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Based on Basic Engineering Thermodynamics by T.Roy Chowdhury, Tata McGrawHill Inc.,1988
- D Viswanath
Contents 1 Q and A in Aerodynamics and Thermodynamics 1.1 1.2 1.3 Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 1 Q and A in Aerodynamics and Thermodynamics
1.1 1.2 Aerodynamics Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics can be deﬁned as the science that deals with the interaction between energy and material systems. It is important in analysis and understanding of compressible ﬂow. Classical thermodynamics deals with systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. (2) Deﬁne a perfect gas. A gas is a collection of particles (molecules, atoms, ions, electrons etc.)which are more or less in random motion. Due to electronic structure of these particles, a force ﬁeld pervades the space around them. The force ﬁeld due to one particle reaches out and interacts with neighboring particles and vice versa. Hence these ﬁelds are called intermolecular forces. If the particles of the gas are far enough apart, the intermolecular forces is small and can be neglected. A gas in which the intermolecular forces are neglected is deﬁned as a perfect gas. 1
(1) What is thermodynamics?
(3) Give the equation of state for a perfect gas. For a perfect gas, pressure, density and temperature are related through the equation of state given by p = ρRT where R is the speciﬁc gas constant=287 J/(kg.K ). Its counterpart is pv = RT where v is volume =1 rho (4) Deﬁne internal energy. The sum of all the energies of all the molecules in a ﬁnite volume of gas is deﬁned as the internal energy of the gas denoted E . The internal energy per unit mass of gas is deﬁned as the speciﬁc internal energy denoted e. (5) Deﬁne enthalpy A quantity related to speciﬁc internal energy is the speciﬁc enthalpy denoted by h and deﬁned as h = e + pv (6) Deﬁne caloriﬁcally perfect gas. For a perfect gas, internal energy and enthalpy are functions of temperature only. e = cv T h = cp T (1.4) (1.5) (1.3) (1.2) (1.1)
where cv is speciﬁc heat at constant volume and cp is speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. A perfect gas where cv and cp are constants is deﬁned as caloriﬁcally perfect gas. (7) What is the diﬀerence between external combustion process and internal combustion process? 2
In external combustion process, working ﬂuid is entirely separated from the air-fuel mixture whereas in internal combustion process, the working ﬂuid consists of the products of combustion of the air-fuel mixture. Examples: External-steam engines, steam turbine, nuclear power plant, closed cycle gas turbine etc. Internal - reciprocating type IC engines and rotary type open cycle gas turbines. (8) What are the two types of reciprocating IC engines? Spark-ignition and compression-ignition IC engines. (9) List the series of operations in two and four stroke cycle. Four stroke cycle consists of Suction stroke, compression stroke, power or expansion stroke and exhaust stroke and takes two revolutions of crank shaft. In two-stroke, suction and exhaust strokes are omitted and the power and compression strokes are completed in one revolution of crank shaft. Theoretically, power obtained from two-stroke is twice that obtained from four stroke. (10) Explain refrigeration process. The process of refrigeration consists of removal of heat from a low temperature region and transfer of heat to a high temperature region. It works mainly on two processes namely - vapor compression and vapor absorption. (11) How many laws are there in thermodynamics? What do they deal with? There are four laws of thermodynamics. Zeroth law introduces the concept of temperature. First law introduces the concept of internal energy. Second law introduces the concept of entropy. Third law enables the evaluation of absolute entropy. There is no mathematical proof for these laws. (12) Deﬁne system. A system is a prescribed region of space or a ﬁxed quantity of matter. (13) Deﬁne boundary. The system is surrounded by an envelope known as boundary.
(14) Deﬁne surroundings or environment. Everything external to the boundary or adjacent to it is called the surroundings or environment. (15) Deﬁne universe. The combined system and environment is known as universe. (16) What are the three classes of systems in thermodynamics? Closed system, Open system and isolated system. (17) Deﬁne a closed system. If the boundary of a system permits energy to cross it (i.e., heat and work) but is impervious to the ﬂow of matter i.e., no mass crosses the boundary of the system, the system is a closed system. (18) Deﬁne an open system. Open system is one in which matter, work, and heat cross the boundary of the system. (19) Deﬁne an isolated system. An isolated system is one in which matter, work or heat cannot cross the boundary of the system. Thus it is independent of all changes that can take place in the environment. (20) Deﬁne an adiabatic process. An adiabatic process is one in which no heat is added to or taken away from the system. If a system is thermally insulated from its surroundings it becomes an adiabatic system. It can however exchange work with the surroundings. (21) Deﬁne path. Path is the complete series of states through which the system passes during a change from one given state to another state. (22) Deﬁne process. The transformation of a system from one ﬁxed state to another is called a process. (23) Deﬁne a quasi-static process. If a process is carried out in such a way that the deviation from thermal equilibrium is inﬁnitesimal, such a process is called quasi-static. 4
(24) Deﬁne a reversible process. A reversible process is one in which no dissipative phenomena occur. The eﬀects of viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diﬀusion are absent. Hence all the states of the system pass through quasi-static process, i.e., a succession of equilibrium states. If the system passes through a series of non-equilibrium states during a process where eﬀects of viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diﬀusion are present, then the process is called irreversible. (25) List out the various thermodynamic processes. Isobaric (constant pressure) Isothermal(constant temperature) Isochoric(constant volume) Isentropic(reversible and adiabatic) polytropic throttling processes. (26) Deﬁne an isentropic process.
(27) What is an isocline?
(28) Deﬁne a cycle. A cycle is a process whose initial and ﬁnal states are the same. Thus all the properties of the working ﬂuid have the same values at the beginning and end of a cycle. (29) What are the two types of cycles? Thermodynamic and mechanical cycle. A thermodynamic cycle is one in which the chemical composition of the working ﬂuid during a process does not change. Thus all the properties in the initial and ﬁnal states remain unchanged. Example: Water that circulates through a steam power plant. Refrigerant that passes through a refrigeration plant. A mechanical cycle is one in which the properties of the working ﬂuid change during the process. 5
Examples: In internal combustion engine, air and fuel are burnt in the engine and converted into combustion products at the end of the cycle. Thus the properties of the working ﬂuid change and their end states are not the same. (30) Deﬁne work. Work is a form of energy. It is equal to the product of force and distance moved in the direction of force. (31) Deﬁne power. Power is deﬁned as rate at which work is done. (32) Deﬁne heat. Heat is a form of energy which crosses the boundary of the system due to the diﬀerence of temperature between the system and its environment. When heat ﬂows into a system it is positive and vice versa. (33) Deﬁne entropy.
(34) Deﬁne enthalpy.
(35) Deﬁne calorie. A calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 deg C to 15.5 deg C at a pressure of one standard atmosphere. (36) Deﬁne conduction mode of heat transfer.
(37) Deﬁne convection mode of heat transfer.
(38) Deﬁne radiation mode of heat transfer.
(39) Deﬁne property. Property is deﬁnes as any observable characteristic of the system. Example pressure, volume, temperature (thermodynamic properties). Two types of properties that cannot be measured or observed are internal energy and entropy. 6
(40) What are the categories of thermodynamic properties? Intensive and extensive. (41) Deﬁne pressure. Pressure is deﬁned as the normal force exerted by a system on a unit area of its boundary. (42) Deﬁne standard atmospheric pressure. The standard atmospheric pressure is deﬁned as the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high. (43) State the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. The zeroth law states that if a system A is in thermal equilibrium with systems B and C , then the systems B and C are in turn in thermal equilibrium. On the basis of this law, it is possible to compare the temperatures of two bodies B and C with the help of a third body A (example thermometer). Hence the law forms the basis of temperature measurement. (44) Deﬁne a pure substance. A pure substance in thermodynamics is deﬁned as one that has invariable chemical composition in all phases, solid, liquid and gas. (45) State the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. When a closed system undergoes any cyclic process, the cyclic integral of work is proportional to the cyclic integral of heat. In simple terms, the net work input to the system is always proportional to the heat transferred out of the system. Thus heat and work can be measured in same units. From ﬁrst law-energy can neither be created nr destroyed. It only transforms from one form to another. (46) Deﬁne energy. Energy of the system E is the diﬀerence between heat transferred to the system Q and work done by the system W. (47) What is the limitation of ﬁrst law of thermodynamics.
(48) What are the two important statements of second law of thermodynamics. Kevin-planck statement and Clausius statement. (49) State Kevin-Plank’s Law. It is impossible to construct an engine which while operating in a cyclic process, will produce no eﬀect other than transfer of heat from a single thermal reservoir and the performance of an equivalent amount of work. In simple terms, it is impossible to construct a heat engine with 100 per cent eﬃciency. The rest of the heat must be rejected to a low temperature reservoir and hence for the operation of a heat engine at least two reservoirs at diﬀerent temperatures are essential. (50) State Clausius’s Law. It is impossible to construct a heat pump which while operating in a cyclic process, will produce no eﬀect other than the transference of heat from a low temperature thermal reservoir to a high temperature thermal reservoir. This implies that in order to transfer heat from a low temperature reservoir to high temperature thermal reservoir, work must be done on the system by the surroundings. (51) State the third law of thermodynamics. The third law states that when a system is at zero absolute temperature, the entropy of the system is zero. (52) Explain change in entropy Entropy is disorder. In an irreversible process, change in entropy dS is greater than In a reversible process, dS =
δQ . T δQ T
Hence eﬀect of irreversibility is to increase entropy. For isolated system δQ = 0. Hence (dS )isolated ≥ 0, i.e., entropy either increases or remains constant for isolated system. (53) State Clausius Inequality.
(54) State Carnot’s theorem.
(55) Explain Carnot’s cycle.
(1) Distinguish between solid, liquid and hybrid propellants. (2) Distinguish between turbojet, ramjet and scram jets. (3) Distinguish between piston engines, turbo-propeller engines and turbojet engines. (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) 10
(22) (23) (24) (25)
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