A

PROJECT REPORT ON

“WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT OF THE L & T.”

UNDER SUPERVISION OF:

-------------------SUBMITTED BY
NAME ENROLLMENT NO STUDY CENTER CODE REGIONAL CENTER : : : : MRS. A.R. RAJALAKSHMI

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for qualifying
Master of Business Administration (FINANCE)

2011
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“WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT OF THE L & T.”
Under Supervision of
Submitted By: Name Programme Code Enrollment No. Name of the Study Centre Study Centre Code : : : : MBA (FINANCE)

:

:

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CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

This is to certify that the project report entitled “Working Capital Management of the L&T.” submitted to “Indira Gandhi National Open University” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of “Master of Business

Administration” is an authentic and original work carried out by “A.R.
RAJALAKSHMI” with Enrolment No. ………………. under the guidance of ……………………….

The matter embodied in this project is genuine work done by the student and has not been submitted whether to this University or to any other University / Institute for the fulfillment of the requirement of any course of study.

……………………….

...…………………….

Signature of the Student: Date:.………………..

Signature of the Guide Date:…………………

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With Candor and Pleasure I take opportunity to express my sincere thanks and obligation to my esteemed guide………. It is because of his able and mature guidance and co-operation without which it would not have been possible for me to complete my project.

It is my pleasant duty to thank all the staff member of the computer center who never hesitated me from time during the project.

Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the support, encouragement & patience of my family, and as always, nothing in my life would be possible without God, Thank You!

(A.R. RAJALAKSHMI)

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” is my original work and no part of it has been submitted for any other degree purpose or published in any other from till date.R. (A.DECLARATION I hereby declare that this project work titled “Working Capital Management of the L&T. RAJALAKSHMI) 5 .

…….7 Introduction …….………………….…. 7.………………………………….84 Bibliography……………………. 6 ......49 Data Analysis……………………. TABLE OF CONTENTS S...………………. 9..….35 Objectives of the Study………………………………………. 3.50 Conclusion and Major Finds….………………………………85 2.. ……………………….. 4.…….………………………………………. 6.WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT OF THE L & T.…. CONTENTS PAGE NO.82 Recommendation and Limitation ………………………………. 5.…....48 Research Methodology.………………………………………….. 8. NO.... 1.8 Review of Literature …..……...……. Title of the Project………………………….

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with a global spread of offices. Hyderabad. A thrust on international business has seen overseas earnings grow significantly. viz. 8 . Mumbai. L&T has an international presence. The company's businesses are supported by a wide marketing and distribution network. Chandigarh etc. ECC Division is prestigious organization having business worldwide. with facilities in China and the Gulf region. construction and manufacturing company. A commitment to community welfare and environmental protection are an integral part of the corporate vision. Delhi. Seven decades of a strong. It continues to grow its overseas manufacturing footprint. L&T believes that progress must be achieved in harmony with the environment. which coordinate all activities of sites within their region. Mechanical & Civil Engineering. The Company having its headquarter at Chennai.CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION COMPANY PROFILE: Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) is a technology. customer-focused approach and the continuous quest for world-class quality have enabled it to attain and sustain leadership in all its major lines of business. It is one of the largest and most respected companies in India's private sector. Ahmadabad. and have established a reputation for strong customer support. and whole India is distributed in regions having respective regional headquarters. M/s Larsen & Toubro Ltd. its ECC Division undertake engineering contracts of various construction in the field of Electrical. Kolkata. engineering.

the workforce consist of employees from all over India. wherein our company execute construction of Boiler Erection & Electrical Cabling works and some other misc. Operating Divisions: • • • • • • • Engineering & Construction Projects (E&C) Heavy Engineering (HED) Construction Power Electrical & Electronics (EBG) Machinery & Industrial Products (MIPD) IT & Technology Services Financial Services Railway Project • • L&T's Signature of Excellence is evident on: • • • • • • • • • Hydrocarbon projects executed in India. Power projects executed in India. coal is found in abundance thus various thermal power plant are established at various places. The workforces consist of 2500 workmen and Engineers and staff in various cadre.Chattisgarh state have rich natural resources. The world's largest coal gasifier made in India and exported to China The world’s biggest EO reactor for a petrochemical complex in the Gulf The world’s largest FCC regenerator for a refinery Asia’s highest viaduct The world’s longest limestone conveyor L&T played a critical role in building India’s first nuclear powered submarine L&T played a major role in India's maiden moon mission 9 . works. Sipat Super Thermal Power Plant is one of the biggest Thermal Power Plant. the Middle East and South East Asia. the Gulf and Sri Lanka. Our Principal employer is M/s National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.

27.1907 . L&T was founded in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1938 by two Danish engineers. Henning Holck-Larsen (4.1982) Beginning with the import of machinery from Europe.HISTORY OF CONCERN The evolution of L&T into the country's largest engineering and construction organization is among the most remarkable success stories in Indian industry.7. Today. 10 .3. Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro.7.1906 4. the company sets global engineering benchmarks in terms of scale and complexity.2003) Soren Kristian Toubro (27. L&T rapidly took on engineering and construction assignments of increasing sophistication.02. Both of them were strongly committed to developing India's engineering capabilities to meet the demands of industry.

but the In the earlyCaterpillar years. L&T decided to build a portfolio of In 1938. create history in that land. All they was a dream. With the successful completion of these jobs.anorders area where their by capability becameduring well respected. Powai stands as a tribute to the vision of the andjungle L&T came to be recognised as Today. one day. L&T also started twoPUBLIC repair and fabrication shops . The war-time need to repair and refit ships offered L&T an opportunity. And the courage equipment manufacture products suchhad as hydrogenated oils.10. products to be a success. Larsen & Toubro Limited restricted. as they were learning about India in history classes that they would. In 1956. This the forced opportunity to consolidate andon expand. up a soda ash plant for the Tatas. At the end of the war. were set up in Kolkata crisis the partners to stand their Offices own feet and innovate. glass. andof foreign 1945. would THE JOURNEY not have dreamt. USA. they represented Danish manufacturers of dairy equipment required wereBut beyond the start capacity ofSecond the partners. soaps to and dare. A decade later this imposing grey-stone building was purchased by L&T. Their first . the two friendsBy decided forgo the comforts of working Europe. a major part of the company's Bombay office moved to ICI House in Ballard Estate. 11 .2 In December 1950 . They (Calcutta).9 million. L&T a chance to enter the field of The sales turnover in that gave year was Rs. Hilda Ltd. In 1944. the sudden internment of German engineers (because of the War) who were toRs. This in prompted them modest retainer. ECC was incorporated. and on 7th February 1946. started Chennai (Madras) and New Delhi. installation . and renamed as L&T House . with the of the World War 1939. L&T emerged as the largest erection contractor in the country. L&T became a Public Company with a paid-up capital of putmillion. Independence andof the subsequent demand for technology expertise offered L&T Germany's invasion Denmark in 1940 stopped supplies ofand Danish products. large numbers of warsurplus equipment were available at attractive prices. biscuits.the Company had begun to expand..EARLY DAYS Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro. was acquired in Powai. for could use the earthmoving office at a time! marketing equipment. a reliable fabricator with high standards. In 1948. Prestigious executed the Company this period included the Amul Dairy at Anand and Blast Furnaces at Rourkela Steel Plant.These fifty-five acres proved of undeveloped marsh and manufacturing dairy equipment indigenously. school-mates in Denmark. men who transformed this uninhabitable swamp into a manufacturing landmark. LIMITED COMPANY: Again. to handle these operations. to the Company represented British in manufacturers started their used own to operation in India. office Mumbai (Bombay) with was so small that only one of the partners In 1945 L&T in signed an agreement Caterpillar Tractor Company.its Corporate Office. compelling them to start a small work-shop to undertake jobs Private and provide was born. Around then. service facilities. imports finances for a to raise were additional equity capital. collaborations. and led to the formation of a new company.

It is also taking steps to grow its international presence.. In the decade that followed. Holck-Larsen was awarded the Magsaysay Award for International Understanding in recognition of his contribution to India's industrial development.S. the company grew rapidly. L&T had widened its capabilities to include some of the best technologies in the world. S.The sixties saw a significant change at L&T . Unlike other stories. He retired as Chairman in 1978. there cannot and must not be an 'end'. EXPANDING HORIZONS: By 1964. Audco India Limited (1961). and strong customer orientation. D. Toubro retired from active management in 1962. the L&T saga continues. The sixties were also a decade of rapid growth for the company. U. L&T is one of India's biggest and best known industrial organisations with a reputation for technological excellence. S. K. high quality of products and services. and witnessed the formation of many new ventures: UTMAL (set up in 1960). and by 1973 had become one of the Top-25 Indian companies. In the decades that followed.. Today. Eutectic Welding Alloys (1962) and TENGL (1963). In 1976. For an institution that has grown to legendary proportions. the company grew into an engineering major under the guidance of leaders like N. V. M.R. Rao. M. Naik. Desai. Kulkarni and A. Subramaniam. 12 .

13 . worldwide.VISION The L&T vision reflects the collective goal of the company. It was drafted through a large scale interactive process which engaged employees at every level.

Naik’s rankings soar among the country’s news makers. Naik is ranked 12th. (February 19. Chairman & Managing Director. having seen a rise of 157 per cent. In the survey of global media.Leadership & Excellence Award 2011. instituted by the Wockhardt Foundation. 2011) L&T bags ’India Shining Star Award’ for Outstanding CSR L&T bagged the ’India Shining Star CSR Award’. for Outstanding CSR in the sector for companies engaged in heavy engineering. Naik’s stellar contributions to the industry and nation. Businessworld’s rankings of ’Most Respected Companies’ saw stellar honours for L&T. L&T was ranked 14 . L&T. In the sector-wise survey. L&T wins Top Honours in Businessworld’s ’Most Respected Company . The award was presented at the 11th International Conference of the Centre in Mumbai on February 11. Mr.M.M. L&T CMD Honoured with CHEMTECH Hall of Fame Award In recognition of L&T’s CMD.2011’ Rankings Leading business magazine.AWARDS & RECOGNITIONS: Major Awards Received by L&T in 2011L&T CMD Ranks among Top News Makers in Indian and Global Media Mr. A. Naik. He was ranked Number 10 in the Indian media. A. the Mumbai based CHEMTECH Foundation has conferred on him its prestigious Hall of Fame . 2011) L&T wins Award for ’Company with Best CSR & Sustainability Practices-2011’ L&T’s CSR initiatives were again in the limelight as it bagged the award for ’Company with the Best CSR and Sustainability Practices’ by the Asian Centre for Corporate Governance and Sustainability. A recent survey of press citations saw Mr. (February 24. Mr. 2011. has emerged as among the most high profile of India’s corporate leaders in the Indian and the global media.

2011) Finance Minister Presents Coveted ET Company of the Year Award to Mr.M. ICAI Bestows Top Honour on Mr. Y.’India’s Most Respected Company’ in the Infrastructure category. development projects and Information Technology of the L&T Group. Naik BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Director Name A M Naik S N Talwar M M Chitale S Rajgopal Subodh Bhargav J S Bindra V K Magapu Y M Deosthalee M V Kotwal J P Nayak K V Rangaswami K Venkataramanan Ravi Uppal N Mohan Raj A K Jain Designation Chairman & Managing Director Non Executive Director Non Executive Director Non Executive Director Non Executive Director Non Executive Director Whole-time Director & Senior Executive Vice President .Heavy Engineering Whole-time Director & President .M. (January 30. Y.M. ‘Business Achiever – Corporate’ for the year 2010 on Mr. for his outstanding contribution to business leadership as a finance professional. In the overall rankings. The institute saluted his role in providing strategic direction to the business of financial services. L&T. L&T emerged second. L&T The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) – the country’s apex body of Chartered Accountants – has bestowed its highest honour.Engineering & Constrution Projects Whole-time Director Nominee of LIC Nominee 15 . CFO. Deosthalee. Deosthalee. CFO. A.IT & Technology Services Whole-time Director & CFO Whole-time Director & Senior Executive Vice President .Machiney & Industrial Products Whole Time Director & President Whole-time Director & President .

Bhagyam Ramani Thomas Mathew T N Hariharan Nominee Nominee of LIC Company Secretary 16 .

The current should be large enough to cover its current liabilities in order to ensure a reasonable margin of the safety. Capital required for a business can be classifies under two main categories: • • Fixed Capital Working Capital Every business needs funds for two purposes for its establishments and to carry out day to day operations. It also refers to the amount of current Assets that exceeds current Liabilities.THEORY OF WORKING CAPITAL WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT Working Capital is the amount of capital that a business has available to meet the day to day cash requirements of its operations. Working Capital refers to that part of the firm capital. Funds are 17 . the current liabilities and the inter relationship that exist between them. Long term funds are required to create production facilities through purchase of fixed assets such as plant and machinery. It is concerned with the problem arise in attempting to manage the current assets. Working Capital is the difference between resources in cash or readily convertible into cash and organizational commitments for which cash will soon be required or within one year without undergoing a diminution in value and without disrupting the operation of the firm. Debtors and Inventories. which is required for financing Short-Term or Current Assets such as Cash. furniture etc. Marketable Securities. land and building. Investments in these assets are representing that part of firm’s capital which is blocked on a permanent or fixed basis and is called fixed capital. Working Capital is also known as Revolving or Circulating Capital or Short Term Capital. The goal of working capital management is to manage the firm’s current assets and current liabilities in such way that the satisfactory level of working capital is mentioned.

These funds are known as working capital. Thus. Working capital refers to that part of the firm’s capital which is required for financing short term or current assets such as cash. the gross working capital is the capital invested in total current assets of the enterprises. Current assets are those assets which are converted into cash within short periods of normally one accounting year.also needed for short term purposes for the purchasing of raw materials. payments of wages and other day to day expenses etc. In simple words. marketable securities. Example of current assets is: Constituents of Current Assets: • • • • • Cash in hand and Bank balance Bills Receivable Sundry Debtors Short term Loans and Advances Inventories of Stock as:    Raw Materials Work in Process Stores and Spaces 18 . CONCEPTS OF WORKING CAPITAL: There are two concepts of working capital: • • Balance Sheet concepts Operating Cycle or circular flow concept BALANCE SHEET CONCEPT: There are two interpretation of working capital under the balance sheet concept: • • Gross Working Capital Net Working Capital The term working capital refers to the Gross working capital and represents the amount of funds invested in current assets. debtors and inventories.

Net working capital is the excess of current assets over current liabilities or say: Net Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities. the working capital is positive and the negative working capital results when the current liabilities are more than the current assets. If does not amount to appropriation of profits. Current liabilities are those liabilities which are intended to be paid in the ordinary course of business within a short period of normally one accounting year of the current assets or the income of the business. The gross working capital concept is financial or going concern concept whereas net working capital is an accounting concept of working capital. NET WORKING CAPITAL MAY BE NEGATIVE OR POSITIVE: When the current assets exceed the current liabilities. Examples of current liabilities are: CONSTITUENTS OF CURRENT LIBILITIES: • • • • • • • Bills Payable Sundry Creditors or Account Payable Accrued or Outstanding Expenses Short term Loans. • • • Finished Goods Temporary Investments of Surplus Funds Prepaid Expenses Accrued Incomes The term working capital refers to the net working capital. Advances and Deposits Dividends Payable Bank Overdraft Provision for Taxation. 19 .

its conversion into stocks of finished goods through work in progress with progressive increment of labor and service cost. Hence it is also known as revolving or circulating capital. The cycle starts with the purchase of raw material and other resources And ends with the realization of cash from the sales of finished goods. conversion of finished stocks into sales. The circular flow concept of working capital is based upon this operating or working capital cycle of a firm. larger is the requirement of working capital. The speed/ time of duration required to complete one cycle determines the requirements of working capital longer the period of cycle. marketable securities. Funds thus invested in current assets keep revolving fast and being constantly converted into cash and these cash flows out again in exchange for other current assets. 20 . debtors and receivables and ultimately realization of cash and this cycle continuous again from cash to purchase of raw materials and so on.OPERATING CYCLE OR CIRCULATING CASH FORMAT: Working Capital refers to that part of firm’s capital which is required for financing short term or current assets such as cash. It involves purchase of raw material and stores. debtors and inventories.

Receivable conversion period storage (RCP) Cash received form Debtors and paid to suppliers Of raw materials Raw material conversion period (RMSCP) Sales of finished Goods Finished Goods Produced Finished goods conversion Period (FGCP) period Raw materials introduced into process Work in process Conversion (WIPCP) 21 .

In that case. Raw Material Consumption per day  Work in process Conversion Period = Average Stock of Work-in-Progress Total Cost of Production per day  Finished Goods Conversion Period = Average Stock of Finished Goods Total Cost of Goods sold per day  Receivables Conversion Period = Average Accounts Receivables Net Credit Sales per day  Payable Deferral Period = Average Payable Net Credit Purchase per day 22 .Process Conversion Period FGCP = Finished Goods Conversion Period RCP = Receivables Conversion Period However. net operating cycle period can be calculated as below: Net Operating Cycle Period = Gross Operating Cycle Period – Payable Deferral period Further. following formula can be used to determine the conversion periods. RMCP = Raw Material Conversion Period WIPCP = Work –in. Thus. Gross Operating Cycle = RMCP + WIPCP + FGCP + RCP Where. a firm may acquire some resources on credit and thus defer payments for certain period.  Raw Material Conversion Period = Average Stock of Raw Material.The gross operating cycle of a firm is equal to the length of the inventories and receivables conversion periods.

Kinds of Working Capital On the basis of concept On the basis of time Gross Working Capital Net Working Capital Permanent or Fixed Working Capital Temporary or Variable Working Capital Regular Working Capital Reserve Working Capital 23 Seasonal Working Capital Special Working Capital .CLASSIFICATION OR KIND OF WORKING CAPITAL: Working capital may be classified in two ways: • • On the basis of concept On the basis of time On the basis of concept. working capital is classified as gross working capital and net working capital. working capital may be classified as: • • Permanent or Fixed working capital Temporary or Variable working capital. The classification is important from the point of view of the financial manager. On the basis of time.

No business can run successfully without an adequate amount of working capital. TEMPRORAY OR VARIABLE WORKING CAPITAL: Temporary or variable working capital is the amount of working capital which is required to meet the seasonal demands and some special exigencies. The main advantages of maintaining adequate amount of working capital are as follows: • • • • • Solvency of the Business Goodwill Easy Loans Cash discounts Regular supply of Raw Materials 24 . PERMANENT OR FIXED WORKING CAPITAL: Permanent or fixed working capital is the minimum amount which is required to ensure effective utilization of fixed facilities and for maintaining the circulation of current assets.Varibles working capital can be further classified as second working capital and special working capital. Temporary working capital differs from permanent working capital in the sense that is required for short periods and cannot be permanently employed gainfully in the business IMPORATNCE OR ADVANTAGE OF ADEQUATE WORKING CAPITAL: Working capital is the life blood and nerve centre of a business. 2. The capital required to meet the seasonal needs of the enterprises is called the seasonal working capital. There is always a minimum level of current assets which is continuously required by the enterprises to carry out its normal business operations. working capital is very essential to maintain the smooth running of a business.1. Just a circulation of a blood is essential in the human body for maintaining life.

• • • • •

Regular payments of salaries, wages & other day to day commitments. Exploitation of favorable market conditions Ability of crisis Quick and regular return on investments High morals

THE NEED OR OBJECTS OF WORKING CAPITAL:
The need for working capital cannot be emphasized. Every business needs some amount of working capital. The need of working capital arises due to the time gap between production and realization of cash from sales. There is an operating cycle involved in the sales and realization of cash. There are time gaps in purchase of raw materials and production, production and sales, And sales, and realization of cash, thus, working capital is needed for the following purposes:  For the purchase of raw materials , components and spaces.  To pay wages and salaries.  To incur day to day expenses and overhead costs such as fuel, power and office expenses etc.  To meet the selling costs as packing, advertising etc.  To provide credit facilities to the customers.  To maintain the inventories of raw materials, work –in- progress, stores and spares and finished stock.

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FACTORS DETERMING THE WORKING CAPITAL REQUIRMENT:
The working capital requirements of a concern depend upon a large number of factors such as nature and size of the business, the characteristics of their operations, the length of production cycle, the rate of stock turnover and the state of economic situation. However the following are the important factors generally influencing the working capital requirements. • NATURE OR CHARACTERSTICS OF A BUSINESS:

The nature and the working capital requirement of enterprises are interlinked. While a manufacturing industry has a long cycle of operation of the working capital, the same would be short in an enterprises involve in providing services. The amount required also varies as per the nature, an enterprises involved in production would required more working capital then a service sector enterprise. • MANAFACTURE PRODUCTION POLICY:

Each enterprises in the manufacturing sector has its own production policy, some follow the policy of uniform production even if the demand varies from time to time and other may follow the principles of demand based production in which production is based on the demand during the particular phase of time. Accordingly the working capital requirements vary for both of them. • OPERATIONS:

The requirement of working capital fluctuates for seasonal business. The working capital needs of such business may increase considerably during the busy.

MARKET CONDITION:

If there is a high competition in the chosen project category then one shall need to offer sops like credit, immediate delivery of goods etc for which the working capital requirement will be high. Otherwise if there is no competition or less competition in the market then the working capital requirements will be low.

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AVABILITY OF RAW MATERIAL:

If raw material is readily available then one need not maintain a large stock of the same thereby reducing the working capital investment in the raw material stock . On other hand if raw material is not readily available then a large inventory stocks need to be maintained, there by calling for substantial investment in the same. • GROWTH AND EXAPNSION:

Growth and Expansions in the volume of business result in enhancement of the working capital requirements. As business growth and expands it needs a larger amount of the working capital. Normally the needs for increased working capital funds processed growth in business activities. •

PRICE LEVEL CHANGES :

Generally raising price level requires a higher investment in the working capital. With increasing prices, the same levels of current assets needs enhanced investments. • MANAFACTURING CYCLE:

The manufacturing cycle starts with the purchase of raw material and is completed with the production of finished goods. If the manufacturing cycle involves a longer period the need for working capital would be more. At time business needs to estimate the requirement of working capital in advance for proper control and management. The factors discussed above influence the quantum of working capital in the business. The assessment of the working capital requirement is made keeping this factor in view. Each constituents of the working capital retains it form for a certain period and that holding period is determined by the factors discussed above. So for correct assessment of the working capital requirement the duration at various stages of the working capital cycle is estimated. Thereafter proper value is assigned to the respective current assets, depending on its level of completion. The basis for assigning value to each component is given below:

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COMPONENTS OF WORKING CAPITAL Stock of Raw Material Stock of Work -in- Process Stock of finished Goods Debtors Cash

BASIS OF VALUATION Purchase of Raw Material At cost of Market value which is lower Cost of Production Cost of Sales or Sales Value Working Expenses

Each constituent of the working capital is valued on the basis of valuation Enumerated above for the holding period estimated. The total of all such valuation becomes the total estimated working capital requirement. The assessment of the working capital should be accurate even in the case of small and micro enterprises where business operation is not very large. We know that working capital has a very close relationship with day-to-day operations of a business. Negligence in proper assessment of the working capital, therefore, can affect the day-to-day operations severely. It may lead to cash crisis and ultimately to liquidation. An inaccurate assessment of the working capital may cause either under-assessment or over-assessment of the working capital and both of them are dangerous.

PRINCIPLES OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT POLICY:
The following are the general principles of a sound working capital management policy: PRINCIPLES OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMNT POLICY

PRINCIPLES OF RISK VARIATIONS

PRINCIPLES OF COST OF CAPITAL

PRINCIPLES OF EQUITY PRINCIPLES

PRINCIPLES OF MATURITY OF PAYMENTS

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Every rupee invested in current assets should contribute to the net worth of the firm. According to this principle. there is a definite inverse relationship between the risk and profitability. reduces risk and thereby decreases the opportunity for gain or loss. 3. the amount of working capital invested in each component should be adequately justified by a firm’s equity position. PRINCIPLE OF EQUITY POSITION: The principle is concerned with planning the total investments in current assets. The level of current assets may be measured with the help of two ratios: 1. However. PRINCIPLE OF RISK VARAITAION (CURRENT ASSETS POLICY): Risk here refers to the inability of a firm to meet its obligations as and when they become due for payment. Generally. Current assets as a percentage of total sales While deciding about the composition of current assets. PRINCIPLES OF COST OF CAPITAL: The various source of raising working capital finance have different cost of capital and the degree of risk involved. the financial manager may consider the relevant industrial averages. the goal of management should be to establish a suitable tradeoff between profitability and risk. In other words there is a definite inverse relationship between the degree of risk and profitability. A conservative management prefers to minimize risk by maintaining a higher level of current assets or working capital while a liberal management assumes greater risk by reducing working capital. higher and risk however the risk lower is the cost and lower the risk higher is the cost. Larger investment in current Assets with less dependence on short term borrowings. increase liquidity. On the other hand less investments in current assets with greater dependence on short term borrowings. 29 . Current assets as a percentage of total assets and 2. reduces liquidity and increase profitability. A sound working capital management should always try to achieve a proper balance between these two. 2. In other words.1.

The business may be compelled to by raw materials on credit and sell finished goods on cash. CONSEQUENCES OF UNDER ASSESMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL:  Growth may be stunted. This situation may lead to business closure.4. Both the situation would affect profitable adversely. According to the principles.  Optimum capacity utilization of fixed assets may not be achieved due to non availability of the working capital. the greater the inability to meet its obligations in time. PRINCIPLES OF MATURITY OF PAYMENT: The principle is concerned with planning the source of finance for working capital. Generally shorter the maturity schedule of current liabilities in relation to expected cash inflows. Now avaibility of stocks due to non availability of funds may result in production stoppage. The business may fail to honour its commitment in time thereby adversely affecting its creditability.  Implementations of operating plans may brome difficult and consequently the profit goals may not be achieved. a firm should make every effort to relate maturities of payment to its flow of internally generated funds.  Cash crisis may emerge due to paucity of working funds. 30 . While underassessment of working capital has disastrous implications on business overassesments of working capital also has its own dangerous. Maturity pattern of various current obligations is an important factor in risk assumptions and risk assessments. It may become difficult for the enterprises to undertake profitable projects due to non availability of working capital. In the process it may end up with increasing cost of purchase and reducing selling price by offering discounts.

CONSEQUENCES OF OUR OWN ASSESMNET OF WORKING CAPITAL:  Excess of working capital may result in un necessary accumulation of inventories. Working Capital is very essential for success of business & therefore needs efficient management and control. Business therefore should fix the minimum safety stock level reorder level of ordering quantity so that the inventory costs is reduced and outs management become efficient. The level of inventory should be such that the total cost of ordering and holding inventory is the least.  It may make management complacent leading to its inefficiency.  Over investment in working capital makes capital less productive and may reduce return on investment. inventory needs to be managed effectively.  It may lead to offer too liberal credit terms to buyers and very poor recovery system & cash management. Simultaneously stock out costs should be minimized. Each of the components of working capital needs proper management to optimize profit. INVENTORY MANAGEMNT: Inventory includes all type of stocks. Inventor y Managemen t 31 . For effective working capital management.

due to factors like trade policies. In certain circumstances a business may deliberately extend credit as a strategy of increasing sales. A business should continuously try to monitor the credit days and see that the average. Each business should therefore try to find out coverage credit extends to its clients using the below given formula: Average Credit = (Extend in days) Total amount of receivable Average credit sale per day Each business should project expected sales and expected investments in receivable based on various factor. Business are compelled to sells their goods on credit. This may lead to cash crisis.RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT: Given a choice. Investment in the type of current assets needs proper and effective management as. From this it would be possible to find out the average credit days using the above given formula. every business would prefer selling its produce on cash basis. Credit offer to clients is not crossing the budgeted period otherwise the requirement of investment in the working capital would increase and as a result. which influence the working capital requirement. 32 . An effective control of receivables help a great deal in properly managing it. prevailing market conditions etc. However. it gives rise to costs such as:  Cost of carrying receivables  Cost of bad debts losses Thus the objective of any management policy pertaining to accounts receivables would be to ensure the benefits arising due to the receivables are more than the costs incurred for the receivables and the gap between benefit and costs increased resulting in increase profits. Extending credit means creating current assets in the form of debtors or account receivables. activities may get squeezed.

Minimum level of cash balance VII. a half or a quarter year. A suggestive for. Cash inflows 2. at for cash budget is given below: MONTHS JANUARY PARTICULARS Estimated cash inflows ……………………………… …………………………………. Add/deduct surplus/deflictduring the month ( III) V. Opening cash balances IV. Repayments of Loan etc. Cash Sales 2. Cash received from Loans. Cash received from sale of investment or assets. Cash payments to Creditors 3. CASH OUTFLOWS: 1. Cash Purchase 2. weeks or even a daily basis. Effective cash management is facilities if the cash budget is further broken down into months. Total cash inflows Estimated cash outflows ……………………………. 4. Closing cash balances (III -IV) VI. There are two components of cash budget are: 1. II. Cash outflows The main sources for these flows are given here under: 1. Total cash outflows III. Estimated excess or short fall of cash (V-VI) FERBUARY MARCH 33 . Cash received from debtors 3. Cash payment for other revenue expenditure 4... I. Cash receipts other revenue income 5.CASH BUDGET: Cash budget basically incorporates estimates of future inflow and outflows of cash cover a projected short period of time which may usually be a year. Cash payment for assets creation 5. 6. taxes. …………………………. Cash payments for withdrawals. deposits etc.

components and spares. According to GENESTENBERG:"Circulating capital means current assets of a company that are changed in the ordinary course of business from one form to another. marketable securities. 34 . Funds. Thus. payment of wages. power and office expenses etc. the working capital is needed for the following purposes:a) For the purchase of raw materials. debtors and inventories. payment of day to day expenses etc. Working capital refers to that part of the firm's capital which is required for financing short term or current assets such as cash. Every business needs some amount of working capital. inventories to receivables into cash.CHAPTER – 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Every business needs funds for two purposes basically. The need of working capital arises due to the time gap between production and realization of cash from sales. it is required for production facility through purchase of fixed assets and it needs fixed capital and the funds which are needed for short term purposes for the purchase of raw materials. b) To pay wages and salaries. Hence it is also known as CIRCULATING CAPITAL or REVOLVING CAPITAL or SHORT TERM CAPITAL. Long term funds are required for establishment of the organization. from cash to inventories. d) To met the selling costs as packing." Need for working capital cannot be over emphasized. they are for establishment and to carry day-to-day operations. as for example. the funds required for these are known as WORKING CAPITAL. advertising etc. thus. c) To incur day-to-day expenses and overhead costs such as fuel. invested in current assets keep revolving fast and are being constantly converted into cash and this cash flow out in exchange for other current assets.

e) To provide credit facility to customers. According to Deloof. The size variable was found to have significant effect on profitability at the industry level. The following ones were very interesting and useful for our research According to Eljelly. in 2004:Elucidated that efficient liquidity management involves planning and controlling current assets and current liabilities in such a manner that eliminates the risk of inability to meet due short-term obligations and avoids excessive investment in these assets. Second. the study also revealed that there was great variation among industries with respect to the significant measure of liquidity. The study found that the cash conversion cycle was of more importance as a measure of liquidity than the current ratio that affects profitability. stores and spares and finished stock. inventories and accounts payable of Belgian 35 . work-in-progress. First. Many researchers have studied working capital from different views and in different environments. it was clear that there was a negative relationship between profitability and liquidity indicators such as current ratio and cash gap in the Saudi sample examined. It can therefore be expected that the way in which working capital is managed will have a significant impact on profitability of those firms. as a going concern and as one which has attained maturity. Using correlation and regression tests he found a significant negative relationship between gross operating income and the number of days accounts receivable. in 2003:Discussed that most firms had a large amount of cash invested in working capital. as measured by current ratio and cash gap (cash conversion cycle) on a sample of joint stock companies in Saudi Arabia using correlation and regression analysis. For studying the need of working capital in a business. one has to study the business under varying circumstances such as a new concern. The results were stable and had important implications for liquidity management in various Saudi companies. The relation between profitability and liquidity was examined. f) To maintain the inventories of raw material.

shorter net trade cycles were associated with higher risk adjusted stock returns. On basis of these results he suggested that managers could create value for their shareholders by reducing the number of days accounts receivable and inventories to a reasonable minimum. The relationship between the lengths of Net Trading Cycle. performance. and overall efficiency indices were calculated instead of using some common working capital management ratios. corporate profitability and risk adjusted stock return was examined using correlation and regression analysis. According to Ghosh and Maji.firms. The negative relationship between accounts payable and profitability is consistent with the view that less profitable firms wait longer to pay their bills. utilization. The Effect of Working Capital Management on Firm Profitability: Evidence from Turkey F. The way working capital was managed had a significant impact on both profitability and liquidity. Demirgunes (2008) The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of working capital management on firm 36 . in 1998:highlighted that efficient Working Capital Management (WCM) was very important for creating value for the shareholders. For measuring the efficiency of working capital management. this paper also tested the speed of achieving that target level of efficiency by an individual firm during the period of study. Samiloglu and K. According to Shin and Soenen. In addition. in 2003:In this paper made an attempt to examine the efficiency of working capital management of the Indian cement companies during 1992 – 1993 to 2001 – 2002. They found a strong negative relationship between lengths of the firm’s net trading Cycle and its profitability. Findings of the study indicated that the Indian Cement Industry as a whole did not perform remarkably well during this period. Setting industry norms as target-efficiency levels of the individual firms. by industry and capital intensity.

This article evaluated the association between traditional and alternative working capital measures and return on investment (ROI). specifically in industrial firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). In accordance with this aim. According to Smith and Begemann 1997:Emphasized that those who promoted working capital theory shared that profitability and liquidity comprised the salient goals of working capital management. we have developed our own methodology for research. The problem arose because the maximization of the firm's returns could seriously threaten its liquidity. They also give us the results and conclusions of those researches already conducted on the same area for different countries and environment from different aspects. to consider statistically significant relationships between firm profitability and the components of cash conversion cycle at length. The problem under investigation was to establish whether the more recently developed alternative working capital concepts showed improved association with return on investment to that of traditional working capital ratios or not. All the above studies provide us a solid base and give us idea regarding working capital management and its components. Empirical findings of the study show that accounts receivables period. The results of their stepwise regression corroborated that total current liabilities divided by funds flow accounted for most of the variability in Return on Investment (ROI). displayed the greatest associations with return on investment. Wellknown liquidity concepts such as the current and quick ratios registered 37 . a sample consisting of Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) listed manufacturing firms for the period of 1998-2007 has been analyzed under a multiple regression model. and the pursuit of liquidity had a tendency to dilute returns. while growth (in sales) affects firm profitability positively. current liabilities divided by funds flow. On basis of these researches done in different countries. The statistical test results showed that a traditional working capital leverage ratio. Results indicated that there were no significant differences amongst the years with respect to the independent variables.profitability. inventory period and leverage affect firm profitability negatively.

. Zariyawati a. This study is used panel data of 1628 firm-year for the period of 19962006 that consist of six different economic sectors which are listed in Bursa Malaysia.009 large Belgian non-financial firms for the 1992-1996 period. Malaysia. The coefficient results of Pooled OLS regression analysis provide a strong negative significant relationship between 38 . Trade credit policy and inventory policy are measured by number of days accounts receivable. N. Less profitable firms wait longer to pay their bills. The results suggest that managers can increase corporate profitablity by reducing the number of days accounts receivable and inventories. accounts payable and inventories. M. To reach optimal working capital management firm manager should control the trade off between profitability and liquidity accurately. and the cash conversion cycle is used as a comprehensice measure of working capital management. According to Marc Deloof 25th April 2003:The relation between working capital management and corporate profitablity is investigated for a sample of 1. A. indicated significant associations with return on investment. Working capital management is important part in firm financial management decision.S... The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between working capital management and firm profitability.b & c Univeristi Putra Malaysia.insignificant associations whilst only one of the newer working capital concepts. Annuar b and A. An optimal working capital management is expected to contribute positively to the creation of firm value. M. All the above studies provide us a solid base and give us idea regarding working capital management and its components. On basis of these researches done in different countries. They also give us the results and conclusions of those researches already conducted on the same area for different countries and environment from different aspects. Abdul Rahim c a . we have developed our own methodology for research. Cash conversion cycle is used as measure of working capital management. the comprehensive liquidity index.

Lawrence having a positive cash balance would have help in the event of emergencies as well as unplanned outflow of money. whilst the fourth ‘type’ were less likely to take-up any working capital management routines. Claims that altering debtor and creditor levels for individual tiers within a value system will rarely produce any net benefit. Murray. The first three ‘types’ of companies focused upon cash management. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis confirm the identification of four distinct ‘types’ of companies with regard to patterns of working capital management. Multinomial logistic regression analysis suggests that the selected independent variables successfully discriminated between the four ‘types’ of companies. policy-makers and practitioners are reported. stock or debtors routines respectively. According to Maynard E. & Myers 2005). Influences on the amount and focus of working capital management are discussed. Considerable variability in the take-up of 11 working capital management routines was detected. Brealey. The results suggest that small companies focus only on areas of working capital management where they expect to improve marginal returns. Brealey.Amber Collins University of Phoenix:Working Capital Management Concepts Worksheet Concept Application of Concept in the Simulation Reference to Concept in Reading Describe the firm's cash conversion cycle: Cash inflow "Most firms keep track of the average time it takes customers to pay their bills. Cash flow comes from collections on accounts receivable (Allen. From this they can forecast what proportion of a quarter's sales is likely to be converted into cash in that quarter and what proportion is likely to be carried over to the next quarter as accounts receivable" (Allen. Rafuse. According to Carole Howorth and Paul Westhead March 2003:Working capital management routines of a large random sample of small companies in the UK are examined. The difficulties of establishing causality are highlighted and implications for academics. & Myers 2005). (1996):Argues that attempts to improve working capital by delaying payment to creditors is counter-productive to individuals and to the economy as a whole. Proposes that stock reduction generates system-wide financial 39 . and Gartner. Examine the effects of credit policy on cash conversion cycle and revenue: Commitment Lawrence had a commitment to the bank. Mayo.

Kolay:The article analyses the “pros” and “cons” of different strategies to be adopted to manage and avoid working capital crisis situations in any organisation. production. In contrast. this study examines management perceptions of long-range objectives in order to provide a proper perspective to the shortrun financial planning. Gentry. India. According to James A. The study interprets management ranking of working capital objectives and indicates the need to improve financial planning models to include explicitly short-run objectives. a study of management perceptions of the working capital process was undertaken. and the United States. A survey was used to collect information from a sample of marketing. France. According to M. Finally. but their perspective is limited to the practices within their firm. The working capital position depends on many organisational parameters which are interrelated and interdependent. and also vary over time.K.We 40 . According to Wang Zhuquan et al 2007:Working capital management is the main contents of corporate finance. so the study in this field should gain much attention. corporate managers are continuously involved in the working capital decision-making process. predictability of cash inflows and outflows is examined and the potential factors affecting predictability are evaluated. Mehta:Working capital literature is rather limited and the process of managing shortterm resources is not understood well by academicians. Dileep R. and financial executives in large corporations in Belgium. Urges those organizations seeking concentrated working capital reduction strategies to focus on stock management strategies based on “lean supply-chain” techniques.improvements and other important benefits. Compared with the rapidly development of the practice. further. the use of a system dynamics approach has been advocated to reflect the relevant dynamic cause-andeffect relationships for the development of appropriate long-term and short-term strategies. In order to fill this gap in the working capital literature. In such a situation. the development of the theory has been lagged obviously since 1990's.

to analyze the empirical results and make recommendations for future study. Meanwhile. we should launch on the survey of working capital management of Chinese companies and promulgate the results. which can offer the data for the study and evaluation of working capital management. to test empirically the ability of funds flow components to distinguish between failed and no failed companies with special emphasis on working capital components. are 41 . the channel management and the customer relationship management. Whitford. Hamlin. and then. According to Jeffrey Ashe 2000:Working Capital is the United States' largest peer-group lending program. The article then discusses how participants judge the group model as they identify the characteristics of successful groups and the impact of the group on their businesses.suggest that the study should begin from the reclassification of working capital. Gentry. David F. on themselves personally. According to James A. and hence the working capital requirements of firms. The rest of the article discusses how Working Capital evolved from a start-up operation in a single town into a multistate program and explores the advantages and limitations of rapid expansion. This article reviews what Working Capital has learned about the market. It presents a model for understanding how participating in peer lending groups develops “social and economic capital” in poor communities. A checklist for choosing affiliate partners is presented. and on the larger community. Paul Newbold. According to Alan P. which is based on the supplychain management. (1984) The objectives of this study are to offer cash based funds flow components as an alternative to financial ratios for classifying the financial performance of companies. along with a list of the lessons learned about delivering services though affiliates. its customers. program impact. the new framework of the theory should be set up. The implications of modeling the time dimension of production. and service delivery over its ten year history. Heathfield 2000:Working capital is a necessary input to the production process and yet is ignored in most economic models of production. David T.

managerial.explored. Intellectual capital is implicated in recent economic. with particular stress placed on the competitive advantage gained by firms that retain flexibility in the time structure of their production. is attributed to the increased prominence of intellectual capital (IC) as a business and research topic. James Guthrie. and sociological developments in a manner previously unknown and largely unforeseen. There exists an inherent difficulty in the classical approach to evaluate the impact of qualitative factors for the assessment of working capital requirement.S. or innovation. The second part of this paper identifies possible future research issues into the nature. The emphasis is on important theoretical and empirical contributions relating to the measurement and reporting of intellectual capital. This article takes into consideration the uncertainty associated with many of the project resource variables and these are reflected satisfactorily in the working capital computations. the knowledge-based economy. impact and value of intellectual management and reporting. (2000):The rise of the “new economy”. Whether these developments are viewed through the filter of the information society. According to VELLANKI S. we seek to review some of the most significant extant literature on intellectual capital and its developed path. the network society. AWAD S. technological. KUMAR. First. 42 . A case study illustrates the application of the fuzzy set approach. The results of the case study demonstrate the superiority of the fuzzy set approach to classical methods in the assessment of realistic working capital requirements for construction projects. This paper presents a methodology to incorporate linguistic variables into workable mathematical propositions for the assessment of working capital using fuzzy set theory. According to Richard Petty. (2000):The systematic assessment of working capital requirement in construction projects deals with the analysis of various quantitative and qualitative factors in which information is subjective and based on uncertainty. there is much to support the assertion that IC is instrumental in the determination of enterprise value and national economic performance. one principally driven by information and knowledge. HANNA. TERESA ADAMS.

FCA. According to Charles O. According to Kenneth A. However. If it is interested in improving its liquidity. In this paper an effort has been made to make an empirical study of Indian Consumer Electronics Industry for assessing the impact of working capital policies & practices on profitability during the period 1994–95 to 2004–05. It also considers the critical factors that lead to successful innovations and the role of KM and IC in this regard. The paper argues that effective management of knowledge assets involves a holistic approach to a host of factors.According to Sushma Vishnani. therefore of profitability. It recommends that more is needed on the education and training of construction personnel and that these education and training programmes should reflect the nature of innovation and KM dimensions as very complex social processes. this policy is likely to result in a reduction of the sales volume. and (ii) 43 . and Finance Faculty:It is felt that there is the need to study the role of working capital management policies on profitability of a company. it increases the level of its working capital. The impact of working capital policies on profitability has been examined by computing coefficient of correlation and regression analysis between profitability ratio and some key working capital policy indicator ratios. The paper explores the importance of knowledge management (KM) and intellectual capital (IC) in organisations. It is also suggested that there are a host of factors that combine in different ways to produce successful organizational innovations. Egbu. Hence. Froot and Jeremy C. Stein in 1998:We develop a framework for analyzing the capital allocation and capital structure decisions facing financial institutions. a company should strike a balance between liquidity and profitability. Conventionally. (2004):Innovation is viewed as a major source of competitive advantage and is perceived to be a pre-requisite for organizational success and survival. it has been seen that if a company desires to take a greater risk for bigger profits and losses. The ability to innovate depends largely on the way in which an organisation uses and exploits the resources available to it. Our model incorporates two key features: (i) value-maximizing banks have a well-founded concern with risk management. it reduces the size of its working capital in relation to its sales.

According to Pradeep Singh (2008):Empirically analysed that a firm’s working capital consists of its investments in current assets. According to Pedro Juan Garcı´a-Teruel and Pedro Martı´nez-Solano (2007):Conducted research for the object of the research presented in this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the effects of working capital management on the profitability of a sample of small and medium-sized Spanish firms. a firm can reduce the levels of inventories to a considerable degree. Finally. ‘This paper tries to evaluate the effect of the size of inventory and the impact on working capital through inventory ratios. The results. including: the evaluation of proprietary trading operations. and the pricing of unhedgeable derivatives positions. inventory. computation of inventory and working capital. receivable and marketable securities. working capital ratios. Hence. Size of the inventory and working capital of Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) is properly managed and controlled compared to National Fertilizer Ltd. This approach allows us to show how bank-level risk management considerations should factor into the pricing of those risks that cannot be easily hedged. which are robust to the presence of endogeneity. and liquidity ranking. A firm. reflects the investment of a firm’s fund. 44 . (NFL). it was found that the size of inventory directly affects working capital and it's management. which is one of the important elements of current assets. With the help of better inventory management. On the other hand. which neglects the management of inventories.not all the risks they face can be frictionlessly hedged in the capital market. Moreover. will have to face serious problems relating to long-term profitability and may fail to survive. which includes short-term assets—cash and bank balance. Therefore. trends. We also compare our approach to the RAROC methodology that has been adopted by a number of banks. the working capital management refers to the management of the levels of all these individual current assets. shortening the cash conversion cycle also improves the firm’s profitability. We examine several applications. inventories. demonstrate that managers can create value by reducing their inventories and the number of days for which their accounts are outstanding. it is necessary to efficiently manage inventories in order to avoid unnecessary investments.

According to Naila Iqbal (2001):Examined that for increasing shareholder's wealth a firm has to analyze the effect of fixed assets and current assets on its return and risk. strengthens Liquidity position but also reduces overall profitability. the firm has greater degree of flexibility in managing current Assets. Kumar. This paper presents a methodology to incorporate linguistic variables into workable mathematical propositions for the assessment of working capital using fuzzy set theory. and to maintain an optimum level of liquidity and profitability.The aim is to ensure that the relationships found in the analysis carried out are due to the effects of the cash conversion cycle on corporate profitability and not vice versa.Hanna. Thus.The large holdings of current assets.e Current assets are for short period while fixed assets are for more than one Year. This article takes into consideration the uncertainty associated with many of the project resource variables and these are reflected satisfactorily in the working capital computations. risk return trade off is involved holding Current assets. Working Capital Management is related with the Management of current assets.Only Current Assets can be adjusted with sales fluctuating in the short run. especially cash. Teresa Adams (2000):Conducted research and examined that the systematic assessment of working capital requirement in construction projects deals with the analysis of various quantitative and qualitative factors in which information is subjective and based on uncertainty. A case study illustrates the application of the fuzzy set approach. The results of the case study demonstrate the superiority of the fuzzy set approach to classical methods in the assessment of realistic working capital requirements for construction projects. There exists an inherent difficulty in the classical approach to evaluate the impact of qualitative factors for the assessment of working capital requirement. According to Vellanki S. 45 . Awad S. The management of Current Assets helps affirm in building a good market reputation regarding its business and economic condition. The Management of current assets is different from fixed assets on the basis of the following points i.

Urges those organizations seeking concentrated working capital reduction strategies to focus on stock management strategies based on “lean supply-chain” techniques.According to Maynard E. Claims that altering debtor and creditor levels for individual tiers within a value system will rarely produce any net benefit. Rafuse (1996):Argues that attempts to improve working capital by delaying payment to creditors is counter-productive to individuals and to the economy as a whole. 46 . Proposes that stock reduction generates system wide financial improvements and other important benefits.

To study and analyze the operating cycle of L&T. To analyze the various components of working capital of L&T.CHAPTER – 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Fixing the objective is like identifying the star. iii. what we want to achieve and what is our goal or destination. To study the financing of working capital of L&T. Every study is carried out for the achievement of certain objectives. i. The objective decides where we want to go. 47 . ii.

The methods that will be used to collect primary data are: a) Questionnaire b) Interview • SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data that will be used are web sites and published materials related to working capital management as well as any relevant information on capital of the company at Heston Kuwait. • SAMPLE SIZE : 50-75 48 . • PRIMARY DATA: Most of the information will be gathered through primary sources.CHAPTER – 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA COLLECTION METHODS: The data will be collected using both by primary data collection methods as well as secondary sources.

47 471.876.210.508.03 6.39 1.305.90 9. Depreciation Net Block Capital Work in Progress Investments Inventories 2.683.459.72 5 5.188.300.46 3.583.22 3.14 4.5 7 6.139.35 2.2 7 49 2.077.59 12.61 5.07 Mar '08 12 mths 117.015.4 7 Mar '09 Mar '10 12 mths 12 mths Application Of Funds Gross Block Less: Accum. ------------------- Mar '07 12 mths Mar '08 12 mths Mar '09 Mar '10 12 mths 12 mths 27.72 25.73 5.093.00 0.65 56.in Rs.845.263. Cr.09 0.556.18 Mar '07 12 mths 58.30 1.66 13.919.83 19.[ CHAPTER – 5 DATA ANALYSIS Balance Sheet of Larsen and Toubro Mar '06 12 mths Sources Of Funds Total Share Capital Equity Share Capital Share Application Money Preference Share Capital Reserves Revaluation Reserves Networth Secured Loans Unsecured Loans Total Debt Total Liabilities ------------------.00 7.753.75 7.44 699.53 3.22 1.91 5.00 0.583.78 1.555.415.85 27.68 4.48 27.91 1.44 25.4 6 286.29 18.800.00 18.112.242.421.06 1.102.47 2.846.10 1.922.71 25.47 0.00 0.705.040.00 5.6 8 982.37 4.1 7 465.318.575.96 24.38 5.00 12.832.317.104.142.946.727.48 0.235.805.65 0.69 1.7 4 Mar '06 12 mths 56.83 1.05 1.153.79 987.768.14 0.275.453.93 5.3 2 29.47 58.99 13.44 3.99 857.08 308.453.6 4 955.3 8.640.00 0.00 4.10 6.00 9.43 245.78 1.44 120.470.40 1.5 2 2.122.00 6.311.8 2 23.26 4.37 .001.65 120.14 117.

36 18.7 0 1.568.201. Cr.53 .00 25.52 693.08 334.499.861.00 11.1 4 2.10 184.316.371.3 7 7.365.17 105.180.98 26.504.015.97 35.01 779.46 2.46 9.066.946.58 2.14 100.61 5.015.211.95 17.5 5 326.71 7.892.187.632.163.1 3 3.7 7 21.14 2.553.00 8.32 303.574.38 393.121.846.21 9.106.013.19 527.093.78 5.249.53 2.65 7.17 2.00 19.669.60 16.36 0.507.226.321.64 993.277.85 26.139.42 13.59 335.557.85 37.9 6 12.5 0 184.030.in Rs.76 746.57 5.198.28 0.01 1.7 2 21. ------------------- Mar '07 12 mths Mar '08 12 mths Mar '09 12 mths Mar '10 12 mths 15.Sundry Debtors Cash and Bank Balance Total Current Assets Loans and Advances Fixed Deposits Total CA.31 14.547.48 0.1 3 0.98 50 8.24 121.593.662.983.814.51 325.856.31 317.4 9 0.50 253.67 -103.13 9.112.4 19.13 16.37 25.423.07 1.81 17.89 13.035.71 0.768.0 4 1.049.70 7.86 338.362.496.542.061.26 PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNTS: Larsen and Toubro Profit & Loss account Mar '06 12 mths Income Sales Turnover Excise Duty Net Sales Other Income Stock Adjustments Total Income Expenditure Raw Materials ------------------.612.23 18.22 202.38 9.75 12.308.54 36.85 82.80 616.72 7 1.00 15.86 1.52 459.49 34.443. Loans & Advances Deffered Credit Current Liabilities Provisions Total CL & Provisions Net Current Assets Miscellaneous Expenses Total Assets Contingent Liabilities Book Value (Rs) 4.320.673.4 1 2.645.69 1.86 12.39 212.23 38.683.870.31 3.49 9.84 7.16 23.29 24.04 11.11 33.35 0.510.928.99 15.98 6.75 2.00 6.041.776.1 6 398.68 9.256.87 4.78 3.7 4 305.14 5.98 10.719.11 -422.06 13.104.18 270.055.188.449.834.280.450.

66 625.60 6.52 8.46 501.383.196.88 3.32 614.142.503.678.00 0.16 30.49 4.92 5.70 4.403.373.03 1.32 6.770.87 982.00 325.021.05 1.80 1.819.09 4.00 2.657.00 202.222.502.28 51 .06 2.083.18 2.844.37 1.04 22.389.63 31.48 -36.950.93 10.481.27 74.878.19 1.856.52 5.65 0.451.80 1.239.66 21.379.32 325.17 16.02 2.30 -11.12 160.647.89 -3.05 29.00 0.98 5.45 525.00 995.59 20.00 335.39 53.01 3.31 Expenses Selling and Admin Expenses 996.00 302.66 4.25 1.00 0.42 3.25 21.69 569.171.95 72.88 59.22 3.07 10.61 2.393.23 4.83 770.83 1.85 -5.375.65 2.71 49.67 1.26 101.913.81 3.21 -21.855.258.176.15 280.88 107.23 Miscellaneous Expenses 125.71 15.02 1.86 73.58 1.39 334.403.354.44 1.995.923.14 1.95 1.284.13 365.632.42 -24.58 Preoperative Exp Capitalised -1.577.142.25 321.13 1.659.011.21 1.832.25 456.811.08 Employee Cost 890.53 650.02 5.52 2.453.34 331.14 Other Manufacturing 6.043.490.00 0.75 42.363.70 7.25 495.61 5.005.09 0.50 308.97 752.984.83 383.754.00 0.35 850.21 2.28 -1.62 Mar '06 Mar '07 Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10 12 mths Operating Profit PBDIT Interest PBDT Depreciation Other Written Off Profit Before Tax Extra-ordinary items PBT (Post Extra-ord Items) Tax Reported Net Profit Total Value Addition Preference Dividend Equity Dividend Corporate Dividend Tax Per share data (annualised) Shares in issue (lakhs) Earnings Per Share (Rs) Equity Dividend (%) Book Value (Rs) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 1.381.00 303.15 366.09 -45.60 7.06 14.405.83 15.854.00 212.02 2.34 76.998.94 284.00 15.25 Total Expenses 13.100.25 368.173.154.535.59 1.13 195.34 12.83 110.012.35 3.409.Power & Fuel Cost 221.00 166.12 601.724.

58 775.07 6.175.10 329.23 583.43 964.330.45 Mar '08 12 mths 3155.75 Net Profit Before Tax Net Cash From Operating Activities Net Cash (used in)/from Investing Activities Net Cash (used in)/from Financing Activities Net (decrease)/increase In Cash and Cash Equivalents Opening Cash & Cash Equivalents Closing Cash & Cash Equivalents 1383.89 2.112.40 1369.77 -244.76 ------ 9.30 -1588.050.325.67 5482. Cr.341.17 -5241.87 QUARTERLY RESULTS: Larsen and Toubro Quarterly Results ------------------. Cr.05 511.005.24 Mar '09 12 mths 3940.384.20 -31.79 -189.18 369.47 1945.94 11.68 -129.46 775.73 -287.76 8.754.05 -----52 Sep '10 Dec '10 Mar '11 Sales Turnover Other Income Total Income Total Expenses Operating Profit Profit On Sale Of Assets Profit On Sale Of Investments Gain/Loss On Foreign Exchange VRS Adjustment Other Extraordinary Income/Expenses 13.19 13.02 583.84 13.237.878. ------------------Mar '10 Jun '10 7.21 382.97 1094.89 2130.46 1640.712. ------------------Mar '06 12 mths Mar '07 12 mths 2004.885.25 -1326.in Rs.914.585.43 3166.56 656.57 Mar '10 12 mths 5880.53 -6071.534.26 1.82 9.89 -3308.in Rs.CASH FLOW: Larsen and Toubro Cash Flow ------------------.413.29 1431.95 11.35 1.17 964.007.76 11.660.82 828.20 1094.86 ---------------- .68 1.08 10.26 15.08 15.34 2.31 226.042.19 247.03 8.29 1245.41 1478.

565.380.00 -----12.10 -----23.15 121.83 -121.77 -2.345.71 1.04 840.233.344.53 -----13.69 --- ---- 70.88 -120.44 -2.56 -2.56 142.00 --- 977.438.51 791.30 --1.57 376.17 2.77 --2.77 -2.216.81 1.66 128.21 -----27.686.60 1.09 -1.00 2.68 136.07 175.41 1.30 1.22 114.65 -120.15 2.98 -----11.37 666.35 311.69 -121.47 1.73 1.84 --- 35.21 -2.51 879.87 135.00 225.28 235.32 1.15 379.34 193.229.091.711.56 116.04 -120.265.99 -2.485.Total Extraordinary Income/Expenses Tax On Extraordinary Items Net Extra Ordinary Income/Expenses Gross Profit Interest PBDT Depreciation Depreciation On Revaluation Of Assets PBT Tax Net Profit Prior Years Income/Expenses Depreciation for Previous Years Written Back/ Provided Dividend Dividend Tax Dividend (%) Earnings Per Share Book Value Equity Reserves Face Value 100.801.387.00 53 .17 764.144.63 -2.

047.16 690.07 36.00 Total Income 14.196.13 21.526.50 54 .591.93 2.48 23.15 2.01 18. Cr.47 22.561.49 311.69 2916.22 26.46 3.146.75 Interest 107.31 3294.24 70.67 3782.29 Other Income 336.54 Operating Profit 1.36 363.58 17.235.178.55 264.24 15.669.76 335.34 Net Profit 962.68 4.43 2.212.109.07 Income/Expenses Tax On Extraordinary Items -----Net Extra Ordinary -----Income/Expenses Gross Profit 1.26 163.658.86 Depreciation On Revaluation -----Of Assets PBT 1445.616.52 1.74 235.93 193.88 PBDT 1584.08 Tax 483.92 1.12 3.36 1.431.51 27.927. ------------------Sep '08 Sep '09 Mar '10 Sep '10 Mar '11 6 mths 6 mths 6 mths 6 mths 6 mths Sales Turnover 14.707.414.90 37.in Rs.91 597.255.327.75 Profit On Sale Of Assets -----Profit On Sale Of -----Investments Gain/Loss On Foreign -----Exchange VRS Adjustment -----Other Extraordinary -----Income/Expenses Total Extraordinary -.57 440.579.88 13.81 15.86 220.29 617.097.177.24 15.217.67 17.809.17 3514.71 1.691.08 2121.84 261.34 2.196.82 2357.024.94 Depreciation 138.187.29 Total Expenses 13.HALF YEARLY RESULTS: Larsen and Toubro Half Yearly Results ------------------.74 Prior Year Income/Expenses -----Depreciation for Previous Years Written Back/ -----Provided Dividend -----Dividend Tax -----Dividend (%) -----Earnings Per Share(Rs) 32.60 2.355.83 23.39 3.03 4145.76 2722.767.34 469.06 543.66 41.70 2.621.797.1.24 240.

in Rs.07 840. Cr.962.05 298.18 21.38 363.75 511.066.138.03 23.77 369.44 -.330.25 1.81 106.75 Interest 27.99 661.490.106.194.70 1.00 --117.00 2.588.208.82 2.65 2.42 2.20 4.97 2.46 1.43 217.06 Total Expenses 10.33 1.25 1.53 120.77 -.14 2.66 2.05 1.15 335.764.53 Total Income 11.26 3.31 Operating Profit 936.35 29.52 -2.14 Income/Expenses Tax On Extraordinary Items -----Net Extra Ordinary -----Income/Expenses Gross Profit 1.20 PBDT 1.52 4.786.22 Profit On Sale Of Assets -----Profit On Sale Of -----Investments Gain/Loss On Foreign -----Exchange VRS Adjustment -----Other Extraordinary -----Income/Expenses Total Extraordinary --916.266.699.68 Prior Years Income/Expenses -----Depreciation for Previous -----55 .Book Value(Rs) Equity Reserves Face Value(Rs) -58.69 Depreciation 100.448.80 612.09 3.53 Other Income 258.271.937.21.338.848.36 2.96 3.56 Net Profit 702.069.88 3.273.47 3.45 Depreciation On Revaluation -----Of Assets PBT 1.483.00 2.18.99 121.32 2.02 24.67 639.83 23.109.458.75 16.067.28 28.52 3.20 143.345.00 NINE MONTHLY RESULT: Larsen and Toubro Nine Months ------------------.06 20.60 16.142.80 204.206.60 72.13 3.90 14.778.167.43 790.617.00 --120.33 849.701.702.085.387.393.109.035.50 23.85 2.24 Tax 364.351. ------------------Dec '06 Dec '07 Dec '08 Dec '09 Dec '10 Sales Turnover 11.15 25.688.684.723.819.

832.00 ---48.80 505.596.018.37 -2.174.in Rs.37 6.926.57 34.55 5.367.069.402.666.93 2.725.66 3.33 1.37 37.00 YEARLY RESULTS: Larsen and Toubro Yearly Results ------------------.62 350.31 6.23 --3.15 37.43 647.42 -117.56 -2.099.91 462.53 32.63 3.80 43.282.817.03 -56.622.22 5.Years Written Back/ Provided Dividend Dividend Tax Dividend (%) Earnings Per Share Book Value Equity Reserves Face Value ---25.746.91 --6. ------------------- Mar '07 Sales Turnover Other Income Total Income Total Expenses Operating Profit Profit On Sale Of Assets Profit On Sale Of Investments Gain/Loss On Foreign Exchange VRS Adjustment Other Extraordinary Income/Expenses Total Extraordinary Income/Expenses Tax On Extraordinary Items Net Extra Ordinary Income/Expenses Gross Profit Interest PBDT Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10 Mar '11 17.87 739.70 33.194.83 33.90 ----87.07 -2. Cr.945.208.30 22.040.442.50 --5.034.814.29 587.041.07 56 ----772.46 --4.430.13 25.94 -120.00 ---37.502.84 24.50 122.78 910.219.05 45.11 -2.00 ---41.578.854.07 30.05 -2.86 ----1.904.00 ---42.210.54 2.76 15.35 -58.99 ----332.84 4.25 38.85 18.38 -121.856.815.58 ------------2.25 1.97 .

86 3.470.66 65.142.47 117.00 2.44 602195408 2 120.22 -5.89 --- ------------74.75 58.47 57 .87 1.01 ----58.317.155.00 211.231.87 1.47 982.44 214.66 --- 414.65 5.481.702.957.77 9.00 2.02 -----49.903.403. cr) ---PAIDUPAuthorised Issued Shares (nos) Face Value Capital 214.173.75 120.640.71 12.00 2.21 3.60 -6.53 -56.Depreciation Depreciation On Revaluation Of Assets PBT Tax Net Profit Prior Years Income/Expenses Depreciation for Previous Years Written Back/ Provided Dividend Dividend Tax Dividend (%) Earnings Per Share Book Value Equity Reserves Face Value 170.712.14 120.44 121.36 2.75 117.00 CAPITAL STRUCTURE: Larsen and Toubro Capital Structure Period Instrument From To 2009 2010 Equity Share 2008 2009 Equity Share 2007 2008 Equity Share --.CAPITAL (Rs.683.14 585687862 2 117.01 -2.42 --- 305.016.99 -4.89 601.82 21.945.96 18.47 292327390 2 58.52 --- 599.004.75 1.60 -3.05 2.44 72.85 2.14 214.375.87 4.34 59.39 1.

75 214.99 51.75 214.63 2.42 11.75 51.75 214.02 23.8 4.8 0.75 214.65 1.75 214.5 0.75 115 80 74.48 209.75 214.99 27.75 214.4 0.55 0.75 214.75 211.83 8.45 5.24 129.75 214.08 24.65 1.8 58 56.45 0.5 0.8 1.75 214.5 8.07 14.35 0.8 0.75 214.94 129.35 0.88 214.99 32.42 11.75 214.75 214.99 3.52 3.83 28.75 214.48 25.64 1.98 74.75 214.75 214.75 214.07 14.83 38.52 3.75 214.88 214.75 214.8 0.75 214.32 283270748 137385777 129924182 124401796 248668756 248660346 248650346 248545098 248516393 248502885 248488155 248472703 228798916 211481630 209943247 129613652 75419968 68084408 60748844 51993354 51993354 27079675 24019714 23065344 14415840 11532672 7453395 5962716 4517209 3993000 3630000 2640000 1650000 1100000 800000 600000 500000 450000 400000 350000 320000 2 2 2 2 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 56.53 7.45 5.75 214.5 24.75 214.99 51.75 214.6 0.5 8.32 .8 1.42 68.8 0.75 214.8 0.75 214.61 75.8 1.6 0.08 60.65 27.96 4.75 214.64 1.99 3.24 213.61 75.8 0.75 213.75 214.2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1987 1986 1985 1984 1982 1981 1979 1978 1975 1973 1972 1969 1967 1964 1962 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1950 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1987 1986 1985 1984 1982 1981 1979 1978 1975 1973 1972 1969 1967 1964 1962 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share Equity Share 214.08 60.98 74.98 24.8 2.83 18.53 7.75 51.65 27.1 0.8 0.4 0.98 24.63 2.96 4.75 214.8 0.98 38.1 0.75 214.5 4.42 68.75 214.83 13.02 23.75 214.48 25.

42 612.77 622.21 9.69 Adjusted Net Profit 5.72 29.56 11.28 Quick Ratio 1.66 Revaluations Return on Assets Including 7.93 0.72 578.30 203.86 0.50 70.87 326.44 24.21 11.39 202.63 8.00 12.92 (Rs) Net Operating Profit Per 1.00 71.81 21.40 Adjusted Cash Margin(%) 6.56 22.14 27.26 294.53 Mar '10 2.78 8.78 12.38 Mar '09 2.66 23.00 110.075.36 Mar '08 2.15 55.74 74.73 Tax Margin(%) Gross Profit Margin(%) 9.28 303.72 22.74 7.95 16.39 8.29 32.09 0.67 13.19 185000 10 0.73 25.91 197.21 325.77 12.in Rs.00 13.54 8.41 12.14 Net Profit Margin(%) 6.00 Operating Profit Per Share 92.50 84. Cr.00 Dividend Per Share 22.21 76.19 1.00 10.37 .19 1.60 7.24 8.34 13.00 17.06 205.52 10.97 0.78 8.43 Margin(%) Return On Capital 24.68 Revaluations Return on Long Term 26.50 10.50 8.98 11.76 28.36 319.19 FINANCIAL RATIOS: Larsen and Toubro Key Financial Ratios ------------------.06 24.16 0.14 11.82 24.44 11.62 1.40 Profitability Ratios Operating Profit Margin(%) 8.99 21.1946 1950 Equity Share 0.63 Profit Before Interest And 7.59 1.06 10.90 Worth(%) Return on Assets Excluding 7.74 9.49 23.23 11.95 Adjusted Return on Net 17.15 0.54 26.03 Debt Equity Ratio 0.32 59 Mar '07 2.97 12.81 303.21 212.81 853.71 12.46 Bonus in Equity Capital 12. ------------------Mar '06 Investment Valuation Ratios Face Value 2.19 8.8 0.73 1.82 Cash Profit Margin(%) 7.22 0.31 212.15 Funds(%) Liquidity And Solvency Ratios Current Ratio 1.09 53.58 Share (Rs) Free Reserves Per Share (Rs) 324.88 Employed(%) Return On Net Worth(%) 21.

61 Mar '08 74.01 54.07 30.06 21.09 0.66 2.23 1.01 3.29 23.51 44.67 .03 3.32 5.05 5.11 9.58 18.23 38.28 28.35 5.89 1.21 34.09 39.83 18.36 7.72 18.73 5.42 6.95 11.45 2.36 0.52 2.27 6.84 3.50 33.13 21.72 74.22 26.45 19.40 1.56 51.81 28.05 62.67 4.20 1.97 69.25 11.96 71.09 5.88 6.20 32.11 4.33 11.80 6.67 0.79 58.05 30.92 6.02 59.53 60 26.15 30.28 22.78 1.72 6.25 25.57 Mar '06 30.03 4.53 6.62 34.33 Mar '07 49.73 3.92 21.28 1.48 5.57 0.54 49.75 6.50 0.21 37.91 75.14 5.81 1.09 34.56 0.84 75.37 6.17 0.09 27.70 0.52 5.01 71.89 6.38 7.52 45.35 20.92 6.15 49.00 6.43 0.23 Mar '09 59.93 62.41 5.92 72.00 3.45 6.04 26.34 0.32 3.Long Term Debt Equity Ratio Debt Coverage Ratios Interest Cover Total Debt to Owners Fund Financial Charges Coverage Ratio Financial Charges Coverage Ratio Post Tax Management Efficiency Ratios Inventory Turnover Ratio Debtors Turnover Ratio Investments Turnover Ratio Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio Total Assets Turnover Ratio Asset Turnover Ratio Average Raw Material Holding Average Finished Goods Held Number of Days In Working Capital Profit & Loss Account Ratios Material Cost Composition Imported Composition of Raw Materials Consumed Selling Distribution Cost Composition Expenses as Composition of Total Sales Cash Flow Indicator Ratios Dividend Payout Ratio Net Profit Dividend Payout Ratio Cash Profit Earning Retention Ratio Cash Earning Retention Ratio AdjustedCash Flow Times 0.95 1.44 13.25 1.06 33.95 Mar '10 72.07 0.37 6.09 1.66 Earnings Per Share 73.01 6.48 6.48 28.85 72.

65 325.98 212.32 303.28 61 .61 202.Book Value 335.

10 1.50 122.83 212.05 2.71 73.722.476.238.890.19 565.41 6.11 62 .27 6.20 -1.367.85 1.88 424.00 -3.80 455.634.286.52 402.58 -0.556.114.29 0.90 12.00 75.26 24.695.30 20.97 103.65 512.74 1.10 3.79 4.58 305.00 313.90 398.36 225.664.30 871.18 1.25 129.09 7.90 454.17 61.05 65.275.00 517.11 213.20 1.45 388.00 88.80 210.76 382.64 1.00 52 wk High 2.80 252.511.00 118.05 1.20 86.632.333.47 -0.375.97 2.00 136.65 5.95 3.MARKET CAPITALISATION: Company Name Larsen BHEL Suzlon Energy BGR Energy AIA Engineering Alfa Laval BEML Praj Industries Tecpro Systems Elecon Eng CMI FPE Shriram EPC Sanghvi Movers Walchandnagar TIL TRF Action Const Disa India Gujarat Apollo Kabra Extrusion GMM Pfaudler Eimco Elecon UB Engineering Kilburn Eng Windsor Int Combustion Josts Engineers Skyline Millars ATV Projects Cranex Sterling Strips Last Price 1.00 427.45 1.00 239.35 427.15 173.55 86.00 467.94 54.00 6.05 52.10 69.00 1.21 -0.95 599.40 74.40 0.10 94.00 228.25 -0. cr) Low 1.10 14.25 0.00 3.22 0.23 46.05 970.05 248.30 648.50 107.212.22 0.80 2.11 -0.00 264.20 52.01 42.50 60.00 80.80 11.78 3.806.27 0.00 104.16 0.96 103.00 156.01 59.79 0.91 1.00 221.496.04 0.75 493.90 434.00 66.980.00 1.95 12.95 103.09 -0.40 106.30 124.16 -0.00 2.80 37.933.02 1.80 237.30 4.80 136.43 295.62 58.26 -0.52 -1.00 2.33 -0.00 601.26 3.00 3.487.00 435.40 750.03 3.70 133.50 11.05 368.28 0.00 34.270.18 3.90 54.40 89.00 479.60 % Chg 1.70 1.90 1.25 103.50 136.702.00 2.98 52 wk Market Cap (Rs.80 9.00 246.40 123.35 421.55 1.00 68.75 46.00 635.475.

114.78 0.79 24.70 3.36 77.05 1.05 2.97 -0.90 54.286.98 649.60 Change 21.55 388.75 2.504.69 194.05 -0.00 -1.40 237.29 0.85 1.22 -0.30 3.05 -0.57 1.00 0.00 -0.069.55 17.27 0.27 2.855.25 3.00 69.93 1.20 0.28 526.NET SALES: Company Name Larsen BHEL Suzlon Energy BGR Energy BEML Tecpro Systems Shriram EPC Elecon Eng Alfa Laval TIL AIA Engineering TRF Praj Industries UB Engineering Action Const CMI FPE Sanghvi Movers Windsor Gujarat Apollo Kabra Extrusion Eimco Elecon GMM Pfaudler Disa India Int Combustion Kilburn Eng Josts Engineers ATV Projects Skyline Millars Cranex Sterling Strips Last Price 1.80 118.81 162.09 7.226.55 -1.22 0.00 106.21 -1.28 -0.454.722.10 -3.39 0.58 2.45 368.25 4.80 429.16 6.90 331.00 Net Sales (Rs.75 493.870.05 20.05 599.45 0.70 -0.80 1.70 -0.045.25 2.64 387.95 602.80 6.511.00 3.16 0.487.00 -0.03 11.25 63 .34 3.79 -3.00 3.20 0.84 1.80 133.75 0.95 434.99 88.20 52.40 0.52 7.19 33.80 0.25 -3.00 6.22 -0.53 209.91 1.26 -0.80 1.05 455.00 % Change 1.15 201.52 -1.10 136.48 107.85 -0.05 46.40 32.75 74.10 837.31 154.66 18.00 1.25 0. cr) 36.90 -0.00 80.04 -0.70 252.47 -0.87 96.50 22.55 11.71 803.45 0.30 0.11 -0.15 0.80 65.09 -0.55 832.40 264.933.50 52.70 5.

43 139.52 -0.55 % Chg 1.70 0.70 1.30 0.933.40 1.55 17.96 1.05 54.80 106.00 -3.90 46.16 -0.05 -0.00 -0.18 47.07 108.45 136.NET PROFIT: Company Name Larsen BHEL BEML BGR Energy AIA Engineering Praj Industries Tecpro Systems Alfa Laval Sanghvi Movers Elecon Eng TRF TIL Shriram EPC UB Engineering CMI FPE Gujarat Apollo Action Const Kabra Extrusion Disa India Windsor Eimco Elecon Int Combustion GMM Pfaudler ATV Projects Josts Engineers Kilburn Eng Skyline Millars Sterling Strips Cranex Suzlon Energy Last Price 1. cr) 4.00 1.20 -1.05 1.14 798.64 222.70 -0.11 1.80 0.21 2.87 32.27 0.18 46.85 388.74 917.66 170.52 4.40 -1.28 141.04 0.05 368.22 0.16 12.27 0.89 110.80 11.58 0.11 -0.86 44.70 52.79 0.12 90.508.40 1.375.722.05 6.072.26 0.21 2.71 273.36 1.16 0.05 5.20 52.22 0.50 69.91 -0.310.09 509.31 4.49 16.56 113.16 10.42 344.75 599.550.29 2.28 0.39 0.00 -0.09 879.00 20.55 -0.68 278.20 599.45 -1.00 1.10 -0.88 847.70 2.02 163.90 0.511.03 7.50 69.29 -1.66 25.60 11.74 4.47 6.00 3.10 13.05 Net Profit (Rs.55 % Change 1.80 0.91 10.85 -0.09 10.80 3.01 1.22 0.75 2.80 133.10 1.86 204.58 -0.09 2.10 857.05 136.579.186.70 0.44 21.722.25 11.93 24.45 32.939.78 5.09 TOTAL ASSETS: Company Name Larsen BHEL Suzlon Energy BEML BGR Energy Shriram EPC Sanghvi Movers Elecon Eng AIA Engineering Last Price 1.40 493.414.42 66.66 30.32 1.85 201.286.487.20 -0.34 17.00 4.09 52.24 0.85 368.30 6.45 .00 264.75 Change 21.80 237.72 -0.75 434.46 15.05 0.28 0.75 6.40 4.27 745.68 27.933.06 4.27 0.00 80.21 2.96 11.55 74.40 493.25 3.355.38 13.04 0.97 -0.235.633.97 64 Gross Net Total CWIP Block Block Assets 7.00 -0.00 118.22 -1.05 0.80 455.47 -0.95 118.02 122.15 -3.00 252.045.25 -0.91 1.70 -0.29 26.00 -3.61 944.00 65.414.112.78 3.052.69 1.

69 201.22 -0.61 9.03 0.70 3.09 51.92 47.17 1.88 422.53 91.Tecpro Systems Praj Industries Alfa Laval TRF TIL ATV Projects Action Const Gujarat Apollo UB Engineering Eimco Elecon CMI FPE Kilburn Eng Kabra Extrusion GMM Pfaudler Int Combustion Disa India Skyline Millars Cranex Josts Engineers Sterling Strips Windsor 264.90 1.52 0.26 -0.42 96.13 1.80 -1.54 72.40 4.77 0.29 -0.76 1.01 0.29 397.74 19.90 80.80 65.63 137.49 0.286.93 71.00 -0.71 189.23 315.23 16.69 295.00 2.09 2.92 20.05 237.00 7.05 19.00 3.29 28.78 0.01 47.03 11.26 0.07 88.00 0.511.97 48.09 181.90 11.31 39.25 3.00 2.47 -0.54 0.81 107.73 173.54 240.05 54.53 62.00 -15.13 61.18 93.80 46.11 3.10 74.85 65 .75 434.14 113.65 1.26 1.38 55.00 633.78 1.60 52.30 95.00 -0.50 28.16 -0.25 -1.41 13.95 388.27 6.00 0.17 3.36 13.487.70 6.08 12.48 4.95 7.09 455.18 30.30 0.00 1.05 133.73 35.95 74.48 140.01 10.80 -0.01 228.47 109.53 62.26 531.11 11.80 0.80 1.09 48.16 0.40 106.19 55.59 34.30 107.49 163.79 -3.49 27.45 3.80 191.00 1.70 73.00 1.97 8.20 2.80 252.09 136.

In cr.346.55 2009-10 26.484.311.01 3586.752.106. In year 2005-06 66 .74 2005-06 9.362.211.6 8. This company net working capital is continue increase and to the present level is good.60 2007-08 16.948.77 6902.) 2008-09 23.443.04 3378.59 11.NET WORKING CAPITAL SIZE Net Working Capital Size Years Current Assets Current Liabilities Net working capital 6.892.51 Observations:It was observed that major source of liquidity problem is not the mismatch between current payments and current receipts from the Comparison of funds flow statements of AIL for five years.04 8541. The growth in working capital is a clear indication that the company does not utilizing its short term resources with efficiency.64 2006-07 11.51 19.88 (Rs.75 4419.13 15.

50 9. It means that current assets are liquid assets or assets which can convert in to cash within a year.662. Current Assets Size Particulars Inventories Sundry Debtors Cash and Bank Balance Loans and Advances Total C.001.061.415.484.60 110 3. In Cr.948.64 7.210.198.10 16.305.55 150 12.365.68 779.91 (Rs.27 2006-07 3.88 130 398.311.752.55 26.) 2008-09 5.449.13 1.055.05 10. Fixed assets are in the nature of long term or life time for the organization.71 993.14 2007-08 4.14 11.51 170 67 .89 7.37 11.A.814.861.104.346.805.85 23.64 100 2.52 2009-10 1.6 and after 3 years it increasing and 200910 the company net working capital was 6902.16 5. Current assets convert in the cash in the period of one year.01 2005-06 2. Indices 2.74 CURRENT ASSETS Total assets are basically classified in two parts as fixed assets and current assets.the company net working capital was 3378.86 4.504.163.70 693.

it may adversely affects 68 . The excess of current assets is showing positive liquidity position of the firm but it is not always good because excess current assets then required.TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS: Observations:It was observed that the size of current assets is increasing with increases in the sales.

Current assets include some funds investments for which company pay interest.121.14 110 2007-08 11.01 1.443. 2005-06 6.5 69 .13 145. In Cr.277. It includes sundry creditor’s means supplier whose payment is due but not paid yet.188.42 13. thus creditors called as current liabilities.106.) 2008-09 15. Current liabilities also includes bank overdraft. Current liabilities also include short term loan and provision as tax provision.892.632.04 1.75 2.015.211.928.36 21. company has to pay interest thus the management of current liabilities has importance Net Current Liabilities Size Particulars Current Liabilities Provisions Total of B Indices of C.on profitability.04 3.17 125 (Rs.035.41 100 2006-07 8.542.180.53 18. For some current assets like bank overdrafts and short term loan.57 138 2009-10 19. CURRENT LIABILITIES Current liabilities mean the liabilities which have to pay in current year.77 2.L.362.066.13 9.37 7.

70 .

Changes in seasonality in sales activities 2. It increases the working capital size in the same year.13. To get maximum credit from supplier which is profitable to the company it reduces the need of working capital of firm. Cyclical changes in economy dealing to ups and downs in business activity will influence the level of working capital both permanent and temporary.Observations:Current liabilities show continues growth each year because company creates the credit in the market by good transaction. 1.632. Policy changes The second major case of changes in the level of working capital is because of policy changes initiated by management. As a current liability increase in the year 2009-10 by 21. And company enjoyed over creditors which may include indirect cost of credit terms.g. CHANGES IN WORKING CAPITAL There are so many reasons to changes in working capital as follow 1. Changes in sales and operating expanses The changes in sales and operating expenses may be due to three reasons • • • There may be long run trend of change e. Technology changes 71 . The term current assets policy may be defined as the relationship between current assets and sales volume. The price of row material say oil may constantly raise necessity the holding of large inventory.

57 W.13 1.188.C Total 5.474.216.C Increase Decrease Inventories Sundry Debtors Cash and Bank Balance 5.632.108.55 15.04 3.066.52 693.662.05 10.198.37 11.714.51 1.055.55 26.70 1.752.13 4.70 4.38 5.948.163.17 Total of B 18.948.53 19.89 12.) Statement of Changes in Working Capital Particular A)Current Assets 2008-09 2009-10 Changes in W.232.68 Loans and Advances Total A B)Current Liabilities Current Liabilities Provisions 7.805. In Cr.The third major point if changes in working our business more working capital is required A change in operating expenses rise or full will have similar effects on the levels of working following working capital statement is prepared capital are changes in technology because changes in technology to install that technology in on the base of balance sheet of last two year Changes in Working Capital (Rs.76 5.415.389.211.104.73 878.443.37 11.85 23.77 2.52 4.277.C (A-B) Net increase in W.18 411.216.36 21.98 5.346.37 72 .463.52 11.

11 4419.6 4.WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO It signifies that for an amount of sales.13 5. If any increase in sales contemplated working capital should be adequate and thus this ratio helps management to maintain the adequate level of working capital.59 4.95 3378.51 3.9197956 2007-08 24946. Working Capital Turnover Ratio= ____Sales___ Net Working Capital Working Capital Turnover Particular Sales Net working capital W. The ratio measures the efficiency with which the working capital is being used by a firm.74 5.C Turnover Ratio 2005-06 14776. It may thus computer net working capital turnover by dividing sales by working capital.3484725 73 .) 2008-09 33856. In cr.6450274 (Rs. a relative amount of working capital is needed.54 8541.19 6902.9637651 2009-10 36870.29 3586.3736902 2006-07 17645.

54 23. cash in hand or bank. marketable securities. In Cr.29 11. A higher ratio implies a more efficient use of funds thus high turnover ratio indicate to reduced the lock up of funds in current assets.948.346.752. except for the year 2006-07 In the year 200910 the ratio was around 5.557987441 17645.95 9. Current Assets Turnover Ratio= ____Sales_____ Current Assets Calculation of Current Assets Turnover Ratio (Rs.42538548 5 36870.current assets includes the assets like inventories. bills receivable.52932157 4 33856.88 1. An analysis of this ratio over a period of time reflects working capital management of a firm.484.60 1.64 1.11 16. This ratio includes the efficiency with which current assets turn into sales.476766316 24946.) Particular Sales Current Assets Current Assets Turnover Ratio 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 14776. CURRENT ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO Current assets turnover ratio is calculate to know the firms efficiency of utilizing the current assets .19 26. sundry debtors.51 1.399433549 74 . prepaid expenses and short term loans and advances.Observations:High working capital ratio indicates the capability of the organization to achieve maximum sales with the minimum investment in working capital.311.55 1.34. it indicates that the capability of the company to achieve maximum sales with the minimum investment in working capital. Company working capital ratio shows mostly more than 3.

Turnover ratio was 1. thus current assets turnover ratio not increased.4767 in the year 2006-07.Current Assets Turnover Ratio Observations It was observed that current assets turnover ratio does not indicate any trend over the period of time. Company increased its sales with increased investment in current assets.55 in the year 2000-06 and decrease to 1. 75 .

77 1. Current liabilities include creditors. bills payable accrued expenses.355 Current Assets Current Liabilities Current Ratio 76 . All obligations within a year are include in current liabilities.311.04 1.56 2009-10 26.362. Current Ratio ( Rs.04 1.51 19.211.CURRENT RATIO The current is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities: Current Ratio = ___Current assets__ Current liabilities Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities Or Current Assets : Current Liabilities Current assets include cash and those assets which can be converted in to cash within a year. debtors and inventories.55 15.5 2006-07 11. In Cr.64 6. short term bank loan income tax liabilities and long term debt maturing in the current year.75 1.88 11. Current ratio indicates the availability of current assets in rupees for every rupee of current liability.443.01 1.752.346.42 2007-08 16.948.60 8.) Particular 2005-06 9.892.37 2008-09 23. such marketable securities.106.484.

355. A higher ratio indicates that there were sufficient assets available with the organization which can be converted in cash.Observations: The current ratio indicates the availability of funds to payment of current liabilities in the form of current assets. 77 . but regularly decreases. It is very high 1.56 in 2008-09. In 2009-10 it comes at 1. without any reduction in the value.

04 0.59 19.65 15. In Cr.211.77 0.77 2007-08 8.362.32 8.85 2006-07 6.01 0.QUICK RATIO Quick ratio is also known as acid test ratio or liquid ratios it is more rigorous test of liquidity than the current ratio.144.892. It establishes relationship between liquid assets & current liabilities.7 2009-10 12.87 6.75 0.87 11. Quick ratio = Quick assets current liabilities ( Rs.443.212.04 0.63 Quick Assets Current Liabilities Quick Ratio 78 . An asset is said to be liquid if it can be converted into cash within a shorter period without loss of value.68 2008-09 10.106.498.) Particular 2005-06 5.268.748.

it indicates that the firm maintains the over liquid assets than actual requirement of such assets.47 61.48 52.99 58.For now.96 2009-10 6.) Particular 2005-06 1.57 27.29 2008-09 6.Observations:Quick ratio indicates that the company has sufficient liquid balance for the payment of current liabilities.67 2007-08 3. The liquid ratio of 1:1 is suppose to be standard or ideal but here ratio is more than 1:1 over the period of time.83 120.89 2006-07 2.077.583.46 Debt Equity Debt Equity Ratio 79 .65 36. In Cr.14 55.) Debt Equity Ratio = DEBT EQUITY ( Rs.453. you only need to know that the number can be found at the bottom of the balance sheet.75 56. [ DEBT EQUITY RATIO Definition: The Debt to Equity Ratio measures how much money a company should safely be able to borrow over long periods of time. Actually calculate the debt to equity ratio in segment two when we look at real balance sheets.44 56. It does this by comparing the company's total debt (including short term and long term obligations) and dividing it by the amount of owner's equity .556.800.03 117.

80 .Observations:The debt-equity ratio is normally defined as the long term debt divided by shareholders' equity. and free reserves and surplus with the company. which is the sum of the equity capital. A debt-equity ratio is also important for bond investors. any preference capital issued. since a highly leveraged company could face problems making interest payments.

increases form 2007-08 to 2008-09. 2. 1638.77 cr. Company’s current assets were always more than requirement it affect on profitability of the company.38 cr. Working capital increased because of increment in the current assets.6902. 81 . Rs.4122.6 in 2005-06 and 6902. The study of working capital management of L&T has revealed that the Net Working Capital was improving regularly from 3378.CHAPTER – 6 CONCLUSION AND MAJOR FINDS Conclusion Working capital management is important aspect of financial management. The current Assets of the company showed an increasing Rs.74 in 2009-10 which is as per standard industrial practice. Rs. 6902. Positive working capital indicates that company has the ability of payments of short terms liabilities. All calculation is showing positive working capital per year. current ratio.14 Cr. in 2009-10 it comes down to Rs. From 2005-06 to 2006-07. but in 2009-10 it stable at Rs. 1. Working capital of the company was increasing from year 207. 3524. 3.74 cr.99 cr. in year 2005-06 from 2009-10. It shows good liquidity position. and Change the working capital components which helped the company to manage its working capital efficiency and affectively. The study has been conducted on working capital ratio analysis.74 cr.

4.13 15.106.91 7.805.44 3.27 4.52 2.365.317.01 779. 5. The cash balance in the year 2009-10 was extremely increased.75 9.055. Major Findings Statement Showing Difference from Previous year:- Particular 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Investments Inventories Sundry Debtors Cash & Bank Balance Current Liabilities Reserve 1.04 4. Company failed to proper investment of available cash.26 4.104.583.05 10.85 6.86 11.814.263.470.68 8.32 3.04 12. The size of the cash in the current assets of the company indicates the miss cash management of the company.52 693.919.71 8.001.01 5.211.72 5.64 993.362.16 398.71 6.504.892.14 5.305.683. In the year 2008-09 and 2009-10 working capital decreased because increased of expenses as manufacturing expenses and increase the price of raw material.96 82 .922.210.

83 .

1. 2. Company has to take control on cash balance because cash is non earning assets and increase cost of funds. 3. because nonreachable due to their busy schedule. Company should raise it fund through short term sources for short term requirement of funds. Recommendation:Recommendation can be use by the firm for the betterment increased of the firm after study and analysis of project report on study and analysis of working capital. which are as follows: • The preparation and interpretation of data may not be 100% free from errors and may be affected by the Respondents based mindset to some extent. It is the major part of working capital of company. Company should increase the inventory holding period. • The study will be based on the balance sheet of the company and depends directly on balance sheet and annual reports of the company. 84 .CHAPTER – 7 RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATION Limitations:[ Even though every effort will be taken to minimize the variation and present a factual picture with the help of statistical methods. I would like to recommend. but still there are some limitations. • Sampling size of the targeted employees of L&T is small.

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