TEACHING & LEARNING METHODS
Priyanka C. Bhatt M.Phil – I
Focusing on the goal of learning, various teaching methods can be adopted.
Effective teaching is that which produces beneficial and purposeful student learning through the use of appropriate procedures.
Effective teaching α Effective Learning
Teaching method : a particular way of organizing pedagogical activities knowingly implemented according to certain rules in order to make learner reach specific objectives.
Characteristics of a good method
Accurate and sincere Must rest upon a surplus regard for scientific accuracy
Good method must be artistic
Teacher should have a sure sense of the relevant and the irrelevant Good method must also relate itself to the experience of the students Successful method is not apparent; it is not easily described; it envelops teacher and students
Significance in Library and Information Science Education
Librarianship is a practice oriented discipline. It aims at bringing the information and the reader together. Attempts should be made to expose student to the practical work. There has been tremendous change in curriculum of LIS education due to various socio-economic and cultural development. This change has demanded a new knowledge and skills in the persons who are entering the profession and who are already in this profession.
Knowledge of computer technology Ability to continuously acquire new information. different insights and perspectives and skills. Ability to capture data from multiple sources and presenting it into usable format (for the ease of user)
.Knowledge and skills required
Depth knowledge of library and information science subject.
Knowledge of new systems and procedures that are necessary in fulfilling the customer needs. Knowledge of new information and communication technology Communication skills for establishing effective relations with customers. Ability to understand target user needs and expectations.Knowledge and skills required
Knowledge of distributing recorded information in open format that can be retrieved and played from any desktop without any special applications.
critical thinking.Need of the hour!
Increasing impact of information technology on libraries and information centers. methods are needed which could expose the students to knowledge and experiences helpful in the development of understanding. For the achievement of comprehensive objective of teaching library and information science. The library and information science teacher must be conversant with the theory and practices of different
. practical skills and interests. needs adoption of right methods of teaching.
TRADITIONAL TEACHING METHODS
Method Lecture cum discussion method Tutorial Method Seminar Method Project Method Brainstorming Method Case-study method
When objective is to communicate some basic facts. the lecture can be very useful teaching method. or some initial understanding about the field of study.
Various definitions of Lecture Method
“A Lecture is a talk or verbal presentation given by a lecturer.
Classroom lecture is a special form of communication in which voice. lecture method is still a backbone widely used in teaching and training. facial expression. With the advancement of training systems and ICT. gesture. material
can be covered in a structured manner and the teacher has a great control of time and material”. and eye contact compliment the content
. can be used for a large number of audience. This
method is economical. trainer or speaker to an audience.
human presence social events (rather than electronic media).
Various definitions of Lecture Method
Lectures are effective because they exploit the spontaneous human aptitude for spoken (rather than written) communication and because they are real-time.
explain all points Basic concepts could be understood It is a formal discourse intended for discussion
It is one of the oldest method of teaching An effective lecture will create good ideas in students’ mind Lecture method is ideal for large class Learn through listening Teacher provides all knowledge related to topic Teacher is experienced and has mastery on subject.
Limitations of Traditional Lecture Method
Traditional lecture is a one way communication. Teacher may not get feedback from all the students about the lecture Difficult to maintain student interest and attention Encourages students’ dependence on teacher
. Time limit for a student to grasp all the content delivered by a teacher is less.
Formal Lectures (traditional method) Informal Lectures (classroom interaction) Coordinate Lectures (participation from both teacher and student)
it becomes Lecture cum Discussion method It is a two way communication process Disseminate information and attain educational objective by promoting student learning Helps students to apply abstract ideas and think critically about what they are learning
.LECTURE CUM DISCUSSION METHOD
When traditional lecture method includes interaction from students.
moving from simple to different ideas.
. (thus stimulating the student interest slowly and gradually) Effectiveness of this method can be improved by use of visual aids and ICT usage. It is necessary for the teacher to arouse interest in the subject. The teacher should have a realistic idea of his/her own teaching ability and the learning capability of the students. Teacher should be aware of the need of the learner.LECTURE CUM DISCUSSION METHOD
The learner should meaningfully and willingly react to the stimuli of the teacher so that learning can take place. Teacher should be able to connect the new concepts with the previous knowledge. This will ensure good discussion after the lecture.
comments. views and difficulties in understanding any point or portion of the lecture Stimulates student’s interest and assessing their
.LECTURE CUM DISCUSSION METHOD
Main Features Encourages democratic environment in the class as it involves participation of both teachers and students Chance to share ideas It is a useful strategy in building an active verbal interaction between teacher & student Students can express their experiences.
LECTURE CUM DISCUSSION METHOD
Most useful for mature students All students may not get a chance to take part in discussion. If the teacher does not handle class situation effectively students can become in disciplined rather than participative. Interaction may take place only between a few of bright students of the class.
Tutorials provide an opportunity for discussion and interaction between students and teachers Tutorials are the mainstay of the academic system Tutors model the thinking
. and to give them an opportunity to discuss these ideas Highly interactive.TUTORIAL METHOD
Develop student’s ability to test ideas and evidence Students are able to link together what they have heard in lectures and what students have read in textbooks. and engages students in the subject content by way of analysis of the material being studied Provide the opportunity for contact between students. debate and critical reflection. promotes opportunity for discussion.
argue and clarify their understanding
. develop and voice opinions.TUTORIAL METHOD
Help students to review the material they have learned in lectures. develop their ideas and implement their learning though questions and problem-solving Give students a chance to ask questions.
role plays.TUTORIAL METHOD
Problem Based : focused on a problem that requires an answer. i. formal debates or other activities Mixed : combination of all the above types
. games. there are set questions to answer each week and the tutorial is based around these Issue Based : topics for general discussion Activity Based : involves presentations.e.
Interest and explanation Concern and respect for students and their learning Appropriate assessment and feedback Clear goals and intellectual challenge Independence. control and active engagement
An orderly discussion of important issues by a group of peers trying to figure out the meaning of what they read.SEMINAR METHOD
The aim of the seminar is an in-depth exploration of a specialized topic. critical analysis and communication skills. abilities for synthesis. They develop in the learner. The article and its concepts submitted in the seminar are analyzed and discussed through
To develop higher cognitive abilities.
. To acquire the good manners of putting questions and answering the questions of others effectively. To develop the ability to seek clarification and defend the ideas of others effectively.
25 minutes 4-6 people Specific amount of material A plan for the discussion Remainder are observers Teacher takes notes
Gives good motivation and learning experience Help to evaluate the learn-ability of learners. Regulate the creating and organizing of facts and information Dissemination and retrieval of information is scientifically managed. the group in smaller groups carries on the discussion
. Develop the questioning skills A seminar does not end in the premises after the completion of discussion. Develop the self reliance and self confidence.
The teacher must be resourceful (both in academic and administrative) in nature. Passive observation without interaction also make seminar dull and worthless.SEMINAR METHOD
Setting up of a seminar for every topic in the text is not feasible.
. The seminar themes must conform the learning experiences to be inculcated to the students This method found fit for higher learning only Implementation of this method for lower classes is cumbersome. Time management is some what difficult.
Sound and scientific method of educating the student.PROJECT METHOD
Good means of achieving the educational objectives Helps develop intellectual ability of the student.
Learn some research methodology
Apply in one project the different techniques which student may learn individually in separate subjects of the courses and perhaps dealt with by different teachers Realize that the various subjects student studies individually are together essential to achieve professional competence.
It keeps students busy. The teacher has more time for other class routines.
It encourages independent study and brings about new discoveries. Students acquire skills of investigation. Makes learning to be meaningful and encourages better understanding.
. books and other resources.g. Students may not be able to gather enough information if they are not guided.PROJECT METHOD
It may be difficult in the absence of research materials e. Time consuming. A student can copy somebody's work or hire someone to do the project for him or her. Students may veer off the topic. It does not take care of individual differences.
Webster’s dictionary defines it as “ To practice a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously contributed by it’s members.” It is a free-wheeling of ideas to
Free encouragement to contribute one’s ideas. without in any way editing them. Duration should be within an hour Atmosphere is to be strictly informal and no editing or organized methods to be followed for presentation of ideas Participants should be of equal rank and status and the composition of the group should change frequently All ideas that emanate from a brainstorming should be recorded faithfully.
. The size of group may be between 5 and 10 members. No need for selfevaluation or judgment.
Classification and indexing Design of an information retrieval thesaurus Design of an information system Formulation of a library policy Structuring of budget Library users’ problem analysis
Helps to analyze issues and improves perception and interpretations
. However.CASE-STUDY METHOD
In triggering innovative method Case studies cannot reflect all the complexities of real life situation. they can closely reflect the problem solving situations in each case. Activates creative faculties and formulate an action plan.
Universe of Knowledge
• Seminar • Lecture cum discussio n • Tutorial • Group Discussio n • Practical • Field Work
Library Manageme nt • Case Study • Role Playing • Simulatio n • Manage mentgame method
Classificati on & Cataloguin g
• Theory & Practice • Study of subjects • Learning rules by doing • Analysis • Discussion • Activity (actual handing)
Information Storage & Retrieval • Coordinat e lectures • Seminars • Laborator y approach • Project work • Case studies
• Clinical method • Prepararto ry work with reference tools • Find-out method • Discussion • Case study
ICT in Library & Information Centres • Computer Laborator y • Ict Based teaching methods
Teaching Individual papers through different methods
Teaching and learning methods for different learning aims
Disseminate up-todate knowledge • Lectures • Up-to-date textbooks • Reading lists • Hand-outs • Guest lectures • Use of exercises that require students find upto-date knowledge • Develop skills in using library and other learning resources • Directed private study • Open learning materials • Use of internet Develop capability to use ideas and information • Case studies • Practical • Work experience • Projects • Demonstrations • Group working • Simulations • Problem solving • Discussion and debates • Essay writing Develop student’s abitily to test ideas and evidence • Seminar and tutorials • Supervision • Presentation • Essays • Feedback on written work • Literature reviewing • Exam papers • Critical assessment • Peer assessment • Self-assessment Develop student.s abitlity to generate ideas and evidences • Research projects • Workshops on techniques of creative problem solving • Group work • Action learning • Lateral thinking • Brainstorming • Creative visualization • Problem solving Facilitate the personal development of students • Feedback • Action learning • Learning contracts • Role play • Experimental learning • Learning logs • structured experiences in groups • Reflective documents • Self assessment Develop the capacity of students to plan and manage own learning • Learning contracts • Projects • Action learning • Workshops • Reflective logs and diaries • Independent study • Dissertations • Work placement • Portfolio development
Information Technology on Teaching and Learning
Process in Library and Information Science
Impact of ICT on Education
ICT can be utilized as enricher for individual learners as well as mass education media. Differentiation of education and training with education being done by people and training by machines.
. Decentralization and informalization of the educational experience Privatization of educational enterprise New administrative networks New machine-coupled teaching strategies.
ICT Based Teaching Methods
Classroom Teaching Distance Teaching Online Teaching
• PowerPoint Presentations • Audio-Visual Aids • Computer Simulations (Instructional Programs)
• VideoTex • Teleconferencing • Computer Based Learning System
• Use of Internet • Forum Discussions • Blogs
A Teacher can elaborate a topic more interestingly with the help of Powerpoint slides A Student can prepare presentation of the topic s/he studied. thus increasing their presentational capabilities
.ICT based Teaching Methods
Classroom Teaching – Powerpoint Presentations Powerpoint presentations act as an addon to the understanding of the concept and presentation of the study.
audio tapes. or display graphics of the relevant topic These can help student grasp the
. videos.ICT based Teaching Methods
Classroom Teaching – Audio-Visual Aids Audio-visual aids help understand the concept of a topic with a practical approach and with better examples Few aids used in classroom teaching are : Filmstrips.
ICT based Teaching Methods
Classroom Teaching – Computer Simulations
systems of interest on a computer controlled laboratory type experiments could be run more economically and conveniently than setting up line runs.
. Can be used to project operational system development particularly at the experimental stages.
VideoTex Transmit general or specific information about courses. Deliver course materials Provide two-way interaction between students and teachers Enable learners to access remote databases through gateways Not time-dependent can learn at any time of his choice
.ICT based Teaching Methods
Distance Teaching . events and the best institution itself.
personal contact mediated by telecommunication system.ICT based Teaching Methods
Distance Teaching .
Increase educational flexibility. eliminate duplication of effort. and increase learner motivation.ICT based Teaching Methods
Distance Teaching – Computer Based Learning System
Learning (CAL) provide student with greater control over the learning process. Enable teachers to write the content of their programs and to define in advance the interaction to take place. cut down on overheads.
. Consists of tailor-made program. which gives flexibility to link various component ideas. The essence of interactive video is that it is a simple system and one need not have the problem or learning about the computer techniques.ICT based Teaching Methods
Distance Teaching – Interactive Video
Video disc systems + microcomputers Dynamic – can cope with continual change.
ICT based Teaching Methods
Online Teaching – Use of Internet
is being widely used as information gathering
source Tremendous amount of latest information can be found using internet Internet serves as a tool for updating information regarding a particular subject or topic to be taught
. one can find a blog of every subject field in variety of interesting presentations Blog is an interesting piece of updated knowledge where a student can find relevant information.ICT based Teaching Methods
Online Teaching – Blogs
are a form of website where we find information related to the similar topics Today.
ICT based Teaching Methods
Online Teaching – Forum Discussions
discussions can be thought of as a virtual discussions with subject experts or same ranking students on a particular topic on the web Student can also maintain his/her anonymity in the discussion thus sharing ideas without any fear of evaluation Forum discussions can also act as a tool for social
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