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Changes in Urban Infrastructure Responsible for Social Dislocation

Changes in Urban Infrastructure Responsible for Social Dislocation

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Changes in Urban Infrastructure Responsible for Social Dislocation
Changes in Urban Infrastructure Responsible for Social Dislocation

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Changes in Urban Infrastructure responsible for Social Dislocation
An insight into the positive and negative dimensions of dislocation and resettlement

Maitreyi | Dini | Shaik | Swati | Vyomkesh | Gobinda

Abstract
The issues pertaining to social dislocation and resettlement have been existing since a long time world wide. Many innovative approaches have been applied in the past and in current projects to enhance the quality of life of the resettlers. The mental trauma that one undergoes on relocation is definitely challenging. But, the government and authorities have an added responsibility of providing a better scope and opportunities for the persons affected. The discussion on which the seminar was based on was to understand the issues of persons having to resettle or are forcefully evicted by authorities for the benefit of a larger section of the population. The main question was to address if the benefit of a more is prime concern than the collective benefit of all. Urban Infrastructure forms an essential component of the city. It can also be regarded as a measure for the economic and social status of a city and thus governs the overall quality of life people of a city enjoy. The developments in the field of urban infrastructure touch all sections of the society. They affect certain sections positively and the others negatively. Any project is usually a compromise between the positive impacts and the negative impacts. The discussion was aimed at throwing light on the issues in relocation projects through various case studies, which could be explained on a positive note by the role of authorities and the current strategies being undertaken to enhance the situation of the settlers. Also positive impacts of the relocation projects have also been highlighted. It was observed that the success rate of relocation projects depended solely on the interests taken by the authorities and in managing the long time-bound process with complete care and supervision.

Keywords: Relocation, urban environment, infrastructure, urban sprawl, resettlement, displacement, displacement induced development, migration.

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Contents
1. Introduction 2. Casestudies for the topic 2.1 Relocation of slum areas: Yamuna Pushta 2.2 The resettlement colonies: bawana 2.3 High Spees Roads and Road Widening 2.4 New Roads 3. Casestudies against the topic 3.1 Resettlement at Shuikou Dam 3.2 Urban Infrastructure and transportation 3.3 Mumbai Urban Transport Resettlement 3.4 Hibei Shiman Highway Project 3.5 Urban Squatters and resettlement 3.6 resettlement through CSR 3.7 Road Construction at Mbinga 4. Migration: an after affect of changes in Infrastructure 5. Urban Sprawl 6. Management of Resettlement 7. Lessons Learnt 8. Development benefits whom – Debate 4 5 6 8 10 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 30 36

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Introduction
Each year, millions of persons are forcibly displaced by development projects, whether dams, roads, reservoirs or oil, gas and mining projects. While such projects can bring enormous benefits to society, they also impose costs, which are often borne by its poorest and most marginalized members..
In India, 2 percent of the total population had been displaced by development projects in the first forty years of the country’s independence. Of those displaced, however, 40 percent were tribal people though they comprise only 8 percent of the population. REASONS FOR DISPLACEMENT  water supply (dams, reservoirs, irrigation)  urban infrastructure  transportation (roads, highways, canals)  energy (mining, power plants, oil extraction, pipelines) CHARACTERISTICS  It is a profound socioeconomic and cultural disruption.  It breaks up living patterns and social continuity.  It dismantles existing modes of production,  It causes the impoverishment of many of those uprooted.  It threatens their cultural identity.  It increases the risks of epidemics and health problems.

Infrastructure development is of vital importance for the prosperity of a nation. All infrastructure projects require land and that land has to come from somewhere. However, it has to be acknowledged that the loss of a single human life or livelihood cannot be a justified cost for infrastructure development at the grandest scale imaginable.
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Relocation of slum areas : Yamuna Pushta
Yamuna Pushta is the Pushta (embankment) on both sides of the Yamuna River in Delhi, starting from the ITO bridge and up to the Salimgarh Fort. It has been a home to more than 100000 residents of slum population mostly domestic workers, rag pickers, rubbish scavengers, rickshaw drivers, vegetable sellers and street sweepers. Delhi slums were developed by the migrant populations who could not afford land in the city, encroached upon the riverbed. Important reason for their development right up to the Nizamuddin bridge in recent years was the availability of work opportunities in the vicinity

Picture (anticlockwise) : 1. Unhealthy environment of the Yamuna pushta 2. A barbar shop in the demolished Yamuna pushta area 3. Demolition of building for 2010 commonwealth beautification drive 4. Homeless people after demolition source: http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/south-asia/we-made-them-criminals-the-failureof-a-delhi-slum-relocation#ixzz2K9CikbFL http://www.Wikipedia.org

Many of these slums were being demolished in 2004, after court orders which were part of the beautification drive of the Government ahead of the 2010 Commonwealth Games and for creating a "green belt“. In this drive 1,000 slum clusters from Gautampurui-I and Koyla Basti of Yamuna Pushta were demolished, in all more than 18,000 slum clusters from both sides of the Yamuna river. As later studied revealed, the income of most of resettled residents decreased by 50 percent. Subsequently, an eight-lane express highway has been opened there in 2007, paving way for construction of the 2010 Commonwealth Games Village and beautification drive of the Yamuna banks prior to it. By October 2009, nearly 400,000 people from three large slum clusters, of Yamuna Pushta, Nanglamachi and Bhatti mines have been relocated

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The resettlement colonies: Bawana
It is located 40km away from Yamuna Pushta. It is one of the resettlement colonies where people were shifted. Most of them were the daily wage labourers and now they were shifted to a place from which is far away from the work place. A single route bus ferries people a couple of times a day. Going to work, going to Delhi where they used to live and work, takes hours just to go on three different buses and on top of that costs 50 rupees. They might make 200-300 rupees a day, but half would be used in transport, and then there are the hours spent coming and going. The relocation sites also lack schools. An estimated 15,000 in Bawana are younger than 8. The single public school has room for 3000 students. Sewage from the toilet blocks is released into the parks and the toilet blocks are not clean.

Broken sewage pipes and leaking water supply lines are creating havoc in the area. Nobody comes to clear the garbage and there are multiple families suffering from chronic diseases due to the prevailing conditions over there. Public distribution system for subsidized food and oil is absent for economically weaker section. Doctors are not available in the dispensary. There is one police station with 6 policemen for based 8 km away for support to the more than 100,000 residents. On the name of beautification of a city, people not only looses there houses but jobs. Time spent on travelling is more than the time spent on work, resulting in spending of more money on transportation rather than earning money. The people in the resettlement colonies not only loose there livelihood but also residing in poorer living conditions. Their income is less than 50% what they were getting earlier. A new Bawana industrial estate is proposed but at the time of resettlement there was no employment opportunity for people over there. These are the hazardous industries which were earlier inside Delhi and they are planning to make hazardous landfill site for the industrial over there.

Picture (clockwise): 1. Playground present in Bawana, used as a place for deposition of sewage water 2. deficient watersupplt system in Bawana #. Presence of dumping yard just outside Bawana. Source: http://www.indiatogether.org/2008/jun/ksh-sweptoff.html http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article3906451.ece?homepage=true http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article3906452.ece

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Voice of people
“When I was in Saraswati Vihar I could at least earn livelihood. Now more than 30 km away from where I used to work, it is impossible for me to travel there. I barely make any money, and the government refuses to issue an income certificate that would allow me to apply for a ration card, because the official there does not believe that I earn as little as Rs. 3,000 a month,” said Sati Ram, a resident. “The children should be playing in the park, but it is always flooded with filth. There are no garbage dumps and no one comes to clean, consequently we have people coming down with dengue, malaria and other diseases all the time. The broken sewage pipe is next to the drinking water pipeline, contaminating the water. Sometimes the water is so dirty; we cannot even use it for cleaning. We can see worms floating in it,” said Meena another resident. “When we landed here we were assured of a plot of land for construction of a house and basic amenities. And what we have is worse than what our slum cluster used to be,” Umesh, another resident.

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DAMS AS A CAUSE OF SOCIAL DISLOCATION

World Bank has acknowledged that though large dams constitute only 26.6 per cent of the total WB funded projects, the resulting displacement makes up 62.8 per cent of the total number of people displaced. India is the third largest dam building country and there are over 3600 large dams and more than 700 under construction. Project authorities do not consider the problems of displacement and rehabilitation as important parts of the project. The primary concerns are engineering specifications and electricity and irrigation benefits. In this event, concerned authorities seldom undertake detailed and systematic surveys of the population to be displaced. Despite the fact that the number of displaced persons since independence is more than thrice the number of population displaced by India’s partition, they are yet to enter into our national consciousness. (Source : Development Induced Displacement in India by Parshuram Ray) Narmada Bachao Andolan Narmada Bacha Andolan is a social movement consisting of tribal people, adivasis, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river, Gujrat, India It is the most powerful mass movement, started in 1985, against the construction of huge dam on the Narmada river. Movement started when the World Bank lent India $450 million for the Sardar Sarovar Project. Due to inter-state differences in implementing schemes and sharing of water, the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was constituted by the Government of India on October 6, 1969 to adjudicate over the water disputes. As per the Tribunal's decision, 30 major, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams, were granted approval for construction including raising the height of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The Narmada Valley Project has been in controversy right since its inception.

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DAMS AS A CAUSE OF SOCIAL DISLOCATION

The dispute has been with regard to sharing of benefits and costs between Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The project will entail large-scale exploitation of resources, submerging of an enormous area of 37,000 hectares of land including forests and agricultural. Another biggest problem apart from the environmental aspect is of displacement of as many as one million people, which has a large number of culturally diverse people and peasant communities. By 1987-88 Medha Patkar and other activists led campaigns in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and laid the foundations of what we know today as Narmada Bachao Andolan. Reasons for Public Discontent According to the Government, the Sardar Sarovar Project when completed will flood more than 37,000 hectares of forest and agricultural land, displacing more than a million people and destroying some of Indias most fertile land. According to Narmada Bachao Andolan approximately 85,000 families in all will be displaced by the completion of the project. Doubtful equivalent Shelter and compensation provision for all the displaced families. Problem is further aggravated by the fact that most of the displaced are from tribal group. Direct and indirect violence including harm and loss to life and property during the protest.

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ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA RELOCATION MASTER PLAN

An inadequate master plan, poor housing facilities, environmental problems, and shanty corners, among others, characterize urban centres of developing countries. In order to solve these problems and create a conducive environment for investment, government authorities tend to re-order urban space, which would require changes in urban land use. This process often causes the displacement (relocation and resettlement) of certain households, in most cases the powerless low income people. Addis Ababa has been witnessing major transformations as evidenced by phenomenal public and private investments since the 1990s. The strategic development framework of the City provides a ten-year (2001- 2010) policy and development direction. According to the Master Plan Revision Office of Addis Ababa, housing, upgrading, the development of inner city, construction of roads, establishment of industries and warehouses, and protection and development of the environment are the six priority strategic development goals to be achieved during the tenyear plan. The Impact of Resettlement Projects on Lowincome Households Weak inspection and reporting mechanism. Poor maintenance and lack of new facilities combined with rapid population growth has been causing water shortages. 26 % of the houses - and the majority of slumdwellers, have no toilet facility, and thus use rivers, ditches and open spaces. A shortage of water-supply, ensured that the same areas are used for public baths and washing.

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ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA RELOCATION MASTER PLAN

Political power in Ethiopia power has traditionally been highly centralized. Local governments have tended to be Representatives of the centre, rather than the local community. Community participation, decentralization, private public partnership, transparency, and accountability were thus not prevalent indicators of success. Monetary compensation for rehabilitation of the displaced people was insufficient because the replacement of housing and Income generating possibilities were not considered. The relocated population faced shortage of schools, uneven distribution, inconvenient location, inefficient management, lack of expansion area, and dilapidated school buildings due to lack of proper infrastructure and maintenance. Also, the land given in exchange and compensation to the relocated population has a low land value. Compensation was provided only to the male head members of the family.

(Sources : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narmada_B achao_Andolan Development Induced Displacement in India by Parshuram Ray http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/eas/summar y/v024/24.2.yntiso.html)

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High Speed Roads and Road Widening
A general growth pattern1. A connectivity to different distant settlements – single or double lane Highways. 2. All the villages/settlements/hamlets nearby gets benefitted with other infrastructures coming up near the highway. 3. City starts growing towards these settlements. 4. Population increases, no. of vehicles increases. 5. As a consequence, highways need to be widened and new High Speed Roads come into picture.

Damages it does to society when placed badly, which normally happens due to the pattern discussed earlier1. Slice communities in half 2. Peoples and properties that come in direct path of road projects are affected. 3. Disruption of livelihood, loss of accustomed travel paths and community linkages, air pollution due to plying vehicle and maintenance activities. 4. Any new roadways alignment cuts across hills and field inevitably a number of trees and the communities depended upon them get destroyed. 5. Cutoff waterfronts 6. Cutoff access to countryside 7. Create enormous noise Source : www.irc.org.in/ENU/knowledge/.../November%202011.pdf

High Speed Roads and Road Widening
Example of BangaloreThe author of the article Dasarathi GV talks about Sankey Road where line of trees were cut-down, destroyed High Point Police station and the Golf Course. He also talks about Hosur Road, Race Course Road and Bellary road. In each of the above examples road were widened from single to 2 or 3-lane, without getting the congestion during peak hours problem solved. Problem at Sankey Road was again considered and after building an under pass at the intersection, this was resolved. Source : http://www.slideshare.net/das_gv/bangalore-road-widening-road-to-nowhere

Bangalore Transportation Projects Impacted Communities Network (BATPIC Network) launched with an objective of pursuing urban transport projects that are socially just, economically viable, environmentally friendly and long lasting solutions. Their issues are: 1. The proposal to widen roads that was initially promoted by identifying 91 inner-city roads in 2004, is now enlisting a total of 216 roads and a bunch of signal free corridors. 2. Together, these projects involve a massive displacement of communities and the careless refashioning of core city areas.

High Speed Roads and Road Widening
3. 4. These are affecting thousands of businesses, homes, street vending spaces, trees and critical pedestrian and cycling zones in an adverse and illegal manner. 40 lakhs commuters in 5000 buses and 1 lakh autos occupy merely 2% of Bangalore city's road space. In contrast, 35 lakhs using private motor vehicles monopolise 90% of the city's road space.

Source: http://www.esgindia.org/education/community-outreach/press/bangalore-road-widening-and-other-urban.html

New Roads
NEW ROADS AND HUMAN HEALTH: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (American Public Health Association) A research by: Matt Egan, MPhil, PhD, Mark Petticrew, PhD, David Ogilvie, MPH, MFPHM, and Val Hamilton, DipLib, Mlitt WHO: A range of public health and environmental concerns have been associated with these trends of increasing automobile ownership and decline in public transport use & walking, including smog, urban sprawl, a rising prevalence of obesity, and their associated health problems. Furthermore, between 1970 and 1995, 1.2 million people died on America’s roads. Red Cross: By 2020 injuries related to traffic will be the world’s third largest cause of death and disability. Road construction and automobile dependency have also been associated with community severance (i.e., reduced access to local amenities and disruption of social networks caused by a physical barrier running through the community), increased “disturbance” among residents (e.g., noise, vibration, fumes), and social inequalities.

Source : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447994/
Road Injuries: Table 1 summarizes the results of studies assessing effects of new roads on injury prevalence rates. 1. Seven of the injury studies involved meta-analyses of data from more than one new road site. 2. 4 studies in this category examined the impact of a single new road on injuries. 3. The studies covered 3 broad categories of roads: major urban roads (4 studies), out-of-town bypasses (5 studies), and major connecting roads between towns (3 studies). 4. One study included both bypasses and major connecting roads. 5. All involved the use of before-and-after comparisons of police injury statistics adjusted for general trends. Major Urban Roads1. 2. One study examined 4 new major urban roads in Oslo and estimated a mean decrease in injury accidents of 4% when only major roads were considered and a decrease of 19% when secondary roads were included. The authors noted that there were systematic variations in the results of the 4 projects. Three of the roads were new tunnels that together were associated with an estimated increase in injury accidents of 10% on major roads.

New Roads
Bypasses1. 2. The 5 bypass studies showed a general decline in the incidence of injury accidents after the opening of new bypasses. In a recent meta-analysis of 20 bypasses in Norway, the observed decrease in injury accidents of 19% was statistically significant when a fixed effects model was used in the analysis, but was narrowly rejected by significance testing when a random effects model was used. All of the studies in this category compared the incidence of injury accidents on main through roads in the “before” period with the incidence of injury accidents on both old through roads and new bypasses in the “after” period. Andersson et al. found a mean increase in the incidence of injury accidents of 41% along secondary roads that linked new out-of-town bypasses to old main roads that ran through towns.

3.

Disturbances1. Twenty-one studies involved the use of structured and semi structured surveys to consider the impact of new roads on disturbance (M. L. Burr, G. Karani, B. Davies, B. A. Holmes, and K. L. Williams, unpublished data, 2002). They focused on major urban roads and bypasses. Types of disturbance included noise, vibration, fumes, and dirt. Some of the studies also considered community severance.

TABLE 3— Summary of Studies Showing Effects of New Bypasses on Disturbance Among Residents of the Area Being Bypassed TABLE 4— Summary of Studies on Disturbance After the Opening of New Roads: Postconstruction Only Inferences1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Overall, there was little evidence that new major urban roads significantly reduce the incidence of injury accidents, except for a study of widening and intersection improvements made to a single urban road in Norway (A. H. Amundsen and R. Elvik, unpublished data, 2001). New major urban roads appear to increase noise disturbance and severance effects in local communities. There is qualitative, but not quantitative, evidence that residents may respond to these effects via behavioral, attitudinal, and environmental adaptation. The evidence on out-of-town bypasses indicates that they reduce the incidence of injury accidents on main routes through or around towns. Secondary roads within towns may be affected differently (e.g., the Andersson et al. study suggests that bypasses lead to increases in injuries on secondary roads and intersections). Unfortunately, detailed accident statistics are not always available for secondary roads (A. H. Amundsen and R. Elvik, unpublished data, 2001), which perhaps explains the relative lack of robust evidence on how new bypasses affect the distribution of injury accidents across broader road networks. Although new bypasses reduce the amount of disturbance in some communities, people living near the bypasses themselves typically experience adverse effects (which were addressed in only a few studies). Similarly, there is evidence that major new roads connecting urban centers are associated with significant decreases in accident injuries, but there is no evidence regarding the effects on rural residents.

New Roads

Source: PubMed Central, Table 1-: Am J Public Health, 2003 September; 93(9): 1463-1471.

New Roads

Source: PubMed Central, Table 2-: Am J Public Health, 2003 September; 93(9): 1463-1471.

New Roads

Source: PubMed Central, Table 3-: Am J Public Health, 2003 September; 93(9): 1463-1471.

New Roads

Source: PubMed Central, Table 4-: Am J Public Health, 2003 September; 93(9): 1463-1471.

Resettlement at Shuikou Dam
Large-scale resettlement for dam and reservoir construction is a difficult business. Thus examples where resettlement has been successfully carried out, and where this claim can be backed up quantitatively, are relatively rare. The Shuikou Dam and Reservoir Project in the Fujian Province of China is one such example.  Reservoir area of 94 square kilometers.  Relocation of 67,239 persons in rural areas and 17,215 persons in Nanping City.  The physical relocation was carried out between 1988 and 1993.  The economic rehabilitation of the affected households took another five years.  By the end of 1997, 38,439 jobs had been created for the rural population, while for Nanping, no job creation was required, as people were able to continue their old jobs after relocation. Among 89 affected villages, 73 of them required relocation of households, for which two approaches were used: 1) consolidated resettlement, involving the building of a new village,for large relocations. 2) dispersed resettlement, involving relocation within existing villages. SOCIAL REHABILITATION  Maintaining the existing social structure was a key objective driving the resettlement strategy.  This was achieved through moving of affected villages as whole communities into the same townships.  Displaced persons were re-established in the nearest available sites and this was done in a manner that it enables them to continue with their previous occupations.  Social rehabilitation consisted of two components: 1) the reestablishment of social infrastructure, such as schools, clinics and community structures, 2) the social support provided to vulnerable individuals and families.

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Source : http://documents.worldbank.org

Resettlement at Shuikou Dam
ECONOMIC REHABILITATION ACTIVITIES  The reservoir inundated farmland, including 30,000 mu of high-yield paddy fields, 25,401 mu of fruit trees other cash crops,  Remaining land above the reservoir level were of lesser quantity and inferior quality.  To restore income levels and livelihoods of the affected population, the resettlement plan postulated, development of new cultivated land, growing of fruit trees and timber trees on sloped land, developing cage fishery and other sideline activities, setting up enterprises and promoting service activities.  After about eight years of efforts, by the end of 1996, as many as 38,473 resettlers had been provided with jobs ranging from traditional agriculture (48.0 percent) animal husbandry (5.5 percent) enterprises (17.4 percent) services (14.0 percent). RESETTLER SATISFACTION  Overall, resettler satisfaction as observed was remarkably high.  While some complaints were voiced, the level of dissatisfaction that one could anticipate with a major relocation simply was not evident, although those interviewed were given ample opportunity to state their opinions.  This was also observed by the periodic World Bank supervision missions. REASONS FOR THE SUCCESS  Early on in project supervision, the World Bank initiated an Independent Evaluation of Resettlement. This evaluation, took place annually over a five-year period  The evaluation was the first of its kind in China, and has since been replicated elsewhere  This project underscores the point that successful resettlements require a complex, varied set of actions and responses, and sensitivity to broader socio-economic trends.

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Source : http://documents.worldbank.org

First Steps: Policies Formulated
 India’s infrastructure sector continues to be a key driver of the nation’s economic progress.  Population displacement and relocation must be regarded as part and parcel of policies for urban socioeconomic development.  Projects are cleared on the basis of cost-benefit analysis which was solely based on the economic loss and gain.  To avoid or minimize population dislocation, enactment of domestic policies that explicitly regulate involuntary displacement and relocation essential.  Urban investments and growth programs must address relocation with no less attention than is given to other components of urban growth such that economic losses, social trauma and psychological pain inflicted on displaced people is reduced.  Resettlement planning process has somewhat improved over time, but problems remain with implementation.

 India as a whole does not have a national rehabilitation policy.  The latest version of the combined Land Acquisition and Resettlement and Rehabilitation policy is expected to be put before the Lok Sabha.  Several states and some public sector companies have adopted their own state policies for displacement and resettlement.  In the 1980s, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka enacted laws on the rehabilitation of irrigationdisplaced persons. In the 1990s, Orissa and Rajasthan formulated policies for persons displaced by irrigation projects.  Coal India Limited in 1994 and the National Thermal Power Corporation in 1993 formulated their own sectoral resettlement policies. NTPC revised it in 2005 and the National Hydro-Power Corporation (NHPC) finalized its policy in 2006. •Only three states, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab, had state-wide resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) policies. Objectives of the NRRP : (i) To minimize displacement and to promote, as far as possible, non-displacing or least-displacing alternatives (ii) To ensure adequate rehabilitation package and expeditious implementation of the rehabilitation process with the active participation of the affected families (iii) To ensure that special care is taken for protecting the rights of the weaker sections of society, especially members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (iv) To provide a better standard of living, making concerted efforts for providing sustainable income to the affected families (v) To integrate rehabilitation concerns into the development planning and implementation process (vi) To facilitate harmonious relationship between the requiring body and affected families through mutual cooperation in case of Land Acquisition.

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Urban Infrastructure and Transportation
The WBED estimated 60 per cent of development-induced displacement every year (about 6 million people) due to urban infrastructure and transportation projects.  Number of people displaced in individual urban and transportation projects is much lower than the number displaced in many large infrastructure projects. Higher frequency of such projects resulting in a high overall number of displacees.  Amount of land appropriated for individual urban projects is often minimal compared to that acquired for individual large dam or irrigation projects, the ratio of people displaced per unit of expropriated land is usually higher as a result of high urban population densities. Rural development projects that have caused displacement have played their own role in this rise, as many resettlers either relocated to cities or migrate from poor resettlement sites in search of employment. This situation will only intensify this global trend of urbanization. Urban Infrastructure projects which are mostly responsible for displacement and resettlement can be categorised as Roads, Telecommunication networks, Drains, Road widening, Construction of flyovers, Expansion of airports , Slum clearance and upgrading Establishment of industrial and commercial estates, Sewerage systems, Schools, Hospitals, Ports

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Source: Development-induced displacement and resettlement by Jason Stanley

Mumbai Urban Transport Resettlement
THE MUMBAI URBAN Transport Project (MUTP) designed to improve Mumbai’s traffic and transportation system.
Includes the government of Maharashtra and the Indian Railways who share the cost between them, the municipal corporation of Greater Mumbai and the Brihan Mumbai Electric Supply Undertaking. The project cost is over Rs 7,000 crores (around US$ 175 million) and includes funding from a World Bank loan of Rs 2,300 crores. Laying of new railway lines, the extension of station platforms (to allow longer trains), the removal of road crossings, station improvements and the resettlement of households living within 10 metres (30 feet) of the tracks Increase in rail capacity of up to 35 per cent (through higher train frequency during peak hours), a reduction in journey times and improvements in the flow of passengers and vehicles in and around selected stations. Measures are also far cheaper than laying new tracks. 15,000 households living along the tracks and some 4,000 living around the stations need to be resettled. Prior to Project, the Railway Slum Dwellers Federation had collected data about the settlements along the tracks, mapped them, set up women’s savings and credit groups and supported the formation of housing cooperative societies. This was not just to collect data but also as a means of community mobilization.

Resettled 900 families in 1999 when the Indian Railways wanted a piece of land cleared urgently. The families were resettled to Kanjur Marg in temporary oneroom (120 sqft) dwellings with electricity and communal provision for water and sanitation, while permanent apartments measuring 225 sq ft in multi-storey buildings were to be constructed.
Unexpected eviction by Indian Railways demolished over 2,000 huts– which was against state government policy and against the stipulations of the Mumbai Urban Transport Project attempting to clear illegal structures built after January 1, 1995 Emergency meeting convened to halt demolition. Land sites identified to accommodate the evicted households and the National Slum Dwellers Federation was given the responsibility for managing the resettlement and overseeing the construction of formal housing. 60,000 people resettled in just over a year without any municipal or police force. Live in secure, better-quality accommodation with provision for piped water, sanitation and electricity. More trains are running on the same tracks and at greater speeds. Travelling times have been reduced and the rail system’s performance improved.
Source: www.sdinet.org/media/upload/countries/documents/mumbai _urban_transport_resettlement_mumbai

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Hubei Shiman Highway Project: China
“… the resettlement under the expressway makes us walk out … from a mountainous area to a roadside, from earth house to brick house, from single story building to multi-storied house, from inside of the mountain to the outside, and from village to township, and it also provides our offspring with a hope.” - Villager

BACKGROUND
-The Focus was on sustainable land development, improving housing standards, better access, and centrallyplanned communities. - 107 km expressway was to be constructed. - A ‘Resettlement Action Plan’ (in accordance to World Bank Safeguard Policies) was prepared and disclosed prior to the start of Construction. - This described the extent of resettlement, identified affected persons and resources. - 780 ha of land was required to be requisitioned, 1,480 households needed to be relocated, and 249,646 m2 area of buildings had to be removed. The project has led to an improved quality of infrastructure and livelihoods for most affected residents. Public participation and continuous dialogue with affected parties throughout the project helped address resident concerns and contributed to the positive outcome.

RESETTLEMENT STRATEGY – excerpts from the report

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Source: Shiman Resettlement Note siteresources.worldbank.org

Urban Squatters Resettlement Project: Bangladesh
The project was a Local level programme on 87-acre site in Mirpur area, at the outskirts of Dhaka. UNDP responsible organisation for overlooking the project.
Resettlement/rehabilitation of about 3,000 squatter families with support and services such as providing low cost housing, land and infrastructure development, community services, socio-economic development and assisting, through NGO involvement, income-generating activities, addressing issues related to equity, benefits to women and children. Issues addressed were: -Increased quality of life - Sustainable livelihood through vocational education, skilled development training - Credit delivery for income generating activities - Equity, human rights, benefits to women and children. Objectives -To assist the Government of Bangladesh in its efforts to provide appropriate housing and basic community services to the urban poorest without shelter. - Intended to implement a pilot project to develop a model that will serve as the guide to formulate a national strategy and methodology in providing low-cost housing on self-help basis for low-income urban peoples in the capital city and elsewhere in the country. Outcomes - Security of land tenure and house ownership to 2600 families -Basic infrastructure services, core houses and community facilities such as opportunity for income generating activities, safe drinking water supply, sanitation & sewerage, embankment for flood protection and overall environmental enhancement for the community - All families became owner of the house through collection of hire-purchase fees within 10 years is an example of poor's access to resource & ownership. - Average family income increased 300% over 7 years. - Created positive impact on living and working condition, on income generating potential, on social services and women and children. Lessons learned - Assetless people can be resourceful if opportunities are created -Basic needs delivery through participation of the concerned people, government, development partners and the civil society working together. -Technical assistance provided by the UNCHS and UNDP and the capital investment of UN Capital Development Fund along with the NGO assistance resulted in a systematic approach. - Keeping the level of the unit cost of resettlement within range of the urban poor. - The programme should be appropriate with sufficient level of self-help initiative and involve other partner organizations in the project management and financial support systems.

Source: www.un.org/esa/earthsummit/bangl.htm

Resettlement through CSR
Indian Hydel Power Company (IHPC) -Resettlement and Rehabilitation of more than 15000 families since the late 1970s -R&R linked to community involvement as well as the company’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme. -IHPC Dam and HPP faced major resistance and agitation against the construction of the project. Problems related to rehabilitation and resettlement and poor geological conditions were also reasons for the huge delay and cost escalation of the project. -Benefits of the Hydro Power Complex consisted of installed generating capacity of 2400 MW,annual generation of 5300 MU, irrigation of 2.7 lac ha and stabilization of existing irrigation for 6.04 ha. Drinking water was supplied to the India state of Delhi. -Till 2011, more than 15000 families have been rehabilitated by IHPC at a cost of more than Rs.13,0000 million including building a new town (NT) as the earlier old town (OT) was completely submerged. -The R&R effort was driven by the company’s R&R policy. The policy mentions that both formal and informal consultations with project affected families (PAF) will take place through the Public Information Centre (PIC), Village Development Advisory Committee (VDAC), community based organizations and non governmental organizations. -The first project in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh saw huge protest from social and environmental activists who alleged that the hydro power project will create irreversible damage to the Himalayan ecology as well as inadequate rehabilitation package for the displaced people. -State government takes over maintenance of the sites after the Rehabilitation. Implementation Report is prepared by IHPC. -It was handed over to the state government after 7 years, yet many residents still hold IHPC responsible for their problems. -Their current demands includes potable drinking water supply ( currently supplied through tube/bore wells), a technical school imparting engineering and computer skills, repair of the sewage system to avoid flooding and others. -Failed due to: LACK OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION -No involvement in site selection, building design, landscaping or other areas of urban and town planning as the villagers were illiterate. -The conversations in such settings are generally carried out by NGOs and political parties. At the organizational level, IHPC has tried to move away from resettlement colonies and hand it over to the government. -Communities were more interested in money and the government machinery ineffective to mobilize the community. Based on the local women’s requests a Self Help Group (SHG) was formed to help them in entrepreneurship. IHPC authorities decided to involve local population in the construction activities. The maximum value of a project was reduced to INR 5,00,000 from INR 100,00,000 -Low quality work and unethical practices compared to projects implemented by big contractors. -On this front, the company also supported local community in buying vehicles and hired them for official use. LESSONS LEARNT -Integration of community in R&R activities. - Participation in the urban/ rural development planning process require techniques of communication and a change in the attitude of the stakeholders. - Large projects cannot grow and survive without support from the community and this can be started while planning for their R&R, by taking them into confidence and using their socio-cultural reality as a design construct. -‘Inclusive growth’ can take place uniting corporatio ns, governments and civic society

Source: http://www.academia.edu/573578/CSR_Resettl ement_and_urban_planning

Road Construction at Mbinga
-The residents of Mbinga faced a very severe issue. The village did not have a direct road connectivity to the immediate town. - the residents had to undergo three days travel of 100 kilometers on a rutted, slippery road to reach the market center in the regional capital. - The Poor transportation infrastructure in Mbinga led to high commodity prices and, inversely, low income from agricultural products. -This simultaneously led to the farmers discouragement to expand the crop production. - Poor transportation network also prohibited access to and delivery of health and education services. - Thus a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) was designed after meticulous planning, such that a road connectivity could be established between the regional capital and Mbinga.

Thus, this particular example can be considered as a case of Infrastructure facilities that suffices the requirements of all sections of the society. Thus, is was also observed that there were very few litigations concerning land acquisition and the resettlement process, which was infact very peaceful.

-The pictures on the right indicate a the drastic change in the lifestyle of a shop owner brought about by the construction of this road. - many lives improved due to the construction of the road and so did the micro economy of Mbinga.

Source: Road Construction Activities Improve Lives of Mbinga Residents Article published by MCA-Tanzania.

Migration: An after effect of changes in infrastructure
Rapid urbanization as a result of migration migration can have impact on the overall economic development of a country as a whole.  Regarding the rapidness of such urbanization, the World Bank puts us in perspective by declaring that, about 90% of the world’s population will be living in urban areas by the year 2025.  economists had earlier identified the difference between the income levels of urban and rural areas as the main driving force of migration. recent evidence shown by some studies suggests that migration may be due to other factors of which inadequate or unavailability of infrastructure in the form of amenities at the sending region  one’s migration decisions may be based on the relative attractiveness of the receiving region in terms of the stock of infrastructure . As per World Bank Population Bulleting (2000) electricity accessibility is extraordinarily higher in the urban areas than in the rural areas in all the African countries shown.

It can be said that this disparity occurs as a result of the prourban development stance taken by many governments which makes the urban areas more attractive to potential migrants due to better infrastructure. Utility difference between urban and rural areas and wage equalization alone cannot explain such migration. lack of certain goods and services in the form of infrastructure in rural areas and their presence in urban areas contribute to such migration trend. Source:Do Migrants React to Infrastructure Difference between Urban and Rural Areas? - Development and Application of an Extended Harris-Todaro Model Ismail Issah, Tariq Y. Khan and Komei Sasaki. (Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University) October, 2003

Examples of change in urban infrastructure causing migration
Example 1:Transit oriented development
Making the Most of Transit: Transit oriented development Definition of TOD: A transit-oriented development is generally defined as a mixed-use residential project that is located within a quarter mile (0.4 km) of a commuter transportation station (usually rail) and within walking distance of retail businesses, restaurants, and/or places of employment, allowing reduced car use through direct access to mass transit. Potentials:mixed-income housing at transit stations supporting transit ridership, promoting regional inclusiveness, and revitalizing underused or blighted areas. patterns of real estate development are being transformed because of : escalating gasoline prices, global warming, summer smog alerts, extensive traffic jams in major cities, changing housing preferences of younger people, and household deleveraging after the recession, among others.

Twin Cities metro area(Minneapolis–Saint Paul)
Demographic shifts point toward more transit-oriented development In the Twin Cities metro area(Minneapolis–Saint Paul is the most populous urba area in the U.S. state of Minnesota), changing demographics, individual preferences and highway congestion are creating the potential market for more transit-oriented development (TOD) Reasons for demographic shift: Reduced vehicle operation costs Reduced travel time Reduced traffic congestion Increased travel reliability Decreased costs for logistics and shipping Fewer harmful emissions Improved safety Source:http://www.metrocouncil.org/newsletter/transit2012/TODF orumJuly9.htm
The Dakotah, on Robert Street in St. Paul’s West Side community, includes ground level-commercial space, senior housing, underground parking, sidewalks and easy access to transit.

Excelsior and Grand in St. Louis Park models a pedestrianfriendly development, a mix of retail and services on the ground floor of residential housing, with a large park nearby, connected to bus routes.

Mirroring a national trend, the Twin Cities area is seeing population changes that are affecting the real estate market. Smaller homes close to amenities are becoming attractive to members of the aging baby boom generation who have graduated from child-rearing to empty-nest status. Young adults conscious of sustainability, or who simply enjoy the ease and excitement of urban life, are choosing cities where car ownership isn’t necessary and transit is accessible from home to work and to cultural destinations. A way to develop thriving communities is by offering choices to accommodate the needs of all people. This could mean having smaller homes that reduce maintenance, or locating housing near stores and jobs with easy access to transit. pedestrian-friendly development, a mix of retail and services on the ground floor of residential housing, with a large park nearby, connected to bus routes. Most construction of commuter-rail projects occurs on former cargo rail lines, and the rail stations are often located in former light-industrial areas—places where existing housing stock is older, as well as less desirable and less expensive due to its proximity to the rail lines and industrial uses. The people living in these areas tend to be lower-income minority renters—the same demographic group much less likely to own a car and more likely to use mass transit, making them the core transit riders. Elevated development costs require high rents, which push out people with lower incomes; the new residents have higher incomes, are less likely to be a member of a minority, and are more likely to own and use a car to commute. Because lower-wage workers cannot afford to live in the new project, they find themselves forced to drive to their jobs, exacerbating traffic congestion and increasing the need for parking.

Yet, gentrification also brings positive change: without new development, these inner-city and/or former industrial areas would remain blighted. The rail station becomes a catalyst for renewal, driving out mismanaged and poorly maintained properties and increasing tax revenues to support public works and underfunded school systems.

Example2:Urban Sprawl in the United States
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl is a multifaceted concept centered around the expansion of autooriented, low-density development. Think of the city as a living organism. A slow moving blob that is constantly expanding outwards; consuming more land and more resources. As the city spreads, it spawns suburbs, subdivisions and auto-dependent residents. Advantages of Urban Sprawl More single family residences on larger lots.  Lower land prices.  Less experience of noise and pollution.  Suburban areas generally associated with “sprawl” tend to have lower crime and higher-quality schools.  Perceived overwhelming consumer preference for sprawl-type developments.

Source: Wikipedia

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Neighborhood quality
in traditional neighborhoods the nearness of the workplace to retail and restaurant space that provides cafes and convenience stores with daytime customers is an essential component to the successful balance of urban life. the closeness of the workplace to homes also gives people the option of walking or riding a bicycle to work or school and that without this kind of interaction between the different components of life the urban pattern quickly falls apart. Consumer preference for sprawl Reasons cited include a preference towards lower-density development (for lower ambient noise and increased privacy), better schools, less crime, and a generally slower lifestyle than the urban one. Source:Wikipedia

References: 1.Wikipedia 2. Do Migrants React to Infrastructure Difference between Urban and Rural Areas? - Development and Application of an Extended Harris-Todaro Model Ismail Issah, Tariq Y. Khan and Komei Sasaki. (Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University) October, 2003 3.Source:http://www.metrocouncil.org/newsletter/transit2012/TODForumJuly9.htm

Management of Resettlement
A few aspects concerning the entire process of Managing the Resettlement can be highlighted as: 1. A Reasonable estimate of the number of people that will be affected. 2. A Top-level commitment is essential for the successful proceeding of the projects. 3. Assessment of potential adverse impacts of projects prior to the project execution inorder to estimate appropriate and precise projections and impacts of projects on the people and surroundings and a in dept understanding of the tangible and intangible affects on society is a must. 4. Active participation of stakeholders and affected people should be taken into account while designing the mechanism for resettlement. 5. Require time as well as financial commitment. 6. Vulnerable groups such as women or economically backward sections should be given special attention in the planning and implementation of resettlement. 7. The Compensation is best paid in terms of long term results than simple cash payments. 8. An attempt must always be made for Income Restoration such that a scope for economy building of the settlers is explored and their best interest always taken into consideration. 9. Establishment of Project resettlement units 10. The role of NGOs in Resettlement Implementation is very significant and needs to be integrated into the whole process in an effective manner. 11. last but not the least, we should always Aim for Sustainable Resettlement.

From the point of view of the affected people, successful resettlement involves : (a) a degree of involvement in the planning and implementation processes (b) no use of force in moving to the new site (c) no break up of the existing social group due to relocation (d) housing and basic services at the new site to be in a fully operating condition (e) availability of economic opportunities for improving the living conditions.

Lessons Learnt: Inferences
1. Need for a well prepared rehabilitation policy to be included in the project plans, which is to be adopted uniformly. 2. Need for proper dialogue with the affected persons during the plan stage itself to prevent problems during execution. 3. Need to have some flexibility in rehabilitation policies to allow changes as per local needs, and need for quick decision making at the lowest practical level regarding such changes. 4. Need for political interventions if the process is not effectively in place. 5. The routine government style of obtaining funds for executing sensitive rehabilitation projects can lead to resentment among the people resulting in law and order problems. 6. Decentralization of powers to the field level with speedy execution is imperative in such cases. 7. Need for cooperative institutions with representative of concerned government departments and displaced people who have shifted to the rehabilitation site to address the grievances of the people in a proper manner.

Development benefits whom?
In the wake of massive development happening in the country, and the equally massive displacement that it leads to, one can no longer shy away from this question which is principally at the very foundations of all development.

Displacement of few for benefit of many OR Displacement of few for benefit of Fewer Still ?
Democracy, which was once an aspiration of the people, has now become a facade in the hands of multinational corporations; who use it to install into power, individuals who would yield to their corporate agendas. The govt is today like a land grabbing monster, acquiring it and giving it away to the giants of the globalizing world. It signs MOUs with them, which is never made public, and carries little or no regard for the people associated with the land in question. The tribals always find themselves on the losing side of the game because they are a marginalized group of people, who receive no compassion from the mainstream voter population. They are an unrepresented lot who have no ways to express their dissent, unless they have a strong leadership. “Democracy and the Free Market have fused into a single predatory organism within a thin, constricted imagination that revolves almost entirely around the idea of maximizing profit?” - Arundhati Roy in Listening to Grasshoppers

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Bibliography
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http://www.ambassadorsofhope.com/TheNeed.htm http://www.actionaid.org/2012/08/visiting-bawana-our-urban-poverty-project-delhi-india http://www.ccsindia.org/ccsindia/downloads/intern-papers-09/sheltering-delhis-slums-230.pdf http://www.indiatogether.org/2008/jun/ksh-sweptoff.htm http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article3906451.ece?homepage=true http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article3906452.ece http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/south-asia/we-made-them-criminals-the-failure-of-a-delhi-slumrelocation#ixzz2K9CikbFL

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