown chemicals. model motor boat in the evening of 25th May. 2003. the ice thins but the rider cannot see this and may sink. standing.” Sjöström  then makes a very valid point for this review: “The ﬁrst attempts to search for the snowmobile with the help of scuba divers failed due to very dark water and the steep slope that made bottom grid searching more difﬁcult. although rarely fatal. but it is known that Mr. Condon is a Riddle girl . which was conﬁrmed by collecting an orthogonal line. By nightfall. Reedy of Myrtle Creek in Herbert's Pond Monday afternoon. especially the magnetic anomaly map are very convincing. In addition to this the bottom of the lake has a … slope of about 45° down to about 35 m depth. Fig. sparking a local search. 5. The location was noted and the snowmobile recovered by divers. wherein such vehicles safely navigate frozen lakes throughout the winter. demonstrating the ‘ﬁt for purpose’ nature of understanding what is being searched for. Parker et al. left.R.” In fact Alaimo  is incorrect in quoting sonar equipment. Alaimo (2003) provides the background to the story: “Divers did a painstaking grid search of the northwest corner of the pond using sonar equipment and cadaver-snifﬁng dogs. and Mark Harrison of England talk with Douglas County Sheriff's Ofﬁce divers Scott Batsch. A special search crew visiting from the United Kingdom took a half-day off from the Stephanie Condon case to help out in the recovery effort. areas of elevated pollution and the geometry (for volumetrics) of the lagoon. Sweden. Photo courtesy of Chris Leech. and deployed a GPR system with 100 MHz unshielded antennas linked to a GPS.” The team decided to wait until the ice had melted completely. moved by acid-resistant ropes and positioned using a prism on the boat and robotic geodimeter on the land. In this case. 2002: ). as mentioned by Hardisty . as the photograph in her article shows the twinhulled. environment agencies needed to know the location of the metal barrels. sulphuric acid.). Harrison. In order to begin remediation. followed by a police operation. Geomatrix Systems Ltd. toxic waste or environmental forensics.” The details of the GPR survey are conﬁdential. and selecting appropriate geophysical tools in this unusual environment. metal-free boat being rowed across the pond.” Data from the survey were used in real-time to direct two police divers to anomalies that could have corresponded to the body of Mr. Reedy's body was retrieved not long after the police search concluded (M. 5. Reedy. but come the spring. 3 m apart established. Both magnetometer and seismic equipment were deployed on a twin-hull boat (the MagCat). electromagnetic surveying.3.
with advantages and limitations indicated. These were obtained by the investigators placing 200 MHz antennae in a rubber boat that was dragged along the ditch. Boat-borne magnetometers and metal detectors failed to produce a response. the Table 1 Summary of the methods described for the geophysical search of freshwater bodies. Water depth of operation Boat-borne requires draft of boat. from 0 to ~ 20 m. Twenty meter-long ﬁbre optic cables were then purchased to allow remote control of the survey while the boat was towed along. a situation not helped by the dispute only coming to light some months after the incident. Oily patches were observed in some locations: WPR located over 30 anomalies. 5. often where surface oil coincided with the WPR anomaly. 100 and 200 MHz antennae. Anomalies were marked with weighted buoys and then re-surveyed using lower-frequency. The speedboat driver claimed the jetski moved into his path: the jetski operator claimed to be stationary. Scent dogs were deployed on boats that showed interest in certain areas of the lake. these were marked on the adjacent bank. From 0 m (boat-or Magcat-borne) to length of Boat-borne (small. Shallower than seismic (~1.6. with towﬁsh wire (~50 m. above). as this frequency overcame the problem of silt-covering but could resolve the size of the jetski. 5. Search for explosives In this case. Local intelligence suggested numerous metal targets would be present from boating and ﬁshing nearby. From 0 m to ~ 100 m. but this would destroy the jetski's position. Search of a ditch for the body of a badger In this case. could be deeper). Width/length of water body Requires a streamer with geophones — ~ 10 m or more. Radiometrics Radioactive emission. as the suspected metal was not present. depending on light penetration. A diseased and possibly abused calf cadaver was recovered and used in prosecution of the perpetrator. as well as to determine what other objects may be present that may confuse the results. usually more than 2 m upwards. Water penetrating Dielectric contrast (chemistry) of surface and radar subsurface. Boat draft. The two anomalies were recorded. using GPR. In the case. lake/river bed. 0–5 m. and thrown into a ditch (similar to Case 5. 3–4 m. Seismic reﬂection and refraction are most readily applied to large open water bodies and suffer from several problems once the water body is reduced to a small. the speedboat collided with the jetski. in open. 200 MHz antennae were deployed. Search for sunken jetski Ruffell (2006: . shallow feature. The main target identiﬁed was recovered as a tree stump. Method Seismic (reﬂection and refraction) CHIRPS Detection Changes in compressive strength of subsurface. ditches. Thus the position and nature of the damage to the jetski was critical to evaluate. from surface to tens of metres. These have deep penetration and large footprint. Where targets were observed on the radar monitor. No long streamer required — boat length required (~3 m). Changes in compressive strength of subsurface.8. Conclusions Having examined the most common geophysical techniques applicable to the freshwater environment it is evident that researchers have a good selection of geophysical technology (Table 1). However it is lack of understanding of the basic advantages and disadvantages of each technique that may hinder surveys. 5.5. also summarised in ) recounts the use of GPR in resolving a dispute over events that occurred during the collision between a jetski and speedboat in a lake used for recreation in Ireland. Where intelligence suggests that metal may be present in the object to be searched for. the ﬁrst of which was the badger. from 0 m to over 10 km. at least 50 m. but problem of Shorter than seismic — ~ 5 m. Each geophysical method is vulnerable to several limitations. again manoeuvring of snagging towﬁsh. / Science and Justice 50 (2010) 141–149 5.5 m). . some more so than others. The survey deployed low frequency (50 and 100 MHz antennae). Problems encountered included unstable sections of the ditch bank and snagging of cables on vegetation. (airborne platform). Search for diseased animals in a ditch Ruffell & McKinley (2008: ) describe how a report from a farm worker regarding his former employer led environmental agencies to search a ﬂooded quarry and nearby ditch. depending on size of metal object. Positioning of towﬁsh may limit. in order to locate any anomalies.7. towﬁsh. Parker et al. sonar and towﬁsh magnetometers also succumb to this limitation also whilst the MagCat  and WPR does not: the latter is limited by saline concentration. or Magcat). The damage could easily be assessed by simply bringing the vehicle to surface. A public appeal generated some speciﬁc information: that the keeper of ﬁshing boats on a large freshwater reservoir was had noticed one boat had been used at about the time of the supposed abduction. A dog trained in detecting explosives was not available. From 0 m.5. no sediment penetration. Search for a homicide victim in a reservoir Ruffell & McKinley (2008: ) describe a search for a missing person in Northern Ireland that included areas of farmland. quarries. As Snovak  go to state: “The problem remained of how to focus any diver-based search in waters of 4 m depth with unknown thickness of silt below. A grid pattern of lines was gathered by  and one large target was conﬁrmed as the jetski by divers. CHIRP. 6. low radiation at surface to high radiation when buried. Boat-borne GPR was considered and the following positive and negative attributes determined”. Magnetometer Changes in metal content. 10 m up to tens of km. some of which were the explosive-ﬁlled barrels. causing damage to the former and sinking the latter. towﬁsh limits. no subsurface scan sonar penetration. one of the authors  described how a raid on a terrorist house in one location caused associates in a nearby farmhouse to dump sealed and weighted barrels of explosives in a pond. It was thus the size of this mostly plastic target that would provide a location. Sonar/side Topography. building sites and the sea. A 200 MHz antenna was placed in a small rubber boat (‘rib’) with the ﬂoor slats removed to facilitate good connection with the water. From 1 m (for shallow targets needing a small antenna). Parker et al.4. when visibility-obscuring silt had been deposited in the lake. LiDAR Surface texture. can be ~ 1 m. Another witness reported activity at one end of this lake at the same time. 5. The explosives were known to be Semtex and ammonium nitrate with fuel oil mixes in plastic barrels weighed down with either lead ﬁshing weights or rocks. depending on radioactive 2–3 m (hand-held device at surface to tens of km emission. effectively ‘seeing’ more of the water and sediment.148 R. A number of tests were undertaken by Ruffell  using different antenna frequencies in order to establish the optimum frequency for depth to target imaging. From 0 m upwards.  used WPR to locate a badger that had been placed in a sack with rocks. The investigators noted evidence of activity near the pond (footprints in mud) and ordered a search. deep waters. The quarry was too polluted to provide good surveying conditions but the survey of the ditch produced excellent results.
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