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Media Use in the Middle East: An Eight-Nation Survey - NU-Q

Media Use in the Middle East: An Eight-Nation Survey - NU-Q

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Published by Omar Chatriwala
Powerpoint highlighting Northwestern University in Qatar's new Arab Media Use survey. The survey was administered to around 10,000 respondents in Egypt, Tunisia, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates. Read Full Text
Powerpoint highlighting Northwestern University in Qatar's new Arab Media Use survey. The survey was administered to around 10,000 respondents in Egypt, Tunisia, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Lebanon, and the United Arab Emirates. Read Full Text

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Media Use in the Middle East: An Eight-Nation Survey

Northwestern University in Qatar

24 April 2013

1.0

Introduction & Key Findings

2

Key Findings
• Many respondents see improvement news reporting in the Arab World over the past two years. A majority of adults in six of the eight countries surveyed agree that the quality of reporting has improved. • Perceptions of news media credibility within individual countries vary widely. Saudi Arabia, Jordan and UAE are the most optimistic; Egypt, Lebanon and Tunisia less so. • Internet usage varies widely by country. Strongest usage in the Gulf countries – UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia; lowest usage in Egypt.

• Most respondents believe people should be able to express their opinions online, whatever those opinions may be. However…
• Majorities in Lebanon, KSA, Qatar and Tunisia would like to see tighter regulation of the Internet in their country. Those in Bahrain, Jordan and UAE have mixed opinions about regulation.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

3

Key Findings
• Social networking is near universal among those online and no other site comes close to Facebook. Many also use Twitter and Google+ in Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and UAE, less so in other countries.

• Al Jazeera is the most popular information source for news and current events across the region. Mentions of Al Jazeera vary by country, but a portion of people in every country surveyed name it unaided as a top source for news.
• Respondents in Egypt are less connected. While TV usage is strong, respondents show low usage of other media sources. • In most countries, TV trumps Internet as the most important source for news and current events. In Qatar, the Internet is a considerably more important source than TV. • In Qatar, Bahrain, Lebanon and UAE, respondents are more likely to access the Internet in English than Arabic.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

4

Methodology
Method Face-to-face survey conducted December 2012 - April 2013* General population sample, 18 years and older
QUOTAS TOTAL Response Rate National 751 1252 1044 848 1232 242 1150 313 6832 Arab Expat Asian Expat 98 206 153 23 290 297 1067 276 150 284 441 1151 Other 125 101 1 103 100 213 643

Audience

Bahrain Egypt Jordan*** KSA Lebanon Qatar** Tunisia UAE
TOTAL

1250 1252 1250 1252 1256 919 1250 1264
9693

83% 92% 75% 81% 70% 54% 21% 70%

* Survey conducted via telephone in Qatar. **Number of interviews to date. The final sample size will be 1250. ***197 respondents are Palestinian.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

5

4.0

Media Usage

6

Media Use
Highest internet penetration is in Gulf countries – UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and KSA – the countries with higher incomes, higher education levels and widest range of ethnic diversity. Highest usage of all media in Bahrain, lowest in Egypt.
% Use Medium

Watch TV
100% 98

Use the internet
99 89 90 82 84 66 63 53

Listen to radio
98 100

Read newspapers
99 82 99

Read magazines
98

Read books
99 91 80 80

87
68 66 46 48 37 22 24 25 7 10 14

80% 65 60% 60 54 61 59 58 51 36 35 34 60

70 52 40 31 29 30 24

50

40%

32 34

34

20% 3 0%

Average

Qatar

Bahrain

Egypt

Jordan

KSA

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q11. During a typical week, how many hours do you spend on the following activities not online? (Total minus „Do not spend time doing this activity/Don‟t know/Refused‟) Q14. Do you currently use the internet?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

7

Languages Used to Access the Internet
Those in Qatar, Bahrain, Lebanon and UAE are more likely to use the Internet in English than Arabic. In the other countries, at least one in four use the Internet in English. French is popular in Tunisia.

% Language Used
100% 80% 60% 40% 76 69 63 54 52

Arabic
96

English
98 77

French
97 85 79 66 51 38 64

71

24

25

28 12

20%
0%

12 3 Average Qatar 1 Bahrain Egypt 0 0 Jordan KSA 0

1 Lebanon Tunisia UAE

BASE: INTERNET USERS Q21. Which languages do you use to access media?: Internet

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013
8

5.0

Internet Usage

9

Use of Wireless Handheld Devices
In most countries, Internet users tend to have wireless access. The greatest disparity between Internet usage and usage of wireless handheld devices is in Tunisia.
Use Internet
100% 90 80% 79 82 78 82 75 69 60% 46 40% 22 32 26 58 53 AVG: 52% 60 AVG: 65%

Use Wireless Handheld Devices
91

20%
7 0% Qatar Bahrain Egypt Jordan KSA Lebanon Tunisia UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q14. Do you currently use the internet? Q26. Do you use the Internet through wireless handheld devices such as a mobile phone or tablet?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

10

Wireless Devices Used
Smart phones and laptops are popular in most countries; tablets are less prevalent. Qatar reports the highest level of tablet usage.

% Use Device
100% 80% 60% 40% 25 22 20% 0% 14

Smart phone
89

Laptop computer

Other cell phone

Tablet

82 82 71 65 58 47 40 34 28 32 25 16 7 1 7 10 6 18 43 34 37 72

74 75
68 58 54 67 52 44 32 52

Average

Qatar

Bahrain

Egypt

Jordan

KSA

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

BASE: USE WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES Q28. Which wireless handheld device(s) do you use?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

11

Use of Social Networking Sites
Almost everyone online uses social networking sites. Usage of these sites is lowest in Qatar.
% Use Social Networking Sites
100%
99 86 80% 74 94 96 98 94 95

AVG: 93%

60%

40%

20%

0%

Qatar 3.1

Bahrain 4.1

Egypt 3.3

Jordan 2.3

KSA 2.9

Lebanon 2.9

Tunisia 4.1

UAE 2.7 Hours Per Day Avg: 3.2

BASE: INTERNET USERS Q35. How much time in a typical day do you spend using social networking sites? (Total minus „Do not use social networking sites/Don‟t know/Refused‟)

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

12

Social Networking Sites Used
Nearly everyone is on Facebook. More than half in Bahrain, KSA and UAE are also on Twitter and Google+. Fewer use Instagram or LinkedIn.

Sites Used (%)
100%

Facebook

Twitter

Google+

Instagram

LinkedIn

80%

60%

40%

20%

0% Average Qatar Bahrain Egypt Jordan KSA Lebanon Tunisia UAE

BASE: USE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Q36. Which of the following social networking sites do you use?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

13

Online Transactions
Those in Gulf countries – Qatar, Bahrain, KSA and UAE – are more likely to complete transactions online. Fewer manage investments online.
% Do Activity at All
(Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Less than Monthly)
80%

Travel reservations/bookings Pay bills Invest in stocks/bonds

Use bank's online services Buy things online

60%

40%

20%

0% Average Qatar Bahrain Egypt Jordan KSA Lebanon Tunisia UAE

BASE: INTERNET USERS Q36A. Now I‟d like you to think about different transactions people do in their everyday lives like banking or shopping. How frequently do you use the Internet for the following purposes?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

14

6.0

Media Importance & Perceived Reliability

15

Importance of Medium for News & Current Events
TV, Internet and interpersonal sources are most important for news and current events.

% Very Important/ Important
100% 84 80% 65 60% 40% 53 58 48 48 37 73 72 60

TV

Internet

Newspapers
96 92 84 78

Radio
89 72

Interpersonal Sources
87 77 69 57 49 51 46 28 69 68

84 85 73 59

81

84 64

82 72 55

79

61 62 62

65 56

22 23

20%
0%

14

Average

Qatar

Bahrain

Egypt

Jordan

KSA

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q18. For news and current events, how important is each of the following to you as a source? Use the following scale: 1=Not important at all, 2=Not important, 3=Neutral/Undecided, 4=Important, 5=Very Important.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

16

Perceived Reliability of Information by Medium
The majority in UAE find all sources reliable. Those in Egypt and Tunisia are less likely to find the Internet, newspapers and radio reliable. Those in Tunisia also do not find TV reliable.

% All or Most Are Reliable
100%
80% 60% 40%

TV

Internet
93 73 65 89 77

Newspapers

Radio

85 78 61 63 65 54 41 40 42 32 25 74 71

70 54

65

70

56
47 49

52

49

56 54
44

59

55

20% 0% Average Qatar Bahrain

17 17 16

13

Egypt

Jordan

KSA

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q20. How much of the information from the following sources do you feel is generally reliable? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means none of it is reliable and “5” means that all of it is reliable.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

17

Freedom of Expression on the Internet
Most respondents believe people should be able to express their opinions online, whatever those opinions may be.
It is okay for people to express their ideas on the Internet, even if they are unpopular (%)
100% 80%
61 60 63

Strongly Agree/Agree Strongly Disagree/Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Don't Know/Refused

48

57 76

61

57

65

60%
12

40%
19 16 18 16 18 3 Bahrain

11

24 11 8 15 6 3 KSA

20 14 5

23 22 12 8 10 3 UAE

20% 0%

12 9

29

6

Average

Qatar

Egypt

Jordan

Lebanon

Tunisia

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q38.2. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

18

Regulation of the Internet
Majorities in Lebanon, KSA, Qatar and Tunisia want tighter regulation of the Internet in their countries; those in Bahrain, Jordan and UAE have mixed opinions about regulation.
The Internet in my country should be more tightly regulated than it is now (%)
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Average
25 16 21 25 42 21 11 26 9 3 KSA 18 11 15 10 19

Strongly Agree/Agree Strongly Disagree/Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Don't Know/Refused

50

44 57

42

42 62 64

52

42

9 7 26 23 22 16 12 33

7

6

7

6

Qatar

Bahrain

Egypt

Jordan

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q38.8. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

19

9.0

Perceptions of News Media

20

Increase in Perceived Quality of News Reporting
Those in Jordan and KSA mostly believe the quality of news reporting in the Arab World has improved over the past two years; those in Lebanon and Tunisia are less likely to agree.

The Quality of News Reporting in the Arab World Has Improved Over the Past Two Years (%)
100% 80%
61 62 56

Strongly Agree/Agree Strongly Disagree/Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Don't Know/Refused

50

44

47 69

60% 40%
20 19 11 8 27 19 14

76

84 21

21

21

20% 0%
5 15 1 Bahrain

17 10 4 3 Jordan

29 11 4 1

29 3 Tunisia

22 3 6

6

Average

Qatar

Egypt

KSA

Lebanon

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q39A. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

21

Credibility of News Media
Those in Jordan , KSA and UAE mostly feel news media in their country are credible; Respondents in Egypt, Lebanon and Tunisia find their news media far less credible.

News Media in Your Country Are Credible (%)
100%

Strongly Agree/Agree Strongly Disagree/Disagree

Neither Agree nor Disagree Don't Know/Refused

27

25

24

80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

48

53

52 67 35 74 63 32 31

27

25

28 33

23
7 4

40 18 8 1 KSA 4

44

26 7 4

22 4

16

18 2 Bahrain 5

6

Average

Qatar

Egypt

Jordan

Lebanon

1 Tunisia

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q39B. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Use a scale of 1 to 5 where “1” means strongly disagree and “5” means strongly agree. Remember that you can choose any number between 1 and 5.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

22

Local vs. International News
People are most interested in local and national news. Those in the Gulf countries – Qatar, Bahrain, KSA and UAE – favor regional and international more than respondents in the other countries.
% Follow Very Closely/Closely
100% 80 81 80% 83 75 67 58 59 53 59 54 51 37 32 17 78 77 80 78 72 63 66 56 49 34 37 32 63 67 67 55 52

Local News

National News

Regional News

International News

70
60%

74 65

73

43
40%

20%

0%

Average

Qatar

Bahrain

Egypt

Jordan

KSA

Lebanon

Tunisia

UAE

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q40. How closely would you say you follow each type of news and current events? 1=Not at all closely, 2=Somewhat closely, 3=Closely, 4=Very closely.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

23

10.0

Top News Outlets

24

Top News Outlets
Based on Top 3 Mentioned
Average of All Countries Qatar
Al Jazeera 38% Al Arabiya 12% BBC 6% The Times 5% AL Sharq 4% Google 4% Facebook 3% MBC 3% CNN 3% Al Rai 3% Geo news 3%

Al Jazeera is the top news source in the region overall, but in varying level by country.
Bahrain
Google 26% Bangla News 21% Geography 19% Al Bahrain forum 12% Facebook 11% MBC 11% Al Watan 10% Al Wasseet 10% BBC 8% Twitter 8% Al Jazeera 4%

Egypt
Al Hayat 23% Al Kanat Al Oula 23% CBC 21% Al Jazeera 20% Al Nahar 12% Al Fada'ia Al Masria 10% Dream 10% Al Mihwar 9% Al Nile Lil Akhbar 8% Al Akhbar 4%

Jordan
Al Jazeera 62% JTV Satellite 48% Al Arabiya 29% Al Haqiqah/ Al Dewaliah 26% Noor Al Ordon 23% MBC 10% Saraya 7% Jowssat 7% Al Rai 5% BBC 4%

AL Jazeera
Al Arabiya Facebook MBC LBC Google JTV Satellite Al Jadeed MTV mosaique

26% 16% 10% 8% 8% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5%

KSA
Al Arabiya 46% Al Jazeera 41% MBC 21% Al Ikhbariah 10% Panorama 6% Al Riyadia 5% Al Sharq Al Awsat 4% mbc fm 4% BBC 4% Twitter 3%

Lebanon
LBC 55% Al Jadeed 44% MTV 38% OTV 13% Al Manar 11% Future TV 10% Al Jazeera 7% Al Nahar 5% assafir 3% Al Arabiya 3%

Tunisia
Facebook 52% shams fm 37% hanabel 33% jsc 30% al sareh 16% Sayidaty 14% nesma 12% rtci radio 9% Al Jazeera 9% Al Arabiya 9%

UAE
Al Jazeera 28% Gulf news 21% Al Arabiya 19% Google 17% MBC 11% Facebook 10% Al Khaleej 9% Al Itihad Newspaper 8% ZEE NEWS 8% Abu Dhabi 8%

BASE: ALL RESPONDENTS Q41. Please list your top three sources for news and current events (news organizations) and specify the type of media outlet that each source belongs to.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

25

10.0

Drilling Down:
Exploring Qatar Data with an Interactive Site

26

Importance of Media Sources for News & Entertainment Qatar Only
Internet and interpersonal sources are of particular importance for news and current events among those from outside the region. Newspapers and radio tend not to be used for entertainment.

% Very Important/Important

TV

Internet

Newspapers

Radio

Interpersonal Sources

News & Current Events
100% 81 80% 65 60% 40% 20% 0% 56 43 39 58 61 72 58 69 80% 71 54 32 74 100%

Entertainment

76 62

72

77 68

79

49
39

49

51 29

60%
40% 20% 0%

27

29

35

38 38

Qatari Nationals

Arab/Asian Expats

Other Expats

Qatari Nationals

Arab/Asian Expats

Other Expats

BASE: ALL QATAR RESPONDENTS Q18. For news and current events, how important is each of the following to you as a source? Q19. For entertainment, how important is each of the following to you as a source? Use the following scale: 1=Not important at all, 2=Not important, 3=Neutral/Undecided, 4=Important, 5=Very Important.

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

27

Use of Media Sources – Qatar Only
Media usage is fairly similar across ethnic groups in Qatar.
– More expats from outside the region read newspapers and books. % Use Media Source

Watch TV
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Use the internet

Listen to radio

Read newspapers

Read magazines

Read books

87

86 68 64 49 33

90

91

89 66

92

61 52 31

67 59 46

64

Qatari Nationals

Arab/Asian Expats

Other Expats

BASE: ALL QATAR RESPONDENTS Q11. During a typical week, how many hours do you spend on the following activities not online? (Total minus „Do not spend time doing this activity/Don‟t know/Refused‟) Q14. Do you currently use the internet?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

28

Languages Used to Access Media - Qatar Only
While Qatari Nationals access all media in Arabic, about half also watch TV and access the Internet in English.
% Language Used
TV

Arabic

English
Internet
100

Newspaper

100% 80% 60%

97

91

92 79

97

92

56 45

51

56 48

53 50

40% 20% 0% 11 2 3

7

Qatari National

Arab/ Asian

Other

Qatari National

Arab/ Asian

Other

Qatari National

Arab/ Asian

Other

BASE: QATAR RESPONDENTS WHO USE MEDIA SOURCE Q21. Which languages do you use to access media?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

29

Who Is Online in Qatar?
Internet usage is higher among men and those who are younger (<45), more educated and employed.
Gender
Men Women 94% 83% Qatari National Arab/Asian Expat Other Expat 94% 93% 92% 74% Arabic

Nationality
86% 91% 92%

Age
18-24 25-34

Language
92% 89%

35-44
45+

English

Income
Top 50% 89% 93% Bottom 50%

Education
Primary or lower Intermediate Secondary University or higher 67% 61% 88%

Work
Employed Not Employed 94%

93%

78%

Student
Student Non-Student 92% 90%

BASE: ALL QATAR RESPONDENTS Q14. Do you currently use the internet?

ARAB MEDIA USAGE STUDY | APRIL 2013

30

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