BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS OUTLINE

• • • • DEFINITION OF RESEARCH WHY RESEARCH? TYPES OF RESEARCH HOW MANAGER FACILITATES RESEARCH • SELECTION OF A RESEARCHER • INTERNAL VERSUS EXTERNAL CONSULTANT-RESEARCHER

1

RESEARCH DEFINITIONS
• THE PROCESS OF FINDING SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS AFTER STUDYING AND ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATIONAL FACTORS. • THE PROCESS OF REFINING HUMAN EXPERIENCE FOR ADDING INTO THE STOCK OF KNOWLEDGE • ANY ORGANIZED INQUIRY CARRIED OUT TO PROVIDE INFORMATION FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS. 2

BUSINESS RESEARCH DEFINED
• SYSTEMATIC INQUIRY THAT PROVIDES INFORMATION TO GUIDE BUSINESS DECISIONS BY REPORTING,DESCRIBING,EXPLAINING AND PREDICTING • ORGANIZED,SYSTEMATIC,DATABASED, CRITICAL,OBJECTIVE,SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY INTO A SPECIFIC PROBLEM TO FIND SOLUTIONS. 3

WHY RESEARCH? • NEED FOR INFORMATION FOR INFORMED –RATIONAL DECISION MAKING DUE TO :  IMPROVED INFO AVAILABILITY TO COMPETITORS.  BETTER DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR OPTIMAL DECISIONMAKING.  THE BASIS FOR RESEARCH IS THE CURIOSITY-THE EXCITEMENT TO KNOW THE UNKNOWN. 4 .  PUBLIC MANDATE FOR BETTER QUALITY AT AFFORDABLE PRICES.

INFO SYSTEMS.STOCK EXCHANGES • ATTITUDES.PRODUCT IMAGE.AREAS OF BUSINESS RESEARCH • ACCOUNTS.STRATEGIES • MARKETING.BUDGETS.OPERATIONS.CONSUMER PREFERECES.NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ETC.MERGERS.PROMOTION.HRM. 5 .COSTS PRICES • FINANCE.

PERFORFANCE AND ACTIONS.THE TYPES OF RESEARCH • APPLIED RESEARCH PRACTICAL PROBLEM SOLVING OF CURRENT NATURE.PERFORMANCE.ADDS TO BODY OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE. NO IMPACT ON ACTIONS. • BASIC RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF THEORETICAL NATUREGENERAL PROBLEMS.POLICY.RELATE TO POLICY. 6 .

• IDENTIFY –SOLVE PROBLEMS • DIFFERENTIATE GOOD AND BAD RESEARCH • FACTORS INFLUENCING RESEARCH PROBLEM SITUATION • TAKE CALCULATED RISK BY DECISIONS • PREVENT POSSIBLE VESTED INTEREST IN A SITUATION • COMBINE EXPERIENCE WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH IN DECISION MAKING. 7 WHY MANAGER SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH TOOLS .

SELECTION . • EXPLICT ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS OF CONSULTANT-RESEARCHER.COMPARE CREDENTIALS • UNDERSTANDING WITH CONSULTANT • RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION.VARIABLES.ISSUES IN ENGAGING RESEARCHERS • PROBLEM SELECTION • LOCATION .CONSULTANT REQUIREMENTS. • ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES 8 CARIFICATION . METHODOLOGY.

 LESS EXPENSIVE • DISADVANTAGES  LESS INNOVATIVE-STEREOTYPE  VESTED INTERESTS  EXPERTISE NOT VALUED 9 .INTERNAL CONSULTANT • ADVANTAGES  ACCEPTANCE BY EMPLOYEES  LESS TIME NEEDED-KNOW THE ORGANIZATION  AVAILABLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION.

EXTERNAL CONSULTANT  ADVANTAGES • DIVERSE EXPERIENCE • CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING • SUITABLE FOR COMPLEX PROBLEM OR IF VESTED INTERESTS  DISADVANTAGES • EXPENSIVE • NEED MORE TIME • DIFFICULTY IN GETTING EMPLOYEES COOPERATION 10 .

COST AND BENEFIT OF RESEARCH 11 RESEARCH KNOWLEDGE ENHANCES MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS .• FACILITATE DECISION MAKING BY MANAGER • BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF MODEL SUGGESTED BY CONSULTANT • FACILITATE IMPLEMENTATION • OPENS PROMOTION AVENUES BY BETTER DECISION MAKING • UNDERSTANDS NEED .

ANALYSTS. • NEED FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR AT ALL STAGES OF RESEARCH PROCEESS-DATA COLLECTION.ANALYSIS. • SAFE GUARDS INTERESTS OF MANAGERS.RESEARCHERS. DATA PROVIDERS ETC. 12 .PRESENTATION OF RESULTS.ETHICS IN RESEARCH • STANDARDS OF BEHOVIOUR IN RESEARCH.

QUESTIONS.ACCEPTED BELIEFS. 13 . • TESTS LOGICAL VALIDITY OF HUNCHES • EXAMINES EMPIRICAL SUPPORT OF DEFINITIONS.ANSWERS. • IDENTIFIES SOURCES –CAUSES OF TENDENCIES • FINDS INTERRELATIONSHIPS BY EXAMINING HYPOTHESIS.WHAT DOES RESEARCH DO? • VERIFICATION OF SOLUTIONS.

SCIENTIFIC THINKING – OUTLINE • THE NATURE OF SCIENCE • THE STYLES OF THINKING • THE HALLMARKS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION • THE HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE METHOD 14 .

15 .INHERITED TRAITS ETC.MYSTIC POWERS.THE NATURE OF SCIENCE • CRITICAL ACCOUNT OF LOGICAL JUSTIFICATION • BEST CONCEIVED TRUTH IN EACH PERIOD • TESTED KNOWIEDGE-FINDINGS • NO UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED AND STABLE AUTHORITY OF ASCERTAINING TRUTHS-LIKE WITCHCRAFT.PARAPSYCHOLOGY.

MORE OBJECTIVE.SCIENCE CONTIUED • PHYSICAL SCIENCES BETTER DEVELOPED AND FUNDED.TESTABLE AND GENERALIZABLE THAN SOCIAL SCIENCES • THE HUMAN BEHAVIOUR CHANGES • NO FIELD OF SCIENCE IS FREE FROM GLARING IGNORANCE AND CONTRADICTIONS 16 .

STYLES OF THINKING • IDEALISM-INTERPRET IDEAS -UNTESTED OPINION--LITERARY • INFORMAL-EXISTENTIALISM .DRIVE 17 .R.EMPIRICAL-DATA BASED -SCIENTIFIC METHOD • RATIONALISM-REASON BASED -SELFEVIDENT TRUTH-DEATH.

CONTINUED…..
-PERSONS OF AUTHORITY BY STATUS,RATHER THAN EXPERTISE,INTEGRITY,QUALITY -POSTULATIONAL –REDUCE PROBLEMS TO MATH .TERMS AND DEDUCE FROM RELATIONSHIP OF VARIABLES.E.G.SIMULATION OF PRICES,OUTPUTS TO OPTOMIZE PROFITS 18

THINKING CONTD…
• DEDUCTION-REASONED CONCLUSION BY GENERALIZING A KNOWN FACT.MUST HAVE A VALID PREMISE AND TRUE IN REAL WORLD • INDUCTION-CONCLUSION FROM OBSERVED EVIDENCE NOT STRONGLY RELATED.INFERENTIAL JUMP BEYOND THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED • COMBINE INDUCTION AND DEDUCTION

HALLMARKS OF SCINTIFIC INVESTIGATION
• • • • • • • • PURPOSIVENESS RIGOR TESTABILITY REPLICABILITY PRECISION AND CONFIDENCE OBJECTIVITY GENERALIZABILITY PARSIMONY

• TESTABILITY -STATISTICAL TEST OF CONCLUSION . • PURPOSIVENESS -AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH PROJECT • RIGOR -EXACT METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION.HALLMARKS CONTD….CONCLUS.ANALYSIS.

CONTINUED….LIMITSOF ACCURACY • CONFIDENCE -LEVEL.PROBABILITY OF RESULT WITHIN INTERVAL. . • REPLICABILITY -REPEATED UNDER SIMILAR CNDITIONS BY OTHERS • PRECISION -CONFIDENCE INTERVAL..

NOT SUBJECTIVE • GENERALIZABILITY -RESULTS OR CONCLUSIONS CAN BE GENERALIZED FOR USE BY OTHERS • PARSIMONEY -SIMPLE TO HANDLE VARIABLES. • OBJECTIVE -BASED ON REASONING EMPIRICAL DATA.HALLMARKS CONT….ANALYSIS AND INTERPRET .

INFO GATHERING-PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION • THEORY FORMULATION • HYPOTHESIZING • FURTHER DATA COLLECTION • DATA ANALYSIS • DEDUCTION-CONCLUSION .HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE METHOD STEPS • OBSERVATION • PREL.

MIS NOT USED WELL BY MANAGERS • PREL.E.INFORMATION GATHERING -PROBLEM AREA IDENTIFICATION.G.STEPS CONT… • OBSERVATION -SENSE CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT WHICH ARE UNSATISFACTORY. -INTERVIEW AND LITERATURE SURVEY • THEORY FORMULATION. -IDENTIFY VARIABLES AND THEIR RELATIOSHIP TO THE PROBLEM .

STEPS CONT…. • HYPOTHESIZING -FROM THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIP OF VARIABLES CERTAIN TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS CAN BE GENERATED • FURTHER DATA COLLECTION -DATA NEEDED TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS .

CONTINUED… • DATA ANALYSIS -STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA TO SEE IF IT SUPPORTS THE HYPOTHESIS • DEDUCTION -BY INTERPRETATION OF ANALYSIS OF RESULTS .

INTERPRET HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSION PRESENTATION OF RESULTS MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING 28 .RESEARCH PROCESS OUTLINE • • • • • • • • • • OBSERVE BROAD PROBLEM AREA PRELLIM.DATA COLLECTION PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK HYPOTHESIS GENERATION RESEARCH DESIGN DATA COLLECT.ANALYSE .

EFFECTIVENESS NEW INFORMATION SYSTEM NOT UTILISED .COMPLAINTS.BROAD PROBLEM AREA CURRENT PROBLEMS .G.E.POLICIES NEEDING IMPROVEMENT /EMPIRICAL ANSWERS.CONCEPTUAL ISSUES. SALES NOT PICKING UP FLEXI TIME PROBLEMS TRAINING PROG.

PRELIMINARY DATA COLLECTION • PRIMARY.SECONDARY DATA SOURCES • UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEW • BACKGROUND DATA CONCEPTUAL FACTORS • STRUCTURAL FACTORS .MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY • WORK ATTITUDES AND ENVIRONMENT • LITERATURE SURVEY .

DEVELOPMENT HUMAN.HISTOY.BACKGROUND DATA • • • • ORIGIN.OWNERSHIP CHARTER.PURPOSE LOCATION.FINANCIAL AND OTHER RESOURCES • FINANCIAL POSITION 5-10 YEARS .

WORK FLOW SPECIALISATION COMMUNICATION CHANNELS CNTROL SYSTEMS AND SPAN .STRUCTURAL FACTORS MANAGEMENT PHILOS.POSITIONS. • • • • ROLES.

DEVELOPMENT .REWARD SYSTEM • SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF FIRM • UNDERSTANDING ISSUES RATHER THAN THE SYMPTOMS .WORK ATTITUDES ENVIRONMENT • • • • • BELIEFS IN JOB WORK INTERRELATIONSHIPS SUPERVISORY STYLE PARTICIPATION PROMOTION.

WHY LITERATURE SURVEY? • REVIEW PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED SOURCES • NO REINVENTING THE WHEEL • REVIEW ALL ASPECTS OF PROBLEM • HELPS DEVELOP THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR HYPOTHESIS TEST • IMPROVES TESTABILITY/REPLICABILITY • CLEAR AND CONCISE PROBLEM STATEMENT • PERCEIVED TO BE SCIENTIFIC AND SIGNIFICANT .

REVIEW WRITING TO INCL.GLOBAL NATIONAL SUBJECT AUTHOR TOPIC TEXT • EXTRACT RELEVANT INFO ON LINE • LIT.SUBJECT INTRODUCTION.RESEARCH .CONDUCT LIT. SURVEY • BASED ON ISSUES AND INTERVIEW SURVEY RELEVANT VARIABLES • BIBLIOGRAHICAL CITATION DATA BASES[DB] • ABSTRACT DB-CITATIONS AND SUMMARIES • FULLTEXT DB.RESEARCH QUESTION AND TO BUILD ON PREV.

PROBLEM DEFINITION • A WELL DEFINED STATEMENT • GAP BETWEEN ACTUAL AND DESIRED STATE-PROBLEM • SYMPYOMS NOT TO BE DEFINED AS PROBLEMS • CLEAR CONCISE ISSUE STATEMENT TO BE INVESTIGATED FOR SOLUTION.E.G. • HOW DOES NEW PACKAGING AFFECT PRODUCT SALES? • WHAT ARE THE COMPNENTS OF GUALITY OF LIFE? .

IMPORTANT ISSUES • MANAGERS TREAT SYMPTOMS AS PROBLEMS • ANTECEDENTS-PROBLEMSCONSEQUENCES • INFORM WORKERS HOW RESAERCH FACILITATE THEIR WORK • CONFIDENTIALITY OF RESEARCH PURPOSE? .

WHY THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK? • CONCEPTUAL MODEL THAT DISCUSSES RELATIONSHIPS OF VARIABLES IMPORTANT TO INVESTIGATION • FROM IT TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS FOR EXAMINING DEVELOPED • IT IS CENTRAL TO PROBLEM INVESTIGATION .

OUTLINE:THEORY AND HYPOTHESIS • VARIABLES • DEPENEDENT.INDEPENDENT.INTERVENING • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK • HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT 39 .MODE RATING.

• EXAM SCORES.ABSENTEEISM. MOTIVATION .VARIABLE DEFINED • ANYTHING THAT CAN TAKE DIFFERENT VALUES AT VARIOUS TIMES FOR THE SAME PERSON/OBJECT OR SAME TIME FOR DIFFERENT PERSONS/OBJECTS E.G.

• EXAMPLES: -WHY SALES ARE NOT UPTO THE MARK?DV-SALES -ANALYSIS OF DEBT EQUITY RATIO OF PRODUCTION FIRMS IN KARACHI DVDEBT EQUITY RATIO .DEPENDENT VARIALE? • OF PRIMARY INTEREST TO RESEARCHER FOR ANALYSIS TO FIND OUT WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE THE DV.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE? [IV] • INFLUENCES THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE IN +/.WAY • TO ESTABLISH CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP THE IV IS MANIPULATED • EXAMPLES: -NEW PRODUCT SUCCESS>HIGHER FIRM STOCK PRICE[DV] -SUPERVISOR TRAINING>HIGHER PRODUCTION LEVEL[DV] .

EFFECTIVENESS –MANAGEMENT EXPERTISE{MV} .OF BOOKS AT HOME>READING ABILITY –PARENT LITERACY{MV} >>WORKFORCE DIVERSITY>ORGAN.MODERATING VARIABLE • STRONG EFFECT ON IV-DV RELATIONSHIP AND MODIFIES IT >>NO.

MV STAY TIME AFTER WORK .DISTINCTION IV-MV EXAMPLES • TRG PROGRAM>WILLINGNESS TO LEARN –MV GROWTH NEEDS • FORMAL TRG>EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY-MV EMPLOYEE AGE • WORKER INTERACTION>JOB WELL DONE.

INTERVENING VARIABLES
• SURFACES BETWEEN THE TIME IV OPERATES TO INFLUENCE DV UNTIL THEIR IMPACT ON DV • WORK FORCE DIV.>MANGMT EFFECT{MV}-CREATES SYNERGY[INT V]>ORG EFFECTIVENESS • OCCURRENCE OF EACH VARIABLE DEPENDS ON GIVEN SITUATION FOR WHICH THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ADVANCED

VARIABLES SUMMARIZED
• IV CAUSES INT V • MV EXPLAINS DEPENDENT EFFECT BETWEEN IV AND INT V • INT V IS FUNCTION OF IV AND SURFACES BETWEEN TIMES IV AND ITS IMPACT ON DV-TIME DIMENSION • DV VARIANCE EFFECT CAUSED BY IV – CONCERNS THE ANALYST TO FIND OUT WHAT INFLUENCES THE VARIABLE

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FEATURES
• IDENTIFY AND LABEL RELEVANT VARIABLE S • DISCUSS RELATIONSHIP OF VARIABLES TO EACHOTHER • INDICATE DIRECTION OF RELATIONSHIP + OR -• REASONS FOR RELATIONSHIP LITERATURE SURVEY • SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

MODERATING VARIABLE • AIR SAFETY CONTROL VIOLATIONSDEPENDENT VARIABLE .THEORET FRAMEW EXAMPLE • COMMUNICATION COCKPIT CREW • COMMUNICATIN GROUND STAFF • DECENTRALIZATION – INDEPENDENT VARIABLES • TRAINING.

HYPOTHESIS DEFINED • A FORMAL TESTABLE STATEMENT • LOGICALLY ASSUMED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES AS A TESTABLE STATEMENT • THEORIZED RELATIONSHIP OF VARIABLES THAT CAN BE SCIENTIFICALLY TESTED BY ANALYSIS FOR CLUES TO PROBLEM SOLUTION .

HYPOTHESIS EXAMPLES • IF THEN STATEMENT-IF EMPLOYEES ARE HEALTHY THEY WILL TAKE LEAVE LESS FREQUENTLY • DIRECTIONAL-MORE OR LESS THAN –THE GREATER THE STRESS IN THE JOB THE LOWER THE JOB SATISFATION • NON DIRECTIONAL-THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND JOB SATISFATION .

NULL HYPOTHESIS • STATES NO SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES OR NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEANS OF TWO GROUPS • Ho:Um=Uw MOTIVATION LEVEL OF MEN AND WOMEN Ho:p=o .

BETWEEN GROUPS • Ha:Um< Uw Ha:p<o or p>o .ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS • STAEMENT EXPRESSING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES-DIFF.

RESEARCH DESIGN OUTLINE • • • • • • PURPOSE OF STUDY TYPE OF INVESTIGATION RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE STUDY SETTING UNITS OF ANALYSIS TIME HORIZON 53 .

ETHICAL VALUES OF DIFF.CULTURES • DESCRIPTION:TO ASCERTAIN/DESCRIBE FEATURES OF A VARIABLE E.PURPOSE OF STUDY • EXPLORATION:SITUATION UNKNOWN.G.G.INFO FOR COMPREHENSIVE STUDY LATERE.EMPLOYEES CHARACTERISTICS .PRELIM.

Continued….SALES VOLUME –PROMOTION EFFORTS • CASE STUDY:CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF SIMILAR SITUATIONS FOR GENERALIZATION . • TESTING HYPOTHESIS:EXPLAIN NATURE OF RELATIONSHIPSDIFFERENCES-INTERDEPENDECES E.G.

TYPE OF INVESTIGATION • CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP:ESTABLISH DEFINITE CAUSE OF A PROBLEM E.ARE WOMEN MORE MOTIVATED THAN MEN AT WORK? .G.G.ARE SMOKING AND CANCER RELATED? • GROUP INFERENCES:RANKS-SMALLERGREATER E.G.DOES SMOKING CAUSES CANCER? • CORELATION:IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PROBLEM E.

G.TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS BASED ON DATA • MANIPULATION.CONTROL OR SIMULATION:ANALYST CONTROLS VARIABLES E.G.EFFECT OF LIGHT ON WORKER OUTPUT .RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE • MINIMAL IF STUDY IN NATURAL SETTING E.

OF RATE OF INTEREST ON INCLINATION TO SAVE THE RATES OF INTEREST IN VARIOUS BRANCHES ARE CHANGED .STUDY SETTING • NON CONTRIVED:NATURAL SETTINGFIELD EXPERIMENT E.G ARE THE RATES OF INTEREST RELATED TO EXTENT OF DEPOSITS? • CONTRIVED:INDEPENDENT VARIABLE CHANGED TO SEE EFFECT ON DP –LAB EXPERIMENT E.G.TO STUDY REL.

G.G.PATTERN OF MISUSE BY VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS • ORGANIZATIONS:EMOLUMENTS OF EMPLOYEES IN VARIOUS UTILITIES • CULTURES:E.G.PROFITS MADE BY SUBSIDIARIES OF A CORPORATION IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES .UNITS OF ANALYSIS • INDIVIDUALS:E.STUDY MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES • DYADS:INTERACTION OF SUPERVISOR SUBORDINATE PAIR • GROUP:E.

G.CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR OF EMPLOYEES BEFORE AND AFTER MANAGEMENT CHANGE .TIME HORIZON • CROSS SECTIONAL:ONE SHOT STUDYONE TIME OR PERIOD E.G DATA STUDY OF STOCK MARKET APRIL-JUNE • LONGITUDINAL:STUDY OF INFORMATION AT MORE THAN ONE PERIOD OF TIME E.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OUTLINE • • • • LAB EXPERIMENT INTERNAL VALIDITY EXTERNAL VALIDITY WHAT AFFECTS INTERNAL VALIDITY ? • THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS AND INTERNAL VALIDITY 61 .

EFFECT OF LIGHT ON WORKER OUTPUT • CONTROL CONTAMINATING VARIABLE BY MATCHING E.GROUPS • RANDOMIZATION:RANDOM SELECTION OF SUBJECTS OF GROUPS ALSO CONTROLS CONTAMINATING VARIABLES .SPREADING SUBJECTS EQUALLY ACROSS CONTRL-EXP.LAB EXPERIMENT • CAUSAL STUDY OF IV-DV AND COTROL OR ISOLATE CONTAMINATING VARIABLES • MANIPULATE-TREAT IV TO SEE EFFECT ON DV E.G.G.

VALIDITY IS THE CONFIDENCE IN CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP IV-DV –IT IS HIGH IN LAB EXPERIMENT • EXT. AND EXT. VALIDITY • INT.VALIDITY IS THE EXTENT THE RESULTS FOUND IN LAB EXP ARE GENERALIZABLE • FIELD EXP BEING IN NATURAL SETTING HAS MORE EXT VALIDITY • THE HIGHER THE EXTERNAL VALIDITY THE LOWER THE INTERNAL VALIDITY AND VICE VERSA • TO ENSURE BOTH FIRST LAB EXP THEN FIELD EXP .INT.

G PROMOTION BY FIRM AND ASSOCIATION • MATURATION:EFFECT OVER TIME E.TIRED.MEASURE DIFFERENT OUT PUTS .G. OLDER.FACTORS AFFECTING INT VALIDITY • HISTORY:DURING LAB EXP OTHER FACTORS EFFECT DV E.HUNGER.G.EXPERI. • TESTING:SUBJECT TREATMENT EFFECTS POST TEST BY SENSITIZING • INSTRUMENTATION:CHANGE IN FRAME OF MEASUREMENT PRE AND POST TEST E.

G.FACTORS CONT… • SELECTION BIAS:IN SELECTION OF MEMBERS OF EXP-CONTROL GROUPS • STATISTICAL REGRESSION:SELECTION OF EXTREME SCORE SUBJECTS E.HIGHLY OR LOW MOTIVATED WORKERS • MORTALITY:ATTRITION OF GROUP MEMBERS • THE ABOVE EFFECTS CAN BE REDUCED BY SOPHISTICATED RESEARCH DESIGN .

• TWO MEMBERS FROM AUTO G.PARTICIPATI VE AND CONTROL GRP NO TEST • TWO MEMBERS MOVE TONOTHER GROUP-HISTORY EFFECT.DEMOCRATIC. LEFTMORTALITY EFFECT • A POST TEST WAS GIVEN TO ALL-TEST EFFECT .EXAMPLE • DEMOCRATIC STYLE BEST TO RAISE EMPLOYEE MORALE? • 3EXP GRPS FOR PRE TEST AUTOCRATIC.

MATURATION.MORTALITY EFFECTS • QUASI EXP DESIGNS: .E=02-01 >MATURATION EFFECT .1EXP G-POST T AND 1 CONTROLG.1 EXP G-PRE AND POST T>TEST EFFECT -E=02-01 NO CONTROL G. .INT VALIDITY AND EXP DESIGNS • SHORTER TIME SPAN REDUCES HISTORY.

1CONTROL G.AND POST TEST .1CONTROE G.CONT… • TRUE EXP DESIGNS: 1EXP.PRE.CONTROL G.POST TEST.CONTROL G.AS ABOVE 1 EXP G .NO TREATMENT E=[02-01][04-03] >MORTALITY EFFECT • SOLOMON 4 GROUP DESIGN: 1 EXP .NO TREATMENT >MORTALITY EFFECT .1CONTROL G.

SIMULATION • ALTERNATIVE TO LAB/FIELD EXP • COMPUTER BASED MODEL BUILDING TECHNIQUE • CREATES SETTING RESEMBLING NATURAL ONE • PARTIPANTS RANDOMELY EXPOSED TO REAL WORLD EXPERIENCE IN SIMULATED ENV • MANIPULATION AND CONTROL BY RESEARCHER • DATA COLLECTION BY OBSERV.INTERVIEW • EXPENSIVE.TAPING. MORTALITY EFFECT .

IT IS UNETHICAL TO • TO FORCE SUBJECTS TO PARTICIPATE IN EXP • GIVE MENIAL WORK • DISALLOW WITHDRAWAL • USE RESULTS AGAINST • EXPOSE TO HAZARD • NOT PRESERVE SECRECY • NO DEBRIEFING AFTER EXP • WITH HOLD BENEFITS .

MANAGERIAL CONSIDERATIONS • IS EXPERIMENT DESIGN REQUIRED? • NEED FOR CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP OR CORRELATION ? • IS HIGH VALIDITY NEEDED? • HOW IMPORTANT IS COST? .

SCALES OUTLINE • • • • • OPERATIONAL DEFINITION NOMINAL SCALE ORDINAL SCALE INTERVAL SCALE RATIO SCALE 72 .

PERCEPTIONS DIFFICULT TO MEASURE AND ARE ABSTRACT CONCEPTSLIKING.OPERATIONAL DEFINITION • VARIABLES HAVE TO BE MEASURED IN THEORETICAL FRAMEW TO TEST HYPOTHESIS • PHYSICAL MEASURES EASYTEMPERATURE.HAPPINESS • OPERATONALLY DEFINING A CONCEPT IS TO RENDER IT MEASUREABLE .ATTITUDES.LENGTH • SUBJECTIVE FEELINGS.

4.RELUCTANT TO TAKE TIME OFF.ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVAT.IMPATIENT WITH INEFFECT-DISLIKE MISTAKES.CHALLENGE-OPTS FOR CHALLENG ING JOB 5.DRIVEN BY WORK-CONSTANTLY WORKING.SEEKS FEEDB-ASKS FOR.NO HOBBIES 3.IMPATIENT FOR FEEDBACK .SEEKS MODER.EFFORT DESPITE SETBAC 2. • DIMENSIONS-TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS: 1.UNABLE TO RELAX-THINKS OF WORKAT HOME.DISLIKE WORK WITH SLOW P.

LEARNING EXAMPLE • UNDERSTANDING:ANSWER Qs.INTEGRATE WITH OTHER RELEVANT MATERIAL • MOST CONCEPTS HAVE BEEN MEASURED –OPERATIONALLY DEFINED .GIVE EXAMPLE TO EXPLAIN • RETENTION:RECALL MATERIAL SAME TIME • APPLICATION:SOLVE PROBLEMS APPLYING CONCEPT.

MALEFEMALE.FIRSTBTO LAST. BEST TO WORST.INDEPENDENT .RANK JOB CHARACTERICS LIKE INTERACTION.SKILL USE.WHOLE TASK.SERVE OTHERS.PAKISTANI-AMERICAN TO DISTINGUISH/DIFFERENTIATE • ORDINAL SCALE:DISTINGUISHES AND RANKS VARIABLES E.G.G.SCALES • SCALE:A TOOL /MECHANISM TO DISTINGUISH /MEASURE VARIABLE • NOMINAL SCALE:ALLOWS TO ASSIGN SUBJECTS TO MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE CATEGORIES E.

WEIGHING SCALE.DISAGREE.GROUPS SUBJECTS IN CATEGORIES E.NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE ETC • RATIO SCALE:DIFFERENCE .DISTANCE AND UNIQUE ORIGIN E.F .G.USE ARITH OR GEOMETRIC MEAN.THERMOMETER SCALE.VARIANCE..DISTANC E BET VARIABLES.DISAGREE.ORDER.TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE T.G. PREFERENES ON A 5/7 POINT SCALE STRONG.SCALES CONT… • INTERVAL SCALE:DIFFERENTIATES.STANDARD DEVIATION.RANKS.

A.F • ORDINAL SCALE:FOR PREFERENCE IN USE.STATS MEASURES.VARI ANCE.STAND.RANK ORDER CORRELATIONS • NOMINAL SCALE:USED FOR PERSONAL DATA.DEVIATION.MODE.STATS MEASURES ARE MEDIAN.T.RANGE.X2 .SCALES CONT… • RATIO SCALES USED WHEN EXACT NUMBERS ARE CALLED FOR E.G HOW MANY ORDERS DO YOU OPERATE? • INTERVAL SCALE USED FORB RESPOSES TO VARIOUS ITEMS ON 5/7 POINTS USE OF STATS MEASURES AS RATIO SCALE.MEAN.

SCALING OUTLINE • • • • • • SCALING RATING SCALES RANKING SCALES GOODNESS OF MEASURES RELIABILITY VALIDITY 79 .

NUMERICAL.EVENTS .FORCED CHOICE .FIXED CONSTANT SUM.STAPEL.GRAPHICAL RATING • RANKING SCALES:PAIRED COMPARISON.CATEGORY. ITEMISED.LICKER T.SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL.PERSONS ETC • NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH 4 SCALES • RATING SCALES:DICHOTOMY.SCALING • ASSIGN NUMBERS OR SYMBOLS TO ELICIT ATTITUDINAL RESPONSES TOWARDS OBJECTS.

:E.:YES NO RESPONSE TO A QUESTION.EXTREMELY PLEASED….:5 TO 7 POINTS BIPOLAR ADJECTIVE AT EACH ENDE.RATING SCALES • DICHOTOMY S.G.DO YOU LIKE TO WORK? • CATEGORY S.:ELICIT ONE RESPONSE FROM SEVERAL E.G.G..E.5POINT/STRONGLY AGREE…STRONGLY DISAGREE • NUMERICAL S.DO YOU LIVE IN A/B/C/D ? • LIKERT S.G.EXTREMELY DISPLEASED .

RATING SCALES CON… • SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL S.BEAUTIFUL-UGLY • ITEMISED RATING S.VERY UNLIKEY…VERY LIKELY .G.:BIPOLAR ATTRIBUTES AT ENDS E.:5 TO 7 POINTS WITH ANCHOR E.G.

:ASSIGN NUMER TO EACH ITEM FROM POINTS E.SIZE • STAPEL S.:PLACE MARK ON GRAPHIC SCALE • CONSENSUS S.G.RATING SCALES CONT.G.:A PANEL OF JUDGES SELECTS ITEM WHICH MEASURES CONCEPT .SHAPE.:DIRECTION AND INTENSITY OF ATTITUDE E. –3 TO +3 • GRAPHIC RATING S. • FIXED CONSTANT SUM S. COLOUR.

”RESPONDENTS FATIGUE IF NUMBER LARGE” • FORCED CHOICE S..LEAST USEFUL .G..:RANK OBJECTS RELATIVE TO EACH OTHER TO ASSESS ATTITUDES TOWARDS OBJECTS E.FINANCIAL ENVITONMENT MOST USEFUL . • PAIRED COMPARISON S.:RESPONDENTS TO SELECT TWO OBJECTS AT A TIME.RANKING SCALES CONT.

GOODNESS OF MEASURES • VALIDITY: RIGHT MEASURE FOR THE CONCEPT[IN EXP DESIGN EXACT CAUSE EFFECT REL/GENERALIZ.TO BE STABLE AND CONSISTANT • STABILITY:MEASURES THE CONCEPT EVEN IF CHANGE OCCURS • CONSISTANCY:ITEMS IN THE INSTRUMENT SOLICT SIMILAR IMPACT ON RESPONDENTS .] • RELIABILITY:ACCURACY TO MEASURE THE CONCEPT .

ITEMS ANALYSIS • TO SEE IF ITEMS BELONG IN THE INSTRUMENT • THE MEANS BETWEEN HIGH SCORE S AND LOW SCORES ITEMS GROUP ARE TESTED BY t VALUES TO FIND HIHLY DISCRIMINATING ITEMS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE INSTRUMENT • THE VALIDITY OF MEASURES IS ESTIMATED .

HIGHLY CORRELATED .CORRELATION • PARALLEL FORM RELIABILITY:RESPONSES OF TWO COMPARABLE SETS OF MEASURES FOR SAME CONCEPT.RELIABILITY/STABILITY • TEST RETEST RELIABILITY:REPEAT INSTRUMENT WITH SAME GROUP AND ANOTHER TIME.

• INTERNAL CONSISTANCY:ITEMS AS A SET MEASURE THE SAME CONSTRUCT RELIABLY • CONSISTANCY TEST:RESPONDENTS ANSWERS TO ALL ITEMS ARE CORRELATED CRONBACH A COEFF • SPLIT HALF RELIABILITY:CORRELATION OF ITEMS OF BOTH HALVES OF INSTRUMENT AFTER SPLIT .RELIABILITY/CONSISTAN.

VALIDITY • INSTRUMENT MEASURES THE INTENDED CONCEPT • CONTENT V.ADEQUATE SET OF ITEMSFOR CONCEPT APPROVED BY PANEL OF JUDGES • FACE VALIDITY:DO THE ITEMS MEASURE THE CONCEPT ON THE FACE OF IT[LOOK LIKE] .:ENSURES THAT MEASURES INCLUDE REPRESENTATIVE.

CORRELATION • PREDICTIVE V:DIFFERENTIATES A FUTURE RELATED CRITERIONE.VALIDITY CON… • CRITERION V.G.G.APTITUDE TEST FOR JOB/SUBJECT • CONCURRENT V.:THE MEASURE DIFFERENTIATES INDIVIDUALS ON A CRITERION.:DISCRIMINATES INDIVIDUALS KNOWN TO BE DIFFERENTE.SCORE FOR WORK ETHICS FOR A HARD WORKER .

• CONSTRUCT V..:DOES THE MEASURE HAVE A LOW CORRELATION WITH THE VARIABLE THAT IS SUPPOSED TO BE UNRELATED TO THE VARIABLE? .VALIDITY CONT.:DO 2 INSTRUMENTS MEASURING THE CONCEPT CORRELATE HIGHLY? • DISCRIMINATING V.:DOES THE MEASURE FIT THE CONCEPT AS THEORIZED BY FACTOR ANALYSIS? • CONVERGENT V.

SELLING.LEAST PREFFERED COWORKER.EXAMPLES TESTED INSTRUMENTS • JOB ENRICHMENT.PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT.MARKETING AND QUALITY SERVICE RESPONSES.RELIABILITY RESPOSIVENESS.TANGIBLE PERSONAL ATTITUDES ETC .CAREER SALIEN.ADS.PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT.ROLE CONFLICT.

METHODS OUTLINE • • • • • INTERVIEW METHODS QUESTIONNAIRE METHODS OBSERVATION SURVEYS SETTING SOURCES 93 .DATA COLLECT.

INTERVIEW METHODS • UNSTRUCTURED:PRELIMINARY.TO IDENTIFY CRITICAL FACTORS • SEQUENCE OF Qs NOT PLANNED • FROM BROAD TO SPECIFIC Qs • STRUCTURED:TO ELICIT INDEPTH.DIRECT INFORMATION • TYPE OF INFO NEEDED IS KNOWN • PREDTERMINED Qs LISTED /POSED • VISUAL AIDS USED .

INTERPRET. • TACTFUL QUESTIONING • REPEAT AND CLARIFY Qs • CONFIDENCE BY CREDIBILITY/ABILITY • ALLEY FEARS AND SUSPICION .BIAS FREE INTERVIEW • INTERVIEWER RAPPORT WITH RESPONDENT • NOT TO INFLUENCE RESP. BY BODY LANGUAGE • RECORD RESPONSES ACCURATELY • CORRECT ANALYSIS.

. • • • • INTERVIEWEE TO UNDERSTAND Qs EXPRESSES TRUE OPINION AVOIDS PERSONAL LIKING/DISLIK.BIAS FREE CONT. AVOID PRESENCE OF NON PARTICIPANTS WHO RESTRICT • RAPPORT FOR OPENNESS • ENSURE AVAILABILITY FLEXIBILITY BY APPOINTMENT .

QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE • FUNNELING:START WITH OPEN ENDED Qs.UNDERS.Qs TO IDENTIFY KEY ISSUES • UNBIASED:ASK Qs IN A WAY OF LEAST BIAS IN RESPONSE • CLARIFY ISSUES:REPHRASE IMPORTANT INFO OF RESPONDENT • HELP RESP.ISSUES:Qs IN A SIMPLE WAY • TAKE NOTES DIRECTLY /THEREAFTER .FROM BROAD TO SPECIF.

CLARIFY DOUBTS.DISCOMFORT OF FACING AVOIDED.SELECTS RESPONDENTS AND CALLS FROM FILES.MAY BE EXPENSIVE.OBSERVE NON VERBAL CUES.ABRUPT TERMINATION • COMPUTER ASSISTED:INDEXES RESPONSES.NEED TRAINED STAFF • TELEPHONIC:REACH RESPONDENT FAST.INTERV.FILTERS OUT OF RANGE RESPOSES TO ENHANCE ACCURACY.METHODS +/• FACE TO FACE:ADAPT THE Qs.RECORDS RESPONSES .

KEEP Qs SIMPLE TO ANSWER .DOUBTS CLARIFIED.FACILITATE BY ENCLOSING SELF ADDRESSED STAMPED ENVELOPE .NEED LESS TRAINED STAFF.LOW RESPONSE[30 %] . PROVIDE MONETARY AND OTHER INCENTIVES TO RESPOND.QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN • SET OF Qs FOR RESPONSE • PERSONALLYADMINISTERED: QUICK. • MAIL QUESTIONNAIR:FOR WIDE AREA COVERAGE.LESS COST LOCALLY.

AND NEGATIV. .DESIGN WORDING • CONTENT/PURPOSE:TAP DIMENSIONS AND ELEMENTS OF CONCEPT BY BEHAVIOURAL Qs • LANGUAGE/WORDING:ACCORDING TO THE LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING OF RESPONDENTS • OPEN ENDEDQs:RESP.CHOOSES WAY TO DECIDE • CLOSED Qs:CHOICE FROM GIVEN ALTERNATIVES • POSITIV.WORDED Qs:NOT TO BE USED FOR SAME CONCEPT TOGATHER.RESP.USE TO AVOID MECHAN.Q.

BIAS IN Qs • DOUBLE BARRELED:WHERE TWO PARTS LEND TO DIFFERENT ANSWERS.E.TO ELICIT RESPONSE OF RESEARCHER LIKING E.G.GOOD MARKET SELLS WELL • AMBIGUOUS:RESPONDEND MAY NOT BE SURE OF MEANING • RECALL:RECALL PAST EVENT HAZY • LEADING:TO PHRASE A Q.G.EMPLOYEE TO GET RAISE IN INFLTIONARY SITUATION • .

WILL IT BE VINDICTIVE IF UNION DECIDES TO STRIKE • SOCIALLY UNDESIRABLE:E.DO YOU THINK OLDER PEOPLE BE LAID OFF? • LENGHTY:NOT OVER 2O WORDS • SEQUENCE:FROM GENERAL TO SPECIFIC . • LOADED:MAY SOLICIT EMOTIONALLY CHARGED RESPONSE E.BIAS IN Qs CONT.G..G.

CROSS CULTURAL RESEARCH • CORRECT ASSESSMENT OF ATTITUDES BY MULTINATIONALS • TRANSLATION OF INSTRUMENT ITEMS:BACK TRANSLATION TO ESTABLISH IDIOMATIC EQUIVALENCES • PROCEDURES:UNIFORM PROCEDURE OF DATA COLLATION ALSO WITHIN A TIME FRAME .

PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT • WORDING TO MINIMISE BIAS • MEASURES TO BE RELIABLE AND VALID • SCALES AND SCALING APPROPRIATE • ESTABLISH GOODNESS OF DATA • EASY CODING AND CATEGORIZATION OF DATA .

INCOME.QUESTIONNAIRE GETUP • • • • LOGICALLY ORGANIZED SECTIONS NEATLY PLACED INSTRUCTIONS FOR RESPONDENTS MINIMUM AMOUNT OF EFFORT BY RESPONDENT • PRE TESTING OF Qs –NO AMBIGUITY • EXAMPLES PERSONAL DATA.ENDING ETC .

DESIGN SURVEY • CHECKS LOGICAL/SYMMETRICAL ERROR • DATA EDITING PROGRAMMES • COMPUTING AND MEASURES • MULTIPLE REGRESSION • ON LINE Q.ELECTRONIC Q.MAIL DATA DISC TO RESPONDENTS .SURVEY.

RECORDED AS NEEDED • LESS RESP.CHILDREN • UNSTRUCTURED:NO SPESIFIC IDEA OF ASPECT TO BE STUDIED-NATURAL • STRUCTURED:PREDTERMINED EVENTS OBSERVED.DOES NOT OBSERVE COGNITIVE EFFECT.BIAS.EXPENSIVE.NEED TO TRAIN OBSERVERS .SLOW.EASY TO OBSERVE ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS.BODY LANGUAGE.OBSERVATION SURVEY • OBSERVE BEHAVIOUR.PROCESSES.ACTIVITIES.CHILDREN • NEED PRESENCE.

FACE EXPRESSION • LINGUISTIC:SOUNDS • EXTRA LINGUISTIC:VOICE.BEHAVIOURAL OBSERV.PITCH. • NON VERBAL:BODY MOVEMENT .PHYSICAL PROCESSES.CONDITIONS . GLANCES.RATE OF SPEAKING • SPATIAL :HOW ONE RELATES PHYSICALLY TO OTHERS • NON BEHAVIOURAL:RECORD ANALYSIS.

OBSERVER DRIFT . MEMORY LAPSES.BIASES IN OBSERVATION • ERRORS IN RECORDING .AVOID HALLO EFFECT.RECORDING ETC • CONCEALMENT OF OBSERVER .BOREDOM.TARGET].HOW AND WHEN • USE OF CAMERAS.EQUIPMENT AND PURPOSE • UNOBTRUSIVE OBSERVATION.FATIGUES • RESPONDENT REACTIONS • LACK OF TRAINING:WHAT TO OBSERVE[EVENT.

EFFECT OF ADS • TRACE MEASURES:E.G.G .CANS IN TRASH FOR BRAND USE .FURTHER METHODS/SOURCES • WORD ASSOCIATION:E.G.WORK IS – • THEMATIC TEST:STORY AROUND A PICTURE • INKBLOT TEST:INTERPRETATION • MULTI METHODS USE • FOCUS GROUP:GROUP DISCUSSION UNDER MODERATOR-RESPONSES • PANEL:FOCUS GROUP TO STUDY INTERVENTION EFFECT OVER TIME E.

SAMPLING PRECISION AND CONFIDENCE CALCULTION OF SAMPLE SIZE 111 .SAMPLING OUTLINE • • • • • • • • DEFINITION WHY SAMPLING? NORMAL DISTRIBUTION SAMPLING DESIGN PROBABILITY SAMPLING NON PROBAB.

EVENTS TO BE INVESTIGATED • ELEMENT:A MEMBER OF POPULATION • POPULATION FRAME:LIST OF ELEMENTS E.G.TEL.DIRECTORY • SAMPLE:RESEARCHER DRAWS SUBSETOF POPULATION TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS FROM IT FOR WHOLE POPULATION • SUBJECT:AN ELEMENT OF A SAMPLE .DEFINITIONS • POPULATION:GROUP.

ANALYSE ITS PROPERTIES TO GENERALIZE FOR THE WHOLE POPULATION • SAMPLING R EDUCES EFFORT AND COST IF POPULATION IS LARGE • REPRESENTATIVE S.DEFINITIONS CON… • SAMPLING :PROCESS OF DRAWING A SAMPLE FROM A POPULATION TO UNDERSTAND.:IN A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE THE SAME AS THOSE OF THE POPULATION .

TIME AND RESOURCES REQUIRED .SAMPLING FRAME.SAMPLING DESIGN • EXPLORATORY DESIGN: REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE IS NOT NEEDED-RESULTS NOT GENERALIZED.SAMPLE SIZE.PARAMETER TO STUDY. FOR CLUES TO ISSUES • FOR DESIGN OF SAMPLE ONE NEEDS TARGET POPULATION.

:EACH ELEMENT HAS KNOWN AND EQUAL CHANCE OF BEING SELECTED • LEAST BIAS AND MOST GENERALIZABLE.USED WHEN REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE IS IMPORTANT • UNRESTRICTED RANDOM SAMPL.PROBABILITY SAMPLING • ELEMENTS HAVE SAME CHANCE OF BEING SELECTED. • EXPENSIVE AND CUMBERSOME .

EFFICIENT AND USED FOR ATTITUDE SURVEYS ETC. • STRATIFIED RANDOM:HOMOGENITY WITHIN GROUP.S.RESTRICTED PROBAB. • SYSTEMATIC:DRAW Nth ITEM RANDOMLY .HETROGENITY AMONG GROUPS.SELECT SUBJECTS AT RANDOM EACH SUBGROUP IF SUBGROUPS WITHIN POPULATION HAVE DIFFERENT PARAMETERS .

SELECTION FROM EACH GROUP E.RANDOM:IF STRATA TOO SMALL OR TOO LARGE AND MORE PROB.SUSPECTED WITHIN SUB GROUPS • CLUSTER:GROUPS HETROGENOUS WITHIN AND HOMOGENOUS AMONG THEM .PROBABILITY S.LESS EFFICIENT • MULTISTAGE CLUSTER:CLUSTER IN EACH AREA AND SUB CLUSTERS AND RANDOM SELECTION .JOB LEVELS • DISPROPORTIONATE STRAT.G . CONT… • PROPRTIONATE STRATIFIED RANDOM:PROP.

LESS COSTLY • DOUBLE SAMPLING:1st SAMPLE FOR PRELEMINARY INFORMATION OF INTEREST.2nd TIME PREVIOUS SAMPLE USED FOR FURTHER DETAIL .PROBA. • AREA SAMPLING:POPULATION WITH IN EACH GEOGRAPHICAL CLUSTER..SAMPLING CON.

SAMPLING • ELEMETS PROBABILITY OF SELECTION NOT KNOWN.FOR QUICK PREL.FINDINGS • CONVENIENCE :EASILY AVAILABLE SAMPLE ELEMENTS TAKEN • PURPOSIVE:CONFINED TO SPECIFIC GROUP WHO CAN PROVIDE DESIRED INFORMATION • JUDGEMENT:BEST PEOPLE TO PROVIDE INFO • QUOTA:ENSURE CERTAIN PEOPLE ARE REPRESENTED IN A STUDY BY QUOTA .NON PROBAB.

96*1.96 Sx=10/(49^1/2)=1. AND CONFIDENCE • PRECISION:HOW CLOSE ESTIMATE IS TO TRUE POPULATION STATS STANDARD SAMPLING ERROROF MEANS=Sx=S/SQUARE ROOT[n-1] • CONFIDENCE:LEVEL OF CERTAINTY TO HAVE THAT PRECISION E.PRECIS.35 • BY LAERGER n MULTIPLY BY [N-n]/N-1 • LARGER THE SAMPLE SIZE HIGHER THE PRECISION OR SMALLER THE SAMPLING ERROR.43 U=X+kSx=105+-1.G 95% FOR k=1.THE NARROWER PRECISION RANGE THE LOWER THE CONFIDENCE LEVEL .43=1o5+-2.

S^2 MEAN.STANDARD DEV.N POPULATION .S.PRECISION AND CONFID… • NO SAMPLE HAS EXACTLY SAME CHARACTERISTICS AS POPULATION • PROBABILITY SAMPLING COMES CLOSER TO POPULATION STATISTICS • X. VARIANCE OF SAMPLE • U.SIGMA^2 OF POPULATION • n SAMPLE SIZE..SIGMA.

RESEARCH SAMPLE SIZE 10-20 .SAMPLE SIZE • EFFECTED BY VARIABILITY OF POPULATION • PRECISION/ACCURACY NEEDED • COST /BENEFIT OF INVESTIGATION • MOST RESEARCH SAMPLES SIZE>30AND <500 • FOR SUBSAMPLES 3O IN EACH CATEGORY • FOR MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS SAMPLE SIZE 10 TIMES NUMBER OF VARIABLES • EXPERI.

DATA ENTRY • DATA ANALYSIS: • OBJECTIVES OF DATA ANALYSIS:TEST GOODNESS.CODING. • ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS.OUTLINE D ATA ANALYSIS/INTERPRET • DATA READY FOR ANALYSIS: EDIT.HYPOTHESIS TEST.INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 123 .CATEGORIZATION.

DATA READY….
• EDIT:CHECK INCOMPLETENESS AND INCONSISTANCY,LOGICALLY RECTIFY DATA • BLANK RESPONSES:LACK OF UNDERSTANDING,UNWILLINGNESS TO ANSWER,INDIFFERENCE • TAKE MID POINT OF SCALE • IGNORE BLANK RESPONSES • ASSIGN MEAN VALUE OF RESPONSES • ASSIGN RANDOM NUMBER IN SCALE

DATA CONT….
• CODING:ASSIGN UNIQUE NUMBERTO EACH VARIABLE AND ITEM E.G AGE,EDUCATION • CHECK 10% FOR ACCURACY • CATEGORIZATION:VARIABLES SUCH THAT SEVERAL ITEMS MEASURING SAME CONCEPT ARE GROUPED TOGETGER.E.G. VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF AGE • ENTRY:BY SCANNER DIRECTLY OR MANUALLY USING STATS PACKAGE DATA EDITOR

DATA ANALYSIS
• USE STATS PACKAGE SS-9 FOR WINDOWS FOR TESTS,EXCEL FOR DISPLAY RESULTS • FEEL FOR DATA:MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY,DISPERSION,DISTRIBUTION, INTERRELATIONS OF VARIABLES TO DETECT INCORRECTNESS ,BIAS,OUT OF RANGE DATA • GOODNESS OF DATA:RELIABILITY ANALYSIS CRONBACH ALPHA COEFF. CLOSER TO 1 THE HIGHER INTERNAL CONSISTANCY RELIABILITY OF ITEMS OF MEASURES

DATA ANALYSIS CONT… • SPLIT HALF RELIABILITY COEFF.TEST RETEST RELIABILITY TEST FOR CORRELATION OF MEASURES • VALIDITY:FACTORIAL VALIDITY BY MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES TO CONFIRM CORRECTNESS OF DIMENSIONS OF CONCEPTS • CRITERION VALIDITY:TEST MEASURES TO DIFFERENTIATE INDIVIDUALS KNOWN TO BE DIFFERENT .FOR CORRELATION OF SPLIT ITEMS • STABILITY OF MEASURES:PARALLEL FORM RELIABILITY.

:TWO SOURCES RESPONDING TO SAME MEASURES HIGHLY CORRELATED • DISCRIMINATORY V:TWO DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT CONCEPTS ARE NOT CORRELATED • IF VALIDATED MEASURES ARE USED NO NEED FOR VALIDITY TEST ONLY TEST RELIABILITY .DATA ANALYSIS CONT… • CONVERGENT V.

HOYPOTHESIS TESTING EXAMPLE • EXAMINE CRONBACH ALPHA FOR MEASURES • FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF THE VARIABLES • DESCRIBE MEAN.STANDARD DEVIATION OF MEASURES • PEARSON’S CORREL.COEFFICIENT • RESULTS OF HYPOTHESES .

ITL LOW.DEPT WISE % RESPONDENTS • DESCRIPTIVE STATS MAX.STD DEV.EXAMPLE CONT… • RELIABILITY:CRONBACH ALPHA 0.G JOB SAT AVERAGE. MEASURES INTERNALLY CONSISTANT.75 VARIABLES NOT DISTINCT .MEAN.G. CORRELATED • FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONAL DATA E.82.59 MEASURES VALIDITY-IF>0.VARIANCE OF VARIABLES E..MIN. • INFERENTIAL STATS:PEARSON CORRELATION.BELOW 0.

SIG.0.EQUITY.3 H0:U1=U2=U3 INTERVAL SCALE ANOVA T.EXAMPLE CONT… • E.JOB ENRICH • HYPOTHESIS TEST 1:NO DIFFERENCE BET.MEN AND WOMEN IN PERCEIVED EQUITY Ho:Uw=Um t-Test TCAL=0. . ITL IS NEGATIVELY CORREL TO JOB SAT.2.05 T=1.75<T • DF=171.96 H0 ACCEPTED • HYPOTHESIS 2:JOB SATISFACTION IRRESPETIVE OF SHIFTS1.G.

16 <2.7 H0accepted df=2.04 D=3-1=2.25 .DF=171-12-4=159 • HYPOTHESIS 3:NO DIFFERENCE IN ITL OF EMPLOYEES AT 5 JOB LEVELS H0:U1=U2=U3=U4=U5ANOVA TESTfcal1.25<fcrit2.0.171-4=167 • HYPOTHESIS 4:SHIFTS WORKED AND EMPLOYEE STATUS CHI SQUARE TEST SINCE NOMINAL VARIABLE X^2=2.03 k=51.327FCRIT=3 H REJECTED.SIG=0.37 H0 ACCEPTED p=.sig.EXAMPLE CON… • FCAL=3.

• HYPOTHESIS 5:4 VARIABLES DO NOT SIGNIFICANTLY EXPLAIN VARIANCE IN ITL-MULTIPLE CORREL ANALYSIS R CORREL.OF VARIABLES 0..7>FCRIT HO REJECTED .DF4=5-1.DF156=160-4 F=2.EXAMPLE CONT.3 VARIANCE SIG.R^2=0.58.001.4 FCAL=16.

G.STAT NAVIGATOR.HELP IN CHOICE OF TEST • THE TYPE OF TEST DEPENDS ON HYPOTHESIS. • THEY ALSO HELP IN RESEARCH DESIGN .COST AND BENEFIT • EXPERT SYSTEMS HELP CHOOSE APPROPRIATE PROCEDURE AND TESTS E.SCALE.

• • • • • • • • • • • RESEARCH PROPOSAL OUTLINE PURPOSE SPONSOR USES RESEARCH BENEFITS TYPES OF PRPOSALS STRUCTURING PROPOSALS PROBLEM STATEMENT RESEARCH OBJECTIVES LITERATURE REVIEW BENEFITS OF STYDY RESEARCH DESIGN D ATA ANALYSIS 135 .

PROPOSAL OUTLINE.. • • • • • • • • • • NATURE/FORM OF RESULTS QUALIFICATION OF RESEARCHER BUDGET SCHEDULE FACILITIES/SPECIAL RESOURCES PROJECT MANAGEMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT EVALUATING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL .

DESIGN AND FITNESS TO RESAERCH • BASIS TO EVALUATE RESULTS • WORKPLAN . • PURPOSE.INTERPRET.ANALYSIS.TIME AND BUDGET ESTIMATES .PURPOSE OF PROPOSAL • • • • THE PROPOSAL INDICATES: SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH PROBLEM RELATED RESEARCH OF OTHERS DATA NEEDED..METHODS OF COLLECT.

SMALL SCALE OR LARGE SCALE STUDY • EXTERNAL EXPLORATORY.QUALIFICATIONS. .DOCTORAL THESIS • INTERNAL EXPLORATION.RES.TYPES OF PROPOSALSCOMPLEXITY • STUDENT TERM PAPER.PROJECT MANAGEMENT.THESIS. BUDGET.SMALL TO LARGE SCALE CONTRACT • GOVT SPONSORED STUDY NEEDS ALL MODULES • DOCTORAL THESIS DOES NOT NEED SUMMARY.

BACKGROUND.BENEFITS OF STUDY • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:PURPOSE OF RESAERCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS SPONSOR SPECIFIC CONCRETE AND ACHIEVABLE GOALS LISTED IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE . IMPORTANCE.STRUCTURE OF PROPOSAL • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:INFO ABSTRACT FOR EXECUTIVE EVALUATION STATING PROBLEM.BENEFITS OF RESAERCH APPROACH • PROBLEM STATEMENT:STATE PROBLEM.OBJECTIVES.CONSEQUENCES.

STRUCTURE CON… • LIT.REVIEW:HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT.RELATED RESEARCH.INSTRUMENTS.SAMPLE SELECTION. ANALYSIS PROCEDURE .DATA COLL.RECENT.DATA.REPORTS AS BASIS OF PROPOSED STUDY.DISCUSS • IMPORTANCE/BENEFITS OF STUDY:A FEW PARAS HOW STUDY WOULD BENEFIT THE SPONSOR • RESEARCH DESIGN:TECHNICAL DETAILS OF PHASES OF THE PROJECT.METHODS.

PLANS.CONTRACTUAL STATEMENT ACHIEVED. . ENTIRE RESUME IF SPCIFICALLY ASKED • BUDGET:1-2 PAGES SUB HEADINGS NEED.COMPLETION-PERT PLAN. CONCLUSIONS.RELEVANT EXPER.MODELS • RESEARCHER QUALIFICATIONS: ACACDEMIC.DURATION. • SCHEDULE:MAJOR PHASES.STRUCTURE CON… • DATA ANALYSIS:FOR COMPLEX RESEARCH STUDIES -METHODS/TESTS • NATURE/FORM RESULTS:TO SEE IF OBJECTIVE OF STUDY. ACTION PLANS. MILESTONES.

EASILY UNDERSTOOD PROBLEM STATEMENT .SCHEDULE.SAMPLE OF MEASURING INSTRUMENT • EVALUATION:CRITERIA ESTABLISHED BEFORE PROPOSAL RECEIVED.COMPETENCY • BIBLIOGRAPHY:STANDARD FORMAT RESEARCH AND QUOTATIONS • APPENDICES:GLOSSARY.REPORTING .NEATLY PRESENTED.CONTROL PROCEDURES.GUIDELINES FOR BUDGET.STRUCTURE CON… • PROJECT MANAGEMENT:TEAM ORG RESPONSIBILITIES.LOGICALLY ORGANIZED.

STATISTICS –OUT LINE • • • • • • DESCRIPTIVE STATS FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY MEASURES OF DISPERSION INFERENTIAL STATS CORRELATION ANALYSIS REGRESSION ANALYSIS • TESTS OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES 143 • TEST OF SIGNIFICANT MEAN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS .

SHAPE DESCRIBE DISTRIBUTIONS • DISTRIBUTION:THE VALUES ALONGWITH FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE • STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION:MOST PHENOMENA TEND TO CLUSTER AROUND MEAN-INVERTED BELL SHAPED CURVE • MEAN:ARITHMATIC AVERAGE-FOR INTERVAL AND RATIO DATA • MEDIAN:MIDPOINT OF A DISTRIBUTION – ORDINAL DATA .DISPERSION.DESCRIPTIVE STATS • CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRAL TENDENCY.

FIRST AND THIRD QUARTILE OF DITRIBUTION-ORDINAL DATA .DESCRIPTIVE CONT… • MODE:MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURRING VALUE-NOMINAL DATA • VARIANCE:AVERAGE OF SQUARED DEVIATION SCORES FROM DISTRIBUTION’S MEAN • STANDARD DEVIATION:SQUARE ROOT OF VARIANCE • RANGE:DIFFERENCE BET.LARGEST AND SMALLEST SCORE IN A DISTRIBUTIONORDINAL DATA • INTER QUARTILE RANGE DIFF BETW.

1-WITHIN RANGE • COMPUTE THE CALCULATED DIFFERENCE VALUE:APPROPRIATE SIGNIFICANCE TEST E.POPULATION. t TEST.STATISTICAL TESTS • PROCEDURE: • STATE NULL HYPOTHESIS • CHOOSE THE STATS TEST:DEPENDS ON EFFICIENCY.CHI SQUARE TEST ETC.G. .0010.SAMPLE DRAW.SCALE • SELECT LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE:0.

STATISTICAL CON… • OBTAIN THE CRITICAL VALUE FROM TABLES FOR REGION OF REJECTION/ACCEPTANCE OF NULL HYPOTHESIS • MAKE THE DECISION:FOR MOST TESTS IF CALCULATED VALUE IS LARGER THAN CRITICAL VALUE WE REJECT NULL HYPOTHESIS .

.TEST SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE/DIFFERENCE IF DIFF DOES NOT REPRESENT SAMPLING FLUCTUATION ONLY • NON PARAMETRIC TESTS FOR NOMINAL AND ORDINAL DATA-CHI SQUARE • PARAMETRIC TESTS FOR INTERVAL/RATIO SCALES AND RELIABLE . • STAT. POPULATION NORMAL DISTRIBUTION.STATIST.INDEPENDENT OBSERVATIONS. EQUAL VARIANCES OF POPULATION .TESTS CONT.

HOW SEVERAL IVs MIGHT EXPLAIN THE VARIANCE IN A DV • MEASURING DEGREE OF RELATIOSHIP BETWEEN 2 VARIABLES IS CORRELATION ANALYSIS • USING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A KNOWN VARIABLE AND AN UNKNOWN VARIABLE TO ESTIMATE THE UNKNOWN IS REGRESSION ANALYSIS . DIFFERENCE AMONG VARIABLES FROM SUBGROUPS.INFERENTIAL STATS • TO KNOW FROM ANALYSIS THE RELATIONSHIP BETW.VARIABLES.

PEARSON PROD.CORRELATION
• SHOWS DIRECTION,STRENGHT,SIGNIFICANC E OF REL. OF 2 VARIABLES • +1 TO –1,SIGNIFICANCE 0.001-0.1 • r= SUM [X-x][Y-y]/[N-1].Sx.Sy • FOR SMALL SAMPLES SAMPLING ERROR BELOW r=0.5

T-TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE
• WHEATHER r IS CHANCE DEVIATION FROM A POPULATION • FOR INDEPEND.SAMPLE,NORMAL DISTRIBUTION,BIVARIATE • Ho:P=0 NO CORRELATION • t=r/square root[1-r^2]/n-2=0.93/10.86/8^1/2=7.03 • CRITICAL VALUE df 2 and p=0.005 CALCULATED VALUE>2*CRIT.VALUE,NULL HYPOTHESIS REJECTED

CHI SQUARE TEST
• USED TO FIND RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NOMINAL VARIABLES • BY SMALL SAMPLE SIZE CHI SQUARE=SUM[O-E]^2/E. O=OBSERVED E=ESTIMATED VALUE • E.G 4 RETIRE.PLANS [P]INDEPENDENT OF 3CLASSES OF EMPLOYEES df=[4-1][3-1]=6 • CALCULATED VALUE28.08>CRITICAL VALUE 12.593 • NULL HYPOTHESIS REJECTED

CORRELATION OF JOB ACCIDENT AND SMOKING PHI=SQUARE ROOT CHI SQUARE/N=SQUARE ROOT 6. • E. • WHEN OBSERVED VALUES OF X TAKEN TO ESTIMATE CORRESPON. Y VALUES IT IS SIMPLE REGRESSION • BY MORE THAN ONE VARIABLES IT WOULD BE MULTIPLE REGRESSION.LINEAR REGRESSION PHI T.G.305 • MODERATE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES . • CHI SQUARE BASED BIVARIATE T.11257/60=0.

98.FOR HOSPITALS O. O.VAL.WHEATHER TWO DIFFERENT SAMPLE MEANS COME FROM THE SAME POPULATION • F DISTRIBUTION VARIES WITH df ACCOUNT FOR ENUMERATOR AND DENOMINATOR.99<3.54 ACCEPT Ho .G RECOVERY DAYS NOT INFLUENCED BY 3 TYPES TREATMENTS IN 4 HOSPITALS:COMP. • E.ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE • WHEN 2 OR MORE POPULATION MEANS HYPOTHESIS IS TESTED FOR ANOVA .63<3.TREATM.

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS • FOR COMPLETE BUSINESS PROBLEMS MULTIPLE IV AND DV E.MULTIPLE REGRESS.CLUSTER ANALYSIS.OR DISCRIMINATORY TECHNIQUES FOR INTERDEPENDENT VARIABLES USE :FACTOR ANALYSIS.G.BUYER PREFERENCES/PRODUCT OPTIONS USE MANOVA.MULTIDIMENSION SCALING FOR METRIC DATA USE SCALES :INTERVAL AND RATIO FOR NONMETRIC DATA USE NOMINAL AND ORDINAL SCALES .

FAMILY LOCATION X3INFLUENCE ON ANN FAMILY FOOD SPENDING Y • IF B1=0.HAS ANN FAMILY INCOME X1.X1+B2.HYPOTHESIS TEST AND FOR ESTIMATING • Y=Bo+B1.MULTPLE REGRESSION • FOR DESCRIPTION.G.FAMILY SIZE X2.6 B2=0.2 X1 HAS 3TIMES INFLUENCE ON Y THAN X2 .X2+…Bn+Xn WHERE Bs ARE REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS • E.

professional skill[x3] Di=o+0.xp e.45x2+0.ADMINISTRATOR SUCCESSFUL OR NOT[Di].g.3x3 x1 is more important than x2.6 x1+0.x2+….x3 • MANOVA USED TO DIFFERENTIATE RELATIONOF 2 OR MORE DV AND FACTORS .ability to work with others[x1].x1+d2.motivation for administration[x2].dp.DISCRIMANT ANALYSIS • FIND PREDICTORS FOR BEST ANALYSIS OF SUBSETS • JOINS NOMINAL DV WITH I OR MORE INTERRVAL/RATIO SCALED VARIABLES • Di=do+d1.

NOT CORRELATED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT • SECOND COMPONENT AND LINEAR COMBINATION TILL 100% VARIANCE IS ACCOUNTED FOR . • FACTOR ANALYSIS:REDUCE MANY FACTORS TO MANAGEABLE WITH OVERLAPPING CHARACTERISTICS • REPLACE DEPENDENT RELATIONSHIPS TO MATRIX OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS BY PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS • TRANSFORM SET OF VARIABLES TO NEW SET VARIABLES.INTERDEPENDENT TECH.

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