LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

CURS PRACTIC

ENGLISH PRACTICAL COURSE

Asist. univ. Larisa PINTILIE

INTRODUCTION Equally due to the general bias and specificity (as the main applied component of the curriculum), and to the inherent interdisciplinary perspective, the course compulsorily implies the integration of the following coordinates of design: - various activities targeted upon actualizing, refining and/or supplementing certain areas of knowledge within the fields of (derivational) morphology, syntax and semantics by means of restructuring, reshaping, and resizing information in accordance to a strictly applied orientation, and thus creating a functional interface with theoretical disciplines; - a focus upon improving and diversifying the students’ training in translation practice, with the entailing beneficial effects upon the enriching of specialized language vocabulary in various domains; - exercising the abilities involved in the complex analysis of content and in text commentary, activating the deductive, intuitive and communicative skills, testing coherence and logical processes in ideation and argumentation, stimulating the creative potential. In close relationship with the last issue, the structure of the course will also include several topics (and guidelines) for essays and/or debates. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE The characteristic of the course being the pre-eminently applied dimension, its central goal resides in enhancing linguistic performance at lexical-semantic, grammatical (phonetic, morphological, syntactic), and stylistic levels. In order to improve actualizing abilities, both the systematic acquisition of new information, and the sustained activation, development and integration of already acquired knowledge are going to be envisaged. By means of the diverse thematic content and the selected texts, a certain benefit in terms of students’ general cultural background is also targeted.

GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE UNITS AND MODULES The macro-structural organization of the course consists of six broadly encompassing units (see Contents of the course). These units are all internally articulated in conformity to an iterative sequence of didactic modules (the text, vocabulary, grammar, essay / debate modules), the methodological characteristic of which resides in their more often than not presupposing an integrative level in what concerns the basic skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing). Therefore, a unit will (in general) contain: a) a text of 1½-2 pages – constituting the nucleus of the unit, and representing the object of a complex analysis (lexical and grammatical aspects, relevant stylistic features, content commentary –, which text will be preceded by introductory requirements featuring a thematically orienting role, and followed by a set of assignments meant to facilitate and guide the analysis; b) vocabulary study and practice; c) the grammar section (brief theoretical presentation / revision and exercises); d) topics for essays / debates

CONTENTS OF THE COURSE
LIFE AND TECHNOLOGY Pilot text: Computers Will Know Us Better than We Know Ourselves, National Post Grammar Module: The Article (The Definite Article; The Indefinite Article; The Zero Article) MAN AS ARTIST Pilot text: The Listener, by John Berry Grammar Module: The Noun (Classification of Nouns; Number of Nouns; Case of Nouns. The Genitive; Gender of Nouns) MAN IN THE MIDST OF NATURE Pilot text: Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine, by D. H. Lawrence Grammar Module: The Adjective (Comparison of Adjectives; Classification of Adjectives; Position of Adjectives; Adjective order) THE SUPERNATURAL. ANSWERS FROM BEYOND REALITY. (I) Pilot text: The Canterville Ghost by Oscar Wilde Grammar Module: The Pronoun (I) (The personal pronoun; The possessive pronoun and the possessive adjective; The interrogative pronoun and the interrogative adjective; The demonstrative pronoun and the demonstrative adjective) THE SUPERNATURAL. ANSWERS FROM BEYOND REALITY. (II) Pilot text: The Monk by Matthew Gregory Lewis Grammar Module: The Pronoun (II) (The reflexive pronoun; The reciprocal pronoun; The indefinite pronoun and the indefinite adjective) SCIENCE. ANSWERS FROM REALITY. (I) Pilot text: The Five Frontiers of Space by Edward C. Stone Grammar Module: The Numeral (The Cardinal Numeral; The Ordinal Numeral; The Fractional Numeral; The Multiplicative Numeral)

SCIENCE. ANSWERS FROM REALITY. (II) Pilot text: Earliest Fire Sheds Light on Hominids by Nadja Neumann Grammar Module: The Verb (I) Tenses of the Indicative Mode (Present Simple; Present Continuous; Present Perfect Simple; Present Perfect Continuous) LAW, CULTURE AND CONVENTIONS. ANSWERS FROM THE OTHERS. (I) Pilot text: How a Law-less ‘Data Haven’ Is Using Law to Protect Itself
by Gary Slapper

Grammar Module: The Verb (II) Tenses of the Indicative Mode (Past Simple; Past Continuous; Past Perfect Simple; Past Perfect Continuous) LAW, CULTURE AND CONVENTIONS. ANSWERS FROM THE OTHERS. (II) Pilot text: Crome Yellow by Aldous Huxley Grammar Module: The Verb (III) Tenses of the Indicative Mode (Future Simple; Future Continuous; Future Perfect Simple; Future in the Past; Other means of expressing the future) LAW, CULTURE AND CONVENTIONS. ANSWERS FROM THE OTHERS. (III) Pilot text: Of the Effects of Custom by David Hume Grammar Module: Sequence of Tenses THE ESSAY - Guidelines in academic writing GLOSSARY OF TERMS REFERENCES

Life and Technology Computers Will Know Us Better than We Know Ourselves, National Post
The day is not far off when your computer will be a better judge of your mood and desires than your spouse, according to some of the top minds in the computer industry. "Computers will know us better than we know ourselves and will make the best decisions for us", said Ted Selker, an IBM Fellow. "It's already starting to happen." He envisions a personal computer that knows when you're happy or sad. Or a clothing rack in a department store that understands your tastes and preferences better than you do. Or a car phone that knows not to distract you when you're weaving through traffic. Or even a steak knife that sniffs out bad meat before you eat it. Selker recently organized a gathering of the industry's elite at IBM's Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California, for the seventh annual New Paradigms for Using Computers Workshop. The event attracted such visionaries as Gordon Bell of Microsoft and Will Wright, creator of the popular SimCity software game. Rosalind Picard, a presenter at the conference and a professor at the Massachussets Institute of Technology Media Lab, said we are fast approaching the age of "affective computing". Essentially, this means people will begin to interact with computers the same way they do with other humans. "When someone gives you advice at a bad time or when you're really busy, you may try to ignore them or glare at them to go away", said Picard. "Usually, they'll get the gist and back off." Computers do not have the emotional intelligence to pick up on these signals. These days computers that try to show signs of "intelligence" often end up by being annoying. For example, a user of Microsoft Word may occasionally be bombarded with random messages that pop up on the screen with instructions on how to work with the software. There is nothing to prevent the messages appearing at a time when the user does not want to be disturbed. That's why a host of technologists, including Picard, are striving to teach computers to recognize human feelings and react in the appropriate manner. So how should a computer act? According to Picard, it should act like a dog.

" said Chris Dryer of IBM. As for a practical application. July 31/1999 . say the scientists of IBM. your dog will somehow sense that and assume an empathetic position." he said. The tracking system is called "Blue Eyes."When you come home from work. sad." But do we really want our computers to think and feel and act like us? In the words of one conference participant: "The world is artificial enough. for example. Suitor carefully follows the user's gaze to determine his or her interests and information needs. must give the illusion of empathy and sympathy. Through a miniature camera embedded in a monitor. "I can get these things for a couple bucks. angry." San Francisco Chronicle National Post. computer intelligence is not science fiction. your dog is so happy to see you. Selker said. I fear we'll be drifting off even farther into a world of fake emotions and feelings. "But if you're in a bad mood. Though still a prototype." If you are reading an online magazine. "The goal of a call centre manager is to take his people off the job before they go berserk. fearful or perplexed. IBM believes the product could be ideal for people who work in call centres. the Emotion Mouse may be ready to hit the market within two years." she said. too. Suitor can monitor your eye gaze to determine where on the screen you are looking and then do an external web search on its own to find additional information about that topic. IBM displayed for the first time its Emotion Mouse." At the workshop." IBM is also in the early stages of piloting another intelligent system called Simple User Interest Tracker (Suitor) that pays attention to a computer user's behaviour and actions. Machines. "The price of sensors and cameras has gone way down. "Emotion Mouse can sense when call centre reps are getting frustrated and can let them know they should take a break. which can measure heart rate and body temperature and ultimately sense whether the user is happy. Though still in its infancy.

d) This country is going to rack and ruin. mouse" is concerned.  Look up the following words in a dictionary. a) My dressmaker made me an off the rack suit. Give synonyms of the italicised phrasal verb in the following sentences. b) After the car accident she is on the rack.APPLICATIONS  Reading Comprehension 1. Paraphrase the following sentences. . Which is the main idea of the article? Make up a list of "for" and "against" arguments as far as the "emotion What is "Blue Eyes"? And how do you think it will change man's life? Do you agree or disagree with the final statement? Argument your answer. Give other collocations with "rank". 4. • • • • • to envision rack berserk to weave gist artificial to sniff empathy fake to glare infancy additional to strive spouse ultimately  Vocabulary Practice 1. We need a change of Government. 2. 2. a) I wouldn't sniff at a chance of a job. b) He sniffed up the cocaine in no time. 3. c) I have been racking my brains trying to remember his name.

an) sunt forme neflexibile (nu au desinenţe) şi proclitice (aşezate înaintea substantivului). The girl was very pretty.c) The police sniffed out the kidnapper. -le (femeile. Atunci când este puternic subliniat. the mountainmuntele. la plural. fie printr-o formă „zero". ceasul). castelul). florile) etc. podoaba). -le (peretele. scaietele). merii).  Grammar Module The Article (Articolul) Articolul este determinantul cel mai frecvent al substantivului şi în limba engleză modernă el poate fi reprezentat fie prin forme explicite. sau. the wall -peretele. not 'that'). uniunea. the hour -ora. implicit sau neexprimată (articolul zero). scaieţii. -a (tabla. zidul. Uses of the definite article: a) with nouns already mentioned or known to the speaker: I saw a girl at the window. the straw hat -pălăria de paie) sau semiconsonantice (the union -unirea. The se pronunţă [tză:] înaintea sunetelor (nu a literelor) consonantice (the house -casa. -ua (sacaua. daraua). the honour -onoarea. echivalentul articolului hotărât enclitic din limba română -ul (omul. the eye -ochiul. pomul. the university -universitatea) şi [tzi] înaintea sunetelor vocalice (the orchid -orhideea. 1. Atât articolul hotărât (the) cât şi cel nehotărât (a. the se citeşte [tzi:] (I said 'the'. masa. The Definite Article (Articolul hotărât) Articolul hotărât din limba engleză este the. exprimate (articolul hotărât şi articolul nehotărât). the important question -chestiunea importantă. -ii (pomii. . The form of the definite article: The English definite article is the: the man the egg the clock the heir 2.

Have you fed the dog? b) with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase. Mr. rivers. She can play the piano. the Comet l) with proper nouns denoting newspapers and magazines: . or an apposition: The letter from London arrived yesterday. seas. is a Welshman. the postman. c) with adjectives in the superlative degree. if they are in the plural. nationality. shops. The good is often forgotten. John. g) with proper nouns in the plural. chains of mountains. the English Channel. f) with nouns converted from adjectives. the United Kingdom i) with proper nouns denoting groups of islands. the Alps. denoting a family: The Browns are nice people. or an abstraction: We should help the poor. planes: the Queen Mary. h) with proper nouns denoting countries. straits: the Bahamas. the Straits of Dover j) with proper nouns denoting hotels. the Orient Express. deserts. or if they represent a union: the Netherlands. The Thames. trains. denoting a class. the Sahara. oceans. institutions: the Hilton. the Midland Bank k) with proper nouns denoting ships. The French love wine. d) with nouns considered unique: The sun rises in the east. a relative clause. the British Museum. the United States. the Suaz Canal. This is the oldest building in town. channels. canals. This is the man who gave me the book. the Black Sea. the Pacific Ocean. e) with singular nouns used in their general sense: The horse is a useful animal.

in the afternoon .un om cinstit). Ele precedă substantivul: an apple. to tell the truth . Uses of the indefinite article a) with nouns representing a single item of a class: Give me a pen. on the whole – in general.The Time. a university . A se pronunţă [ă:] (forma slabă) sau [ei] (forma tare).Am spus un ochi.apropo. a window .o fereastră. de exemplu: I said an [aen] eye . a good man . an hour . before a word beginning with a vowel: a man a wall 2. iar an . echivalentul articolului nehotărât din limba română un şi o (un om. for the time being .sunt articole proclitice. in treacat fie spus. an honest fellow . an. please! b) instead of the numeral ‘one’: I’ve bought a table and four chairs.pentru moment. înaintea celor care încep cu un sunet vocalic (an apple .o universitate). and an.o problemă/chestiune importantă.o oră. an egg a bad egg . in the country .un om bun. at the seaside . to play the fool – a face pe prostul. in the evening. The Observer m) in phrases: to tell the time – a spune ora. deocamdată.un măr.[ă:n] (forma slabă) sau [aen] (forma tare).seara The Indefinite Article (Articolul nehotărât) Articolul nehotărât din limba engleză este a. in the morning – dimineaţa.la ţară.o hartă. an important issue . on the one hand – pe deo parte. 1. to pass the time . A şi an .1) a spune adevărul 2) de fapt. before a word beginning with a consonant or semivowel.la munte. iar an.ca şi un şi o din limba română . in the mountains . The forms of the indefinite article The English indefinite article is a.a-şi (pe)trece vremea. Forma tare a articolului nehotărât implică sublinierea. o nava). la drept vorbind.după-amiaza. A se foloseşte înăintea cuvintelor care încep cu un sunet consonantic sau semiconsonantic (a map .la mare. by the way .

class: She is a student.fără un ban. multe. as a matter of fact . lend me a hand ..a nu slăbi (ceva) din ochi. without a penny .(a munci mai multe ore) în şir. de exemplul: (-) Peter is a student.(pentru) un timp.odată ca niciodată. all of a sudden – brusc. f) with proper nouns denoting an unknown person. as a rule .. to take an interest in –a avea un interes. g) in phrases: to be in a hurry – a se grabi. (to work several hours) at a stretch .cu/în scopul de a. numeroase substantive apar în propoziţie neînsoţite de nici un articol. to have a headache – a avea o durere de cap.a face o vizită (cuiva). at a bargain. a little . He is a Christian. d) with nouns denoting a profession.a avea impresia că. (-) Petre e (-) student. Apples are 40p.a răci. o migrena. They called him a fool. The Zero Article (Articolul zero) Atât în limba engleză cât şi în limba română. a pound.din an în Paşte. to pay a call on .ceva. adevărul este (că).câţiva.dă-mi o mână de ajutor.a avea chef să….de fapt. to keep an eye on . for a time . a few . câteva. or a person with certain characteristics: He is a Don Juan. în general. many a (poetic) mulţi. to have an/the impression that . deodata.a da un exemplu. once in a blue moon ... nişte. to set an example .a îndrăgi (ceva). to catch a cold . religion. to take a fancy to . once upon a time . He is a Kennedy.o clipă!. just a moment! . a member of a family.de ocazie. to have a mind to… .de regulă. with a view to (+ -ing) . chilipir.c) with singular nouns used in a general sense: A baby requires special care. fără întrerupere. . e) in certain expressions of measurement: I have English lessons three times a week.

a. bridges: Covent Garden.30. capes: Mount Everest. Waterloo Bridge f) with proper nouns denoting months. days of the week: July is my favorite month. mai exact „lipseşte" un articol exprimat (the. The book is on the chair. g) with proper nouns denoting magazines and periodicals: Newsweek. He is going there at Easter. Teoria fără (-) practică e inutilă/ nefolositoare.30. Punch h) with nouns like school. London d) with proper nouns denoting mountains. Uses of zero article a) with uncountable nouns or plural nouns used in a general sense: Oil is lighter then water. sau. an. We are leaving on Monday. Oxford Street. Books are his best friend. England. when we imply the use made of the building: He goes to school (to learn). (-) Theory without (-) practice is useless. în limba română. prison. -a.) pentru că o anumită funcţie a articolului este întotdeauna prezentă în substantivul respectiv. „Lipsa" sau „absenţa" articolului este însă numai aparentă. Cape Cod e) with proper nouns denoting buildings. b) with proper nouns denoting persons: Mary. Professor Jones c) with proper nouns denoting continents. 1. Lake Superior. lakes. etc.(-) Breakfast is served at 7. streets. un. regions. Richard. Cartea e pe (-) scaun. towns: Europe. -ul. church. . Micul dejun se serveşte la 7. Lancashire. hospital. countries. festivals.

at dawn . to be in trouble – a avea probleme. dinaintea. k) with nouns denoting a profession or an office held at one time by one person only: They appointed him manager.i) with nouns denoting meals and seasons: I have dinner at seven.din când în când. by sea . in silence – in liniste.a trăi de azi pe mâine. in case of . . at sunset – la apus. in front of .a doua zi. by air .cu avionul. in case .în caz de. Spring is coming.cu ajutorul. l) in phrases: from time to time .pe mare. on sale .în cazul când. at night – noaptea.la întâmplare. by land . at random . în comerţ. next week săptămâna viitoare. by mistake – din greseala. last night – aseară. day by day – zi dupa zi.în zori.de vânzare. j) with nouns denoting languages: She speaks English.pe uscat. next day . to live from hand to . by means of .în faţa. înaintea.

.EXERCISES 1. a) the …the b) zero … zero c) a … a 3) I’ve forgotten my watch. Fill in the blanks with the required articles. What is ……… time? a) a b) the c) zero 4) When you are having fun ……… time goes very quickly. 1) Do you like ……… tea with milk? a) zero b) the c) a 2) ………. a) a …a b) the … the c) zero … zero 2. Love is more important than ………work. Supply the required articles. a) zero b) the c) a 5) ……… fruit and ……… vegetables are good for our health.

. In order to survive. to take the trouble. He is consulting with …… authority on urban development. We all admire ……… sincerity. Translate the following phrases. in the end.1) He speaks with ……. to have a good time. to make friends. 4) ……… silver in this ring is of inferior quality. to take part. to take a seat. in time. 2) ……… water used in this beer comes from a special spring. to shake hands. to take place. ……… genius of Edison is universally recognized. great authority on the subject. 5) Everyone was impressed by ………sincerity with which he spoke.. ……… silver is used for money and jewelry. 3) ……… genius is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration. 3. we must have ……… water. to take a walk. on the one hand… on the other hand. in the open air.

The audiences were small. stubborn land. well and good. by John Berry Once there was a puny little Czech concert violinist named Rudolf. Sometimes they were collected by the local schoolteacher. Rudolf was rounding a bleak. he used to sail about Scandinavia in his small boat. first of all. if not. With . all alone. giving concerts in little seaport towns. If he found accompanists. into earnest toil. and even if Rudolf had been really first-rate. It was a hard. and it happened once or twice that he wanted a piano so badly that he imagined one. At any rate. others thought he was restless because he was not the best of musicians. he played works for unaccompanied violin. Too often people sat stolidly watching the noisy little fiddler. they would not have been very demonstrative. dangerous cape. with no piano in sight. who reminded them of their duty to the names of Beethoven and Bach and Mozart and one or two others whose music perhaps was not much heard in those parts. As Rudolf was sailing from one town to the next along a sparsely settled shore. and then he played whole sonatas for violin and piano. but people in those difficult places do not forget the law of hospitality to the stranger--for their God may decree that they too shall become strangers on the face of the earth. A storm was bearing down upon Iceland. and went home feeling gravely edified. protected by cliffs. with no competitors. the northeast turned black and menacing. From ancient times their energy had gone. He was starting to worry when he saw less than a mile off shore.Man as Artist The Listener. and his map told him that the nearest harbor was half a day's journey away. One year Rudolf sailed all the way out to Iceland and began working his way around that rocky coast from one town to another. who lived in Sweden. But they paid. Whether by choice or necessity. he hit upon a way of making a living. a lighthouse on a tiny rock island. At the base of the lighthouse was a deep narrow cove. Some of his friends thought he was not the best of musicians because he was restless.

some difficulty. deliberate. he put in there and moored to an iron ring that hung from the cliff. under the ocean. The duration of light was equal to that of darkness. silent messages of light to the ships at sea. A flight of stairs. feeling suddenly immature as he did so. he had to attend to the great lamp in the tower. led up to the lighthouse. as those elements were not. yet . Above all. but he knew them so well that he did not have to think about them. and eclipsed by shutters at regular intervals. Darkness fell quickly. outlined against the scudding clouds. which they took in the kitchen above the living room. they were like the involuntary movements of his own heart and blood. in the rising seas. His . the two men sat and contemplated each other's presence. so commodiously. hewn out of the rock. gentle and reflective. Rudolf offered tobacco. herring. "You are welcome!" the voice boomed over the sound of the waves that were already beginning to break over the island. In the same way. beneath the simple courtesy that made him speak and listen to his guest in specific ways. he moved without wasted motion about the limited world of which he was the master. when his father was the lighthouse keeper. Slow. After the supper of black bread and boiled potatoes. On top of the cliff. He spoke little. It was a continuous light. and all the islands with one another. then busied himself in preparation for the storm. The storm hammered like a battering ram on the walls of the lighthouse. The lighthouse keeper was a huge old man with a grizzled beard that came down over his chest. cheese and hot tea.was self-contained and without need of anything that was not already within his power or to which he did not relinquish his power. And he sat there. bearlike. as if words had not much importance compared to the other forces that comprised his life. The old man smiled a little as he declined it by a slight movement of the head. it was as if he knew well the uses of tobacco and the need for offering it. that dominated the whole region. he was already calmly and mysteriously a part of him. and above that the great lamp spoke majestic. was halfway apologetic . his great workman hands resting on outspread thighs. The lighthouse keeper led his guest up the spiral stairs to the livin room on the third floor. as surely as the mainland was connected with the little island. Above them was the maintenance room. intensified by reflectors. Gradually Rudolf drew forth the sparse data of the old man's life: He had been born in this very lighthouse eighty-three years before. too. stood a man.here he. Yet he was equable. It seemed to Rudolf that the lighthouse keeper was entirely aware of all the sounds of the storm and of its violent impact upon the lighthouse. and affirmed it all.

" he stammered in a low voice. he stood and began to play--the Kreutzer Sonata of Beethoven. yes. as it were with humility. He had no other books. The old man had sat unmoving through the work. lifted those hands calmly. He reached down and took his beloved violin out of its case. There was not even curiosity about the instrument. Then he looked up. For a second Rudolf thought his host might be joking. his broad gnarled hands resting on his thighs. and the resolution of these in the greatness of the human spire. And.the only woman he had ever known . The ocean seethed over the island with a roar as of many voices." he said. "Yes. Steadily above them the beacon blazed in its sure cycles of darkness and light. "I have heard of it. he had lived in cities. breathing hard. the person. but the serenity of the other's expression reassured him. As a musician. his head bowed. "What do you make with that. "I make . and nodded his head. sir?" the old man asked. Rudolf had not had time to read much either . The moments passed.but then. judiciously. and he read it daily." "One does not see music." the lighthouse keeper consented. and love and a spaciousness infinitely beyond himself. One hears it. The last note ceased and Rudolf dropped his head on his chest. Never before had Rudolf played with such mastery--or with such an accompanist. with the storm as his accompanist. filled him with compassion. "Music. the idea of order. "That is true.had taught him to read the Bible. listening massively.mother ." "Ah. that included his "work. This too was in the nature of things wherein all works were wonders.music with it. and all things were known eternally and were poignant in their transiency. abysses and heights of passionate struggle. yet now he had no inclination to laugh. Then something in the storm and the lighthouse and the old man exalted Rudolf. He wanted to strike a work of fire and stars into being for the old man. Waves and wind beat the tower with giant hands. His wide gray eyes rested upon the little fiddler and conferred upon him all the importance of which any individual is capable. He felt small and inadequate." the old man said ponderously. moments that were days in the creation of that world of fire and stars. But I have never seen music." . but rather a whole interest in him." In most circumstances Rudolf would have found it hard to believe that there could exist someone who did not know what a violin was. For some time he continued to sit in silence.

2. bleak. 3. equable. • • • • • • • to hit upon a way fiddle stubborn to bear down cape sparse(-ly) to moor shutter poignant to hew battering ram gnarled to scud beacon judicious(-ly) to relinquish resolution massively to stammer courtesy steadily  Vocabulary Practice 1. 4. a huge old man with a grizzled beard. 5. Provide synonyms for the following words. equable.APPLICATIONS  Reading Comprehension 1. What can he be perceived as? Which is the significance of "music"?  Look up the following words and phrases in a dictionary. gnarled . Why did Rudolf sail about Scandinavia? What does the violin mean for Rudolf? Consider the following attributes of "the listener": lighthouse keeper. restless. puny.

lucru firesc dacă ne gândim la varietatea infinită de obiecte şi noţiuni de care omul a luat şi ia cunoştinţă în cursul istoriei sale.stâncă. noţiuni abstracte (idea.miel). people.idee. etc. în general. orice „obiect" ce poate fi perceput de simţuri. într-un context). ink-pot. inclusiv în vocabularul limbii engleze. editor-in-chief. Victor. Gramatica trebuie să ţină seama şi de forma acestei părţi de vorbire. de felul cum se asociază cu alte cuvinte-părţi de vorbire. According to word-formation. facultyfacultate). train. Grammar Module The Noun (Substantivul) O clasă de cuvinte deosebit de importantă în vocabularul unei limbi. n. precum şi de funcţiile gramaticale pe care le poate îndeplini în propoziţie (sau.om.apă.bunătate) etc. dining-room. -noun) şi tot astfel în gramatici. rosetrandafir). . Ca parte de vorbire însă. coal. substantivul nu poate fi caracterizat şi definit numai pe baza înţelesului (a „valorii sale semantice"). water. booklet.pom. tot ce ţine de lumea anorganică (rock. dog. pe seama lor facem diverse aprecieri. nouns can be: a) simple: pencil. road.masă. etc.călimară). deci ca element gramatical. c) compound: postcard. Despre ele vorbim. în dicţionare ele sunt menţionate ca substantive (în dicţionarele engleze. le luăm ca puncte de referinţă.drum. precum şi tot ce ţine de lumea organică (plant. însuşire (kindness. le punem în diferite relaţii. I. mountain. tree.popor.cărbune. b) derived: driver. este cea a cuvintelor care definesc „ceva". reprezentat în minte. lucruri (table. writerscriitor. discount. lamb. imaginat sau gândit: fiinţe (man.plantă. etc. numărul unor asemenea cuvinte depăşeşte cu mult pe acela al cuvintelor aparţinând altor clase. Classifications of Nouns 1.tren. In orice dicţionar.

several: apples. nouns can be: a) countable. -x. piano – pianos. little: There was much noise in the hall. According to countability.2. etc. b) uncountable. II. few. but can be used with much. which changes into –v: wolf – wolves leaf . when they can not be used in the plural or with the indefinite article. (but: photo – photos. -sh: bus – buses box – boxes watch – watches brush . radio . son. or with many. lesson.brushes c) –es is added to nouns ending in –y preceded by a consonant (y changes into i): fly – flies city – cities d) –es is added to nouns ending in –o preceded by a consonant: hero – heroes potato – potatoes tomato – tomatoes. -ch. -z. Give me an apple.radios) e) –e(s) is added to nouns ending in –f(e) .leaves knife . They eat many apples. when they can have a plural form and can be used with the indefinite article.knives . Variable nouns form the plural in the following way: a) the inflection –s is added to the singular: book – books cat – cats toy – toys b) –es is added to the singular nouns ending in: -s. Number of nouns (Numarul substantivelor) 1.

cliff – cliffs. handcuff – handcuffs. child – children ox . handkerchief – handkerchiefs. dwarf – dwarfs.wife – wives (but: roof – roofs.sons-in-law or both elements take the plural: woman driver – women drivers NOTE: .forget – me – nots to the first element: passer-by – passers-by son-in-law .oxen h) foreign plurals are preserved with some borrowed nouns (mainly Latin and Greek) stimulus – stimuli larva – larvae stratum – strata basis – bases criterion – criteria (but: cactus – cacti/ cactuses. formula – formulae/ formulas) i) –s is added to the last element of a compound noun: washing machine – washing machines forget – me – not . proof – proofs. belief – beliefs) f) the root vowel changes: man – men woman – women foot – feet tooth – teeth goose – geese louse – lice mouse – mice g) –en is added to the singular. chief – chiefs.

2.Some nouns have the same form in the singular and in the plural: deer. His advice is always good. progress. information.) b) abstract uncountable nouns: music. hundred. (Cunostintele lui de franceza sunt slabe. furniture. A sheep is in the valley. The United States. cards. optics. series. etc. My luggage is very heavy. The Danube. slice. item. thousand. The United States lies in the North America. (Bagajele mele sunt grele. (Sfaturile lui sunt intotdeauna bune. d) nouns ending in –s: news. means. are: a) concrete uncountable nouns: bread. money. ninepins (and other names of games): This news is very good. fruit. homework. advice. fruits denote different species and varieties: We studied the fishes of the Atlantic Ocean.) The money is on the table. pound. luggage. Swiss. etc. Singular invariable nouns. . bar. dozen. Invariable nouns (Substantivele invariabile) I. (Aceste vesti sunt foarte bune. sheep. NOTE: To express quantity of uncountable nouns.) c) proper nouns: John. species. we can use the words: piece. (Banii sunt pe masa. Chinese. knowledge. mathematics (and other names of sciences). meat.) Mathematics is fun. measles (and other names of diseases). Ten sheep are in the valley. fish. etc. etc.) His knowledge of French is poor. nonsense. Portuguese. The plural forms fishes. etc. which take a verb in the singular.

etc. scissors. Some “collective nouns” like: family. pyjamas. contents. which take a verb in the plural are: a) articles of dress: trousers. Genitivul) From the point of view of form. His family are at home.a piece of news/information/furniture/advice/cake/bread (o veste/informatie/mobila/un sfat/ o bucata de prajitura/paine) a bar of soap/chocolate a slice of bacon/cake a pound of sugar/flour/rice/coffee II. etc. Plural invariable nouns.: The surroundings are very beautiful.. jury. The goods were carried by train. Case of Nouns. His family is large. there are two types of genitive: . surroundings. goods. the poor. Where are the scissors? b) proper nouns: The Alps. tools and instruments: scales. when they are used generically. The Highlands. team. etc. NOTE: When we want to refer to one article of dress or instrument. wages. The Alps are high mountains.: His trousers are on the chair. customs.) III. The Genitive (Cazurile substantivelor. (Ai lui/membrii familiei lui sunt acasa. c) other “pluralia tantum” : savings. take a verb in the plural when reference is made to the component elements. etc. stairs. The poor are suffering. and a verb in the singular. crew. d) Substantivized adjectives: the rich. we can use the word pair: a pair of trousers/scissors/scales.

value: a two months’ vacation. snow. the doctor’s order.): England’s history. etc. space. a mile’s drive c) collective nouns: the firms investment. time. Gender contrasts are expressed with the help of: a) different words: husband-wife. hero-heroine. bull-cow. uncle. he-bear – she-bear. pacient. the men’s result and (‘) added to regular plurals. bridegroom-bride. the day’s heat IV. boy-girl. c) suffixes: host-hostess. the government’s decision d) nouns that can be personified (geographical names.1. house. the cow’s milk b) nouns denoting measurement. etc. the ship’s crew. Dickens’ works It may be used with the following: a) nouns denoting persons or other beings: George’s letter. the colour of his face 2. friend. b) compounds: schoolboy-schoolgirl. etc. or to proper nouns ending in –s: the students’ answers. a life’s work. . vehicles. brother. aunt. etc. cock-hen. etc. Gender of Nouns (Genul substantivelor) There are four categories of gender: a) masculine: man. c) neuter: book. etc. The synthetical genitive with ‘s added to singular nouns or irregular plurals: the man’s performance. d) common: cousin. etc. used with neuter nouns or with long noun phrases: the cover of the book. natural phenomena. b) feminine: woman. etc. The analytical genitive with the preposition of. quantity. sister.

2. . and a sheep. a goose. 1) The chicken was eaten by a fox. 7) The housewife and the middle-aged woman are the principal consumers of this product. many) information do you have about this man. 4) There (is. are) here. many) people on the ship (is. 3) (Much. 8) My cat never catches a mouse. 4) The child in that family has bad manners. 5) The farmer has a hen. 2) That knife should be wiped at once. 5) How (much. are) a dangerous think. are) getting seasick.EXERCISES 1. few) knowledge (is. Choose the right word from the brackets. 1) The scissors (is. are) several means of accomplishing our purpose. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other necessary changes in the sentences. 2) A (little. 6) My sister-in-law is a teacher. 3) Last night a house was robbed by a thief.

He was as big as a middle-sized pig. Mexicans. So he slithered podgily down again. H. "Come". "There is a big porcupine drinking at the ditch. by D. As all savagery has a touch of squalor that makes one a little sick at the stomach. Americans. or a bug. or more like a bear. But the dislike of killing him was greater than the dislike of him. A few days later Madame came in suddenly. where the porcupines have gnawed the bark away and left the white flesh showing. Everyone says porcupines should be killed. beetle’s. I followed it into the darkness of the timber. when I went down the long clearing. I let him go. he had decided either that I was harmless or else that it was risky to go up any further. and there. When he got nearly the height of a man. towards the top. the Indians. squalid motion. At full moon a month ago. said she excitedly. it seemed almost more squalid to pick up a pine bough and push him over and hit him and kill him. And anyhow. It had a lumbering. Evidently. in the brilliant moonlight. And some trees are dying from the top. and waddled away with the same bestial motion of that white-spiky spoon tail. I thought at .. it was struggling up. So I watched him climb. disliking the presence of the creature. And he watched me. through the poor dry herbage a big porcupine began to waddle away from me. He made a certain squalor in the moonlight of the Rocky Mountains. It is a duty to kill the things. squat like a great aureoled tick.. when I could knock him off so easily with a pole. all say the same.Man in the Midst of Nature Reflections on the Death of a Porcupine. I stood near and watched. He was repugnant. towards the trees and the darkness. unpleasant. he hesitated and slithered down. Lawrence There are many bare places on the little pine trees.

But there is another . So. For me. or she is gone. That time I fired full into the mound of his back. He turned. it was repugnant to me even to try. Now I know it’s no good walking around. He stirred faintly. in the moonlight. below the glistening halo. this was a volte-face. with a subsiding halo. So I turned him and I hit him hard over the nose. The porcupine was lying still. Things like the porcupine. or where. stood quite near to him. Now never in my life had I shot at any live thing . but the gun was empty. I have always preferred to walk around my porcupine rather than kill it. and this was his head. And again I disliked him. leaving naked little footprints.. His long hairs above the quills were quivering with a dim grey gleam like a bush. the nose should have been. Myself.I never wanted to. I went sideways on. individually. Then we followed the porcupine. But something slowly hardens in a man’s soul. must be able to shoot and to kill. I looked down on the first creature I had ever shot. got it loaded.. Coming near. And I felt she was right. in the dark. fire again!" cried Madame. "He’s not dead yet! Oh. The only nice thing about him were the feet.first it was a bear!" When I got out he had gone. black hands. I aimed too high. "Should one kill him?" She hesitated. doubtful. And it was done. And I knew now it had hardened in mine. It was still lumbering through the grass. Then he lumbered. "Does it seem mean?". myself. he is gone. one must be able to shoot them if they get in one’s way.. We got through the fence and soon caught him up. That is why a porcupine’s tracks in the snow look almost as if a child has gone by. I fired. paw-hands. One must be able to shoot. ducking his head under like a hedgehog. Then I put back the trigger and followed the porcupine. went scuttling back whence he had come. He seemed to stumble on his hidden nose. and struggled a few strides. So I ran quickly for a cedar pole. I aimed. with rather trembling hands. And. steering behind almost as if he were moving backwards.. The trigger stuck. I got another shell in place and followed." I went back to the house and got the little twenty-two rifle. He was still lumbering through the trees. then with a sort of disgust:"Yes. I pressed the little catch with a safety pin I found in my pocket. alert. in the clear-dark of the moonlight. I asked aloud. like a little boy. with his white spoon-tail spiked with bristles. And as usual. and released the trigger. I. They were like longish. Again Madame hesitated. He was dead. Then: "No!" she said resentfully. and fired. I found the gun and. One must kill.

among the vast timber. he has to fight for his place. And when one watches the horses in the big field. One suddenly realizes again how creatures devour. even if it’s only a half-abandoned ranch like this one. Wherever man establishes himself upon earth. the lower forms of life. has to be fought for even by the most idyllic of farmers. bite-bite-biting without lifting their noses. bigger and blacker looking. Food. for living on other organisms. how strangely it relates man with the animal and vegetal world. against the lower orders of life.one. Food. one’s whole life pauses. food.That too is to be shot. and one realizes what an enormous part of him is just for food-apparatus. How important it is! And how fierce is the fight that goes on around it! The same as when one skins a rabbit. cropping off the grass. with a blind relentless unwearied persistence. . the basis of existence. and must devour. their noses to the ground. the young dandelions. and takes out the inside. You plant and you protect your growing crop with a gun. It is part of the business of ranching.

What is the author-hero's motivation for killing the porcupine? 2.man’s feeling of empathy with all other live creatures . How does the author's hesitations and decisions relate to 'common opinion'? 4. • to reflect porcupine bare . animal and vegetal specimens on ‘food’ for survival  Look up the following words in a dictionary.the self-defence instinct and the impulse to kill whatever endangers man . Concentrate on the major topic(s) of the text.man’s need to assert his identity and status in the universe (versus other living creatures) .APPLICATIONS  Reading Comprehension 1.the desire to do away with ugly.the dependence of all human. Do you consider that the narrative episode is central? Why or why not? Is it based on a story or on a plot?  Text Analysis 1. . Consider the following issues as possible Hints. repugnant things . How is the porcupine image gradually drawn? 3.

e) She seems to have lost . will break a soap bubble. f) The workers were ready to unload the lumber...... c) He was a real managerial timber.. f) He’s feeling at the . d) He was a man of the right sort of timber. a)Even the slightest . top... b) His timbers embarrassed him a lot. b) The car was driving at the . h) They lumbered all the old books on the balcony. i) The old wagon was lumbering along the bumpy road. a) We all admired the standing timber and felt sorry for the rolled one.. c) He boasted of having come out at the .• • • • • to gnaw bark squalid to waddle flesh squat to lumber clearing podgy to slither herbage repugnant to pick-up beetle relentless  Vocabulary Practice 1. Fill in the blanks with the word missing from the fixed phrases/idioms containing the items flesh. 2.. e) There was a great amount of lumber in their attic. . of its speed. touch and spoon... of his form. j) The podgy man was lumbering on his way home. of the switch.. g) The horses advanced slowly because of the lumber. of the school.. g) He was a sculptor with a fine. d) The engine of my car starts at the first . Comment on the value of the word timber(s) and lumber in the following. of late.

care?.like? . the then situation-situaţia de atunci. adjectivul din engleza modernă nu se acordă în gen. hypocriticalipocrit).cum? e o întrebare ce se referă la adverbe de mod. Partea de vorbire care face asemenea caracterizări. beautiful-frumos. Din punct de vedere sintactic.. obiectele..un elev silitor.două eleve silitoare Adjectivele răspund la întrebările: of what sort? . Spunem că un adjectiv este atributiv (attributive) atunci când este aşezat în chip . pe care vorbitorul le aminteşte fie ca însuşiri sau calităţi (good-bun.omul acesta. fie ca pe nişte „date" care le precizează în diferite sensuri . al timpului. are etc.elevi silitori. nu la adjective). număr sau caz cu substantivul pe care îl modifică sau determină: a diligent pupil . much sugar-mult zahăr. (this man . what? (is. prezintă caracteristici.al locului.în ce stare? which? . Grammar Module The Adjective (Adjectivul) Fiinţele. Din punct de vedere morfologic. eleve silitoare two diligent school-girls .). este adjectivul. noţiunile etc. o elevă silitoare a diligent school-girl .de ce fel?. obiective sau subiective. adjectivele pot fi atribute (Attributes) sau nume predicative (Predicatives). respectiv care modifică sau determină substantivele.cum? (a se reţine că how? .o elevă silitoare diligent pupils .biblioteca dumitale). in what state? . your library . al cantităţii etc.

"to look".. "to taste": . "to seem". cei prezenţi secretary general (dar şi general secretary) . .Tema (pentru acasă) era uşoară.trei dramaturgi englezi Good words are worth much. A hot potato. Some really hot potatoes.  FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVES FORM 1. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use 'very' or 'really': A very hot potato.cavaler rătăcitor court martial . (Prov.curte marţială the people present .Vorba dulce mult aduce. de exemplu: the leaves dead.nemijlocit lângă substantivul la care se referă. Position of adjectives: a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautiful girl.frunzele moarte (Shelley.cei de faţă. în marea majoritate a cazurilor înaintea substantivului (spre deosebire de limba română): a gorgeous landscape . Some hot potatoes 2. 3. Excepţii: knight errant .secretar general În stilul poetic. de asemenea.. Ode to the West Wind) Adjectivele predicative sunt aşezate după verb-copulă şi formează un nume predicativ: The home-task was easy. b) After verbs like "to be".) . adjectivele sunt uneori aşezate după substantiv. . Adjectives are invariable: They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the noun.un peisaj fermecător three English playwrights .

c) After the noun: in some fixed expressions: The Princess Royal The President elect a court martial The adjectives involved. This clock is German. Our house is Victorian • Tell more about a thing's characteristics: A wooden table. They are honest people. concerned: I want to see the people involved/concerned. complex A concerned father = worried. (= the people who have something to do with the matter) Here is a list of the people present. present. • Give nationality or origin: Pierre is French. anxious The present situation = current. (= the people who were in the building or at the meeting) NOTE: When these adjectives are used before the noun they have a different meaning: An involved discussion = detailed. They can: • Describe feelings or qualities: He is a lonely man.The girl is beautiful You look tired This meat tastes funny. happening now FUNCTION Adjectives tell us more about a noun. • Tell us about age: . The knife is sharp.

tiny Age/Temperature: old. Size. Colour. Chinese Material: plastic. huge. silver Examples: a lovely old red post-box. black Origin: Swedish. The usual order is: Value/opinion. Origin. rectangular Colour: red. charming Size: small. wooden. Material • • • • • • • Value/opinion: delicious. • Tell us about shape: A rectangular box A square envelope • Express a judgment or a value: A fantastic film Grammar is boring. blonde. The sunset was crimson and gold. the order depends on the function of the adjective. She wore a cotton dress. • Tell us about material/what something is made of: It was a wooden table. . square. • Tell us about size and measurement: John is a tall man.He's a young man. • Tell us about colour: Paul wore a red shirt. ORDER Where a number of adjectives are used together. Age/Temperature. lovely. hot. This is a very long film. Victorian. My coat is very old. some charming small silver ornaments. Shape. young Shape: round. some small round plastic tables.

 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES FORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE Number of syllables Comparative Superlative • • • one syllable + -er + -est: tall . sad.: pretty – prettier – the prettiest. a restaurant chair is more comfortable.more expensive. replace the -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative form: busy .most . -ow. disyllabic adjectives ending in -y.more important – the most important expensive.biggest.taller.more .saddest two syllables.tallest one syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double the final consonant: fat .less – the least much . pretty. -er.busiest • three syllables or more: more + adj . A park bench is comfortable. busy. but a sofa is the most comfortable. a truck is heavier.the most expensive Examples: A cat is fast. a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest. big -bigger .fatter .busier .sadder . A car is heavy. narrow – narrower – the narrowest NOTE: Adjectives ending in '-y' like happy.fattest. but a train is the heaviest. sunny.worse – the worst little .the most + adj: important . lucky etc:. IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms: good – better – the best bad .

Petersburg in the winter.furthest / farthest old – older/elder – the oldest/the eldest THE + SUPERLATIVE 'the' is placed before the superlative: For example: He is the richest man in the world. A tiger is as dangerous as a lion. AS + ADJECTIVE + AS To compare people. Thailand is sunnier than Norway. Albert is more intelligent than Arthur. A bicycle is not as expensive as a car. NOT AS + ADJECTIVE + AS Difference can also be shown by using not so/as . use: as + adjective + as: Peter is 24 years old. COMPARATIVE + THAN To compare the difference between two people.. Einstein is as famous as Darwin. Norway is not as sunny as Thailand.as: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest. A car is more expensive than a bicycle. places. things or events. Examples: Mt. Everest is higher than Mt.further / farther . Peter is as old as John.far . events or things. when there is no difference. More examples: Moscow is as cold as St. less. Ramona is as happy as Raphael. John is 24 years old.. To show difference: more. COMPARISONS OF QUANTITY I. Arthur is not as intelligent as Albert. Blanc. fewer + than .

So. This new dictionary gives more information than the old one. To show no difference: as much as. . the rule is: MORE + nouns that are countable or uncountable FEWER + countable nouns LESS + uncountable nouns II. There are fewer dogs in Cardiff than in Bristol I have visited fewer countries than my friend has. I spend less time on homework than you do. I have visited the States as many times as he has.Examples: • With countable nouns: more / fewer Eloise has more children than Chantal. He has read fewer books than she has. You know as many people as I do. Tom has as few books as Jane. as little as: as many as / as few as + countable nouns as much as / as little as + uncountable nouns Examples: • With countable nouns: They have as many children as us. There are as few houses in his village as in mine. • With uncountable nouns: John eats as much food as Peter. Cats drink less water than dogs. as many as. Chantal has less money than Eloise. We have as many customers as them. • With uncountable nouns: more / less Eloise has more money than Chantal. as few as. Chantal has fewer children than Eloise.

old) car. . He's had as much success as his brother has. 3) When will you sell your (blue. 5) She greatly admired those (ivory. 2) She is looking for a (big) flat than the one she has now. 4) He is (much) familiar with modern painting than with modern music. 1) A (black. expensive. You've heard as much news as I have. 5) He is able to get (far) information at the railway station. delicate) figurines. white) piano. 2. little) cat was lying on my door step. Arrange the adjective in brackets in the proper order. Chinese. small) bag.Jim has as little food as Sam. EXERCISES 1. 4) I’ll give her a (red. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets. 1) He is (lazy) student in the class. nice. leather. 3) Jane is (good) cook I know. They've got as little water as we have. 2) You will practise on an (Steinway.

his garments. and by half-past all the lights were out. […] No mention at all was made of the supernatural. Mr. took a small oblong phial out of his dressing-case. Answers from Beyond Reality from The Canterville Ghost by Oscar Wilde The day had been warm and sunny. in the wan moonlight. and seemed to be coming nearer every moment. Some time after. At eleven o’clock the family retired. were soiled and ragged. The conversation in no way turned upon ghosts. It sounded like the clank of metal. in the cool of the evening. and will be happy to supply you with more should you . outside his room. ‘My dear sir.The Supernatural. They did not return home till nine o’clock. and. […] He put on his slippers. an old man of terrible aspect. long grey hair fell over his shoulders in matted coils. Otis was awakened by a curious noise in the corridor. and opened the door. nor was Sir Simon de Canterville alluded to in any way. Otis. and from his wrists and ankles hung heavy manacles and rusty gyves. which were of antique cut. Right in front of him he saw. ‘I really must insist on your oiling those chains. and have brought you for that purpose a small bottle of the Tammany Rising Sun Lubricator. when they had a light supper. so there were not even those primary conditions of receptive expectation which so often precede the presentation of psychical phenomena.’ said Mr. […] I shall leave it here for you by the bedroom candles. His eyes were as red burning coals. the whole family went out to drive.

who was always obliged to wear a black velvet band round her throat to hide the mark of five fingers burnt upon her white skin. […] And after all this. from the butler who had shot himself in the pantry because he had seen a green hand tapping at the window pane.’ he said. to the beautiful Lady Stutfield. of the stain . This certainly was very strange. closing his door.require it. in a brilliant and uninterrupted career of three hundred years. For a moment the Canterville ghost stood quite motionless in natural indignation.’ For the rest of the week. some wretched modern Americans were to come and offer him the Rising Sun Lubricator. then. no ghost in history had ever been treated in this manner. and who drowned herself at last in the carp pond at the end of the King’s Walk. The next morning. the only thing that excited any attention being the continual renewal of the bloodstain on the library floor. he vanished through the wainscoting.’ With these words the United States Minister laid the bottle down on a marble table. with such a noise going on outside the bedrooms. he determined to have vengeance. ‘if he really declines to use the Rising Sun Lubricator. considering the length of time he has been in the house. they were undisturbed. so. It would be quite impossible to sleep. a door was flung open. dashing the bottle violently upon the polished floor. as he reached the top of the great oak staircase. Accordingly. and I must say that. On reaching a small secret chamber in the left wing. at which. had he been so grossly insulted. and remained till daylight in an attitude of deep thought. […] All his great achievements came back to him again. and emitting a ghastly green light. ‘I have no wish. Besides. ‘to do the ghost any personal injury. he leaned up against a moonbeam to recover his breath. uttering hollow groans. hastily adopting the Fourth Dimension of Space as a means of escape. two little white-robed figures appeared. we shall have to take his chains from him. however. and throw pillows at his head! It was quite unbearable.’ he continued. retired to rest. and began to try and realise his position. when the Otis family met at breakfast. the twins burst into shouts of laughter. and the house became quite quiet. however. he fled down the corridor. and. Just. as the door was always locked at night by Mr. Otis. I don’t think it is at all polite to throw pillows at him’ – a very just remark. also. Never. and a large pillow whizzed past his head! There was evidently no time to be lost. The United States Minister was naturally a little annoyed to find that his present had not been accepted. and the windows kept closely barred. I am sorry to say. The chameleon-like colour. they discussed the ghost at some length. ‘Upon the other hand.

and became a prey to the most violent agitation. These kaleidoscopic changes naturally amused the party very much. that he had been unable to wear . for some unexplained reason. […] The sound of approaching footsteps. and swept through them like a mist.’ The ghost glared at her in fury. having brought their pea-shooters with them. The second appearance of the ghost was on Sunday night. then it would be vermilion. and bets on the subject were freely made every evening. while the United States Minister covered him with his revolver. they found that a large suit of old armour had become detached from its stand. they found it a bright emerald-green. Shortly after they had gone to bed they were suddenly alarmed by a fearful crash in the hall. was always a good deal distressed at the sight of the blood-stain. The vulgarity of the twins.excited a good deal of comment. with that accuracy of aim which can only be attained by long and careful practice on a writing-master. rubbing his knees with an expression of acute agony on his face. and once when they came down for family prayers. but what really distressed him most was. ‘and have brought you a bottle of Dr. at once discharged two pellets on him. Otis. while. then a rich purple. He accordingly laughed his most horrible laugh. according to the simple rites of the Free American Reformed Episcopalian Church. and very nearly cried the morning it was emerald-green. On reaching the top of the staircase he recovered himself. seated in a high-backed chair. in accordance with Californian etiquette. and determined to give his celebrated peal of demoniac laughter. ‘I am afraid you are far from well. and had certainly made three of Lady Canterville’s French governesses give warning before their month was up. On reaching his room he entirely broke down. were naturally extremely annoying. Rushing downstairs. It was said to have turned Lord Raker’s wig grey in a single night. till the old vaulted roof rang and rang again. and Mrs. but hardly had the fearful echo died away when a door opened. extinguishing Washington Otis’ candle as he passed. just as the twins had come up to him. to hold up his hands! The ghost started up with a wild shriek of rage. The twins. and had fallen on the stone floor. was the Canterville ghost. Some mornings it was a dull (almost Indian) red. This he had on more than one occasion found extremely useful.’ she said. If it is indigestion. and called upon him. Otis came out in a light blue dressinggown. so he contented himself with becoming faintly phosphorescent. Dobell’s tincture. The only person who did not enter into the joke was little Virginia. and the gross materialism of Mrs. and vanished with a deep churchyard groan. however. who. and so leaving them all in total darkness. made him hesitate in his fell purpose. you will find it a most excellent remedy.

[…] For some days after this he was extremely ill. taking every possible precaution against being either heard or seen. material plane of existence. trod as lightly as possible on the old worm-eaten boards. at least out of respect for their national poet Longfellow over whose graceful and attractive poetry he himself had whiled away many a weary hour when the Cantervilles were up in town. […] The terrible excitement of the last four weeks was beginning to have its effect. accordingly. He had hoped that even modern Americans would be thrilled by the sight of a Spectre In Armour. The question of phantasmic apparitions. he was not left unmolested. they clearly did not deserve it. he was most conscientious in all things connected with the supernatural. I am bound to acknowledge that it was with a good deal of difficulty that he brought himself to adopt this last mode of protection. For five days he kept his room. It is quite true that his life had been very evil. They were evidently people on a low. one night. It was his solemn duty to appear in the corridor once a week. Otis’s bedroom and carried off the bottle. he traversed the corridor as usual between midnight and three o’clock. but afterwards was sensible enough to see that there was a great deal to be said for the invention. He removed his boots. and. Still. He felt a little humiliated at first. If the Otis family did not want it. except to keep the blood-stain in proper repair. For the next three Saturdays. but. and he did not see how he could honourably escape from his obligations. and he started at the slightest noise. and the development of astral bodies. which the twins had constructed from the entrance of the Tapestry Chamber to the top of the oak staircase. and to gibber from the large oriel window on the first and third Wednesdays in every month. and at last made up his mind to give up the point of the blood-stain on the library floor. if for no more sensible reason. was of course quite a different matter. over which he tripped in the dark. and was careful to use the Rising Sun Lubricator for oiling his chains. However. it served his purpose. upon the other hand. in spite of everything. while the family were at dinner. His nerves were completely shattered. […] . through treading on a butter-slide. to a certain degree. and quite incapable of appreciating the symbolic value of sensuous phenomena. and on one occasion […] he met with a severe fall. and hardly stirred out of his room at all. wore a large black velvet cloak.the suit of mail. and really not under his control. Strings were continually being stretched across the corridor. he slipped into Mr.

who sometimes used to bring her work there. ‘Oh. I mean Sir Simon. and concerned no one else. however. Indeed. you know you stole the paints out of my box to try and furbish up that ridiculous . and the red leaves dancing madly down the long avenue. it is no matter now. looked in to ask her to mend her habit. and knew nothing about cookery. and vulgar. watching the ruined gold of the yellowing trees fly through the air. no one will annoy you. and you are much nicer than the rest of your horrid. who at times had a sweet Puritan gravity. […] However.’ ‘Starve you to death? Oh. ‘it is you who are rude.’ ‘Stop!’ cried Virginia stamping her foot.A few days after […]. ‘quite absurd. ‘but my brothers are going back to Eton to-morrow. I quite admit it. so forlorn. Ghost. and determined to try and comfort him. if you behave yourself. I never eat anything now. looking round in astonishment at the pretty little girl who had ventured to address him. His head was leaning on his hand. that you had killed your wife.’ he answered. and horrid.’ said the Ghost petulantly.’ ‘It is absurd asking me to behave myself. and his whole attitude was one of extreme depression. and you know you have been very wicked.and as for dishonesty. Virginia fancied she saw some one inside. and walk about at night. though I did kill her. ‘but it was a purely family matter. all the same. Would you like it?’ ‘No. and thinking it was her mother’s maid. Mr. caught from some old New England ancestor. and then.’ she said. To her immense surprise. Mrs. was filled with pity. and I don’t think it was very nice of her brothers to starve me to death. and groan through keyholes. rude. as she was running past the Tapestry Chamber. whose first idea had been to run away and lock herself in her room.’ said Virginia. the first day we arrived here. […] ‘I am so sorry for you. I hate the cheap severity of abstract ethics! My wife was very plain. I must rattle my chains. it was the Canterville Ghost himself! He was sitting by the window. Umney told us. dishonest family.’ ‘It is very wrong to kill any one. and so much out of repair did he look. vulgar. It is my only reason for existing. the door of which happened to be open. for it is all over. if that is what you mean.’ ‘Well. are you hungry? I have a sandwich in my case. that little Virginia. thank you. never had my ruffs properly starched. but it is very kind of you.’ ‘It is no reason at all for existing.

which are always depressing to look at. I will go and ask papa to get the twins an extra week’s holiday. ‘No ruins! no curiosities!’ answered the Ghost. I certainly saw no reason why I should not have your paints. I want to go to sleep and I cannot. As for colour. and. especially at church. and I am so tired. Why. and the best thing you can do is to emigrate and improve your mind. ‘what was I to do? It is a very difficult thing to get real blood nowadays. and not at all easy to paint.’ he said sadly. but there is no difficulty at all about sleeping. ‘I am so lonely and so unhappy.’ said Virginia satirically. for who ever heard of emerald-green blood?’ ‘Well. I know lots of people there who would give a hundred thousand dollars to have a grandfather.’ . really. as your brother began it all with his Paragon Detergent. but I know you Americans don’t care for things of this kind. and finally I had nothing left but indigo and Chinese white.’ ‘Please don’t go. and much more than that to have a family ghost. as the officers are all Democrats. and though there is a heavy duty on spirits of every kind. and they are not very clever. and Virginia’s beautiful blue eyes opened in wonder. My father will be only too happy to give you a free passage.’ ‘Good evening. First you took all my reds.’ ‘I suppose because we have no ruins and no curiosities. there will be no difficulty about the Custom House. rather meekly. I never told on you.’ he cried.’ ‘I don’t think I should like America. even babies know how to do that.’ said the Ghost.’ ‘That’s quite absurd! You have merely to go to bed and blow out the candle. including the vermilion.’ ‘I have not slept for three hundred years. Once in New York. the very bluest in England. and it was most ridiculous. Miss Virginia. and could only do moonlight scenes. ‘you have your navy and your manners. you are sure to be a great success. for instance. ‘for three hundred years I have not slept. the whole thing. that is always a matter of taste: the Cantervilles have blue blood. and I couldn’t do any more sunsets then you took the emerald-green and the chrome-yellow. though I was very much annoyed.’ ‘You know nothing about it. It is very difficult sometimes to keep awake.blood-stain in the library. and I really don’t know what to do.

Think of the normal antagonism – a commonplace in itself – between traditionalism and adaptability. What is the role of the initial mentioning of the fact that ‘those primary conditions of receptive expectation’ were not met? 2. and identify the paradoxical situation. Which of the archetypal characters eventually turns out to be profoundly atypical? 7. Enlarge upon the psychological and social archetypes and clichés employed in the story. 6. 3. Comment upon the rich cultural tradition related to ghosts or other forms of spiritual persistence after death. and including it among the targets of his irony? 5. 1. 8. Wilde is perhaps best known for his love of paradoxes. consider also your answer to the previous question. Are there any elements in the story that not only support this idea. if any. What is the author’s attitude toward commonplaces and clichés? Consider both the universe of British aristocracy and the life and ways of modern Americans.APPLICATIONS  Reading comprehension and comments. but also give a hint about Wilde’s being aware of this aspect. Has the contrast and cultural clash between these two categories become a cliché in itself? 4. How is this kind of immortality perceived and considered? .

pellet. what? . a) Pronume simple: you (tu. gyve. weary.cine?. manacle. to furbish oblong. (cu unele excepţii) menţionate în cursul comunicării sau cunoscute de către interlocutor. în linii mari. heavy duty to allude. voi). pea-shooter. etc.. horrid  Grammar Module The Pronoun (Pronumele) (I) Există o categorie de cuvinte care nu au un înţeles de sine stătător.ce? . pronumele pot fi simple (Simple Pronouns) şi compuse (Compound Pronouns). which (care). to gibber. ele înlocuiesc de cele mai multe ori substantive. Din punctul de vedere al compunerii.) He did all the work. obiecte. wainscot. free passage. to rattle.) Who did all the work?(Cine a făcut toată treaba?) Aceste cuvinte sunt pronume şi. sensuous. petulant. cititor etc. pot fi denumite înlocuitori ai substantivului (Noun Substitutes). to groan. ci doar înlocuiesc ceva. to glare. oriel. wig. peal. Vocabulary study and practice Look up the meaning(s) of the following words or phrases in a dictionary. forlorn. făcând referiri la idei. nu “caracterizează" etc. wan. într-un sens gramatical. (John a făcut toată treaba. ca în: John did all the work. coil. acţiuni. fell. many (mulţi) . răspund la aceleaşi întrebări ca substantivele: who? . to whiz. etc. care nu „denumesc". • • • clank. în care ar putea fi incluse şi locuţiunile pronominale (Pronominal Phrase). (El a făcut toată treaba. întrucât.

: (no one – nimeni).: he who (acela care). Give them a kiss from me! The Personal Pronoun – is used to talk about: • the speaker (s): I. pron. obiecte. lucruri neinsufletite) us (pe noi) you (pe voi) them (pe ei) He lives near the school. indiferent ce). + pron. + pron.b) Pronume compuse: adj. + pron. Do you like football? I watch my brother playing tennis. obiecte. pron. toată lumea). obiecte. We like chocolate very much. obiecte. + adv. b) Impersonal “IT” (as subject in a sentence about time. toţi. lucruri neinsufletite (to) us (noua) (to) you (voua) (to) them (lor) Nominativ I (eu) You (tu) He (el) She (ea) It (el. lucruri neinsufletite We (noi) You (voi) They (ei) Example: I am a big girl. weather or distance) .: (a few .: (everybody . it Uses of “it”: a) to talk about a thing: I lost my pencil. ei) -pentru animale. It was blue. 1. unele). art. al ei)-pentru (to) it (lui. adj. pe ea)-pentru animale.: (whatever .unii. The personal pronoun (Pronumele personal) The Personal Pronoun (Pronumele personal) Genitiv Dativ Mine (al meu) (to) me (mie) Yours (al tau) (to) you (tie) His (al lui) (to) him (lui) Hers (al ei) (to) her (ei) Its (al lui. ea) . + subst. we • • the person(s) we are speaking to: you or the person(s) or things we are speaking about: he.pentru animale. You gave me a nice gift.fiecare. she. Acuzativ me (pe mine) you (pe tine) him (pe el) her (pe ea) it (pe el.orice. lucruri neinsufletite Ours (al nostru) Yours = (al vostru) Theirs = (al lor) animale.

ale sale (ale ei) its own . I lost my pencil.al nostru. d) Introductory “IT”: It is nice that you came. but hers is older.al sau (a ei). 2. This is mine. a noastra. a lor. ai mei. a sa (a ei). Mine is old. ai tai.al sau (a lui). ai vostri.It’s ten o’clock.al lor. ale noastre yours . a sa. How far is Bucarest ? It is 180 Km. His car is old. c) Emphatic “IT” (to emphasize a word or a phrase) It was Tom who came late last night. a sa (a lui). but yours is taller. The possessive pronoun and the possessive adjective (Pronumele posesive adjectivul posesiv) Example: Mother’s car is new. a voastra. ai sai. ai lor. ai sai (ai ei). can you lend me yours? . mine . ale lor Example: My brother is tall. ale mele yours . ai sai (ai lui). ale sale (ale lui) hers .al meu. It is raining. ale sale (neutru) ours .al vostru. a mea. a ta.al sau.al tau. ai nostri. ale voastre their . ale tale his .

pe cine? whose? . pe care. • The interrogative adjective determines a noun and helps to build a sentence” Which books did you read? . • The possessive adjective: my.ce? which? . her.• The possessive pronoun replaces both the object that is possessed and the person who possesses it. your. 3.cine? whom? who? . his. The interrogative pronoun and the interrogative adjective (Pronumele interogativ si adjectivul interogativ) who? . The possessive adjective replaces the person who possesses something and determines the noun that expresses the object which is possessed: This is her car. ale) cui? what? -care?. it (singular) our. their (plural) The adjective “OWN” can be used after the possessive adjective to underline the idea of possession: It was his own idea to go there.(pe) care dintre? Example: Whom did you see last Sunday? Whose shoes are those? What are you doing? Which do you like more? • The interrogative pronoun occurs in an interrogative sentence and replaces the noun in the answer: “Who is coming?” “John”.al (a. your. ai.

• “WHO” and “WHOM” can only be pronouns. The demonstrative pronoun and the demonstrative adjective (Pronumele demonstrative si adjecivul demonstrativ) . The pronoun “WHO” is used only for persons: Who is your teacher? • The interrogative pronouns and adjectives can have both a singular and a plural meaning: Who are they? Whose pen is this? What film did you see? Which books did you buy? 4.

aceasta. aceia. Those are his parents. ala. asta. asta these (plural) .acela.acestea. astia. aia. • The demonstrative pronouns usually express spatial and temporal relationship between the objects they stand for and the speaker: That is our house. astea “distant reference (de departare): that (singular) . aia those (plural) .acesta. • The demonstrative adjective determines a noun and expresses the place of the noun in time or space: This man helped me. The Supernatural.acelea. Answers from Beyond Reality . alea Example: This is my brother. aceea. acestia.• • “near” reference (de apropiere): this (singular) .

The Monk beheld her with anxious curiosity. Damp vapours struck cold to the Friar’s heart. and on every side as they past along. and drawing the poignard from her girdle plunged it into her left arm. She placed the Lamp upon the ground. while He obeyed her. She tore her hair. muttered some indistinct sentences. A profound obscurity hovered through the void. By a glance of mingled scorn and anger She reproved his pusillanimity. ‘All is ready!’ His limbs trembled. Here Matilda stopped. At length they reached a spacious Cavern. But among the few which He distinguished. At the same time a clap of thunder was heard: . poured a few drops upon the ground before her. It then ascended the huge Columns of unhewn stone. A volume of dark clouds rose slowly from the ensanguined earth. glided along the roof. the extreme chillness of the place seemed to augment with every moment. She led him through various narrow passages. and ascended gradually. and Images whose eyes seemed to glare on them with horror and surprize. It emitted no heat. Matilda continued her incantations. She took care that it should fall on the outside. He particularly observed three human fingers. and formed the Cavern into an immense chamber totally covered with blue trembling fire. the nature and name of most of which were unknown to the Friar. and an Agnus Dei which She broke in pieces. whose lofty roof the eye sought in vain to discover. Skulls. She bent over the place. but She spoke not. The blood gushed out plentifully. and He listened sadly to the blast while it howled along the lonely Vaults. and they were instantly consumed. used the most frantic gestures. near the Basket. and began the mysterious rites. At intervals She took various articles from the Basket. the beams of the Lamp displayed none but the most revolting objects. Suddenly She uttered a loud and piercing shriek. On the contrary. His cheeks and lips were pale with apprehension. The flames retired from the spot on which the blood was pouring. It increased by degrees. another round herself. She motioned that Ambrosio should be silent. and immediately a pale sulphurous flame arose from the ground. She drew a circle round him. till it reached the vault of the Cavern. Graves. She turned to Ambrosio. and then taking a small Phial from the Basket.from The Monk by Matthew Gregory Lewis Supplementary text ‘Follow me!’ She said to the Monk in a low and solemn voice. and at length spread its waves over the whole surface. She threw them all into the flames which burned before her. and as She stood on the brink of the circle. Bones. She appeared to be seized with an access of delirium. the circles alone excepted in which stood Matilda and the Monk. beat her bosom.

a refreshing air breathed perfumes through the Cavern. expecting that some dreadful Apparition would meet his eyes. and her gestures declared that She was threatening him with her vengeance. and expected the Daemon with terror. At the same time the cloud dispersed.The echo pealed fearfully along the subterraneous passages. than the Music was again heard. No sooner had She received it. and at such times the Friar’s heart sank within him. and He beheld a Figure more beautiful than Fancy’s pencil ever drew. the sight of which would drive him mad. a full strain of melodious Music sounded in the air. A thick cloud spread itself over the Apparition. and at the moment that He appeared. imitating Myrtle. ‘He comes!’ exclaimed Matilda in a joyful accent. and He sank upon one knee. the perfection of whose form and face was unrivalled. He looked wildly round him. Yet however beautiful the Figure. A cold shivering seized his body. and the ground shook beneath the feet of the Enchantress. He waited with fear for the Spirit’s appearance. She spoke in a loud and commanding tone. Ambrosio started. and with a submissive air presented to her the branch of Myrtle. He was perfectly naked: A bright Star sparkled upon his forehead. Matilda appeared to grow incensed. and in his right hand He bore a silver branch. two crimson wings extended themselves from his shoulders. when the Thunder ceasing to roll. He frequently darted upon Ambrosio angry glances. unable to support himself. and his silken locks were confined by a band of many-coloured fires. Enchanted at a vision so contrary to his expectations. His form shone with dazzling glory: He was surrounded by clouds of rose-coloured light. whose coming was announced by thunder and earthquakes. and inspiring the Spectators with secret awe. Circlets of Diamonds were fastened round his arms and ankles. She seemed to insist upon something which the Daemon was unwilling to grant. and a mysterious melancholy impressed upon his features. . which played round his head. and was answered in the same. What was his surprize. He could not but remark a wildness in the Daemon’s eyes. and shone with a brilliance far surpassing that of precious Stones. Matilda addressed herself to the Spirit: She spoke in a language unintelligible to the Monk. betraying the Fallen Angel. Her menaces had the desired effect: The Spirit sank upon his knee. formed themselves into a variety of figures. It was now that Ambrosio repented of his rashness. Ambrosio gazed upon the Spirit with delight and wonder. The solemn singularity of the charm had prepared him for something strange and horrible. It was a Youth seemingly scarce eighteen. The Music ceased.

’ said Matilda. and total obscurity reigned through the Cave. and accepting the conditions of their service. ‘I have succeeded. was at first unwilling to obey my commands. and surprize. His faculties were all bound up in pleasure. how you employ an opportunity which never will return.The blue flames disappeared. Lucifer. This you will never do: You want strength of mind to force them to obedience. and the Vaults were only illuminated by the faint rays of the sepulchral Lamp. They have produced the desired effect. In future you can only hope for supernatural aid by invoking the Daemons yourself. My magic arts will now be of no use to you. ‘though with more difficulty than I expected. No traces of the incantation. whom I summoned to my assistance. and unless you pay their established price. At length the darkness dispersing. they will not be your voluntary Servants. but I have engaged never more to invoke his agency in your favour. . Beware then. To enforce his compliance I was constrained to have recourse to my strongest charms. with the Myrtle in her hand. He perceived Matilda standing near him in her religious habit. The Abbot moved not from his place. anxiety.

religious literature and fiction. 3. 2. Translate the fourth paragraph of the text into Romanian. Discuss the reasons for the Faustian pact motif appearing as a cultural invariant. 1.APPLICATIONS  Reading comprehension and comments. Enumerate and enlarge upon the most widely spread descriptions of daemons in folklore. .

The reflexive pronoun (Pronumele reflexive şi de întărire) myself . însene yourselves . însămi yourself . însăţi himself .vă.se. Grammar Module: The Pronoun (Pronumele) (II) 5. însumi. înseşi Example: I found myself very smart. 7. însuşi herself . but they have an end position in the sentence or come after the noun phrase they refer to: we …….se. înseşi itself . The reciprocal pronouns (Pronumele reciproce) . înşivă. • We use a reflexive pronoun to talk about the same person or thing that we mentioned in the subject of the sentence: I’m teaching myself Italian. înşişi.se. însăşi (neutru) ourselves . the students. We did ourselves all the exercises. ourselves / we ourselves We. = we and no one else. înşine. • Idiomatic phrases: to enjoy oneself = to have a good time to help oneself to something = to take something to behave oneself = not to be silly or naughty 6.se. we ourselves helped him. The emphatic pronoun (Pronumele emfatic) • The emphatic pronouns have the same form as the reflexive pronouns.mă. însuşi. însuţi.te. însevă themselves .ne.

one another (unii altora. some când aşteptăm răspunsul “da” Do you want any sugar? (Doriţi nişte zahăr?) No. (Ei nu-şi mai vorbesc unii cu alţii.) . They are: . thing Example: I want something from you. înseamna “vreun”. “oricare”. unul pe celălalt) . interogativă sau interogativ negativă: I don’t have any. one.) – sunt doi They don’t speak to one another.) Do you want some sugar? (Doriţi nişte zahăr?) . (Nu. thing any + body. mulţumesc.într-o frază afirmativă înseamnă “orice”. She didn't find anything in the fridge. (Oricare (oricine) dintre voi poate s-o facă.Any se foloseşte când aşteptăm răspunsul “nu”. one. Any – (adjectiv sau pronume). The indefinite pronoun and the indefinite adjective (Pronumele nehotărât şi adjectivul nehotărât) some + body.each other (unul altuia. thing no + body.• The reciprocal pronouns express reciprocal relationships between persons or things. într-o frază negativă. (Nu am. one. (Ei nu-şi mai vorbesc unul altuia. “oricine” They are determined to win at any cost. There was no one in the room. oricare ar fi preţul. thank you. (Sunt dispuşi să câştige.) – sunt mai mulţi 8. unii pe alţii) They don’t speak to each other any more.) Have you got any money? (Aveţi vreun (nişte) ban(i)?) .) Any of you could do it. “nişte” .

este utilizat în expresii de genul: It doesn’t help me any. who is a doctor.care Example: My brother.pe care whose . (Nu mă ajută cu nimic (deloc). I didn't like what I saw. Tom.care.care whom/who . obiecte . căreia. ai.. bought another one last week.. (Da. I do. I found a cat that was lost. Do you feel any better? (Nu vă simţiţi deloc mai bine?) . 9.Any ca adverb având sensul “deloc” se foloseşte în faţa unui compartiv. whose car was stolen.într-un stil mai familiar.Yes.al (a.) that . pe care (pt. ale) cărui. EXERCISES . cărora what . ceea ce which . lives in Bucharest.) . The relative pronoun (Pronumele relative) who .ce. lucruri.

3) The dog cut …………. It is ……………. whose) 4) …………… are you doing? (whom. left. Complete the following sentences with the reflexive pronoun. what. with some fruit. 1) We haven’t got …………….1. who. who. . at the party 2) My father didn't buy the book for …………… . some c. while running in the street. 2. They are …………. anyone d.. more? 4) This policy is not to be altered under …………………. whose) 3) Puffy. 4) Help ………….. is John's father. who. in the snow. did you meet last week. It is …………. is very lazy. 3) I can see you like it. 3) These are our maps. whom) 4.. which) 2) ……………. 1) This is my cat. 4) Those are their shoes. 5) We saw …………. It is …………… . circumstamces. . Complete with some or any. is going with you at the theatre? (who. Will you have ………….. 1) I saw Mr. but not much. (which. …………… is a big cat. that) 5) …………. Complete the following sentences with the possessive pronoun. Choose the right pronoun. They are ………… . Answers from Reality . a. 1) I enjoyed ………….. everyone Science. 5) This is her shirt.. 3. John and Mary. John or Steve? (which. Thompson …………. 2) They still have ………………. (that. that. . any b. 5) We need ……………… help we can get. 2) That is his lamp.

Given that the United States is and will be a space-faring nation. This is an important criterion for choosing a program. Among the criteria for such choices is the extent to which a program or project significantly expands one or more of these frontiers. The engineering / technology frontier – developing the innovative engineering and technology required to expand the other frontiers. psychological. The actual rate of learning or pushing the frontiers is another important measure of the value of individual programs. Even if there was no longer a NASA. space science has long-range goals and roadmaps that are periodically revisited in the light of new knowledge. A primary role for NASA is to expand the frontiers of this new realm in order to foster increasing activity and broader involvement. The human frontier – addressing the physiological. weather. investment to create a space-faring capability. These frontiers are immense. There remains much to learn. it is still the newest realm of human activity. The applications frontier – developing and demonstrating new uses of space. so choices must be made. 5. It is also important in deciding to discontinue an activity when the important questions have been answered and the rate of learning has become only incremental or is no longer commensurate with the cost and risk. and other aspects of effective human activity in space. 2. The knowledge frontier – discovering and understanding natural phenomena. There are five frontiers to this new realm of human activity: 1. In general. 3. The physical frontier – going where robotic systems or humans have not been.S. reconnaissance. new capabilities. Expanding the frontiers of space also serves the national interest by providing opportunities for international partnerships. 4. Today the United States is indeed a space-faring nation. and it is hard to imagine a future in which it does not remain so. and systems in space. what is the role of NASA in space today? Although the Space Age began 46 years ago. communications. expected rate of learning. and estimated cost and .The Five Frontiers of Space by Edward C. thereby contributing to the achievement of a long-term goal. Stone NASA was formed at the dawn of the Space Age as part of the U. we would continue to develop and deploy more advanced global positioning.

g. Each step should focus on an aspect of the engineering and technology or human frontier that is crucial to making a human mission to Mars feasible. There will also be opportunities for the International Space Station to contribute to the science and applications frontiers. The human exploration of Mars would clearly expand the physical frontier for human space-flight and could serve as a long-range goal in determining the value of specific investments in the human space-flight program. the human exploration of Mars would also expand the science frontier. An effective way to increase the rate of learning is to proceed with a series of smaller steps rather than with the occasional. Therefore the following focuses on human space-flight. This should be an international goal with a general time frame but not a commitment to a specific date. affordable. that institutionally driven risks are acceptable. The exact steps will evolve as we learn. however. much larger step represented by a single system designed to address many different and often competing objectives. Doing what has not been done before will entail risk.risk. Addressing challenging engineering / technology issues on reasonable time scales (e. One of the challenges for human space-flight is choosing programs that will significantly increase the rate of learning associated with expanding the frontiers critical to human spaceflight so that it is commensurate with the investment and the risk. Expanding the frontiers means learning by going new places and trying new things. 5 years) will motivate students and attract the talented workforce needed to tackle hard problems. but the overall direction will be guided by the long-term goal of the human exploration of Mars. Sending humans to Mars would require significantly expanding the engineering / technology and the human frontiers while continuing the scientific exploration of Mars with precursor robotic missions. This is important because there are now many more challenging opportunities in engineering and . The capabilities and use of the International Space Station should be optimized to achieve timely and significant progress in understanding the most important factors affecting human effectiveness and safety during long exposures in space. That does not mean. It also has processes for identifying the best ideas for addressing those goals. With proper planning and preparation. rather than only incrementally improving what we already know and do. In the near term this suggests that the human frontier should be a high priority for the International Space Station. and safe. but that will be acceptable if we are learning what is critical to expanding the frontiers.

The challenge for the human space-flight program in the next two decades is to take the steps on the frontiers of space that will make human exploration of Mars not just a dream but inevitable. additional funding would follow because the value to the long-range goal of human presence on Mars would be apparent and the progress visible. As a result.S. there is much more competition for the brightest and best. Space Program – A Summary Report of The Workshop on National Space Policy – March. (in: Issues and Opportunities Regarding the U. 2004) APPLICATIONS  Reading comprehension and comments . Experience with the space science program also suggests that if the human space-flight program was structured to produce more learning. and the human space-flight program must offer a higher rate of learning to attract a new generation of technical staff.science than there were at the beginning of the Space Age.

as employed in this text.1. Afterwards. Look up the meaning of any unknown word or phrase in a dictionary. Can you integrate the contextual valence and meanings of the term ‘frontier’. within an ampler cultural circumscribing of the concept? Do you consider it a matter of linguistic coincidence that it occurs here? What do you know about ‘the spirit of the Frontier’. 2. What do you know about the present-day exploration of Mars?  Vocabulary study and practice 1. try and find their synonyms and/or opposites among the words and phrases that you had already known.  Grammar Module The numeral (Numeralul) . and its role in shaping the becoming of America? 2. What do you know about ‘the race for the Moon’ in the sixties? 3.

16 sixteen= [siks'ti:n]. 30 thirty.one hundred and sixty-three. 90 ninety= ['nainti]. 60 sixty= ['si:ksti]. 10 ten= [ten]. 12 twelve= [twelv]. 7 seven. 6 six= [siks].) b) adjectiv: The third witness did not want to speak.) c) pronume: The third did not want to speak. de obicei. de fapt. 15 fifteen= [fif'ti:n]. 8 eight= [eit]. (Zece împărţit la doi face cinci. The Cardinal Numeral (Numeralul cardinal) 0 zero. 163 . (Cel de-al treilea martor nu voia să vorbească. 100 a (one) hundred. 14 fourteen= [fo:'ti:n]. îndeplineşte funcţiile uneia din următoarele părţi de vorbire: a) substantiv: Ten divided by two is five.) 1. 70 seventy= ['sevnti]. 101 . deoarece. 11 eleven= [i'levn]. 9 nine= [nain]. 40 forty= [fo:ti]. (Cel de-al treilea nu voia să vorbească. dar din punct de vedere gramatical el nu poate fi socotit parte de vorbire.one hundred and one. definit ca „partea de vorbire care denumeşte numărul sau ordinea numerică".Numeralul este. 4 four= [fo:r]. 50 fifty= ['fifti]. . 1000 a (one) thousand. 5 five= [faiv]. 2 two= [tu:]. 17 seventeen. 18 eighteen= [ei'ti:n]. 20 twenty= [twenti]. 19 nineteen= [nain'ti:n]. 13 thirteen. 80 eighty= ['eiti]. 3 three. 1 one.

2.one thousand and four.g. 21 twenty-one. in figures: This Greek thinker lived 2.g. 1.g.se foloseste cratima intre numeralul zecilor si cel al unitatilor e. NOTE: . 2057 . Shorter numerals are generally expressed in letters: Twelve of the crew managed to escape. thousand.g.se pune virgula dupa fiecare grup care indica miile e.g. thousands of soldiers (sute de soldati).1004 . 1985 .two thousand five hundred and thirty-two NOTE: Hundred. • Longer numerals. The cardinal numeral is used to express a number.four thousand two hundred and fifty-eight. 99 ninety-nine .mentionarea conjunctiei and este obligatorie inaintea grupului zecilor si unitatea finala e.500 years ago.two thousand and fifty-seven.351 . 4258 . dozen (duzina) sunt invariabile: e. . we read: e. two thousand dollars.g. hundreds of men (sute de barbate). time of the clock. etc. a date.nineteen eighty five. Utilizate ca substantive ele primesc “-s” la plural: e.532 . • • When we refer to years.222.

2.. hundred= hundredth= al 100-lea. 30th 40th ... adaugati terminatia “-th” la numeralul cardinal.... ... The Ordinal Numeral 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd . The flat is on the sixth floor....000........000 1.. hundredth thousandth millionth = primul = al doilea = al treilea .. thirtieth fortieth ... 100th 1.000 first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelvth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third . Pentru a forma un numeral ordinal (numeralele ordinale pun obiectele in ordine)...... thirteen= thirteenth= al 13-lea..... The hero dies in the fourth act... seven= seventh= al 7-lea........

thousand= thousandth= al 1000-lea • Atunci cand un numeral cardinal se termina in -y, acesta se schimba in -ie inainte de a se adauga “-th”. twenty= twentieth= al 20-lea; sixty= sixtieth= al 60-lea; Exceptii: 1st= first= primul; 2nd= second= al 2-lea; 3rd= third= al 3-lea; 5= fifth= al 5-lea; 9= ninth= al 9-lea; 12= twelfth= al 12-lea; De la 21-lea pana la al 99-lea cifra unitatilor este ordinala: 22nd= twenty-second 33rd= thirty-third 58th= fifty-eighth 66th= sixty-sixth etc; 3. The Fractional Numeral (Numeralul fractionar) •

½ = a (one) half 3/5 = three fifths ¼ = a (one) fourth 7 5/6 = seven and five sixths 2/3 = two thirds 35.89 = thirty-five point eight nine 0.09 = (nought) point nought three


• • • •

Fractiile zecimale (decimal fractions):

4. The Multiplicative Numeral (Numeralul multiplicativ)
• • • • • •

1x = single, once (o data) 2x = double/twofold, twice (de doua ori) 3x = triple (treble)/threefold, three times (de trei ori) 4x = fourfold, four times (de patru ori) 10x = tenfold, ten times 100x = a hundredfold, a hundred times I’ve been here only once or twice. We can give a fourfold classification of these materials.

EXERCISES
1. Write in letters the following numerals. 123; 1,450; 58; 33; 1,024; 985; 24; 48; 22,760. 2. Write the following fractions. 1/3; 7/8; 6 9/12. 6.08; 0.7; 0.0001, 10.58. 3. Write the following dates. 21 June 1994 (the twenty-first of June, nineteen ninty-four) 2 April 1903 (the second of April, nineteen O[ou] three) 5 August 1800 (the fifth of August, eighteen hundred) 3 December 1860 – 30 May 1701 – 23 July 1900 4. Read the following phone numbers. 118605 (double one eight six O[ou] five) 255799 (two five five seven double nine) 197300; 380177; 670029. 5. Read the following times of the clock. 3: 25 (It is twenty-five [minutes] past three / three twenty-five) 6:45 (It is a quarter to seven / six forty-five) 10:45; 11:25; 12:40; 13:30; 14:05. 6. Translate into English. 1) Ziua mea de nastere este pe data de 22 mai.

5) Primul autobuz din parcare este al nostru.2) Am ajuns in Bucuresti pe data de 14 iunie. . 3) John este al patrulea elev din clasa. 6) Sunt 14 elevi in aceasta clasa. 4) 4 Iulie este ziua nationala a Americii.

suggesting that fire helped hominids to explore environments that were . It is also waterlogged. They found that burned material made up less than 2% of the total and was concentrated at specific locations in the site. There is already good evidence for hearths that are 250. He also points out that this first use of fire correlates with the time that hominids are thought to have entered colder areas such as Europe and Northern China.000 years old. The researchers have spent the past 15 years unearthing and sorting sediments at a site called Gesher Benot Ya’aqov in Israel.000 to 500. staying awake longer and interacting more than before.000 years ago. Answers from Reality Earliest Fire Sheds Light on Hominids by Nadja Neumann Supplementary text You could travel back 790. and her team now proves that fire was tamed at least 300. The team sorted flint and wood from the 790. Goren-Inbar sees the study as a breakthrough in terms of understanding the evolution of hominids: the fact that they were using fire so early tells scientists a great deal about their abilities and behaviour at the time.000-yearold site into burned and unburned material. Jerusalem. suggesting the fires that created it were started and controlled by early humans. fire would have enabled hominids to cook their food.Science.000 years and still find someone to light your fire: archaeologists have collected evidence that early humans mastered fire much earlier than previously thought. and it was widely believed that the first controlled handling of fire occurred 400. People may have gathered around camp-fires. suggests that the use of fire would have enriched the hominids’ social lives too. But an analysis of burned remains carried out by Naama Goren-Inbar of the Hebrew University. stay warm during the winter and possibly improve their weapons. which means that any ancient remains are extremely well conserved.000 years earlier than that. Chris Stringer from the Natural History Museum in London. The site is of particular interest to archaeologists because it was an old crossroads between Asia and Eurasia. UK. As well as providing protection against wild animals.

Homo ergaster and Homo sapiens were all around at the time. 30. as well as using fire. hunting and processing meat. Homo erectus. in: Nature News Service / April.previously too hostile. had large brains and were already using tools made of stone. and all were able to walk upright. The team plans further analysis of the site’s material to determine which species of hominid was responsible for the fires. inhabitants of the site in Israel were collecting plant food. Goren-Inbar’s analysis suggests that. 2004 / Macmillan Magazines Ltd © 2004 .

What do you think of the continuous “back-shift” re-dating that contemporary anthropological discoveries bring about? 2. 1. Comment upon the cultural symbolism of fire.APPLICATIONS  Reading comprehension and comments. .

she works). starea (to lie . timp. or. to sit . the base form plus an -s ending (he writes. Affirmative / Negative I work / I do not (don’t) work You work / You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works / He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work / We do not (don’t) work . apariţia sau modificarea unei caracteristici.. v) cât şi în gramatici. transformări. Ca parte de vorbire însă. atât în dicţionare (vb. având forme gramaticale caracteristice determinate de aspect. de felul cum se asociază cu alte părţi de vorbire.a slăbi). THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (PREZENTUL SIMPLU) The Simple Present Tense uses the verb’s base form (write. stări. ca element gramatical deci. verbul nu poate fi definit numai pe baza înţelesului.a se consolida. diateză.a-i plăcea.a şedea). persoană şi număr şi îndeplinind funcţia sintactică de predicat sau parte a predicatului. Această clasă de cuvinte este denumită verb.a merge. transformarea (to consolidate . într-un context). atitudini etc.a face). to weaken . atitudinea (to like . precum şi de funcţiile gramaticale pe care le poate îndeplini în propoziţie (sau. to make . în general.a zăcea.). Grammar Module The Verb (I) Tenses of the Indicative Mode O clasă de cuvinte a cărei importanţă în vocabularul unei limbi se poate compara numai cu aceea a substantivelor este clasa de cuvinte care spune ceva despre un obiect (fiinţă. lucru etc. care exprimă acţiunea acestuia (to go . a dori) etc. for third-person singular subjects. Gramatica trebuie să ţină seama şi de forma verbului. Verbul este o parte de vorbire care denumeşte acţiuni. work).a vrea. mod. to want .

but I’m not actually on my bike right now.m. every hour.which means that something is.You work / You do not (don’t) work They work / They do not (don’t) work Interrogative Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? The Simple Present Tense indicates that an action is present. in walks Mary. Compare that to the present progressive: It is raining in Portland. etc. • • With verbs of communicating. the present tense can convey a sense of the future. in fact. come. rarely. Present tense habitual activities are frequently signaled by time expressions such as the following: all the time. The Super Bowl starts at 6:15 p. relative to the speaker or writer. every year.things that occur in the present but that are not necessarily happening right now: It rains a lot in Portland. it is used to describe actions that are factual or habitual . every holiday. every week. going on right now. sometimes. especially with verbs such as arrive. never. every month. • Generally. often. usually. the present tense can also suggest a past action: Most oddly. most of the time. I use my bike to get around town. • The present tense is used to describe events that are scheduled (by nature or by people): High tide is at 3:15 p. every class. . now. all of a sudden. . .is a kind of timeless statement.is in the present. • The present tense can be used to suggest the past with what is sometimes called the fictional (or historic) present: We were watching the back door when. Mary tells me that she took her brother to the dentist. . always. and leave that suggest a kind of plan or schedule: The train from Boston arrives this afternoon at two o’clock. every day.m. every semester.

..... a lot of money..... mathematics to young children.... She ...........reads......... like................ Use these verbs: boil... 3..... I..... Write these verbs + -s or -es............. 3) (fly) it ………………………... 2) In Britain the banks usually ...... 1) (always / early / Sue / arrive) Sue always arrives early.... cost...................... speak...................... Complete the sentences....................................... wash 1) Margaret speaks four languages.... 5) My job is very interesting.. Put the verb in the right form (arrive or arrives... a lot of people.................. I. close...... 2......... 8) Shoes are expensive.. ......... 5) (have) she ……………………… 6) (finish) it . 4) Tina is a teacher............. 3) The City Museum ............................. 3) (work / Margaret / hard / usually) ....... etc.............. Write sentences from these words.................................... 2) (think) he …………………….......... They ......me...............30 in the morning.................................. at 5 o’clock in the evening............ teach..................... meet....EXERCISES 1........ 7) Food is expensive......................... 10) Julia and I are good friends..... 1) (read) she .............. at 9............ open.. at 100 degrees Celsius..... a lot of money................... 6) Peter.................... 4) (dance) he ……………………....... 2) (basketball / I / play / often) I ............ It...................... 4) (Jenny / always / nice clothes / wear) ... his hair twice a week....)........... her and she ................ 9) Water..................................

....................... ............... 5) He has a bath every day.......... 7........ 4) (eat in restaurants) ..... 2) Jane plays the piano very well. very often.............................. Use always/never/often/sometimes/usually.............................. 5) (drink coffee) ....... use.............................. 6................. 1) I play the piano very well.................................... Use: I never............................... Write sentences about yourself................... 2) (read in bed) I .............................................. Write the negative.......................... .......5) (dinner / we / have / always / at 7......................................................................................................... see....... 6) (television / Tim / watch / never) ......... .......30) .................................................................................. I don’t play the piano very well.............. or I don’t................... go............. 4) We work very hard.............................................. 4................................ 8) (Julia / parties / enjoy / always) .... Write about yourself..................................................................... 5) (travel by train) ......... 1) (watch television) I never watch television............................................ Jane ........ 1) (watch TV) I don’t watch TV very often............................................................................................................................................................ ....... Complete the sentences........................................................... 3) (ride a bicycle) ...... 6) You do the same thing every day.............................................................................. read........ know...................... 3) (get up before 7 o’clock) ........................................................./ I usually watch television in the evening....................................... 2) (go to the theatre) ................................... or I often . wear 1) I buy a newspaper every day but sometimes I don’t read it....... Use don’t/doesn’t + one of these verbs: cost.. 5............................................ .......................................... All of them are negative...................... 3) They know my phone number.................... 7) (like / chocolate / children / usually) .... 4 ) (go to work/school by bus) ......

...... And Paul? ....... I....English...... 6) I do exercises every morning. it very often....... (talk) 5) Jim................. to the cinema very often.............. 8) I want to be famous.................... Ann ................... 7) Sue often goes away...................... And you? ...... And you? ............................................... a ring....................... 3) They like films but they ..................................................... And your friends? ..................... And Ann? .......... much to stay there...................................................... you .. And Linda? ................... it very much............ Put the verb into the correct form........................... 3) Tom plays tennis.. 8.......................................... It’s very boring..... 7) Brian lives near us but we ....................don’t like my job......... very much.......... And you? ... I’m not interested in it...................................... meat............. German and Spanish..................... 5) I........ positive or negative........ .................... (like) 8) Mark is a vegetarian................................................................................................. Write questions with Do..................... And you? Do you like chocolate? 2) I play tennis........ (drink) 6) It’s not true! I.... It’s his favourite drink............................. It......? 1) I like chocolate. 4) You live near here. (like) 3) ‘Where’s Martin?’ ‘I’m sorry.....? and Does............ (eat) 9................................’ (know) 4) Sue is a very quiet person.... a lot of tea................ 9) You work hard....... I.................................................. 5) You speak English... He .............................. it! (believe) 7) That’s a very beautiful picture..................................................... 6) It’s not an expensive hotel.......................... French.......................... much about politics. him very often................. (speak) 2) I ....................2) Paul has a car but he ...................... 1) Margaret speaks four languages . 4) Amanda is married but she ....... She .. And your brother? ......

....................................................... 4) Does it rain a lot where you live? ....................... Put the words in the right order.... 1) (where /live/ your parents?) Where do your parents live? 2) (you / early / always / get up?) Do you always get up early? 3) (how often / TV / you / watch?) ................ 4) (you / want / what / for dinner?) .................. / No.................................................. 7) (what / you /do/ in the evenings?) .....00......................................... etc................................................................. 9) (to the cinema / often / you / go?) .......10.................. he does. 11) (often / snow / it / here?) ......... 2) Do you live in a big city? .............. Write questions..................... 12................. Write short answers (Yes.......................................................................... 3) He loves her. 12) (go / usually / to bed / what time / you?) ............................................ 5) He trusts you........................................................................................................................ 4) Some schoolgirls wear uniforms............................................ Read the following (a) in the negative (b) in the interrogative.. 3) Do you often ride a bicycle? ................................................................... I do........................ 5) (like / you / football?) .................. or Yes................................................................................................................ I don’t. 13) (how much / to phone New York / it / cost?) ............) + do/does.......................................................... 6) (your brother / like / football?) ....... Use the words in brackets (................................. 8) (your sister / work / where?) ................................... 11.............. 1) You know the answer............ 6) He tries hard.. . I don’t.........)...... 10) (what / mean / this word?) ............................. 14) (you / for breakfast / have / usually / what?) ........ 5) Do you play the piano? ............. 1) Do you watch TV a lot? No.............................................. 2) He has breakfast at 8......

................ She ............................. 13) I cry at sad films.... (work) 7) I always …………............................... 10) He finishes work at 6.. (work) 4) John and Sue ............ He ........................ She .................... He........... 6) I often pass your house...... 12) They pay £30 a week rent....................... She........... She.... 14............. He…………………….......... He …………………………. 10) I love sweets................................ 11) I often see them... /z/ or /iz/. 1) Water ……. to London once a week... 3) I often forget things................. 9) The children like sweets............................. (boil) 2) Hot air ............... 8) I always saw the wood.................... (go) 8) She ……………............................................... (drive) 9) She never ..meat........ She ...... 9) I wear old clothes at home... She .................... in a factory. 4) We often lose things...... a) Give the third person forms of the verbs in these sentences.............. 5) They manage all right......up very early... 8) He misses his mother...........7) The park closes at dusk... at 100°C.... She...a lot of sweets.00....out on Saturdays.......... glasses.. He............... b) Show whether you would pronounce the third person form as /s/. 13............. 7) I rush around a lot... (wear) 5) The children .....(rise) 3) My uncle .... (get) 10) I occasionally .... (eat) 6) He only at weekends.............. 2) We drink a lot of tea......... She . 1) I often drop things.. (eat) . Give the correct form of the simple present of each verb..........................

........) close(s)............... drink(s)................. every four years.at 7 next Friday.. take(s) place 1) Ann speaks German very well............. (start) 13) I ................. ........ 4) Bad driving ....11) The coach .....................(know) – I .............. (see) 14) It’s not right............... coffee....... so. at 18..... 5) My parents .......... open(s)....... (leave) 12) The concert .......(agree) 15) Can he manage? – I ................... you . many accidents........ Barcelona won again. 3) The swimming pool..................................in the paper it’ll be hot............. in a very small flat.. at 9 o’clock and ......... speak(s)..... 2) I never ...... (hope) 16) It .........at 6 this evening................... Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s............... (say) 15............................................... 6) The Olympic Games ... live(s)..........30 every day....

She is working through the holiday break.THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (PREZENTUL CONTINUU) The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense indicates continuing action. Affirmative I am working / We are working You are working / You are working He/she/it is working / They are working Negative I am not working You are not (aren’t) working He/she/it is not (isn’t) working We are not (aren’t) working You are not (aren’t) working They are not (aren’t) working Interrogative Am I working? / Are we working? Are you working? / Are you working? Is he/she/it working? / Are they working? . in the present tense. This tense is formed with the helping ‘to be’ verb. something going on now. plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): I am buying all my family’s Christmas gifts early this year.

I am depending on you. it is usually modified by adverbs of time. We are having an interesting conversation. so do not usually have a continuous form. Jill is being noisy. Temporary or repeated actions This use emphasises a temporary or repeated habitual action. see. love. With verbs describing change and development Things are getting worse. Complaints about bad habits You are always complaining about my cooking! Other possible adverbs are: constantly. Typical examples are: be. especially with verbs that convey the idea of a plan or of movement from one place or condition to another: The team is arriving in two hours. suspect. I am feeling terrible. He’s moving to Portland this summer. • Because the present progressive can suggest either the present or the future. It depends what you mean. consist. prefer. Typical examples are: believe. . More and more people are giving up smoking. Compare these uses: Jack is noisy. Mark has a Porsche. want. taste. doubt. feel. State verbs describe a continuing state. own. • Other uses of present continuous tense a. Are you enjoying your stay here? b. I feel that you are wrong. I think I like you! David is thinking about getting a new job. depend. understand. • Some verbs have a stative meaning and a different active meaning. know. seem. have. belong. have. mean. measure. suppose. matter. like. forever c. We are weighing the baby. wish. so I am walking to work these days. This bag weighs a ton. think. My car has broken down. This fish tastes awful! I am just tasting the soup. fit. weigh.The present continuous can suggest that an action is going to happen in the future. contain. continually.

.. football........... 2) He ... 2) ‘Where’s John?’ ‘He’s in the kitchen...... .......... in the river... Complete the sentences.. 4) (I/eat) ........ sit.......... have. 5) They .... I’m working....’ 4) Look! Somebody .................... now...................................................... breakfast. 5) We’re here on holiday......................... 2..................... 3......... or It isn’t snowing... at the Central Hotel.............. on my foot...............EXERCISES 1..................... 3) They ................... stay. 6) ‘Where’s Ann?’ ‘She .. wait 1) She’s eating an apple......... stand.. Goodbye..................’ 3) ‘You ........ a shower........ I’m sorry............. 2) (it / snow) It’s snowing............................................................................. work 1) Please be quiet.................. for a bus..........’ 7) They.. play................................................................................... have..... 6) She .................................. go................. He . lie........ on the table... swim............. 1) (I / wash / my hair) I’m not washing my hair..............’ ‘Oh............... on the floor.... What’s happening at the moment? Write true sentences......... Use one of these verbs: build....... 3) (I / sit / on a chair) ................................ We ............ a new theatre in the city centre at the moment..................... cook...... 4) He .................................................................. Use these verbs to complete the sentences: eat.. 8) I ...........

................. 4....................................... 5) Are you sitting on the floor? .. 10) (I / read / a newspaper) ................................. Use is or are and put the words in order......................................................... 5) (your parents / television / watching?) .......................................... 9) (I / wear / shoes) ........................ 6) (what / cooking / Ann?) .................5) (it/rain) ....... 8) (the sun / shine) ................................................. 3) Why Ann (not wear) her new dress? 4) The airplane (fly) at 2..................................... Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense..................................................................... 2) Are you wearing a watch? ............. ......................... 7) (why / you / looking / at me?) ........... 2) He (teach) his boy to ride............................................................................................................................................ Write short answers (Yes............ Write questions from these words........................................................ etc....................................... 7) (I / listen / to music) ............. he isn’t.......................... 4) Is it raining? ..................... 1) She (not work).................................. 4) (where / going / your friends?) ........... 3) Are you eating something? ........... 6) (I / learn / English) ........................................... 5) What Tom (do) now? He (clean) his shoes.................... 1) (working / Paul / today?) Is Paul working today? 2) (what / doing / the children?) What are the children doing? 3) (you / listening / to me?) ........................ I’m not...000 meters........................................................................................................................................ she (swim) in the river........... 5....) 1) Are you watching TV? No........................................... I am........................... 6) Are you feeling well? ............................... 8) (coming / the bus?) ........................................................ / No... 6................................

.. look... happen.....’ 6) Have you got an umbrella? It........... Somebody (bring) more coal? 7) It (rain)?-Yes.... 16) Why you (make) a cake? Someone (come) to tea? 17) Where is Tom? — He (lie) under the car... dark............ 8) Why you (mend) that old shirt? 9) You (not tell) the truth......... 18) Can I borrow your pen or you (use) it at the moment? 19) You (do) anything this evening? No..... Shall I answer it? I (come) in a minute. I have a lot to do..... start..... stay. 14) Someone (knock) at the door.. I (go) to the cinema........ How do you know that I (not tell) the truth? 10) Who (move) the furniture about upstairs? It’s Tom....... Could you be quieter? I. get... 7....... Well.. 11) Mrs Jones (sweep) the steps outside her house...’ ‘Yes.................. Ann?’ ‘Yes........ with friends until they find somewhere........................ You can’t go out yet.. I’m not...... 7) You ..... for Christine.... I........ Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs in the correct form: come............ try...6) This fire (go) out...... 15) She always (ring) up and (ask) questions..00 tomorrow as Tom (catch) an early train....... They ............ to .......... work 1) ‘You ’re working hard today....... it (rain) very hard... 12) What you (read) now? I (read) Crime and Punishment.......... to rain......’ 2) I...... Do you know where she is? 3) It.... make.... a lot of noise........... Would you like to come with me? 20) We (have) breakfast at 8. 5) ‘Are you ready. I just (wash) my hands.. He (paint) the front bedroom............ 13) It is a lovely day...... The sun (shine) and the birds (sing). Shall I turn on the light? 4) They haven’t got anywhere to live at the moment......................................

....... rise............... (you/do) it alone? Sarah: No......... better slowly........................ (not/work) at the moment.......................... (you/enjoy) it? Brian: It’s all right............................................ (decorate) my flat.... some friends of mine (8)..... 3) The world ...........................................concentrate........... worse... Sarah: Really? What’s it like? (3)................... Every year things are more expensive................. (help) me..... (train) to be a supermarket manager... 9....... change........................... Brian: (7).................. Things never stay the same..........) 1) The population of the world is rising very fast. (try) to find a job but it’s not easy......... 4) The cost of living ...... 5) The economic situation is already very bad and it................. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs: get................. (you/do) these days? Brian: I (2)............... actually I (4).............................. What about you? Sarah: Well.................................................... I (6)............................... Put the verbs into the correct form: Sarah: Brian! How nice to see you! What (l)....... 2) Ken is still ill but he ................. Read this conversation between Brian and Sarah. But I’m very busy......... increase (You don’t have to use all the verbs and you can use a verb more than once............... ........................... I (5) .......... fall................................. 8......................

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE (PREZENTUL PERFECT SIMPLU) The Simple Present Perfect Tense is formed with a present tense form of ‘to have’ plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular form). (but I’m still walking). . I have run the Boston Marathon. (but that was some time ago). Affirmative I have worked / We have worked You have worked / You have worked He/she/it has worked / They have worked Negative I/you have not (haven’t) worked He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked We/You/They have not worked Interrogative Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Have we/you/they worked? • This tense indicates either that an action was completed (finished or ‘perfected’) at some point in the past or that the action extends to the present: I have walked two miles already. The critics have praised the film ‘Saving Private Ryan’ since it came out. (and they continue to do so).

Since can also be used with the Past Simple.• FOR / SINCE For and since are used with perfect tenses to indicate length of time. . I’ve known Mary for three months. Since + Past simple: It’s two years since I left the army.) • With adverbs beginning in the past and going up to present. (I haven’t seen you for a long time).) Since can also be used in the middle of sentences which begin with a time period: It’s a long time since I’ve seen you. • We tend to use the Present Perfect when reporting or announcing an event of the recent past: The company’s current CEO has lied repeatedly to her employees. Since refers to a date in the past and is used to talk about things happening between then and now. I’ve known Mary since March. we would use the present perfect: I have studied up to now/lately/already.finished action in the past. (I left the army two years ago . For refers to the period of time that has passed between a point of time in the past and now. (It is now June.

. Tom ...EXERCISES 1. I’m afraid I . I.. 11) I just (wash) that floor.... and fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary. 2) You (have) breakfast? – Yes. 7) He just (go) out... I. 4) You (see) my watch anywhere? – No. Have you seen him lately? No. 10) You (hear) from her lately? – No. 5) Someone (wind) the clock? – Yes. it. 1) Where you (be)? – I (be) to the dentist.. .. 6) I (not finish) my letter yet.. 9) The phone (stop) ringing... I . Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect tense. 13) You (explain) the exercise? – Yes. 3) The post (come)? – Yes. I. I haven’t. 12) The cat (steal) the fish.. 8) Someone (take) my bicycle.. I . I have. Have you washed the plates? Yes. You (see) him lately? No. You (wash) the plates? Yes.

.... like this before................. the same car for fifteen years.......all over the world............. (not be) 7) I saw her in May................ Write the present perfect simple tense of the verbs in brackets. to Marco since 1989.. 20) Would you like some coffee? – I just (make) some. (just fly) 16) She ……………………… a director......... my letter.. (never quarrel) 5) I..... (met) .............. (drive) 9) I................. (recently become) 17) They……………………............... 2...... (not answer) 20) I ………………... there since we were young...... couscous? (you ever eat) 4) They ..... (know) 10) She ... (buy) 12) He .. them for many years........... your promise? (you forget) 14) I ………......... an elephant............................... 1) Up to now I’ve visited many countries...... (ride) 15) She ............................ (type) 3) .............................. (visit) 2) He.... 16) Charles (pass) his exam? – Yes..... (not see) 8) She .......... (not drink) 19) She still …………………. a new car... her several times................. 18) I (live) here for ten years........ thank you............. (already speak) 18) I ………………......... 19) How long you (know) Mr Pitt? – I (know) him for ten years............ (not write) 6) We ...... 17) How many bottles the milkman (leave)? – He (leave) six........ in that shop for ages! (be) 11) They ..... 15) You (have) enough to eat? – Yes... (travel) 13) …………………. six letters so far...... I (have) plenty........... my tea yet.. to me..............…………….... he ............................ in from Rome....14) There aren’t any buses because the drivers (go) on strike................................... but........ her since..

.... I’ve bought a new car............. You are writing a letter to a friend.. He has lost his key..... She ... Now it is much better........ 6) Last week the bus fare was 80 pence..... lose 1) Mike is looking for his key.... Choose one of the following: arrive............... 1) I / buy / a new car... ...... Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you...........................3.......... grow.......... Dear Chris........................................ (not/tell/yet) 6........... they ......................... (just/see) 3) What time is David leaving? He ...... go up. Use the present perfect......... (already/see) 6) Are your friends here yet? Yes.. Now I have it.... 2) Margaret can’t walk and her leg is in plaster...... Complete the sentences.... thanks.. Read the situations and write sentences... ......... improve.................... 1) After lunch you go to see a friend at her house.... 4) Tim didn’t have a beard last month........ already or yet. she .............. 1) Would you like something to eat? No......... 2) my father / start / a new job 3) I / give up / smoking 4) Charles and Sarah /go/to Brazil 5) Suzanne / have / a baby 4.......... She says ‘Would you like something to eat?’ ...... He can’t find it............... Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet (as shown)........ I......... break..... (just/arrive) 7) What does Tim think about your plan? I..... her.. 5... (not/read/yet) 5) Is Ann coming to the cinema with us? No.......... Now he has a beard..................... 5) This morning I was expecting a letter.. I’ve just had lunch..... Now it is 90..................... (already/leave) 4) What’s in the newspaper today? I don’t know.. (just/have) 2) Do you know where Julia is? Yes... the film..... In the letter you give news about yourself and other people.... I...... 3) Maria’s English wasn’t very good.................... Use the words given to make sentences...... Read the situations and write sentences with just........................

. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away................................... 6) (most beautiful place / ever / visit?) What ........................ (not/finish) 4) You are going to a restaurant this evening.................... the phone rings and the caller says ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid .............................................................................. 3) Last year the company made a profit but this year ......... 6) Our football team won a lot of games last season but we ..........................? (find) 6) Ann went to the bank.........................................You say: No.......... but a few minutes ago she returned............ thank you........................................... 3) (ever / run / marathon?)............................................................................ .......................................................................................... Ask her.......... (do) 5) You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job................................................................. You phone to reserve a table................... 4) (ever / speak / famous person?).. ....................... You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done...... 1) (ever / ride / horse?) Have you ever ridden a horse? 2) (ever / be California?).............. (go out) 3) You are eating in a restaurant.............................. Later your friend says ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table?’ You say: No.......... Complete these sentences using today / this year / this term............................... I’ve just had lunch.............................................. Somebody asks ‘Is Ann still at the bank?’ You say: No....................... 1) I saw Tom yesterday but …I haven’t seen him today… 2) I read a newspaper yesterday but I........................................ 5) It snowed a lot last winter but ........................ (have lunch) 2) Joe goes out........ You say: Wait a minute! ................................... today.......... ..................... it......... Perhaps she has been successful.. (come back) 7.................... 4) Tracy worked hard at school last term but......... Five minutes later.................. Make questions from the words in brackets.......................................... etc................................................................... 8....... 5) (always / live / in this town?) ..... You say:.

Affirmative I have been working / We have been working You have been working / You have been working He/she/it has been working / They have been working Negative I/you have not (haven’t ) been working He/she has not (hasn’t) been working We/you/they have not been working Interrogative Have I/you been working? Has he /she/it been working? Have we/you/they been working? • The Present Perfect Continuous Tense indicates a continuous action that has been finished at some point in the past or that was initiated in the past and continues to happen.THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (PREZENTUL PERFECT CONTINUU) This tense is formed with the modal ‘have’ or ‘has’ (for third-person singular subjects) plus ‘been’ plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): I have been working in the garden all morning. George has been painting that house for as long as I can remember. The action is usually of limited duration and has some current relevance: .

(regularly) I’ve been playing tennis all morning.which are general rather than specific or counted: I’ve been listening to a lot of classical music lately.which take place over an extended period of time. • The present perfect continuous is frequently used to describe an event of the recent past. (continuously) . • The present perfect continuous is also used for activities: . . or which are repeated often in an extended period of time: I’ve been playing tennis for five years.She has been running and her heart is still beating fast. it is often accompanied by just in this usage: It has just been raining.

EXERCISES
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect continuous tense. 1) I (make) cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with flour. 2) Her phone (ring) for ten minutes. I wonder why she doesn’t answer it. 3) He (overwork). That is why he looks so tired. 4) There is sawdust in your hair. – I’m not surprised. I (cut) down a tree. 5) Have you seen my bag anywhere? I (look) for it for ages. 6) What you (do)? – I (work) in the laboratory. 7) He (study) Russian for two years and doesn’t even know the alphabet yet. 8) How long you (wait) for me? – I (wait) about half an hour. 9) It (rain) for two days now. There’ll be a flood soon. 10) We (argue) about this for two hours now. Perhaps we should stop! 11) I (bathe). That’s why my hair is all wet. 12) You (drive) all day. Let me drive now. 13) How long you (wear) glasses? 14) The petrol gauge (say) ‘Empty’ for quite a long time now. Don’t you think we should get some petrol? 15) I’m sorry for keeping you waiting. I (try) to make a telephone call to Rome. 16) You (not eat) enough lately. That’s why you feel irritable. 17) He (speak) for an hour now. I expect he’ll soon be finished. 18) That helicopter (fly) round the house for the last hour; do you think it’s taking photographs? 19) The radio (play) since 7 a.m. I wish someone would turn it off. 20) I (shop) all day and I haven’t a penny left. 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect continuous tense.

1) We (live) here since 1977. 2) I’m on a diet. I (eat) nothing but bananas for the last month. 3) The children (look) forward to this holiday for months. 4) That pipe (leak) for ages. We must get it mended. 5) Tom (dig) in the garden all afternoon and I (help) him. 6) I (ask) you to mend that window for six weeks. When are you going to do it? 7) Someone (use) my bicycle. The chain’s fallen off. 8) How long you (drive)? – I (drive) for ten years. 9) The trial (go) on for a long time. I wonder what the verdict will be. 10) It (snow) for three days now. The roads will be blocked if it doesn’t stop soon. 11) Mary (cry)? – No, she (not cry), she (peel) onions. 12) The car (make) a very curious noise ever since it ran out of oil. 13) He walked very unsteadily up the stairs and his wife said, ‘You (drink)!’ 14) Your fingers are very brown. You (smoke) too much. 15) You usually know when someone (eat) garlic. 16) Ever since he came to us that man (try) to make trouble. 3. Write the present perfect continuous tense of the verbs in brackets. 1) I’m tired. I have been digging all day. (dig) 2) How long ………………………..here? (you wait) 3) I ………………………………. Here since 6 o’clock. (stand) 4) How long ………………………………Chinese? (you learn) 5) She ………………………..English for five years. (study) 6) You’re out of breath. ……………………….? (you run) 7) We …………………………here for twelve years. (live) 8) Your eyes are red ……………………………. (you cry) 9) How long ……………………………..? (the children sleep) 10) What ……………………………. all afternoon? (you do) 4. Write a question for each situation. 1) John looks sun burnt.

You ask: (you/sit in the sun?) Have you been sitting in the sun? 2) You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you. You ask: (you / wait/ long?) …………………………………….. 3) You meet a friend in the street. His face and hands are very dirty. You ask: (what / you / do?) ………………………………………… 4) A friend of yours is now living in Baker Street. You want to know ‘How long...?’ You ask: (how long / you / live / in Baker Street?) …………………………….. 5) A friend tells you about his job – he sells computers. You want to know ‘How long...?’ You ask: (how long / you / sell / computers?) .............................................. 5. Read the situations and complete the sentences. 1) The rain started two hours ago. It’s still raining now. It has been raining for two hours. 2) We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We’re still waiting now. We ............................................................................................ for 20 minutes. 3) I started Spanish classes in December. I’m still learning Spanish now. I.............................................................................................. since December. 4) Ann began looking for a job six months ago. She’s still looking now. ............................................................................................ for six months. 5) Mary started working in London on 18 January. She’s still working there now. ............................................................................................... since 18 January. 6. Read the situations and write two sentences using the words in brackets. 1) Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. (read / for two hours) He has been reading for two hours. 2) Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her tour three months ago. (travel / for three months) She.............................................................................. 3) Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This year he is national champion again - for the fourth time. (play / tennis since he was ten).............................................................................

...................... For each situation.......................... 5) A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday..............................4) When they left college..... They still make films....................... .. 1) You have a friend who is learning Arabic....................... ask a question using the words in brackets........................................................................................... 4) You meet somebody who is a writer.......................... You ask: (how long / write / books?) ................. 3) A friend of yours is a teacher..... You ask: (how long / save?)........................ You ask: (how long / learn / Arabic?) How long have you been learning Arabic? 2) You have just arrived to meet a friend. You ask: (how long/wait?) ................... You ask: (how long / teach?) ................ 7...................... She is waiting for you......................................... Mary and Sue started making films together. (make / films since they left college)...

The son of Roy Bates. A story that began in an apparently risible way in September 1967.Law. and was nothing much more than a minor item of local news about a small eccentric family. the Inland Revenue and the intelligence services. 47. took possession of the outpost known as Roughs Tower. The computer experts come from the Anguillabased firm HavenCo Ltd and are keen to launch the only place in the world that can offer almost complete anonymity and privacy to anyone who wants to conduct e-business beyond the gaze of the authorities. During the Second World War Britain established an artificial island on the high seas. this matter is of grave concern to the police. For at the very time when Parliament has just passed the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act. some might say. 31. led by Sean Hastings. has metamorphosed into an international incident. Their task was to guard the approaches to the Thames Estuary where convoys of shipping were assembled. is setting up the world’s first offshore “data haven” on the island. On September 2. The juridical status of the Principality of Sealand is now the subject of heated legal and political controversy. the world’s newest self-proclaimed state. Culture and Conventions. 1967. It was equipped with radar and heavy armaments and was occupied by 200 servicemen. Roy Bates. Bates and his family hoisted their own flag and later declared the existence of the Principality of Sealand. The Government has apparently allowed itself to be painted into a corner over an intriguing issue of international law. After the war the island was abandoned. Then in the winter of 1966. Prince Michael. which allows private computer information to be monitored where serious crime or breaches of national security are involved. a putative state without any such laws or concerns is threatening the interests of the Government off the port of Felixtowe. has been reported as saying: “It . looking out at Sealand. Answers from the Others How a Law-less ‘Data Haven’ Is Using Law to Protect Itself by Gary Slapper When is a state not a state? When it is a playground on stilts in 30 ft of water. off the Suffolk coast. The island was outside the then existing three-mile territorial waters of Britain. a former major. A group of American business entrepreneurs. Clearly.

while they were there. it could legitimately claim its own coastal waters and regulate its own airspace. a people coming together as a nation. It does not matter that it is only 932 sq yd in size because there is no minimum area legally articulated for something to be a state. Students of the relationship between law and realpolitik will be watching developments here closely. Neither is there a requirement that the population rises above a certain minimum. itemises the same criteria as the jus gentium. Sealand does appear to have a good claim. . they took the fortress and Prince Michael prisoner. and a sovereign state authority. He was freed in a counter-attack from the air by King Roy and the businessmen were taken as PoWs. Nor is it an argument that the structure was created by the Government as it was legally terra nullis – abandoned land – when it was taken over. plus the capacity to enter into relations with other states. Then in 1978.is about freedom and liberty and making it easier for people to do business in private and to express themselves freely. However. the major treatise written by the command of the Roman Emperor Justinian and published in AD 533. Vatican City is classified as a state even though it is minuscule. three years after Sealand declared itself a sovereign principality. The requirements are: a national territory. The spectacle of a new state with no laws appealing to international law to protect it against an ancient state overflowing with laws cannot help but be intriguing. This law is derived from the Institutes of Justinian. He argued that the newly named Sealand was beyond British jurisdiction and this was accepted by the trial judge. it was told that the fortress was beyond British jurisdiction.” The commonly accepted criteria among jurists for determining whether an entity is a state are taken from the jus gentium – the law of nations. The Government is also in difficulties over this because on two occasions it has appeared to endorse the idea that Sealand is both beyond its jurisdiction and has the status of a state. In 1968 the Royal Navy expressed concern over Bates’ presence on Sealand and sent in some boats. Bates fired warning shots at them and was then prosecuted in a Crown Court. Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States. Sealand appears also to have satisfied this criterion. When Germany asked Britain to intervene. Dutch and German businessmen came over with a business proposition. One thorny problem for the Government is that according to the three major criteria of statehood. If Sealand is an independent state. signed in 1933.

would you support or at least approve such an initiative as the one in the story? As an ordinary citizen.(The Times – August. like the state and its institutions?  Vocabulary study and practice 1. Can a radical interpretation of this come instead to affect the indirect exponents of the others. Look up the meaning of any unknown word or phrase in a dictionary. Democracy is usually defined as the freedom to think or do whatever one wishes to. try and find their synonyms and/or opposites among the words and phrases that you had already known. 2000) APPLICATIONS  Reading comprehension and comments 1. 2. Afterwards. what do you think? 2. 3. provided that one does not by this interfere or restrict the same freedom in others. If you were a statesman. . 8. Comment upon whether there should be a limit that actions performed in the name of principles like free initiative and entrepreneurship cannot exceed or not.

the second one being the simple past tense (slept. • when the time period has finished: We went to Chicago last Christmas. . • with for. • when the time period is definite: We visited Mom last week. Irregular verbs have three forms. worked). • for states: In those days. I didn’t like reading. work) plus the -ed ending (screamed. Grammar Module The Verb (II) Tenses of the Indicative Mode THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE (TRECUTUL SIMPLU) Regular verbs use the verb’s base form ( scream. Affirmative I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked/ spoke Negative I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not work/ speak Interrogative Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they work/ speak? The Simple Past Tense indicates that an action is in the past relative to the speaker or writer. when the action is finished: I worked with the FBI for two months. drove). drank. • for habitual actions: Every day I went to the park.

8) think ……………………… 10) know ……………………. 6) buy ………………………. 3) He always wears black. 12) I see him every day. Write the past simple of these verbs. 1) get ……………………. 7) go …………………….. 11) You eat too much.. 5) visit ………………….EXERCISES 1. 13) Tom sings in the choir. 4) pay ……………………….. Put the verbs in the following sentences into the simple past tense. 5) She gets up at 6.. 4) I make cakes every week. 3) play …………………. 8) She speaks slowly. 2.. 2) see ……………………….. 7) He shuts the shop at 6... 2) I meet her on Tuesdays. 9) copy ………………. 9) He leaves the house at 9. 12) speak ……………………. 11) put ………………….. 10) I read a chapter every night.00. 1) I go to work by bus. 15) Who knows the answer? .00.. 6) He understands me.30.. 14) He cries when he is hurt..

.................... 3) (have a shower) ......................00........... 4) I finished work early.... 18) He takes the dog out twice a day......... 5) (eat meat) .. German.................................................... 4) She had a pen but she .......................................... And you? .............. 6.................... 20) I dream every night. 6) (go to bed before 10.................................................... 3) I had a good holiday.............................................................. 5.. Write questions with Did................................................16) I think I know it......................... or I didn’t watch TV.............? 1) I watched TV last night................. Put the verbs in the following sentences into (a) the negative (b) the interrogative................................................... any paper................ Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative................................30) ................................................................. And you? ............. And you? .................................. What did you do yesterday? Write positive or negative sentences........... ............. 19) We buy them here... 2) They worked on Monday but they ....... 4............... 3) We went to the post office but we ........... 1) She saw your brother................... 3) He slept till 10.......................... to the bank..... 5) Jack did French at school but he ....... 1) I saw Barbara but I didn’t see Jane.............. And you? Did you watch TV last night? 2) I enjoyed the party.......... 2) We heard a terrible noise......................... 4) (buy a magazine) .............. 17) The curtain rises at 8..... 5) I slept well last night............ 1) (watch TV) I watched TV.................. on Tuesday.................................................. 2) (get up before 7 o’clock) I ................... And you? ................00........ 3........................

..... 10) She found her watch... 1) We waited an hour yesterday....... 20) They flew to New York... b... 5) They drank all the wine. 7) She thought about it.... at her. 16) He broke his arm. (smile) 6) She . (play) 4) She ..... 6) They set out early enough. (clean) 3) I... when she saw me....... 18) He lost his wallet....... (stop) 7) I....... of you last night..... my letter yesterday.......... 17) His wife came at 8....... (wait) 2) Joan . (dream) 8) Who .... when we saw them... 12) My mother chose this hotel............ 15) Tom hurt his foot........... 9) He hid the letter... (laugh) .4) He looked at the picture.00...... 14) Keiko taught Japanese. (watch) 11) We ………….... the cakes? (burn) 9) He .. Show whether you would pronounce these past forms as /d/.... /t/ or /id/... Give the past forms of these regular verbs. 8) The police caught the thief... 13) She lent you enough money.. 19) His son wrote a novel...... squash last night.. her room on Friday....... (cry) 10) I ………………TV all evening.. 11) His nose bled. (post) 5) I.... 7... a. a lot as a baby.

.........(have) breakfast............ 2) It was hot in the room........ rain........ to be a doctor............ Use one of these verbs in the past simple: clean .. 4) When I was a child.... (lock) 18) We …………........ 7) We ......... into the house....... 1) Jim always goes to work by car......... 3) The concert......(arrive) in Madrid two hours later..... etc.............. 6) It’s a nice day today but yesterday it.... Then she (10) ...... I......... in the bill.. happen.................(depart) on time and (13)..30 she (4)...... Tuesday Lisa (1) flew (fly) from London to Madrid..................... first class.. 9............ She (2).............. to me! (lie)... last Sunday afternoon. open.......).. At 6................. When she (6) ..... 15) I ……………............ (include) 17) I ……………… the door before I left..(take) a taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid. finish......... Finally she (14)....die........... 8) Ann’s grandfather.......... (hurry) 14) You …………............. when he was 90 years old.....(drive) to the airport......... stay 1) I cleaned my teeth three times yesterday....... The plane (12).... We ............12) He …………....... (travel) 8........................(go) to the airport cafe where she (9) ......................... ......... Yesterday he went to work by car...... (leave) home and (5).... Read about Lisa’s journey to Madrid.. at 7... Write sentences about the past (yesterday / last week... 10....................................... start.. at 10 o’clock...30 and................ the sergeant’s orders.......... the window....... enjoy................... (get)up at six o’clock in the morning and (3)............... 5) The accident........(park) the car and then (8)...........(arrive) she (7)....................... our holiday last year................(go) through passport control and (11)......................... (finish) 16) It’s ……………........ so I..... Complete the sentences............ Put the verbs in the correct form..(wait) for her flight........ all day.. at a very nice place.......................(have) a cup of coffee.early yesterday.......... (obey) 13) We …………......

We didn’t enjoy it... (open) 6) ‘Did you go to the bank this morning?’ ‘No..................two shirts...... Put the verb in the correct form ... this very old bottle yesterday.... each other very well........... 5) I often find things on the beach............ She .. Ray’s wife........ negative or question... 5) ……………………………… 3) ………………………………............................................................ 4) ……………………………… 2) ………………………………......... Write sentences about what you did yesterday........................ a jacket and a pullover......... 1) I often see Giulio......... time....................................................... 2) As teenagers.......’ (rain) 4) The party wasn’t very good.. a window... Yesterday I .... 3) Kate meets her friends every evening. that?’ (do) 13....... it open this time? .................. we always ........ I...... Who .... 4) I usually buy two newspapers every day...... (buy) 3) ‘....... it was a nice day..........................................................positive.... I............................. 1) We went to the cinema but the film wasn’t very good..... 7) Tom always has a shower in the morning...... long. 6) Someone’s always leaving that window open.. 6) I eat an orange every day....... Last Sunday we .......... We still understand each other now. This morning he ... 11...... last Sunday as usual................2) Rachel often loses her keys........... yesterday evening. She .............. so I............ Yesterday I ..........................................’ ‘How .... (enjoy) 2) Tim... 3) I hardly ........... 1) I played tennis yesterday.............................. Write the past forms of the irregular verbs in italics........... so we ......... last week.....................’ (have) 7) ‘I cut my hand this morning................. 6) ……………………………… 12........ I saw him again only yesterday. Did you know her at all? 4) We always meet on Sunday................... They ................ 8) Our friends come to see us every Friday............................. yesterday?’ ‘No......... some new clothes yesterday . (stay) 5) It was very warm in the room.. 5) We usually go to the cinema on Sundays. We ............

5) Paul and I played tennis yesterday.. She .... 8) They sell all kinds of rubbish now.......... but I ........... write 1) Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.. He’s much better than me........... Give complete answers to these questions using the time references in brackets.... £100. 6) Don .......7) I...... I hardly ever write letters now....a lot of money yesterday. 1) How long ago did you work as a civil servant? (five years ago) I worked as a civil servant five years ago..... sell. Write your questions....... when I was a boy...... the water very quickly.. 1) (where/go?) Where did you go? .... cost. 2) ‘How did you learn to drive?’ ‘My father . 12) Where did you eat last night? ............. I.. 16......... She……………………......... drink............... five years ago. it..... 4) I was very thirsty..... at a restaurant.. Put one of these verbs in each sentence: buy..... 7) Jim . 10) I have the same car now that I. so we ..... You ask him about it.... 2) When did you last play football? (when I was 14) 3) When did the Carters leave for their summer holiday? (last night) 4) What time did John arrive? (at 4) 5) When did you last see ‘Gone with the Wind’? (recently) 6) How long did you wait at the airport? (till they arrived) 7) When did Sally tell you about her engagement? (when she was here) 15........throw..........................We ........ the ball to Sue... spend..... you know........... me........ a lot of letters when I was young...... win. his leg..... a dress which ………………... it................................... teach .. hurt............. 11) I don’t keep pets now...... who ............. 14.......... 9) She is very good at figures........... catch.. fall............... 8) Ann ……………………...’ 3) We couldn’t afford to keep our car...... a dog........ down the stairs this morning and ... A friend has just come back from holiday....... good handmade furniture.. but they once ....... first in maths at school.. so he ………… easily................

.......... so I....... her................. (laugh) 9) The window was open and a bird ....... so I................. I didn’t enjoy it very much................... very much... (take) 2) The film wasn’t very good. (sleep) 6) Sue wasn’t hungry.. positive or negative... Complete the sentences......... I .......... (fly) 10) The hotel wasn’t very expensive........... very well. (disturb) 4) I was very tired........... (go) 5) The bed was very uncomfortable........................... 6) (how/travel?) ………………………………………….......................... anything.... Put the verb into the correct form.. 5) (stay/at a hotel?) ………………………………………….... so she ............................. 7) (the weather/fine?) …………………………………………….... into the room.......... so I took off my coat.................. 9) (meet anybody interesting?) ……………………………………………… 17....... 8) (what/do in the evenings?) ……………………………………………............. It............ (cost) ....... 1) It was warm.............. (enjoy) 3) I knew Sarah was very busy............2) (go/alone?) …………………………………………… 3) (food/good?) ……………………………………………… 4) (how long/stay there?)……………………………………………...................... (eat) 7) We went to Kate’s house but she .. (be) 8) It was a funny situation but nobody ........... at home.... to bed early..................

fi obligat sufla. da de me da mâncare simţi găsi zbura uita ierta .Infinitivul Lung Scurt to awake to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to be beat become begin bend bind blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come cost cut do draw drink drive eat fall feed feed feel find fly forget forgive IRREGULAR VERBS Trecutul simplu Participiul trecut *forma Am. alege veni costa tăia face desena bea conduce. bate rupe (se) aduce construi arde cumpăra prinde. şofa mânca cădea hrăni. captura. awoke awoke / awaked was / were been beat beaten became become began begun bent bent bound bound blew blown broke broken brought brought built built burnt burnt bought bought caught caught chose chosen came come cost cost cut cut did done drew [dru:] drawn drank drunk drove driven ate eaten fell fallen fed fed fed fed felt felt found found flew flown forgot forgot* forgotten forgave forgiven Translation a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a (se) trezi fi bate deveni începe îndoi lega.

cere vinde(se) trimite scutura. r ţine lovi ţine. creşte agăţa avea auzi ascunde (se) lovi. sta întins aprinde focul pierde face.to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to freeze get (up) give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay (back) put (on) (out) quit read [ri:d] ride ring run saw say see seek sell send shake shed shine shoot froze got (up) gave [geiv] went ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid learnt / learned left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid (back) put (on) (out) quit read [red] rode rung / rang ran sawed said saw sought sold sent shook shed shone shot frozen got/gotten*up given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid learnt / learned left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid (back) put (on) (out) quit read [red] ridden rung run sawn said seen sought sold sent shake shed shone shot a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a îngheţa obţine da merge (se) măcina. zgâlţâi pierde. construi însemna întâlni plăti (înapoia) pune (îmbrăca) (elimina) părăsi citi călări suna alerga tăia cu ferăstrăul spune. pune învăţa pleca. părăsi da cu împrumut îngădui zăcea. toci cultiva. lepăda străluci împuşca . păstra şti întinde. zice vedea căuta.

plus the present participle of the verb (with an –ing ending): I was riding my bike all day yesterday. at some point in the past.to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to show shut sit sleep smell speak speed spell spend spill stand stick swear swim take (off) teach tell think throw (away/out) understand upset wake (up) showed shut sat slept smelt / smelled spoke sped / speeded spelt / spelled spent spilt / spilled stood stuck swore swam took (off) taught told thought threw (away/out) understood upset woke (up) woked wore wet won withdrew wrote shown shut sat slept smelt / smelled spoken sped / speeded spelt / spelled spent spilt / spilled stood stuck sworn swum taken (off) taught told thought thrown (away/. . preda. in the past tense. nara gândi arunca (azvârli/scoate … afară înţelege (se) tulbura (se) trezi to to to a a a to to to to to wear wet win withdraw write a a a a a purta uda învinge. izbândi retrage (se) scrie THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (TRECUTUL CONTINUU) The Past Continuous Tense indicates continuing action. This tense is formed with the helping ‘to be’ verb. (se) întepeni jura înota lua instrui. going on..) understood upset woke (up) woked / woken worn wet won withdrawn written a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a arăta închide (se) aşeza dormi mirosi vorbi merge cu viteză ortografia cheltui vărsa (se) ridica lipi(se). învăţa spune. something that was happening.

• The past continuous is also used to poke fun at or criticise an action that is sporadic but habitual in nature: Tom was always handing in late papers. Other uses of past tense continuous: .(as opposed to the simple past.Joel was being a terrible role model for his younger brother. • The past continuous can express incomplete action. I was sleeping on the couch when Bertie smashed through the door. Affirmative I was working / We were working You were working / You were working He/she/it was working / They were working Negative I was not (wasn’t) working / We were not working You were not (weren’t) working / You were not working He/she/it was not working / They were not working Interrogative Was I working? / Were we working? Were you working? / Were you working? Was he/she/it working? / Were they working? • The past continuous indicates a limited duration of time and is thus a convenient way to indicate that something took place (in the simple past) while something else was happening: Carlos lost his watch while he was running. My father was always lecturing my brother. which suggests a completed action): I slept on the couch last night.

EXERCISES 1. but he hasn’t decided. (get) 2) The sun …………………………when I woke up. Polite forms. Complete the sentences using the past continuous tense.... (snow) . b. These are common with wonder.. He was thinking of going to Italy this year. I was wondering if you wanted to come to the cinema.a. but which did not happen. foggier as we drove further into the forest.... I was going to phone you. so hard that we decided to stay at home. but I forgot. 1) It …………………………. (shine) 3) It ………………………. Describing events intended to take place.

Mr Y: I (listen) to a play on the radio.... 16) Tom ate nothing for lunch because he (diet)...... He said that he (try) to lose 10 kilos.m..... Jones (shop). 8) The car had nobody in it but the engine (run).......... 13) My wife and I (talk) about you the other day. 5) (Tim/wear) ..... 2) (you/do) .. Obviously Mrs Jones (cook) fish. 5) He usually wears sandals but when I last saw him he (wear) boots..... 3) (it/rain) ... a T-shirt and jeans...in the early morning sunshine............. at 2 o’clock? I was asleep..4) Alex …………………………......... 11) He said that he was the captain of a ship which (sail) that night for Marseilles..... 3) It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people (rush) to the seaside... 3............ 15) There was a strong smell and the sound of frying....20 p.. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.. 14) When I first met him he (study) painting.................... 7) The director didn’t allow the actors to travel by air while they (work) on the film...so fast? Because she was in a hurry.... Use was/were -ing........... 1) Detective: I’m afraid I must ask you both what you (do) yesterday at 10... 6) The house was in great disorder because he (redecorate) it.... . 2) The children were frightened because it (get) dark.. a newspaper in the library.... (read) 5) The birds …………………………….. Mr X: I (play) chess with my wife... 12) Are you going to Rome? I thought that you (go) to Milan. it was sunny. 4) (Ann/drive) . Complete the questions.... 4) The airplane in which the football team (travel) crashed soon after taking off....... Jones (work) in the garage and Mrs.. 10) I was alone in the house at that time because Mr.....a suit yesterday? No.. 17) Who you (talk) to on the telephone as I came in? I (talk) to Mr Pitt..... Use what/where/why if necessary. when you got up? No.. 1) (you/live) Where were you living in 1990? In London...... 9) Two children (play) on the sand and two fishermen (lean) against an upturned boat..... (sing) 2.....

7) I went into the garden to see what the boys (do). Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense. 3) From the sounds it was clear that Mary (practice) the piano. I told him that he (read) in very bad light. others (play) in the sand. What they (fight) about? Nobody seemed to know. 9) When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking and the audience (clap). 11) While he (learn) to drive he had twenty-five accidents. The past continuous is not always necessary (see the second example). 12) He had a bad fall while he (repair) his roof. 13) He was a little mad.18) As she (climb) the ladder it slipped sideways and she fell off it. 4) There had been an accident and men (carry) the injured people to an ambulance. 1) (at 8 o’clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends. 4. the phone rang. 10) The traffic (make) so much noise that I couldn’t hear what he (say). . others (look) for shells. 19) When I first met him he (work) in a restaurant. 1) Where he (live) when you saw him last? 2) She (stand) at the bus stop. 5. He always (try) to prove that the earth was flat. What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples. 8) They had taken off the wheel of the car and (mend) the puncture. 6) Tom (sit) in a corner with a book. 15) The exam had just begun and the candidates (write) their names at the top of their papers. 20) He watched the children for a moment. 16) Just as I (wonder) what to do next. I asked when it would be ready. Some of them (bathe) in the sea. 14) While we (fish) someone came to the house and left this note. I asked her what bus she (wait) for. James (weed) and Alexander (cut) the grass. 5) Two men (fight) at a street corner and a policeman (try) to stop them. 2) (at 5 o’clock last Saturday) I was on a train on my way to London.

. Answer the questions.. when I rang you? (you read) 13) Just as I ...................30 this morning) ..................................... 4) Mary fell asleep while she........ Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 1) Tom burnt his hand while he was cooking the dinner....................................... .. (rain) 7) I.......... tennis yesterday? (they play) 4) He ............ (not listen) 2) We stayed because we ............. (get) 8....... (wonder) 8) ............................ all weekend........ She met her brother when she was walking in the park....................................... Use the past continuous tense in the sentences below......15 yesterday morning) ...... 5) The television was on but nobody ............. (live) 10) When she was younger............................................. whether you could lend me some money............. 5) (at 7.......................45 yesterday evening) ........ television all evening? (you watch) 6) It. hard all day......... so I missed what he said... (always do) 11) Bill and Sue ...................................... (constantly improve) 12) ................................................................................................ she ................... 1) I was not listening............................................... using the past continuous in your answers... before they moved................................................3) (at 10.................................. the doorbell rang................................................................... (enjoy) 3) ........... Use the past continuous...................................... 7................................................................................................things for other people.................. their house... 2) The doorbell rang while I .. 3) We saw an accident while we ......... when I left? (you still work) 9) I lived in France at the time you ........................................... 4) (at 4. to an interesting part of the story.......... (garden) 5) ................... 6) (half an hour ago)....................... Model: When did she meet her brother? (walk in the park)...... in Spain.... 6..........................................ourselves......

This tense is formed with the past tense form of ‘to have’ (had) plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular in form): .1) When did you break your leg? (come down the stairs) 2) When did he compose the symphony? (have a holiday) 3) When did they learn French? (live in France) 4) When did you hear the news? (listen to the radio) 5) When did the man hurt himself? (ride a horse) 6) When did she find the book? (do the house) 7) When did they lose their child? (walk about town) 8) When did he pay you a visit? (have lunch) 9) When did John notice the flaw? (inspect the vase) 10) When did he ask her that? (talk about their future) THE SIMPLE PAST PERFECT TENSE (TRECUTUL PERFECT SIMPLU) The Simple Past Perfect Tense indicates that an action was completed (finished or ‘perfected’) at some point in the past before something else happened.

Affirmative I/you/ he/she/it had worked We/you/they had worked Negative I/you/ he/she/it had not (hadn’t) worked We/you/they had not worked Interrogative Had I/you/ he/she/it worked? Had we/you/they worked? • The Simple Past Perfect Tense is not used simply to describe an event in the distant past. mean (to). There must be another past event.g. he could have fixed it. If I had a spanner. but didn’t: I had wanted to visit the gallery before I left Florence.I had walked two miles by lunchtime. Bill had hoped to retire at 60. before. as soon as. by the time (that). . I had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon. Past Perfect is also used in indirect speech. less far away in the past. I could fix this. • • Other verbs used like this include expect (to). think (about + -ing). but they persuaded him to stay on for a few more years. we use either the past simple or past perfect for the event that happened first and the past simple for the event that happened second: After Ivan (had) finished reading. he put out the light. (indirect speech) • We use the simple past perfect when we say what we wanted or hoped to do. with which it contrasts. she went to bed. but it’s closed on Sundays. when) to say that one event happened after another. (direct speech) He said that if he had had a spanner. after. When Carol (had) brushed her teeth. When we use a time expression (e.

Put in the simple past perfect tense.. (finish) 3) I rang the shop as soon as I …………………………. • With already and just (= a very short time before) we use the past perfect. the party …………………………. all the children stood up.• But to emphasise that the second event is the result of the first. EXERCISES 1.. the contents of the box. 1) They had locked the gates before I got there. not the past simple: The film had already begun by the time we got to the cinema. (check) . (lock) 2) By the time we arrived. When the teacher came in. She had just stepped into her office when the telephone rang. we prefer the past simple for both: She became famous after she appeared on the TV programme.

. (discuss) 5) We had a good rest when our guests ……………………….. Use the verb given in brackets in the simple past perfect. It was our first time there........... (all leave) 6) When she rang the office this morning.. 2) A woman walked into the room.. 1) The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous....4) After we ………………………… it on the phone.. She was a complete stranger to me........ before...... (it / change / a lot) 3) I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn’t come....... (she / just / have / breakfast) 3................ 4. 4) Last year we went to Denmark...................... Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. (fly) He had never flown before or He hadn’t flown before.. but he still …………………………….. ..... It wasn’t the same as before....... 1) You went to Jill’s house but she wasn’t there........ 3) Simon played tennis yesterday.. a stage play before. I wrote him a letter about it... Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets using the simple past perfect.................. by 10 o’clock......………… (already go out) 7) Before we took Tim to the theatre. He wasn’t very good at it because it was his first game... (I / not / see / him for five years) 6) I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn’t hungry.. Use the ..................... (not finish) 2....... (she / go / out) She had gone out..........................(be) We ....... 2) You went back to your home town after many years......... (the film / already / begin) 5) I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time.......... Jim …………………....................................... Join the following pairs of sentences using the past perfect tense.... (she / arrange / to do something else) 4) You went to the cinema last night...... he ………………………........... It was his first flight..... (play) He ............... (shake) 9) He promised to do the job in an hour........................ (see) I......................................... You arrived at the cinema late............. the carpet when the dog came in and shook himself......... (never seen) 8) I ……………………....

conjunctions in brackets: MODEL: They went out to play. They finished their tasks (after). They went out to play after they had finished their tasks. 1) He threw the letter away. He wrote it (as soon as). 2) He recovered. He was very ill (before). 3) She didn’t know the truth. He explained it (until). 4) I reached the bus-stop. The bus started (when). 5) He left the room. I switched on the TV set (as soon as). 6) We had breakfast. We went for a walk (after). 7) They didn’t call on us. We dressed for the trip (until). 8) He was an actor. He became a stage director (before). (Adapted from ‘Practical Grammar in Patterns’ by T. N. Ruzmiciova) 5. Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect ( I had done, etc.) or past simple (I did, etc.). 1) ‘Was Tom at the party when you arrived?’ ‘No, he ...had gone... (go) home.’ 2) I felt very tired when I got home, so I........................................... (go) straight to bed. 3) The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody .................................... (go) to bed. 4) Sorry I’m late. The car .................................................. (break) down on my way here. 5) We were driving along the road when we ........................................ (see) a car which ........................................ (break) down, so we ........................................ (stop) to see if we could help.

6. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past perfect tense. 1) They not (get) a reply, so they (decide) to spend their holidays at home. 2) We (have) to go back, it (rain) for two hours and the ground was water-logged. 3) How long he (live) there when the war (break) out? 4) Only a long time after that he (find) out what (happen). 5) He (know) where I (live) but he never (be) to my flat.

6) He (listen) to her story for two hours and (think) it boring. 7) Nobody (know) he (disappear). 8) She had (stay) at the seaside for more than a week when the weather (grow) cold. 9) He (laugh) at her hair and she (be) angry with him. 10) They (wonder) what (become) of their luggage. 11) The hotel (be) much cheaper than he (think) at first. 12) We (tell) him that his house (burn down). 13) The explorers (travel) for weeks without enough food and water. 14) They asked her why she (lie) to them. 15) He (be pushed) out of the room, before he (be able) to speak. 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past perfect tense. 1) I (not, yet, translate) the letter when he (come back). 2) As soon as I (pay) for the bulb I (say) good-bye to Mr. Hobbs. 3) Mr Smith, who (never, fire) a revolver in his life, (slip) it gingerly into his pocket. 4) Report (go) that he (be maimed) in his youth. 5) Pieces (come off) so that the walls (look) awful. 6) There (be) a ripping sound. The sidecar (come loose) from the motorcycle. 7) It (be) very sudden. Though for many years she (have) pains on and off. 8) ‘And if I (venture) to say a word, Mrs. Welman (be ready) to bite my head off, though I (be) with her nearly twenty years’. 9) We (hide) in the shadow until we (see) him across the river. 10) He (tell) me her name only after I (ask) him twice. 11) Half way through he (find) he (forget) the beginning of the story. 12) He (place) the saucepan back on the stove, and (grasp) the cup he (fill). 8. Complete the sentences, using the simple past or the past perfect tense of the verbs in brackets. 1) After Richard …………………work, he ………………… home. (finish, go) 2) By the time the firemen………………….., the fire………………….. (arrive, already / go out) 3) Before she ………………….. the school, Celia ……………… goodbye to all her friends. (leave, say)

4) After ……………………. his homework, Joe ………………… . (do, go out) 5) When Yuko …………………… home, she ……………….her friend at once. (reach, phone) 6) After she …………………….all the way home, Linda ………………….quite exhausted. (run, feel)

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (TRECUTUL PERFECT CONTINUU) The Past Perfect Continuous Tense indicates a continuous action that was completed at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the auxiliary ‘had’ plus ‘been’ plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

If we talk about how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time... we prefer the past perfect continuous. Affirmative I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had been working Negative I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they had not (hadn’t) been working Interrogative Had I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they been working? • We use the past perfect continuous when we talk about the continuity or duration of a situation or activity.had been letting them. but he finally gave up.. and the report was now finished. I had always believed that it would be easy to get a job.. (rather than We had looked. (emphasises the result) • If we talk about how long something went on up to a particular past time.) We had been looking at the painting for about ten minutes before we realised who the artist was.I had been working in the garden all morning. (not I’d been hearing. so I felt that I deserved a holiday. some verbs that describe states are not often used with continuous tenses.. (not I had always been believing.. (not... we use the past perfect: They had been travelling for about 36 hours. (emphasises the activity) I’d worked hard. George had been painting his house for weeks.. Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis | I’d been working hard.) I’d heard the symphony many times before.) • However. and we use the past perfect with these even when we are talking about how long something went on up to a particular past time.) The teacher had let them get away with their bad behaviour once too often. and the past perfect to talk about the completion of a situation or activity or its effects.... (rather than They had travelled.) .

........... 1) I was tired.............. (we met while they were riding) When I got home......We had owned the car for 6 months before we discovered it was stolen....................... they had been riding............. (not We had been owning…) Compare the use of the past perfect continuous and past continuous: When we met Simon and Pat.......... water was leaking through the roof.... Put in the past perfect continuous tense................ for your call all evening............. (dig) 2) We ......... (it was no longer leaking when I got there) When I got home.. ( it was leaking when I got there) EXERCISES 1..... they were riding. (wait) 3) How long ....... water had been leaking through the roof .. I had been digging all day...... (we met after they had finished) When we met Simon and Pat. there? (you wait) ..

. English for five years before she visited Canada.. (he/watch/TV) 3. there since 6 o’clock..... We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain....................... Half an hour after we began playing......... After 20 minutes I suddenly realized that I was in the wrong restaurant............ for 20 minutes when ......... 2) The two boys came into the house. (somebody / smoke / in the room) 4) Ann woke up in the middle of the night....Your hair was covered with paint! (paint) 9) You were out of breath when you came in this morning......... (I / work / hard all day) I had been working hard all day........... to the firm regularly for a month before....... She was frightened and didn’t know where she was. 1) I was very tired when I arrived home.............How did you know? ....... Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets using the past perfect continuous tense........ (study) 6) I .......... (she / dream) 5) When I got home................. (they/ play/ football) 3) There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes................ 1) We played tennis yesterday........................ me about it every day for the past week............. (write) 7) They ............... (ring) 8) I knew you ......... He had just turned it off................... They had a football and they were both very tired.... it started to rain............... I arrived and waited for him.... 2) I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant......................................... I........ Read the situations and complete the sentences using the past perfect continuous tense. (stand) 5) She ................. but they still hadn’t answered............. Mike was sitting in front of the TV.4) I...? (you run) 2..... . ............

....... The orchestra ................................... 3) Sarah got a job in a factory.......................... Sarah ........ ... there for five years......................................... Five years later the factory closed down........ At the time the factory ................... Answers from the Others from Crome Yellow by Aldous Huxley Supplementary text ................. After about ten minutes a man in the audience suddenly began shouting...............when.... Culture and Conventions.............................. The orchestra began playing................................... Law............................................. 4) I went to a concert last week.....I........

but he was always clever. Little Percy. you’re a bore. “Not at all. even in England. He made an effort to laugh. A serious book about artists regarded as artists is unreadable. “You’ve been writing prose?” “Yes. As for the artist. where he lives among the artists.” Mr. he carries the whole weight of the universe upon his shoulders.” Denis blushed scarlet. And after all.” he said. Mr.” “Not a novel?” “Yes.” It was a heroic lie.” .” Mr. He passes through the usual public school and the usual university and comes to London. But as a combiner of forms. just as Professor Radium of “Comic Cuts” is its stock man of science. he reflected. Scogan hastened to explain. into the luminous Future. dipsomaniacs. “As a lover or a dipsomaniac. he is preoccupied with problems that are so utterly unlike those of the ordinary adult man – problems of pure aesthetics which don’t so much as present themselves to people like myself – that a description of his mental processes is as boring to the ordinary reader as a piece of pure mathematics.” “Of course. It would be nice to have a little literary conversation. Luckily.” said Denis – “just verse and prose. Scogan had described the plan of his novel with an accuracy that was appalling. “I’ll describe the plot for you. heroes. I’ve no doubt of your being a most fascinating specimen.” “My poor Denis!” exclaimed Mr. Scogan groaned.” “Prose?” Mr. like myself. “What about?” Denis felt rather uncomfortable. and the like is really not worth writing again. He is bowed down with melancholy thought. But you can’t expect an ordinary adult man. “You’re entirely wrong. and a book about artists regarded as lovers. Scogan paid no attention to his denial. “Oh. the hero. JeanChristophe is the stock artist of literature. Mr. husbands. only two chapters were written. about the usual things. you must honestly admit it. “What have you been writing lately?” she asked. to be much moved by the story of his spiritual troubles. he dabbles delicately in Amour and disappears. “Oh. He writes a novel of dazzling brilliance. verse and prose. “My novel is not in the least like that. Scogan. at the end of the book.” said Gombauld. but went on: “Why will you young men continue to write about things that are so entirely uninteresting as the mentality of adolescents and artists? Professional anthropologists might find it interesting to turn sometimes from the beliefs of the Blackfellow to the philosophical preoccupations of the undergraduate. you know.For some time past Mary’s grave blue eyes had been fixed upon him. even in Germany and Russia. He would tear them up that very evening when he unpacked. there are more adults than adolescents. was never good at games.” “I’m sorry to hear I’m as uninteresting as all that. my dear Gombauld. Scogan pounced alarmingly on the word.

“I entirely disagree with you. And her speech was punctuated by little gasps. Mary.” said Mr.” “Ah. and I’ve always found their mentality very interesting.. but then you’re an exception. Tschuplitski.. for example – I saw a great deal of Tschuplitski in Paris this spring. She was somehow always out of breath when she talked. Scogan. you’re an exception. “I’ve known a great many artists.” exclaimed Mary. “You are a femme superieure. Especially in Paris. APPLICATIONS  Reading comprehension and comments .” A flush of pleasure turned Mary’s face into a harvest moon.

1. into banality and boredom. Translate the first paragraph of the text into Romanian. 2.  Grammar Module The Verb (III) Tenses of the Indicative Mode . and existence itself. Comment upon how conventional iterativity can come to transform the questions of existence.

it only shows tense and has no intrinsic meaning at all. We shall overcome. Instead. You’ll feel better after you’ve taken this medicine. the future tense employs the helping verbs will or shall with the base form of the verb: She will leave soon. where. . • It is important to understand the difference between will as a modal verb. which expresses concepts such as willingness. etc. There are no inflected forms for the future in English (nothing like those -ed or -s endings in the other tenses). and will as an auxiliary of the future. like all auxiliaries..THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE (VIITORUL SIMPLU) The Simple Future Tense indicates that an action is in the future relative to the speaker or writer. Affirmative I (shall) will go / We (shall) will go You will go / You will go He/she/it will go / They will go Negative I (shall) will not go / We (shall) will not go You will not go / You will not go He/she/it will not go / They will not go Interrogative Shall I go?/ Shall we go? Will you go? / Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? / Will they go? • Will expresses a future prediction. intention. I think it’ll rain tomorrow.

a threat. and will does not really refer to the future. in normal spoken English there is a contraction to ‘ll. or a decision. • According to the context. The decision to give the number is made only one second before the actual giving of it. or the ‘neutral future’. this use of will can express a promise. Put in will (‘ll) or won’t. In many languages this idea is expressed in the present tense. so the distinction is unimportant. I’ll have a steak. You’ll fall off if you’re not careful. • In these sentences will expresses an intention or decision made at the moment of speaking. (a decision) • Some English speakers feel that with the 1st person pronouns (I and we) shall is the correct form.00. I’ll give you my number. so in formal situations (such as writing business letters) I will and we will are avoided. because the decision to act and the act itself are so close in time. One day I’ll die. . I give you my number is WRONG. I’ll be 26 next Tuesday. However. It is used to express both a prediction and an intention. It is also called the ‘future as fact’. that is not planned or premeditated. please.Will for prediction merely signifies ‘This is a future tense’. I’ll bring you the book tomorrow. It’s 3871425. but signifies a present intention. I’ll see you next week. EXERCISES 1. (a promise) If you do that again. Can I ring you tonight? Yes. (a threat) We’ll go back home at 8. He’ll be dead before he’s 30. I’ll kill you. • Will expresses a future intention.

.......... have... 4) This camera is too expensive............ please..... on the heating then..... Where will you be? Write sentences about yourself.. 5) (two years from now) ................... 4) It........................ I.......’ 5) ‘I don’t know how to use this computer...1) Don’t drink coffee before you go to bed............. so you don’t need to take an umbrella.... Complete the sentences with I’ll + a suitable verb. ......... be at home tomorrow......................... 3) (at midnight tonight) ........ or I’ll probably be ........... ...... it’s all right......... Complete the sentences......................................... and get some............. + one of these verbs: buy........... 2.... I think I’ll get a taxi...................... it....... it....................... 3....... or I don’t know where I’ll be...............................’ 7) ‘Goodbye! Have a nice holiday................ something to eat........................................... Use I think I’ll. ... You won’t sleep.. haven’t we? ..................... play 1) It’s cold today..’ 4) ‘Do you want me to do the washing-up?’ ‘No.. 1) I’m too tired to walk home........................... I’m leaving tonight...... 4) (at 3 o’clock tomorrow afternoon) .... I .............. . so I.. tennis.............................................. be ready in five minutes................’ 6) ‘Would you like tea or coffee?’ ‘..........’ ‘Is it? ..’ 3) I’m going away for a few days............... rain........ Use: I’ll be........................ 1) (at 10 o’clock tomorrow) I’ll probably be on the beach or I’ll be at work...................... 2) I’m hungry.................................................’ ‘Oh...................... 2) (one hour from now) ................. .... you............................ coffee. or I don’t think I’ll................................... 2) ‘It’s a bit cold in this room.......... 2) ‘Are you ready yet?’ ‘Not yet. 4...............’ ‘OK.............. 5) A: I don’t feel very well this evening.............. go......... 3) I feel tired. I don’t think I’ll go out..................... you a postcard’...........’ 3) ‘We haven’t got any milk...............’ ‘Thanks........

.... 5) You were going to go swimming................................ You decide to close the window..................................................................... You ask him/her........................... look... get......... it back to you on Monday............... 1) It’s a bit cold............ What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with shall I....... 2) You are feeling tired and it’s quite late.................. You say: Thank you but........ You ask a friend for advice........... Read the situations and write sentences with I think I’ll............... like.. You are not sure whether to buy it or not.......... 6............... 3) A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk..... 7............... 5) You and a friend are going out.................. it? 3) It’s Ann’s birthday next week................ 4) You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven’t decided where...... or I don’t think I’ll........ You decide to go to bed.....................? 1) You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don’t know what........ You say: I don’t think ...... Now you decide that you don’t want to go.. pass .... You ask your friend....................... Complete the sentences with will (‘ll) + one of these verbs: be........... You haven’t decided whether to go by car or to walk............ You want to give her a present but you don’t know what.................... What shall we do this evening? 2) You try on a jacket in a shop.......... 4) You arranged to play tennis today.. meet.............. .. You ask him/her......... .... come.............................................. You ask a friend for advice...... here. I think .......8) Thank you for lending me your camera..................................’ 5............................... or ......... You say: I think I’ll close the window..............................? or shall we.......... You say: I think...... What ........... OK? 9) ‘Are you coming with us?’ ‘No......................... Now you decide that you don’t want to play...........

.. offended if I don’t go................1) Don’t worry about your exam... 3) If you don’t eat anything now... ....... They ..... Situation: Jim is asking his friend Don for advice about a job interview.’ ‘OK........................................................ 9......................... wet....... What..? 6)‘I’m going out now................ Put in will (‘ll) or won’t................................ 5) I’ve got some incredible news! You ..................? + one of these verbs: be....................... married............................................ 7) I’ve invited Sue to the party but I don’t think she ................ She .................... Do you ....... happen........... When do you ..................... 2) There’s no need to take an umbrella with you...........? 4) My car needs to be repaired......... be hungry later.... You ........... It. finish...... back. cost......... again before long........ Write questions using do you think...............................................? 3) The meeting is still going on..................................... Supply suitable forms of will and shall................ get... 4) It’s raining. 6) Don’t ask Margaret for advice. It.................... 3) You must meet George sometime................ Do ............................ I expect we ............................... Don’t go out.......... Give alternatives where possible..... like..... 2) Why don’t you try on this jacket? It............. What time. know what to do......................? 10.........................? 5) Sally and David are in love.... 8) I wonder where I.......................... happen again....... 8................ I think you . Do you think she’ll like it? 2) The weather doesn’t look very good.................... 4) I’m sorry about what happened yesterday.. I’m sure you’ll pass....................... him...................................’? 7) The future situation is uncertain....... rain........ nice on you...... you ....will........ How much.... 20 years from now........... never believe what’s happened...... rain 1) I’ve bought Mary a present... 1) Can you wait for me? I won’t be very long................. 6) Goodbye........... 5) They’ve invited me to their house.

. RETIREMENT I’m going to retire next week and I’m looking forward to it....................... everything (9)........... let you know in a couple of days..................... anyway! DON: I’m sure you (6)....... help very much.... Put in suitable forms of will and shall. (not) have to worry about earning money ever again.....................JIM: What sorts of questions do you think they 1 will ask? DON: The same as they asked me..... but you must remember that while you can retire.............. My wife and I (6) ......... 4 We (13) ................ We (8) . JIM: I can’t think of any just now.. but I (8)...... do the shopping together..... I’ve written out some simple rules for us both which (9)....................... We (7) . be OK! JIM: When (10)....... 2 We (11) ............. DON: Yes....... take care of the house together....... I hope I (5)........................... ‘We regret to inform you!’ 11.. but I expect I (4)................. I explained all these plans to my wife............... My firm (4)... pay my pension into my bank account and I (5)............ You (12)...... find interesting hobbies to keep us occupied......... I know if I’ve got the job? DON: They (11).... be able to spend more time together....... JIM: That’s easy........ too.. DON: I know it (7).... I (2)........ ‘I’m looking forward to your retirement.. think of something at the time................ What time is your interview? JIM: It’s at three in the afternoon...... Don’t worry.. ‘Of course’................. be thinking of you.. I can’t.... (not) have a travel to work any more........... apply from the day you retire. get a letter which begins. .... ask you why you want to work for them.. keep regular hours. You (3)....................................... I (3).. (not) watch TV all day long............ (not) have to earn a living................. For the first time in my life I 1 shall........... but you can’t say that. Here they are: Rules of the House: 1 We (10) . That’s what happened in my case.......... I want to earn more money. be able to do all the things I’ve always wanted to do. she said............................... take turns to do the cooking and the housework............ have to think of some better reasons...... They (2).... 3 We (12) .....

. I (pay) him £10. keep fit in mind and body... 16) If you think it over.. ‘If we follow these rules I’m sure we (16) .. I said. 19) Newspaper announcement: The President (drive) along the High Street in an open carriage.. 1) You (need) a visa if you are going to Spain..’... 2) You (be) in Rome tonight... 9) I hope I (find) it....... 17) If you learn another language...... ‘They are’. spend time out of the house as well as in it..... .. attendants go on strike we (not have) any petrol.....5 We (14) . you (see) that I am right...............’ ‘I hope we (17). 12.. 3) You (have) time to help me tomorrow? 4) It (matter) if I don’t come home till morning? 5) You (be) able to drive after another five lessons.... 14) If he works well. I answered. ‘They look like sensible suggestions’... 1) I (know) the result in a week. you (get) a better job. 20) He (mind) if I bring my dog? 13.. 8) He (lend) it to you if you ask him.. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple.. 6) Do you think that he (recognize) me? 7) Unless he runs he (not catch) the train. my wife answered...... 18) I am sure that you (like) our new house... 12) I (remember) this day all my life..... 6 We (15) .... 11) He (believe) whatever you tell him... 13) Perhaps he (arrive) in time for lunch.. 10) If petrol pump........ 15) I wonder how many of us still (be) here next year... Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple.. enjoy a long and happy life together..

11) If they fall over them and hurt themselves. 4) He (be) offended if you don’t invite him. 5) She (have) £1000 a year when she is twenty-one. you (see) some steps. 15) If I drop this it (explode). 3) You (feel) better when you’ve had a meal. 9) I hope he (remember) to buy wine. 13) If you want twenty cigarettes. they (sue) you. 16) What your father (say) when he hears about this accident? He (not say) much but he not (lend) me the car again. you (have) to give me more money. 7) I wonder if he (succeed). someone (slip) on it. 8) Papers (not be) delivered on the Bank Holiday. 10) If you leave your roller skates on the path. someone (fall) over them. Pitt (present) the prizes.2) If you open that trapdoor. 14) Notice: The management (not be) responsible for articles left on the seats. THE PRESENT TENSES FOR FUTURE (TIMPURI PREZENTE PENTRU EXPRIMAREA VIITORULUI) . 6) If you put any more polish on that floor. 12) Announcement: Mrs.

I’m just staying in to watch TV tonight.) • We use the present simple to refer to the future.. The next meeting of the committee is on November 5th. unless. or the present continuous.. I’m really exhausted. I think it will affect the rest of Europe soon. We don’t use the present simple when we talk about personal plans or predictions.the council will close.. I’ll bring a compass in case we get lost.I think it affects the rest. although the present simple suggests that the arrangement is fixed and definite.. Are you seeing Tony this week? (do you have an arrangement to see him?) • We don’t use will to talk about arrangements and intentions: Apparently. you’ll see a path to your left. and provided: Let me know if he says anything interesting.. I’m away on holiday next week. going to. when. Provided the right software is available. and until: After you go another 50 meters. in case... • and in conditional clauses with if..• We use the present simple when we talk about future events that are part of some official arrangement such as a timetable or programme: Their plane arrives at 2 o’clock in the morning. • Instead we use will. (= reporting an arrangement) (not . When you see Dennis. Can we meet the week after? • We often use will + infinitive in sentences like these with little difference in meaning.. tell him he still owes me some money. in adverbial clauses introduced by time conjunctions such as after.. (not . (not .) Although it is a problem only in Britain at the moment..I just stay in. • We use the present continuous to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have already been arranged: She’s making a speech at the conference next week. I should be able to solve the problem. not will. the council are closing the old library. before.. We get off the train in Bristol and continue by bus.) . Wait here until I call you.

Write questions. All the sentences are future. .EXERCISES 1.

.........................30. (we/meet) at Johns house at 8 o’clock..............................................................................................................’ 2) We’re going (we/go) to a concert this evening........................... (go) on holiday next week........................... The course ................................................. What are you doing in the next few days? 1) I’m staying at home tonight....... that’s nice......................................................................................) or present simple (the train leaves............................... 1) ‘Are you going (you/go) out this evening?’ ‘No......... Write sentences about yourself........................... I can go by bus............. Why don’t you come too? ..1) (you / go / out / tonight?) ................................................... The last bus.......................... 3) ........................ what time ............... 4) (what time / your friends / arrive?) ... (I/go) out with some friends tonight.. 2......... 6) There’s a football match tomorrow but.......................... B: Oh...................... 3...................... 7) .............................. etc..............................Are you going out tonight? 2) (you / work / next week?) ......... (I/not/go)...................... etc............ 5) ................ 6) . Put the verb in the present continuous (he is leaving...................................)................................................................................................................ 3) (what / you / do / tomorrow evening?) ............................... 2) I’m going to the theatre on Monday............ 3) Do you know about Sally? ................. (they/go)? 5) Silvia is doing an English course at the moment............ (you/get) home after the party tomorrow? By taxi? B: No............................... 4) ................................................ (finish) on Friday............................... (the film / begin)? ............ 5) (when / Liz /go/on holiday?) ............................................. (she/get) married next month! 4) A: My parents.................. Where ...................... 9) A: Do you want to go to the cinema tonight? B: Yes................. (leave) at midnight............................ I’m too tired................................................ It starts (it/start) at 7.............. 8) A: How.....

..........30 or 4............................................. with a friend..................... In a hotel............... 3) (when/go?) ... (I/work)............................ present continuous or present simple................ 2) Does the film begin (the film / begin) at 3...................... 2) (tomorrow morning) I........... No.................................. 6................................................... 8) You are on the train to London and you ask another passenger: ................. Put the verb into the more suitable form.... 1) (this evening) I’m going out this evening or I’m not doing anything this evening or I don’t know what I’m doing this evening....... Have you arranged to do anything at these times? Write (true) sentences about yourself................. Why?’ 7) We ... 4) (next Sunday)............ 3) (tomorrow evening).......................................................10) A: What.. (open) on 3 May and ....................................................... Next Friday.... 5) (travel/by car?) ......... 5.................................................. It ..... Ten days...................................... A friend of yours is planning to go on a holiday soon....................... (not/go) out this evening................... 5) I........................................30.................................................................................... I ................. (you/do) anything tomorrow morning?’ ‘No.. You ask her about her plans................................30? 3) We ... 6) ‘................................... 6) (where/stay?) . by train............................................... (you/do) on Monday afternoon? B: .......... 2) (how long/stay?) .............................................................. Would you like to come? 4) The art exhibition ........ No........... 5) (choose another day or time) ......................... (go) to a concert tonight............................... I’m free.......................... 4................................................................ 1) I’m going (go) to the theatre this evening.... (finish) on 15 July.............................................................. (stay) at home.. (begin) at 7.................................... 1) (where/go ?) Where are you going? Scotland.............. Use the words in brackets to make your questions.... 4) (go/alone?) ............................. (have) a party next Saturday...

......... 11) I . 12) You and a friend are watching television. 8) How you (get) to the party tomorrow? I (go) by car.. (you/come) with me? 10) Sue ............. 14) Where you (go) for your holidays this year? I (go) to Holland...... 13) We (have) dinner early tonight as we (go) to the theatre............... When ............. (this train/get) to London? 9) You are talking to Ann: Ann....... 4) She (call) for me at six. 7) The sales (not start) till Monday...... 2) My uncle (make) a speech on Friday. (arrive) at 10.... 15) He (not give) a lecture tonight. (go) to town............. I (give) him a dictionary.. (not/use) the car this evening....... Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense......... 12) She (come) out of hospital next week.....15............... 3) I (take) my sister to the ballet tomorrow.... She .................Excuse me............................. 1) They are going to drill for oil here...... so you can have it.. 6) I (meet) her at the station at ten............................. I. (come) to see us tomorrow........................................... (meet) her at the station. 11) The windows (be) cleaned today........ 17) I (buy) her a burglar alarm for a wedding present... 10) You (give) him anything for his birthday? Yes......... (travel) by train and her train .... 16) I (have) my photograph taken tomorrow...... You say: I’m bored with this programme.. ... 5) He (play) at Wimbledon next summer.............. They (start) on Monday........ Then we’ll be able to see out.. (it/finish)? 7.................. I .............. Who (drive)? 9) The piano tuner (come) this afternoon...... What time .

30 plane tomorrow. 3) The strikers (return) to work next week. Change the following sentences using the present continuous. I (go) to my carpentry class. 4) Smith’s (open) a new branch in this street in July. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense. Where you (leave) your car? I (not take) the car. 7) They (get) married next week. You (go)? 12) My brother (be) released on Tuesday. 3) The expedition will set out tomorrow. 9) The Prime Minister (fly) to America tomorrow. 13) I (catch) the 6. . 11) The Queen (give) a garden party next week. 1) The Professor will deliver a new lecture on Tuesday. 14) Her mother (send) her to France next year. 8. 2) They will start on a new exploration next week. 20) The committee (meet) next Wednesday. 9. 15) I (go) to the dentist tomorrow. 8) You (do) anything tonight? Yes. 6) I (not take) up judo next winter. 2) I (lend) him my car for his holidays. 19) I (have) lunch with my aunt on Thursday. 16) I (lend) my flat to my American cousins next year. Miss Pitt (take) my class. 4) My mother will take me to the theatre. 10) He (start) a new job on Friday.18) The elections (be) held next week. 5) We’ve bought a new house and (move) in very soon. 5) The children will stay at home this evening. I (meet) him outside the prison. 1) My grandparents (celebrate) their golden wedding next week.

Affirmative I am going to leave / We are going to leave You are going to leave / You are going to leave H e/she/it is going to leave / They are going to leave Negative I am not going to leave / We are not going to leave You are not going to leave / You are not going to leave He/she/it is not going to leave / They are not going to leave Interrogative Am I going to leave? Are we going to leave? Are you going to leave? Are you going to leave? Is he/she/it/ going to leave? Are they going to leave? • Notice the difference between will to express decision taken on the spot and going to to express an intention thought of previously. We’ve run out of sugar. 9) The choir will sing next. (Adapted after ‘Living English Structure’ by S.6) What will we have for lunch? 7) He will buy her a new doll next week. We’re going to get married in June. plan or decision thought about before the moment of speaking. When I grow up. I’m going to be a doctor. 8) We shall leave by the night train. 10) She will give you a control-paper tomorrow. Alien) The ‘be going to’ Form • Going to expresses a future intention. .

) • We use going to future instead of the present continuous for the following: • when we make or report predictions about activities or events over which we have no control (we can’t arrange these): I think it’s going to rain. Have we? I didn’t know.. we prefer the present continuous. Use going to + one of these verbs: ... Study these sentences: Before I go to China next year. (not ..I know..) I’m going to be in Tokyo in May. • • The difference is not that going to is more certain. I’m going to learn some Cantonese. I think I’m going to faint. Look at those clouds.. We’ve run out of sugar.. Complete the sentences.. I’m going to buy some...are living. Going to is used to express a future event for which there is some evidence now.) • when we talk about permanent future situations: People are going to live longer in the future. and is not about near or distant future. (not John’s being. Watch out! Those boxes are going to fall over. To emphasise that we are talking about a definite arrangement. I don’t feel well.) Her new house is going to have three floors. (rather than I’m learning some Cantonese... although no definite arrangement has been made.. (not . It’s going to rain.is having.) • with the verb be: John’s going to be a shepherd in the school play next week. but it concerns when the decision was made. I’ll buy some when I go shopping..) Scientists say that the satellite is going to fall. we prefer going to rather than the present continuous. (not I’m being in Tokyo..the satellite is falling. (not .) EXERCISES 1. • When we talk about an intention to do something in the future. (not I think it’s raining soon..

...... 5) I’m hungry.................. She ....... this sandwich... I.... wash... watch....... 8) There’s a good film on TV this evening...... do. for an hour..... lie. 7) Sue says she’s feeling very tired.. 1) You (miss) your train....... 6) It’s Sharon’s birthday next week.......................... 15) That rider (fall) off.................... you . 16) These two men (cycle) across Africa.....eat...... 7) The umpire (blow) his whistle........... Put the verbs in brackets into the ‘be going to’ form... walk. .............. 13) The cat (have) kittens...... ........................ 12) It (rain). 18) He (grow) a beard when he leaves school............... I’m going to wash them... Look at those clouds. We ........... 14) The men in the helicopter (try) to rescue the man in the water........ stay.............. 3) When you (pay) the bill? 4) She (dye) the old curtains blue. 2) The pressure cooker (explode)............. 11) The bull (attack) us............ 5) We (make) this whisky bottle into a lamp...... He (make) a speech....... 4) John is going to London next week................. 8) You (eat) all that? 9) That man with the tomato in his hand (throw) it at the speaker... down...... 6) What you (do) with this room? I (paint) the walls in black and white stripes. her a present................................... 2) What are you going to wear to the party tonight? 3) I don’t want to go home by bus......... it? 9) What............. He ............... give........ 10) That door (slam)....... wear 1) My hands are dirty....when she leaves school? 2.. 17) The Lord Mayor is standing up.... I.......................... with some friends..Rachel .........

4........... 4) Small boy: I (be) a frogman when I grow up... 3) I have seen the play... 13) I don’t like this macaroni.. 9) The dog (bury) the bone.. Apples (be) scarce....... 16) We (make) a lot of money out of this.................... 5. You are going to do all these things but you haven’t done them yet......... 12) There was very little blossom this spring..... 15) They (try) him for manslaughter when he comes out of hospital...... 5) I (not sleep) in this room...... 3.. It is haunted.... Now I (read) the book......... 7) You (reserve) a seat? 8) I (plant) an oak tree here... Answer the questions.. 6) We (buy) a metal detector and look for buried treasure.......... 2) Have you phoned Sally? (later) Not yet ... Write a question with going to for each situation...... 1) You (ask) him to help you? 2) I’ve lent you my car once.......... 4) Have you read the paper? (after dinner) Not.... I (not do) it again... I’m going to clean it tomorrow... You ask: (what / do with it?) What are you going to do with it? .. Use going to and the word(s) in brackets................... 3) Have you done the shopping? (this afternoon) Not yet...... 10) I (have) a bath.. ...... I (not finish) it.... 5) Have you had dinner? (just) ............ 11) I (smuggle) this out of the country......... 1) Your friend has won some money...... 1) Have you cleaned the car? (tomorrow) Not yet.......... 14) I (not stay) here another minute..... 20) I (stop) here for a moment to get some petrol.... Put the verbs in brackets into the ‘be going to’ form..............................19) This airplane (crash)......

... YOU: I know.................. 3) You have been offered a job but you have decided not to take it..... You ask: (who / invite?).................................. FRIEND: This food is awful.......... 2) You are a smoker but you have decided to give it up soon.........................(run out) She .... Jack is leaving his house................. 7............ He has to be at work at 8.... 1) You have decided to write some letters this evening..... 6...................... FRIEND: Smoking is very bad for you....... travel 1) We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead. play................... (sink) The boat .......... ............................ phone. (rain) It’s going to rain...............2) Your friend is going to a party tonight.... FRIEND: I hear you’ve been offered a job.....................30.. The food is awful and you’ve decided to complain........... ........... FRIEND: Are you going out this evening? YOU: No.... 4) Emma is driving................. but ............................. I’m going to write some letters. (late) He...... A lot of water is coming in through the hole..... have..................... What is going to happen in these situations? Use the words in brackets................. There is very little petrol left in the tank............................. 3) Your friend has just bought a new table...... YOU: That’s right... .......................................... 4) Your friend has decided to have a party................................... 3) There is a hole in the bottom of the boat... The nearest petrol station is a long way away... 8.... 2) It is 8........ 1) There are a lot of black clouds in the sky.................................... isn’t it? YOU: Yes....... You ask: (what/wear?)........................ 4) You are in a restaurant............................. Read the situations and complete the dialogues...................... Use going to........ You ask: (where /put it?)........ it’s disgusting.............45 but the journey takes 30 minutes.................... Complete the sentences with was/were going to + one of these verbs: give up....

................... a party last week but some of our friends couldn’t come......... so we cancelled it.... tennis yesterday but it rained all day....... THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE (VIITORUL CONTINUU) .... his job but in the end he decided not to...2) We .............. 3) I........................................................... Jim.......... but I decided to write him a letter instead... 4) When I last saw Tim................ he ................................... 5) We .............................

something that will be happening. Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November. going on. Affirmative I (shall) will be going You will be going He/she/it will be going We (shall) will be going You will be going They will be going Negative I (shall) will not be going You will not be going He/she/it will not be going We (shall) will not be going You will not be going They will not be going Interrogative Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? • We also use the future continuous when the future activity or event is the result of a previous decision or arrangement: He will be taking up his place at university in July. This tense is formed with the auxiliary ‘will’ plus ‘be’ plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): I will be running in next year’s Boston Marathon.The Future Continuous Tense indicates continuing action. (the result of a previous decision) . at some point in the future.

we use will.. we are often referring simply to some future event or action that has been previously arranged. inviting. not the future continuous. Professor Hodge will be giving / is giving the first presentation at the conference. Ann will help us organize the party. willingness to do things. (she is willing to help) Ann will be helping us to organize the party.) • When we use the future continuous.She will be performing every day until the end of the month. That’s when we usually meet.00 in the evening. But we prefer the present continuous to talk about surprising or unexpected activities or events: Have you heard the news? Dr Radford is leaving! (rather than .will be leaving. (we always go there) I’ll be seeing Tony on Tuesday. (a previous arrangement) EXERCISES 1. However.. etc. . (part of a schedule) or of a routine activity: We’ll be going to my brother’s house again for Christmas. promising. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense. • We can often use either the future continuous or the present continuous when we talk about planned activities or events in the future: We will be leaving / are leaving for Istanbul at 7. to talk about such things as decisions that people have made.

16) It’s a serious injury but he (walk) again in six weeks. I (expect) you. 2) When you arrive I probably (pick) fruit. 18) They are pulling down all the old houses in this street. That means that old Dr Adder (teach) him mathematics. I can do it easily because I (see) him tomorrow.1) This time next month I (sit) on a beach. . 11) I’ll look out for you at the parade. 3) When we reach England it very likely (rain). 10) You (do) geometry next term. your mother (wonder) where you are. but I (wear) uniform so you may find it hard to recognize me. 6) I (wait) for you when you come out. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense. Well. come tomorrow. 20) Stand there. 17) I’ll come at three o’clock. 13) In a hundred years’ time people (go) to Mars for their holidays. 19) I’d like to see your new flat. 5) I’ll call for her at eight. 2. 9) I’ll give Jack your message. 12) We have to do night duty here. 7) When you next see me I (wear) my new dress. for the painters still (work) on it. No. 2) In fifty years’ time we (live) entirely on pills. but it (not look) its best. 4) In a few days time we (fly) over the Pyrenees. 15) I (see) you again. she still (have) breakfast then. Do. 14) He (use) the car this afternoon. I (do) mine next week. 8) My son will be in the sixth form next year. Good. 1) You’d better go back now. We go to work on the same train. don’t. I expect they (pull) down mine in a few years’ time. they (change) the guard in a minute and you’ll get a good view.

9) I (come) round to see you next week. 6) Put on your new suit. 7) I’ve just remembered that I left the bathroom taps on. they (wonder) where you are. 10) Air hostess: We (take off) in a few minutes. 4) The garden (look) its best next month. The police (watch) all the ports. 2) When you come I probably (sleep). They (look out) for new men. 11) We’d better go out tomorrow because Mary (practise) the piano all day. 15) When I get home my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. 3) In a few days’ time we (sail) down the Rhine. 8) You (need) your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it? 9) We’ve just got to the top in time. 8) When we get back home the fire (burn) brightly in the fire-place. Please fasten your safety belts. I expect the water (flow) down the stairs by now. 10) We (see) a lot of each other at the seaside. the fishing boats all (come) in because of the gale. 6) What the tide (do) at six tomorrow morning? It (come) in. 7) You’d better ring up your parents. 13) We are making a house-to-house collection of things for the jumble sale. 5) He (deliver) a special grammar course next year. because I (wear) my best dress. 14) That football club has lost some of its players.3) What do you think the children (do) when we get home? I expect they (have) their supper. 1) This time next year I (sit) in the chairman’s chair. 12) Don’t ring her up at 6. Ring later.00. Put the verbs in brackets into the future continuous tense. The sun (rise) in a minute. . We (come) to your house next week. she (put) the children to bed. 3. 5) It won’t be easy to get out of the country. 16) Let’s go down to the harbour. 4) We (wait) for them when they arrive.

won’t you? 8) Why did you take his razor? He (look) for it everywhere tomorrow.15. Everyone (walk) to work next week.. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one. I (wash) it. WON’T At 8.45 on Monday morning …………………………………………. I’m going to wear my glasses. ………………………………………. 7) You (have) something to drink. 1) When I come to school tomorrow. 4) Mother: Your face is dirty. WILL This time next week ………………………………………. 3) He’s going to go on writing books all his life. Child: All right. but I’m afraid I (do) my exam then. 4) Ben sets off at 7. don’t ring at six. I (walk).my glasses. to work. I (think) of you. 5. 5) Fatima does her shopping at about this time every week. . 5) Will you have lunch with me on the 24th? I’d love to. 2) Kallitsa is only going to wait for him until 8. 6) We only watch television at the weekend. HE’LL In ten years’ time …………………………………………… books.4. I (bath) the baby then. using will + infinitive or the future continuous. 6) I (work) for Mr Pitt next week as his own secretary will be away. for him.30. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form. 9) I hope you’ll do well in the race tomorrow.her shopping. DRIVING At 7. 3) I’ll ring you tomorrow at six. No.30 Kallitsa ………………………………………. It takes him an hour to drive to work. 1) There is going to be a bus strike. Do not change the word given. including the word given. BE Next Tuesday evening we ……………………………………… television. 2) You’ve just missed the last train! Never mind. Ring later. BE Next time you see me. Use between two and five words.

11) Wages have gone up. soon the leaves (change) colour. 2) I (leave) these flowers at the hospital for you. I (post) it for you. But how I (recognize) him? He’s small and fair. 15) In a few years’ time we all (live) in houses heated by solar energy. 5) I’ve just been appointed assistant at the local library. this plate is dirty. I (meet) him for you. 6. 12) It is nearly autumn. I (bring) you another. She is head librarian there. 8) Today is Guy Fawkes’ Day. so I suppose prices (go up) too. so I have. 10) This time next Monday I (sit) in a Paris cafe reading Le Figaro. using will + infinitive or the future continuous. 1) I don’t feel well enough to go to the station to meet him. You (not read). I (go) out anyway as I have to take the dog for a walk. so I expect her understudy (dance) instead. sir. I (go) there anyway to visit my cousin. and he (wear) a black and white school cap. Oh. 3) You ought to try to get a ticket for the Spectators’ Gallery next week. 7) The prima ballerina is ill. 14) Customer in restaurant: Waiter. 9) Military order: Sentries (remain) on duty till they are relieved. 7. using will + infinitive or the future continuous. Doctor: I (come) at once. they (debate) international fishing rights. . this evening people (let) off fireworks and (make) bonfires in the streets. 6) I want to post this letter but I don’t want to go out in the rain.10) Notice on board ship: In the event of an emergency all passengers (assemble) on the boat deck. I (go) and turn it off. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form. 4) You’ve left the light on. 13) Mother (on phone): My son has just burnt his hand very badly. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form. Waiter: I’m sorry. Then you (work) under my sister. You’ll be looking at all the pretty girls.

more people (use) public transport and (leave) their cars at home. 4) Guest: May I use your phone to ring for a taxi? Hostess: Oh. 5) Tom (not come) to our party because he will be away on that date. because he’s got a lot of other jobs to do first. 1) I don’t like that man and I (not help) him. because he has unexpectedly had to go to hospital. because we’ll be in different departments.1) It’s beginning to get dark. 8. 2) We (not play) poker at the party tonight. Never mind. my son (drive) you home. He doesn’t approve of parties. our hostess doesn’t approve of cards. Do you understand? Yes. 3) My husband (not cut) down the tree. 6) Peter says that he (not come) to our party. 9) I’ll work under anyone except my brother. 6) Before you leave the office you (hand) the keys of the safe to Mr. I (put) the goldfish in the bath. there’s no need for that. 10) We’ll be in the same firm. 9) Now that the parking regulations have become stricter. 10) I’ve got rats in my basement and I don’t know how to get rid of them. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future form. Pitt. but we (not work) together. 8) Loudspeaker announcement: The ship (leave) in a few minutes and all persons not travelling are asked to go ashore. we (enter) harbour in a few minutes. because I never give books back. Pitt (not speak) at the meeting tonight. 3) Let’s wait here.) 4) My husband (not cut) the hedge for some time. 8) Mr. using won’t + infinitive or the future continuous negative. the swing bridge (open) in a minute to let that ship through. I (bring) my dog round whenever you like. I (not work) under him. He (catch) them for you. 5) Come on deck. the street lights (go on) in a few minutes. sir. He says that it is perfectly all right as it is. 2) He (not meet) her. 7) She says that she (not lend) me the book. . 7) Are you nearly ready? Our guests (arrive) any minute. because they will be in different places. 11) I’m afraid I’ve just broken your goldfish bowl.

15) I (not feed) your dog again. as I only write once a month and I posted a letter to her yesterday. but I (not write) for some time. THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE AND THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (VIITORUL PERFECT SIMPLU SI VIITORUL PERFECT CONTINUU) . He always tries to bite me when I come near him.11) I (not have) that boy in my class. He is far too noisy. 14) I’ll give your message to my sister when I write. as I have to go to Paris. 13) He is so angry with his sister that he (not speak) to her. 12) I (not teach) you next week.

completed. I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one. Affirmative I (shall) will have gone You will have gone He/she/it will have gone We (shall) will have gone You/they will have gone Negative I (shall) will not have gone You will not have gone He/she/it will not have gone We (shall) will not have gone You will not have gone They will not have gone Interrogative Shall I have gone? / Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? / Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? / Will they have gone? • We use the simple future perfect to say that something will be ended.The Simple Future Perfect Tense indicates that an action will have been completed (finished or ‘perfected’) at some point in the future. This tense is formed with ‘will’ plus ‘have’ plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular in form): I will have spent all my money by this time next year. or achieved by a particular point in the future: .

I’m sure that his behaviour will soon have been forgotten. (passive form) By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. This tense is formed with the auxiliary ‘will’ plus the auxiliary ‘have’ plus ‘been’ plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): Next Thursday. Affirmative I (shall) will have been going You/he/she/it will have been going We (shall) will have been going You/they will have been going Negative I (shall) will not have been going You will not have been going He/she/it will not have been going We (shall) will not have been going You will not have been going They will not have been going Interrogative Shall I have been going? / Shall we have been going? Will you have been going? / Will you have been going? Will he/she/it have been going? / Will they have been going? • We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long something has been going on by a particular point in the future: .Let’s hope the volcanic eruption will have finished before we arrive on the island. Although people are now angry about what he did. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense indicates a continuous action that will be completed at some point in the future. I will have been working on this project for three years.

.. (not .. ‘Next year..) EXERCISES . we will have been living in this house for a year.On Saturday.will have been knowing. • In sentences with the future perfect continuous we usually mention both the particular point in the future (‘On Saturday.’...’) and the period of time until this point (‘..for a year’.. Notice that we don’t usually use the future perfect continuous with verbs describing states: Next month I will have known Derek for 20 years. Next year I will have been working in the company for 30 years. ‘....for 20 years’)..

you ……………………. (be) 2) Kate’s language course ……………………….10. 8) When we reach Valparaiso we (sail) all round the world.. 7) By next winter they (build) four houses in that field. 3.. 3) By this time tomorrow we (have) our injections. Fill the gaps. married for fifty years. (finish) 3) The company ………………………. (type) 5) Matthew ……………………… 2000 kilometers across the Sahara by next Thursday.. using the Future Perfect and the correct form of the verb in brackets. 5) I’ll still be here next summer but Tom (leave). 6) I (finish) this job in twenty minutes. (not / finish) 8) ………………. 2) I (finish) this book by tomorrow evening. (produce) 4) By 5 o’clock this afternoon Linda ……………………… twenty letters. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.1. 6) The doctor (start) out on his round by the time you leave. I hope. but I …………………………… the report by tonight. 4) By the time we get to the stadium the game (finish). 4) By the end of next year I (be) here twenty-five years. 7) All the beautiful things (sell) by the time you make up your mind to buy something. my exam. 3) By the time the winter comes he (build) himself a log-cabin. by the end of the year. 1) In a fortnight’s time we (take) our exam. I (not see) you for 5 whole weeks. . (drive) 6) Next time you see me I ……………………………. 1) In a month’s time he (finish) all this work. 1) By 1999 they ………………………. 8) If you stay away another week. 5) In 1983 he (be) an actor for twenty years. (pass) 7) I’m sorry. 2) I (read) this bibliography by the end of the term..000 cars before December.. it by tomorrow morning? (finish) 2. 10) The expedition (reach) the North Pole by May. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense. 9) By six o’clock she (take) her lesson.

9) At the rate he is going he (spend) all his money by the time he is twenty-one. 5) On 21 October they (be) married for twenty-five years. 4) By the end of my university course I (attend) 1. the sun (rise) before we reach the top. 3) If I continue with my diet. 4. 11) On the fourth of next month he (be) in prison for ten years. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.’ 8) At your present rate you (burn) all that coal by the end of the month.000 people (see) this exhibition. 14) If we don’t hurry. 7) The strike leader said. 16) You’ll be too late. 2) The train (leave) before we reach the station. 13) At this rate you (break) all the wine glasses by the end of the month.000 in income tax. 12) When we reach Crewe we (do) half of the journey. 1) By midnight he (be) unconscious for forty-eight hours. 4) I suppose that when I come back in ten years’ time ail these old houses (be) pulled down. By the time you get there they (finish) their speeches and everybody (go) home. 5. 10) We (drink) all that wine by the end of the year. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense. 8) When you come back I (finish) all the housework. 15) I’m going to Hyde Park to hear the people making speeches.000 on his education. . 7) By the end of the term 1 (read) all twelve volumes.200 lectures. 6) After this performance I (see) Hamlet twenty-two times. 1) By the time we get to the party everything (be) eaten. 2) By the end of the month 5. 3) By next April I (pay) £3. 9) The police (hear) of the theft by this time. 10) By this time next year I (save) £250. 6) By the time that he leaves school his parents (spend) £25. ‘By midnight 500 men (come) out on strike. I (lose) 10 kilos by the end of the month. 5) By the end of this week my illness (cost) me £100.

1) By the end of next year I (work) for him for 45 years. In ten years’ time all the private residents (be driven) out and there’ll be nothing but one vast hotel after another.000 letters asking for contributions. ‘By the end of the year all our debts (be paid) off.000. 2) Everywhere you go in central London you see blocks of flats being pulled down and huge hotels being erected. but I’m sure that we (see) everything of importance by then. 2) By the end of next week my wife (do) her spring cleaning and we’ll all be able to relax again. By the end of the year we (send) out 5. 4) In two months’ time he (finish) his preliminary training and will be starting work. By the end of the week two hundred (die). 3) Yes. but he lives so extravagantly that he (spend) it all before he’s 30. 4) By the end of my tour I (give) exactly the same lecture 53 times. I (do) my packing by then and we’ll be able to have a talk. He says that by the end of next year he (plant) 2. When are you going to send help? . I hope I (pass) my driving test by then. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense.9) The treasurer said. I make jam every week. 5) He spends all his spare time planting trees. He (lose) it all by the time he’s 50. I’ll meet your train. 1) I hope they (repair) this road by the time we come back next summer. 9) He’s only 35 but he’s started losing his hair already. 7) Come back in an hour. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense. 6. 6) I’ll be back again at the end of next month. I (make) about 200 kilos by the end of the summer. 5) A hundred people have died of starvation already. 8) When he reaches Land’s End he (walk) 1.000.’ 10) Tourist: We’ve only got five hours in Rome. we are leaving at six. If I have. 7.500 miles. 3) Our committee is trying to raise money to buy a new lifeboat. 10) His father left him £400.

......... Peter eats three bars of chocolate on the way home from school.. 7) Did you say you wanted help picking apples? I could come on 1 October........... and had an average of 2x2 accidents a year..... Let’s try to persuade him to go back to cycling.......... 3) So many people enter the New York Marathon that the last runners start several minutes after the ones at the front.....….. 2) Every day........ 4) I started writing this book 3 years ago next month. By the time the software goes on sale.000 miles a year................. I’ll finish it before you get back.. Before he gets home from school tonight Peter ………... Tom has driven an average of 5... 5) The company is spending $5 million on developing the software before it goes on sale.... 8............... Complete the sentence with either the simple future perfect or the future perfect continuous for each situation... When he’s 40............ 1) Simon started to learn Spanish when he was 25............ By the time the last runners start.... Scientists are trying to save it but by the time they’ve found the answer the city probably (sink). he will have been learning Spanish for 15 years...... By next month I... ... the company …………………………… 6) I’m going to paint the front door today.………………………. We (pick) them all by then.................... But come all the same. He is still learning Spanish............. the ones at the front …………………….....000 miles and had 50 accidents. 8) Apparently Venice is slowly sinking into the sea...6) Since he began driving.......... When you get back.. So by the time he’s 60 he (drive) 200... I.........................

Past continuous Past I studied yesterday. Future simple Future I will study tomorrow. I will already have studied lesson one. began two hours before my to study lesson two. I will have been studying for two hours by the time you arrive. Present I have already studied lesson one.Simple Present simple Continuous Present continuous Perfect Present perfect Perfect continuous Present perfect cont. I will be studying when you arrive. before I study lesson two. Past simple I am studying right now. Past perfect I have been studying for two hours. Past perfect cont. I was studying when I had already studied I had been studying they lesson one. friends arrived. . before I for arrived. I study every day. Future continuous Future perfect Future perfect cont.

But again. the passions subside. is most affecting. according to the foregoing principle. surprize. and give us a relish in time what at first was most harsh and disagreeable. Custom has two original effects upon the mind. where the facility goes not beyond a certain degree. yet as it puts the spirits in agitation. and an infallible source of pleasure. so it . which will sometimes be so powerful as even to convert pain into pleasure. however extraordinary. it is the source of wonder. the hurry of the spirits is over. in bestowing a facility in the performance of any action or the conception of any object. that every emotion. and a difficulty of the spirit’s moving in their new direction. that is new. and gives us either more pleasure or pain. which inlivens the mind to a moderate degree. to convert pleasure into pain. like every thing. and from these we may account for all its other effects. it not only augments our agreeable affections. And here it is remarkable that the pleasure. As this difficulty excites the spirits. the novelty wears off. and of all the emotions. or the conception of any object. Answers from the Others Of the Effects of Custom from A TREATISE OF HUMAN NATURE by David Hume Supplementary text Nothing has a greater effect both to encrease and diminish our passions. and afterwards a tendency or inclination towards it. By degrees the repetition produces a facility of the human mind. but also our painful. to which it is not accustomed. is easily converted into it. But though surprize be agreeable in itself. When the soul applies itself to the performance of any action. as in their orderly motion. than what. and we survey the objects with greater tranquillity. which arises from a moderate facility. which precedes or attends a passion. and is in itself very agreeable. When it often returns upon us. Culture and Conventions. as facility converts pain into pleasure. and pain into pleasure. which arise from novelty. Hence every thing. there is a certain unpliableness in the faculties. as well as the agreeable affections. has not the same tendency with that which arises from novelty. strictly speaking. naturally belongs to it. The pleasure of facility does not so much consist in any ferment of the spirits.Law. than custom and repetition. to augment the painful.

according to the observation of a late eminent philosopher. without ever feeling any aversion. or any thing. But as in the active. . where it is not entirely disagreeable. One can consider the clouds. but such as are naturally attended with some emotion or affection. the spirits are sufficiently supported of themselves. that naturally ought to be agreeable. and trees. And indeed. And this is the reason why custom encreases all active habits. becomes indifferent. but diminishes passive. or music. or good cheer. it easily produces the opposite affection. when it is too great. and bends them more strongly to the action. the tendency of the mind gives them new force. and can never be the object of inclination. which is destroyed by the too frequent repetition. but likewise an inclination and tendency towards it. and heavens. and stones. The facility takes off from the force of the passive habits by rendering the motion of the spirits faint and languid. Custom not only gives a facility to perform any action. scarce any other objects become disagreeable through custom.often converts pleasure into pain. and renders the actions of the mind so faint and languid. But when the fair sex. however frequently repeated. that they are no longer able to interest and support it.

Comment upon the antagonism between the effects of habitude upon sustained activities on the one hand. 2. Translate the first paragraph of the text into Romanian. and upon emotions on the other hand.APPLICATIONS 1. .

FUTURE IN THE PAST that Miss Grant would change the subject. PAST PERFECT what I had taught them the week before. AT THE SAME TIME I know The students don’t remember PAST TENSE The students didn’t remember LATER PRESENT TENSE I hope PAST TENSE I hoped Normally the word THAT may or may not be used after the main verb: He knew (that) he was going to come later. what I taught them last week.SEQUENCE OF TENSES (CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR) Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică. ci în fraze. FUTURE TENSE that Miss Grant will change the subject. PRESENT PERFECT/ SIMPLE PAST (that) you have done your lessons. . Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară. TIME RELATION OF DEPENDENT VERB TO MAIN VERB TENSE IN THE MAIN CLAUSE PRESENT TENSE The child says PAST TENSE Alice knew PRESENT TENSE EARLIER TENSE IN THE DIRECT OBJECT CLAUSE PRESENT TENSE he can’t eat this. nu în propoziţii. desigur. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat" se va vedea în continuare. PAST TENSE (that)Henry loved her.

. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe la 100 oC. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. să ajungă regulă. 3. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. când propoziţia secundară este atributivă. Pentru moment însă. Se poate întâlni. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă. când propoziţia secundară este comparativă. vorbitorii români de limba engleză ar trebui să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu. de exemplu. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. cu timpul. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. 2.Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil. NOTE: În limba engleză contemporană.

8) Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. 10) I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. 9) When he finally reached London. the concert already (begin). 1) She told me his name after he (leave). 9) You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 7) He just (leave) home when he came across John. 4) When I arrived. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. I congratulated him. 10) He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. 3. 6) He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense (Past Tense Simple or Continuous). 3) I understood you (be) a painter. 5) He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. 3) After I (hear) the news.EXERCISES 1. Change the verbs in brackets to the Future-in-the-Past. 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense (Past Perfect Simple or Continuous). . 8) He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 1) It was clear they (talk) business again. 2) I believed you (be) at the seaside. 2) She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 7) Looking out of the window. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 4) They didn’t know that I (play) football. 6) I was not sure if you (speak) English. 5) When it started to rain. we (dig) in the garden for an hour.

6) He promised he (drive) me home. 5) He believed the strike (end) very soon. 7) We all believed he (win) the competition. we supposed prices (go up). 8) As wages had gone up. too. 10) When I heard the main actor was ill. 3) I thought you soon (have) a holiday. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 4) I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. 9) He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards.1) They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. 2) He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. .

etc. and to pay a special attention to such issues as the use and sequence of tenses. 3) stylistic appropriateness. agreement. possibly.it is also advisable to avoid very long complex sentences. whenever necessary. .check up in a dictionary the spelling and the meaning(s) of any word (collocation) which is not quite familiar to you. idioms. . analytic. This statement of the problem (and. anaphors. . 2) The general organisation of a piece of academic writing (an essay. these being the areas of the highest risk of errors. an ability which also presupposes a steady process of enriching your vocabulary (reading. and.The introduction contains the initial (brief) formulation of the topic.Guidelines in academic writing When writing a short or medium-sized essay. which are mapped onto the units of content (sentences and paragraphs). function and cohesion). narrative. the following fundamental principles are to be observed: 1) lexical and grammatical accuracy. . 1) In order to be lexically and grammatically accurate: .verify your grammar. the development. asemantic (expletive) subjects. lexical exercises.THE ESSAY . various other types of assignments) is grounded on the three basic elements of structure (the introduction. 2) articulated internal organisation (in terms of structure. the comments on the way it is to be treated) represent what is sometimes called “the thesis”. etc). proofreading the written text. etc functions –see further –. a report. etc – see also 3) – by carefully making use of synonyms or equivalent expressions. irregular forms.avoid repetitions and/or stylistically inappropriate choice of words. in order to convey various descriptive. the conclusion). the overall cohesion being secured by logical and formal connectives. consulting the literature on the morphological or syntactic aspect in question.check punctuation. . . argumentative.

comparing. . Each part of the writing employs particular language structures and uses. consequently. last but not least. next. etc. arguing. each of which is variably detailed. or comment in the development of the topic may be a straightforward one. . etc). (After the alternative has been considered. in particular. defining. Each function is rendered as sentences and paragraphs. enumeration: first(ly). otherwise. in accordance with the specific purpose of communication (or ‘function’): describing. in other words the detailed approach to the thesis. in support of a final reiteration of the thesis.result (accordingly.e. hence.. a) The discussion.The development is the main body of the presentation. in which case ideas sequentially accumulate. moreover. there being a need for connectives of the ‘OR type’. as for. but obligatorily accompanied by the minimally necessary illustrations and/or arguments. further. words or phrases that indicate a logical relationship. and the logical relationship requires ‘AND type’ connectives. etc). argument. these material units of content being linked or joined together by connectives (or ‘transitions’).transition (regarding. finally. similarly. and to conclude. second(ly). Connectives generally group within three basic types: a) ‘the AND type’. thus. It consists of a logically ordered set of main ideas. the main line of argument is to be resumed. etc –). These ones may indicate: . etc). in addition. etc – or equation – equally. c) ‘the BUT type’. exemplifying..) These connectives may signal: . etc). to begin with. NOTE: Do not deal with more than one main idea within one and the same unit of content (paragraph). analysing. addition: reinforcement – also. etc). likewise. as far as … is / are concerned. 2. viz. . first and foremost. .The conclusion is a summary of the points tackled in the development. . in other words. etc. lastly. comments. analysis or discussion.listing (1.inference (in that case. b) ‘the OR type’. . and thus support the cohesion of the writing.apposition (i.summation (therefore. b) Sometimes alternative solutions. views are also employed. classifying. to conclude.

etc). . . (Similarly.Official: The consumption of nutrients is prohibited in this establishment.Informal: Please don’t eat here. relaxed speech). Summing up.) This type indicates: . . still.Colloquial: You can’t feed your face here. [c] opposite arguments) › [a] conclusion.. the general organisation of the piece of writing will be as follows: introduction › [a] supporting information › [a] main development (also [b] alternatives. formal (detaching the emittent from the receiver). the opposite position. nevertheless.concession (however. casual (shared information is presupposed.nosh. despite that. etc). 3) Stylistic appropriateness resides in the correct choice (considering the type and topic of assignment. instead. .Formal: You are requested not to consume food in this establishment.Officialese level: The consumption of any nutrients whatsoever is categorically prohibited in this establishment.replacement (alternatively. there has to be an ulterior return to the main thesis. Newmark (1988) distinguishes eight levels of formality.reformulation (better.Slang: Lay off the nosh! . on the other hand.contrast (conversely. . etc). for the sake of consistency. even if. This triggers the involvement of the ‘BUT type’ connectives. intimate (indicates a close relationship). c) As usually required by the desideratum of an objective survey. consultative (background information is supplied. etc are to be considered or referred to. Some authors list five such degrees (‘styles’): frozen (used in print or declamation). . . and it has six . For illustrating them. etc). vocabulary is carefully chosen). A second scale refers to degrees of language simplicity versus complexity. etc) of the cluster of multi-levelled linguistic characteristics that corresponds to a certain stylistic register (or ‘degree of formality’). the targeted audience.Taboo: Lay off the f---. on the contrary. arguments. . rather. we supply his example: .Neutral: Eating is not allowed here.

specific terminology. etc. and cold understatement. amount of available information. analogies. In both cases. purpose. etc). The third scale captures emotional tone. functional enough (though imperfect) definitions seem to be usually centred upon what is most salient in perceptual terms. Thus. and identification of perceptually (and/or emotionally) relevant / salient features / properties. temporal sequencing of events. definition. contrasts) can be also employed. each type posing certain specific problems. educated. and classification. cool or factual.levels: simple. less idiomatic expressions. and in academic essays in particular. For instance. NOTE: Elevated vocabulary does not mean excessive use of (unnecessary) rare or highly specialised words. warm. narrative essays require a special attention in terms of point of view. no contracted forms or elliptical constructions. As far as descriptive essays are concerned. and amount of comments (if any). popular. neutral. the key aspects regard spatial displaying. Definitions can be more or less accurate and/or expanded. Analytic and argumentative essays equally make extensive use of the basic discursive tools. viz. explicit connectors. frequent unrestrictive use of Simple Present. the following main types of essays are to be distinguished: 1) narrative. various mental associations and logical processes (parallelisms. although these can be optional at . depending upon (situational) context. passive. and impersonal constructions. a tree may be more often defined in terms of its branches and leaves. this roughly means: carefully chosen vocabulary (more Latin etymons. In terms of characterising features at various linguistic levels of analysis. opaque technical. existential. exemplification. 2) descriptive. and it has four levels: intense. degree of complexity / technicality of the concept to be defined. etc. the central recommendation remains to avoid lower stylistic registers in writing. comparisons. more numerous and complex relationships of subordination. Despite this variety of style classification and criteria. According to a widely accepted general classification. technical. In everyday usage. non-agentive inanimate / abstract subjects. 3) discursive (analytic and argumentative).

g. as for instance skeet… The spider is an animal. and the opposing feature(s) securing its distinction from other items subordinated to the same dominating category. the laptop is an electronic device. i. etc. e. Frequent mistakes in defining consist in giving an example instead of a definition.different periods in the life of the tree. omitting either general class or distinctive characteristic. contrastive relation of incompatibility.: Being a portable computer.g. which also incorporates some mechanical parts. The principles according to which these features are organised and exploited in providing scientific or simply “tidy” definitions can be summed up under the form of two main requirements that any definition has to meet: the identification of the 1) genus proximus and the specification of 2) differentia specifica. A biologist studies plants and animals. Mistakes in exemplification may consist in choosing an atypical representative. etc. These two practically constitute the minimally necessary parts of a definition. are: the spoon. e.: Means of transport are for instance cars. of tools for preparing and eating food.e. hierarchical relation of hyponymy. . It appears evident that defining is a process in close relationship with classifying. Syntax is (the science) about syntax. providing circular definitions.: …games.: A laptop is a portable [2] computer [1]. the knife. suitably chosen distinctive features play in all cases and situations an important role in the logical processes associated with defining. It appears therefore that more or less rigorously vs. trains. A biologist is a university graduate. of its particular instantations. i.g. than in terms of trunk or root. e. Definitions are also to be supported by exemplifications. and the horizontal. e.g. this can be represented as the intersection between the vertical.g. the providing of actualisations of the concept.e. In semantic terms. This is to say that one has to determine the immediately superior (inclusive) category to which the concept to be defined belongs. in spite of the fact that a tree must have them in order to be a tree. while errors in classification usually reside in making use of a higher than immediately dominant category. e.: Examples of cutlery.

His mind is a sharp razor. Buy memory chips now. e. smelly. verbs. etc. neither. thing. technology. or adverbs. for.. a subordinate clause is incomplete and is used with a main clause to express an idea.) Subordinating conjunctions join two clauses (main and dependent/subordinate): although. so. Redmond. attorneys general. since. e.g. They always agree with the Subject. because. Bill Gates has a heart of gold .  Compound nouns usually form the plural by pluralizing the fundamental part of the word. frustration. as long as it's not overdone. or. e. A main clause stands alone as a sentence.  Adverbs describe verbs. World Wide Web . Secretary....  Alliteration can give a pleasing sound to a sentence. (Yet & so are also used as adverbs. adjectives. and may be used as nouns. .. resonant ringing. yet. slimy SCSI . . while.  Clauses are groups of words with a subject and predicate. until. e. number.g. adjectives & other adverbs.  Phrases are closely related words with no subject or predicate. They are verbs and the words used to explain the action or condition.g. They describe nouns & specify size. Main: I like playing Tetris. The typing could have been done earlier (verb). . but.  Conjunctions join words. desk. spelling matches.. . then died. computer. Waiting for Technical Support has kept me at my desk all afternoon (noun). so that.g. Subordinate when I have time. nor. place.  Metaphors suggest comparison between two different things. e. e. vice presidents. color. . etc. The small "x" in the upper corner of the window is used to exit your file. quality or action.Glossary of Terms  Adjectives are modifiers. phrases or clauses. either.. The person with the bleary eyes is a computer nerd (adjective). . . since the price will go up soon (adverb). Choosing the right ISP can be a difficult process..  Predicates are one of two main components of a sentence. The exhausted secretary screamed loudly as her monitor flickered slowly.g. Coordinating conjunctions: and.g. e.g.  Noun The name of a person.

Joneses. show action or state of being & also indicate time of action or being.g. I need to shut down Windows (present). or phrases used as nouns. After six hours at the computer. The letter was typed by Connie (passive).  Subjects. e. Robinsons.g Bill Prowell has a mind like a razor . her eyelids felt like lead weights.g. You will enjoy learning HTML (future)..  Voice. Choosing the right ISP can be a difficult process. ch. e. e. sh. . one of two main components of a sentence. Judys.g. z. Judy sat at her computer and turned it on. Morrises. e. Active is preferable to passive to create action and interest. Savages.  Pronouns are substitutes for nouns.. in certain types of documents. or zh. Prepositions show how nouns or pronouns relate to other words in a sentence. Connie typed the letter (active)..  Similes show a similarity between two things." e. Little Susie rolled the $800 CD ROM into the bathroom. are nouns. e. her mother hid behind the shower curtain. Sometimes. . using "like. passive voice is preferred... e. Piersons. pronouns..  Proper nouns form their plurals by adding s to the singular or es if the word ends in s. the Carolinas. . Jeff's son waved goodbye to the computer repairman (past).g.g.g.  Verbs make things happen.

Buc. Ed. 3.edufind. E. Bădescu. S. 5. A. Buc. Ed. Buc. 1996. Teora. 1998. Ed. 1995. 1998. Catedra de limbă şi literatură engleză.. Tudosescu. Gramatica Limbii Engleze.. Georgeta & Mihaila-Lica Gabriela. Ed. Eastwood. 11. Şerban.. English Practical Course. Universitatea din Timişoara. Amarcord.REFERENCES 1. Reference and Practice for intermediate students of English. Consultant Rutherford. Gălăteanu-Fârnoagă.. 1963: Gramatica Limbii Engleze. Adina (Coordinator).. 2003..com . Leviţchi. Azar. Leon Gramatica limbii engleze. E. Ştiinţifică. Cambridge University Press. 10. A. 2000. 1963 4. Omegapress. Grammar in Use. Betty Basic English Grammar. 8.. Longman. Buc. G. 9. Exercises (with key). English Practical Course. 9. Obilişteanu. Limba Engleză în liste si tabele.. 6. 2nd Edition. Domnica & Drăguşin Denisa (Co-authors and Coordinators). William . 1998. 12. Comisel. 1994. 7. John A Basic English Grammar. www. Teora. Oxford University Press. Walker. Curs-Limba engleză (Morfologia). 2. Bantaş. Ed. Raymond Murphy & Altman Roann. Elain & Elsworth Steve Grammar for intermediate students (with key) Longman.. 2005.