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Italiano Monografia Nikola Tesla

Italiano Monografia Nikola Tesla

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Associazione Studiosi Scienze Eterodosse

Monografie di Altra Scienza
n.10 Ottobre 2006

Nikola Tesla

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Sommario
3 6 16 22 39 42 56 57 73 118 127 130 138 Andromeda Nikola Tesla W.E.Burton M.Paoletti F.Malgarini L'automobile di Nikola Tesla Brevetto Como Construir una Turbina Tesla Tesla: Un Talento Scomodo Il Sistema di Nikola Tesla per Trasmettere Energia Senza Fili In Ogni Parte della Terra AA.VV. Mechanical Oscillator The Earthquake Machine Tesla's Flying Machine Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency Luke Tesla's (real) Flying Machine L'Oscillatore di Tesla W.B.Carlson L'Inventore di Sogni Tesla Earthquake Machine

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Y funciona con aire o vapor Por Walter E. La vista seccional a la izquierda muestra cómo funcionó en realidad un prototipo. Burton Click en la imagen para ver más grande y claro PARECE PERSEGUIRNOS el fantasma de Nikola Tesla.000 rpm con un chorro de vapor a una presión de 8.16 COMO CONSTRUIR UNA TURBINA TESLA He aquí un gran motor que se ha relegado al olvido: La turbina Tesla. Ahora he aquí su famosa turbina de vapor. y la presión del vapor de escape alcanzó apenas 0.8 milímetros y. (2) introdujeron principios revolucionarios.8 kilogramos por centímetro cuadrado. construido para una compañía de fuerza eléctrica. . aunque rara vez puede verse. la cual siempre se menciona. Tenía 25 discos con un espesor de 0. logró producir una potencia de 200 caballos a una velocidad de 16. El año pasado describimos aquí cómo construir un modelo de la bobina de alta frecuencia de ese gran inventor (septiembre de 1964).07 kilogramo por centímetro cuadradoprueba de la extraordinaria eficiencia de la turbina. a pesar de que apenas medía 61 x 91 centímetros y que tenía una altura de sólo 61 centímetros. Estos dos modelos tienen varias cosas en común: A pesar de que son para fines de diversión y experimentación. pues no requiere tolerancias. y (3) nunca se produjeron para fines comerciales. están basados en originales que (1) fueron construidos por razones prácticas. La trayectoria espiral del vapor llegó a ser de casi 5 metros. Constituye un trabajo muy sencillo para el modelista.

puede utilizar aluminio.se rosca después. El rotor Tesla consiste en discos montados en posición paralela sobre un eje y espaciados entre sí a una distancia equivalente a su espesor o ligeramente mayor. pero como usted hará funcionar el modelo con presiones pequeñas solamente. estos discos eran de acero endurecido. Simplemente se hacía fluir el vapor a una tobera en el lado opuesto del eje del rotor. Foto abajo. Si el cilindro que escoge usted tiene un tamaño excesivo y tiene que quitarle un segmento -o si tiene usted que construir un cilindro de lámina plana-una los extremos con una tira de metal remachada a través de la junta y sellada con soldadura. éstos comienzan a girar El principio de funcionamiento que estimuló todo este interés en 1911 puede demostrarse en nuestro modelo. por ejemplo.89 cm) de altura se halla montado sobre una plataforma de madera terciada de 3/4" (19. posiblemente en relación con las plantas atómicas de vapor. la varilla mm) que mide 5 x 8" (1. De todos modos. . Cuando el vapor proveniente de la tobera a la derecha describe una trayectoria espiral entre los discos. se cortan círculos en una Pero si proyecta utilizar vapor. Es posible que fuera demasiado adelantada para sus tiempos. tal como la Unimat que se muestra en las fotos acompañantes. Todo el labrado para un modelo de este tamaño se puede realizar con una herramienta para trabajos de metal. la caja debe ser decortadora de los discos de aluminio del rotor aluminio y el eje de acero inoxidable. Si construye usted la caja de aluminio. utilizando una lata vacía paraextremo. a fin de encontrar las lumbreras de escape en el centro. La caja cilíndrica para nuestro modelo se cortó de un viejo extinguidor de fuego hecho de latón. Es posible que todavía se convierta en una importante unidad de fuerza.27 x 20. Las turbinas de norma en aquellos tiempos sólo se podían invertir mediante un complicado y engorroso procedimiento.17 La otra característica que dio origen a un revuelo en aquel entonces (antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial) fue la facilidad con que el motor podía invertirse. Un chorro de aire (o vapor) aplicado contra el borde de este conjunto de rotor describe una trayectoria espiral por los espacios entre los discos. conviene que una de las placas de extremo pueda desmontarse. La turbina de Tesla nunca llegó a producirse comercialmente. En la turbina de Tesla. el Departamento de Marina. El arrastre del gas contra las superficies de los discos hace que todo el rotor gire. en vez de soldadura. Ahora están corriendo rumores de que ha vuelto a nacer el interés en ella. el cual es fácil de labrar. Si va a de 3/8" ya se ha torneado en un extremo para luego funcionar con aire. el armado se puede efectuar mediante soportes remachados. de los Estados Unidos la está sometiendo a serias consideraciones.32 cm). La manera en que funciona la turbina se muestra en este esquema basado en informes de ingeniería de 1911 sobre el motor que Tesla construyó para una compañía de fuerza eléctrica de Nueva York.25 g) de peso y 3 1/2" (8.05El eje se labra en tres pasos. puede construir la turbina deinvertirse por completo con objeto de tornear el otro casi cualquier metal. En la foto de arriba. el extremo derecho del centro de espesor mayor la caja (C) y acero laminado en frío para el eje (S). a fin de poder ajustar el rotor más adelante. Nuestro modelo de 35 onzas (922.

luego se escarían a un diámetro de 3/8". Las ranuras para el chorro de aire se cortaron (centro) perforando una serie de agujeros con una broca de guía y luego utilizando la broca como fresadora para eliminar el metal entre los agujeros. Consiste en (foto abajo) un tubo sobre el cual se desliza el tubo de caucho del suministro de aire.18 Los extremos de la caja (izquierda) y los discos del rotor (derecha) se rectifican al diámetro exacto con una fresa partidora. por lo tanto. N átese que el diámetro exterior mayor de los extremo exige pivotar el cabezal para dejar el claro necesario. puede verse cómo se labran tapas de cojinetes de varillas de latón El conjunto de la tobera se monta en la base con una abrazadera en forma de U. Una sencilla guía ubica todos los agujeros a la misma distancia del centro (el espaciamiento de 120 grados no es crítico). una T para el tubo de cobre que se suelda a un par de grifos. es necesario hacer un árbol de soporte (centro) con el extremo roscado para dar cabida a un perno Las lumbreras de escape (izquierda) se perforan can una broca de 1/4". Nótese la abrazadera de ángulo de hierro para asegurar la caja. A la derecha. Las ranuras para las toberas en las cajas de aire y la del motor se liman a ancho suficiente para dar cabida a la unidad de éstas . y las toberas que se sueldan en otros codos de tubo. A pesar de que los extremos pueden montarse en el mandril. el agujero central de los discos es demasiado pequeño. Los bordes de los discos se redondean con una lima plana y luego se pulen con tela abrasiva de grano fino.

antes del armado. Después de montar los cojinetes en los montantes (centrados sobre los agujeros de 5/16" (7. tal como se muestra en el esquema. La canal entre el montante y la placa permite la salida del escape. Si el eje no gira libremente cuando se termina el armado.08 cm) con un extremo cerrado.75 mm) -o puede ser una serie de agujeros de 1/32" espaciados a corta distancia entre sí. un ancho de 5/32" (3. cambie la alineación de los cojinetes. estas piezas se han pulido con una varilla de caucho abrasivo asegurada en un taladro de banco.0403"). coloque el rotor en la caja. instale en su lugar la placa de extremo que se ha quitado y suspenda el eje entre los cojinetes para ubicar los agujeros de montaje en las placas de extremo. Las cajas de aire que se muestran arriba se hicieron de tubo de latón de 1/8" (3. Las arandelas de presión en el interior evitan que los tornillos se aflojen a causa de las vibraciones. Al someterse a tales tensiones se producirían problemas con la resistencia de se perforan agujeros para fijarlos a la base ya la los discos del rotor y de otras piezas. Note en la vista seccional de la página 72 que los aros de retención se hallan rebajados para dar cabida a las tapas de los cojinetes. Puede usted ahorrarse este paso si encuentra trozos de tubo de 2" (5. puede usted construir una sola tobera para un funcionamiento en una sola dirección. Para simplificar la unidad.27 cm). estos cojinetes tienen un diámetro exterior de 1/2" (1. tal como se muestra. se martilló hacia adentro para formar una cúpula cerrada y luego se selló con soldadura. La ubicación de los cojinetes en relación con el eje del rotor se muestra en la foto inferior derecha de la página 75. 33K5 en el modelo que se muestra. A continuación.19 La caja se suspende entre dos montantes (parte U) que también sostienen los cojinetes del rotor. La lumbrera de descarga debe consistir en una ranura con un largo de aproximadamente l 1/8" (2. empleando varilla de bronce de 3/4" (19. Se utilizan cuatro cortos tornillos de 2-56 para fijar cada montante a la placa de extremo. Las ranuras en la caja (C) que dan cabida a estas toberas se deben cortar después de terminar el armado de las toberas. Si no hay disponibles cojinetes similares. fíjelos a los montantes con un par de tornillos de 2-56 introducidos a través de un aro de retén y dentro de agujeros roscados en los montantes. Pero el modelo caja y para montar los cojinetes . sobre cada lumbrera de descarga suelde una tobera que se forma atornillando y soldando placas entre sí con cuñas para formar una ranura. con aire o vapor a alta presión. una manera de aplanarlos consiste en insertar cada uno de ellos entre placas de acero. Este modelo no es para funcionar a altas velocidades Es fácil doblar los montantes si se tienen bloques de acero de tamaño adecuado.86 cm) y un ancho de 1/32" (0. Recuerde también que los discos y arandelas deben ser planos.05 mm) para cojinetes. El extremo se amuescó. Se hallan ubicadas en las posiciones de las 10 y las 2 horas (imagine Que las placas de extremo son esferas de reloj). pero que no se hallan ajustados apretadamente contra los montantes. Sea cual sea el tipo de cojinetes que escoja usted.97 mm) y una perforación de 3/16" (4. Se utilizaron cojinetes de bolas Fafnir No. Antes de doblarlos. tendrá usted que alterar las dimensiones afectadas-o labrar cojinetes de buje de tipo sólido. por lo que se sueldan grifos en las líneas de suministro.76 mm).17 mm) para lámparas eléctricas. En nuestro modelo. La dirección de la rotación depende de la tobera que se halla conectada. tal como latón de calibre 18 (0. Los montantes deben hacerse de material bastante rígido. Esta se puede soldar directamente a la ranura de la caja.94 mm) . aflojando o apretando los tornillos del aro de retención o insertando cuñas entre los montantes y las placas de extremo. y golpear la placa superior con un martillo.

Número 6 . El rotor se centra en la caja con cuñas de cartón y luego se colocan los montantes.E. de latón. cuatro tuercas correspondientes No. de 1/4". de 1/4" X 12" para los dos Varilla de acero laminado en frío de 3/8" x 4" (o una aleacion de acero inoxidable) Discos de aluminio de calibre 18. o latón de calibre 18 de 1 3/4" x 8 3/4" para formar cilindro Latón de calibre 18. 3 x 1/2 para tornillos de madera de cabeza redonda Tubo de cobre con D.I. E. de 3" x 3" Latón de calibre 18.Volumen 37 . de 1/2" Hexagonal. de 2-56 x 1/4". de latón 1/4"-28 Varilla de latón de 3/4" con longitud de 1" para los dos Discos de latón de calibre 18 (o más grueso) con D.003" x 1/4" x 1" Cobre de 1/4" Para dar cabida a tubo anterior. arandelas: 11 1/2" x 14" Fuente: Revista Mecánica Popular . de 1 1/8" Fafnir 33K5 o equivalente Pasadores pequeños de latón para placas o equivalentes Tornillos de máq. de 2 7/8" x 3" Cilindro de 2 3/4" D. diámetro de 2 1/2" Discos de aluminio de calibre 18. escariado con broca espiral No. U. de 1/4" 1 2 1 Madera natural o madera terciada de 3/4" x 5" x 8" Bloques de madera de 1/2" x 1/2" x 2 1/2" Perforación de 3/16" Notas: * Tamaño total de lámina de latón para piezas C. etc. de latón. longitud de 4 1/4" Pieza de latón de calibre 18 de aproximadamente 1 1/2" X 1 1/2" Material de bronce para cuñas de 0.: 5 1/2" x 12" **Tamaño total de lámina de aluminio para discos. abrazadera de fleje de "te" de aire Eje Discos de rotor Arandelas de rotor Tuerca Tapas de cojinetes Aro de retención de cojinete Cojinetes de bolas Remaches Tornillos Mangas Cajas de aire Placas de toberas de aire Arandelas espaciadoras Tubo Te Grifos Mangas para unir grifos y tubo Base olea pequeña de latón o aluminio T-1 CLAVE CANTIDAD U C E 2* 1* 2* 1 S D W BC R BB 1 18** 20** 1 2 2 2 12 8 6 4 2 4* 4 14" 1 2 DESCRIPCION Latón de calibre 18. 12 Tubo de latón 1/8". x 1 3/4".E. o haga una "T" o "Y" soldando piezas de tubo entre sí Pequeños. tal como se muestra en las fotos Tubo de cobre de aproximadamente 3/4" con D.E. con cabeza red. funcionará de manera similar con vapor. a una presión comparable.20 que se muestra ha funcionado eficientemente durante meses enteros al conectarse directamente a un compresor de aire de 1/4 caballo de fuerza. contra las piezas de extremo y se les marcan los agujeros de montaje LISTA DE MATERIALES PIEZA Montantes Caja Extremos de caja Aro de soldadura.I. D.Diciembre 1965 . con los cojinetes ya montados.

Cierta firma de Alemania ha desarrollado un bar electrónico que suministra bebidas con sólo oprimir un botón. Idea original de Mi Mecánica Popular por: Ricardo Cabrera Oettinghaus Créditos . ya que puede usted oprimir cualquier combinación de botones para inventar su propia bebida.21 Notas similares a esta o continuación: HAGA UNA FANTáSTICA BOBINA TESLA Comenta esta nota en el foro. Inc. ¿Que más te gustaria leer en notas historicas?. dentro de un vaso colocado de antemano bajo el tubo de entrega.Número 34 Más Mini-Notas Historicas aquí Mecánica Popular-Copyright (c) 2006 Hearst Communications. y la bebida cae. oprime el botón correspondiente. Esto elimina a aquellos que ya han oprimido un exceso de botones.: Click Aquí :.Volumen 34 . Fuente: Revista Mecánica Popular . Además.: Click Aquí :. All Rights Reserved. totalmente mezclada. El cliente escoge una de las bebidas en la lista. Comenta esta y otras notas en el foro.Marzo de 1964 . como medida de seguridad. No es necesario limitarse a la lista impresa.: Click Aquí :. la máquina se niega a funcionar a no ser que la persona que oprima el botón tenga el pulso firme. Mini Nota Histórica Cantinero Electrónico Es posible que estén tocando a su fin los días del cantinero.

La pallida luce lunare non era soddisfacente e il fuoco di difficile trasporto e di breve durata. bruciando il carbone. Che fine farebbe la nostra spesa? Fino a pochi decenni fa per la conservazione dei cibi si faceva uso del sale. La svolta importante nel 1892 quando William Murdock scoprì che. che intensificavano la luce. peraltro già conosciuta in un remoto passato. Alva Edison ricercando un sistema migliore e più sicuro avvalendosi dell’invenzione di Swan. I bassorilievi ricordano le lampade a luminescenza e le ampolle in atmosfera rarefatta. I lampioni a gas rischiararono così alcune città. veniva prodotto un gas. il mondo era immerso nelle tenebre quando Dio disse: "Sia la luce. è necessario che vi sia la corrente elettrica. Col tempo si giunse alla candela di sego o di cera. Nel 1875 molti fabbricati erano illuminati con gas combustibile. TESLA: UN TALENTO SCOMODO di Mauro Paoletti per Edicolaweb Secondo le sacre scritture. Abbiamo il difetto di dare molte cose per scontate a causa del loro uso quotidiano. collegati attraverso cavi a treccia al "Djed" che. accendendosi. o una sola fiaccola. non fornivano luce a sufficienza. Non si può lavorare. consistente in ampolle prive dell’aria dove si accendeva una striscia di carta quando veniva attraversata dalla corrente elettrica. nel tempio di Hator a Dendera.. doveva essere mantenuto acceso e un solo falò. una luce più efficace. usando diversi tipi di gas e altri materiali filiformi al posto della striscia di carta ottenne lampade più efficaci. delle spezie e del ghiaccio. in uso fin dal 3000 a. senza elettricità? Tutto si ferma. lampade che permisero a Roentgen di scoprire i raggi X nel 1895. lo testimoniano le Pietre delle Serpi. dove uno stoppino immerso nel liquido forniva. ideate da Welsbach. l’elettricità. Il gas sottoposto a calore generava la luce. Per dare forma ad una parte dell’incubo pensiamo al frigorifero. condizionati dall’elettricità. venivano accesi la sera e spenti all’alba. la divinità si era risvegliata. nel caso. Oggi tutti noi ripetiamo quel gesto quando entriamo in una stanza immersa nel buio e premiamo l’interruttore che permette alla corrente elettrica di correre lungo il filo fino alla lampadina che. Nelle lampade venivano messe delle reticelle.. Venne adottato l’uso di una ciotola piena d’olio o di grasso. .. Come e da dove proviene l’elettricità? Distrattamente e profondamente inseriti nel sistema non lo chiediamo. Come facciamo senza la luce. Non tutte le abitazioni erano dotate delle tubazioni per l’erogazione del gas e per molti anni furono usate ancora le lampade a petrolio. all’inizio. trasportabile e duratura. restiamo senza televisione.. dopo che il sole cala dietro l’orizzonte e le tenebre nascondono il mondo nel buio assoluto. nelle strade cittadine il caos. un vero incubo. create dall’inglese William Crookes nel 1879. ideò altri tipi di ampolle.C. Il gas però era molto pericoloso per le frequenti le fughe dovute all’usura e rottura delle tubazioni che servivano per il suo trasporto. E la luce fu!" Il fiore di loto si era schiuso e la luce aveva inondato l’intero universo. Ma la lampadina da sola non basta. il computer si spegne. Il nuovo sistema d’illuminazione aveva molti limiti ma da quel momento l’uomo poté dire: "sia fatta luce" ed ottenerla. diventa difficoltoso anche preparare da mangiare. assumerebbe la funzione di generatore. fa parte delle cose acquisite. bassorilievi che mostrano enormi bulbi trasparenti con all’interno sinuose serpi. Quando Edison aprì la prima centrale elettrica a corrente continua il buio venne eliminato col semplice scatto di un interruttore. più comoda e di basso costo. non deve. In Egitto. una volta acceso. illumina l’ambiente. diveniamo prigionieri degli ascensori. le comunicazioni si complicano.22 ARCHEOLOGANDO. recente invenzione che funziona grazie all’elettricità.. è più facile chiedersi perché d’un tratto viene a mancare perché non può. Siamo elettro dipendenti. Fra i bassorilievi del tempio possiamo vedere rappresentato anche il procedimento dell’elettrolisi. come fosse sempre stato così. ma avere la luce. è sempre stato un antico problema dell’uomo.

con elettroni in eccesso. Si trattava dell’elettricità statica (1). che aveva messo in pericolo la vita dell’imperatore tedesco Guglielmo I. la dinamo e l’alternatore. se carente di elettroni. Edison produceva solo dispositivi a corrente continua. Lo spostamento si chiama carica. Un anno dopo Edison e Graham Bell crearono la "Oriental Telephone Co. gli propose di creare una società con lui. Gli investimenti erano cospicui. a riscoprire l’elettricità strofinando proprio l’ambra sulla lana e sulla pelliccia. medico della regina Elisabetta. Dopo che Talete di Mileto e Plinio il Vecchio studiarono per primi le proprietà elettriche dell’ambra. se invece avesse accettato quell’offerta . Volta diede forma alla prima pila. simile a quella dei nostri neon. parlava con chiunque fosse disposto ad ascoltarlo e. Studiò al "Real Gymnasium" di Carlstadt. accorgendosi di poter attirare piccoli oggetti leggeri. secondo maschio dei cinque figli del reverendo ortodosso Milutin. dinamo. Faraday al primo generatore elettrico. Venne dedotto che maggiore era la quantità di elettricità accumulata. Dopo aver lavorato nella società telefonica di Budapest trovò lavoro a Parigi nella "Continental Edison" filiale della "Edison Electric Light". Un antico documento indiano conosciuto come Agastya Samhita fornisce una serie di istruzioni per costruire una batteria elettrica. più lunga la scintilla prodotta dagli elettroni. ingegneria al Politecnico di Graz e all’Università di Praga. nel 1859 Pacinotti col suo anello trasformò l’energia meccanica in energia elettrica continua.". il caporeparto. Fu William Gilbert. Hans Christian Oersted sviluppò la teoria elettromagnetica e nel 1826 Ampère enunciò le leggi dell’elettromagnetismo inventando lo strumento per misurare il flusso della carica elettrica. George Ohm declamò la legge sulla resistenza elettrica. enunciando che due cariche uguali si respingono mentre. Gli elettroni si trasferiscono da un materiale isolante all’altro. Fatto curioso perché sono abbastanza recenti esperimenti per ottenere una luminescenza da pannelli e oggetti percorsi da correnti deboli senza l’uso di filamenti e bulbi. Chiamò la strana forza "elettrica" dal nome greco dell’ambra Elektron. motori e sistemi di illuminazione. Tesla non capiva niente di mercato e commercio e quindi rifiutò. nel 1880 Alva Edison costruì la prima centrale brevettando un sistema di distribuzione. quindi i vuoti lasciati dagli elettroni dell’ambra vengono rimpiazzati dagli elettroni contenuti nella carta. nel 1866 Heinrich Hertz scoprì le onde elettromagnetiche. e negativa. Colui che ha inventato la famosa Bobina che porta il suo nome per produrre l’alta tensione necessaria al tubo catodico del televisore. Nikola nacque il 10 luglio 1856 a Smiljan in Croazia. Tesla. convinto di vedere realizzati i suoi progetti sulla corrente alternata. ma se questa avviene in un conduttore la carica in movimento genera una corrente che fluisce nel conduttore e cessa di essere statica. (2) Scoprì che pezzi di ambra carenti di elettroni si respingevano mentre si attiravano se gli elettroni erano in eccesso. illuminato da globi di pietra posti su altissimi pali che al tramonto iniziavano a brillare di una strana luce bianca. in Nuova Guinea. comprese perché l’ago della bussola punta sempre verso il nord. A questo punto compare un personaggio definito "dimenticato benefattore dell’umanità" e che morì nell’anonimato in assoluta povertà: Nikola Tesla. Benjamin Franklin denominò i due tipi di elettricità positiva. Gilbert studiò l’elettricità e il magnetismo. Cosa confermata anche da Beccaria con il suo pozzo e da Faraday con la sua gabbia. illuminando la notte. Nel 1882 Edison attivò il primo sistema di distribuzione dell'energia al mondo. Cronache antiche di commercianti parlano di un villaggio presso il monte Wilhelmina. l’uomo si dimenticò come tale energia si poteva ricavare e piombò nel buio per secoli. un condensatore chiamato "bottiglia di Leida". l’argomento era la tensione della carica. Nel 1785 August De Coulomb inventò la bilancia di torsione per misurare il campo elettrico dimostrando che la carica si distribuisce in modo uniforme sopra una superficie sferica.23 Ricordiamo le pile di Bagdad scoperte da Konig. fornita da un generatore Tesla. durante una partita a biliardo. Nel 1746 due studiosi dell’Università di Leida inventarono un apparecchio per raccogliere l’elettricità statica. come la carta. tale Cunningham. se diverse. attraverso il trasformatore Tesla e trasportata da un sistema trifase Tesla. La Continental non attraversava un felice periodo in seguito ad un incidente avvenuto durante l’inaugurazione del nuovo sistema di illuminazione a Strasburgo. si attraggono.

costruì il primo motore a corrente alternata oltre ad un generatore a due tempi per alimentarlo. capaci di generare maggiore corrente. maggiore è la . Tesla aveva scoperto che si poteva trasformare il voltaggio dell’elettricità a corrente alternata. L’impianto di Edison non avrebbe mai funzionato ai voltaggi di oggi. per ridurre i costi ma i finanziatori non volevano rischiare altro denaro. Tesla compì una nuova impresa. Avrebbe trasmesso corrente ad alto voltaggio e bassa corrente attraverso cavi sottili. trasformatori. Edison brevettò le bobine e le sostituì. Un filo tende a surriscaldarsi e fondersi se il carico è elevato e. Quando Edison fondò la "Edison Electric Light" ottenne 2500 azioni. ma solo per produrre lampade ad arco destinate all’illuminazione pubblica. Ma la società non stava tenendo fede alle promesse di vendita ed Edison non voleva che la cosa si risapesse. scatole di raccordo. non oltre 400. prima nave con l’illuminazione elettrica. semplici da regolare ed accoppiare. dato che il giovane inventore prevedeva tutte le conseguenze prima di sperimentare i congegni ideati. i suoi proventi erano rappresentati solo dalla vendita di impianti d’illuminazione completi a privati o imprese. Fortunatamente per lui. Tesla. ai capitalisti che finanziarono l’impresa ne vennero assegnate altre 500: la "Western Union Telegraph". questo perché non essendo esperto nel campo dell’elettricità non metteva in pratica la legge di Ohm. Secondo Batchellor. avrebbe evitato il costo di numerosi esperimenti. Alva gli promise un compenso di 50. ma non conosceva la sincronizzazione degli impulsi elettrici.24 la sua vita e la nostra sarebbero radicalmente cambiate. quale migliore ingegnere della Continental. Anche in questo caso fu raggirato e il suo sogno dovette attendere. I suoi soci non disponevano di ingenti capitali per portare avanti un tale progetto ed erano interessati solo alla produzione di lampade ad arco più redditizie.P. Edison non aveva il controllo dell’industria americana dell’elettricità e trovò altri finanziatori. Inutile dire che riuscì nell’impresa ma non ottenne il premio promesso. L’arrivo di Tesla fu più che opportuno. occorreva erogare energia alternata a mezzo di idonei cavi. il banchiere J. Tesla dopo due anni fornì lampade ad avviamento automatico dotate di un meccanismo di alimentazione che permetteva di sostituire le aste di carbone quando si consumavano. fu inviato in quella città allo scopo di realizzare un regolatore automatico delle dinamo. il tutto assistito da un sistema che assicurava la sincronia negli impulsi di corrente. per la nota legge di Ohm. l’altro è questo giovane…". Doveva costruire altre centrali. Per vendere motori a corrente alternata. contatori per le abitazioni. Convinse Nikola che a New York avrebbe coronato i suoi sogni e lo spinse a partire. all’apice un filo di carbone che bruciando produceva luce.000 dollari. Edison stava per ricevere l’aiuto desiderato per le sue dinamo a vapore che non erano sufficienti ad accendere tutte le lampade dei clienti. L’Oregon aveva fatto richiesta di risarcimento in seguito al guasto delle bobine. In un anno sfornò ben ventiquattro tipi diversi di dinamo a corrente continua. con la promessa di un premio di 25.. Duravano solo novanta minuti. Edison aveva il problema di inviare la corrente oltre gli ottocento metri della sua centrale. aumentandolo o diminuendolo a mezzo di un trasformatore.000 dollari a lavoro compiuto. In quel periodo. Morgan ne facevano parte. In seguito agli incresciosi fatti di Strasburgo.. tu sei uno di loro. Scrisse a Edison una frase rimasta celebre: "Conosco due grandi uomini. ma non premiò Tesla. ma lei non capisce l’humor americano. la moglie era gravemente malata. separate da gesso e inserite in tubi di ottone collegati alla corrente. Inoltre aveva una causa in corso contro Westinghouse che produceva lampade con brevetto Edison senza pagare le royalty. che in seguito ad un guasto avevano lasciato l’imbarcazione al buio e si presentò a Edison pronto a perfezionare i progetti dei generatori della sua centrale elettrica. Alva Edison aveva inviato a Parigi un amico consulente di cui si fidava. Appena sbarcato aggiustò le bobine dell’Oregon. Avrebbe dovuto accoppiarle fra loro. Il sistema venne adottato per l’illuminazione pubblica e per le fabbriche. nel tempo libero. L’impianto del croato avrebbe messo in pericolo coloro che avevano investito nel sistema a corrente continua." Il croato si licenziò. il quale ascoltando le idee di Tesla considerò che era meglio averlo dalla propria parte. Quando questi si presentò a reclamare il suo compenso l’americano gli disse: "Tesla. Quando Tesla giunse a New York. Charles Batchellor. le lampade prodotte all’epoca da Paul Joblochkoff erano composte da due aste parallele di carbone.

000 in azioni e royalty di 2. diminuendolo poi quando la corrente entra nell’abitazione. Divenne il padre della moderna elettricità. servendosi di alcuni animali come cavie. La fusione fra la "US Electric Company" e la "Consolidate Electric Light" diede vita alla "Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company" e i brevetti di Tesla furono svenduti ai banchieri. Tesla aveva tenuto conto di tutto questo e scoperto che la corrente ad alta frequenza non viaggia all’interno di un filo. Si poteva modificare il voltaggio e usare fili sottili per portare l’elettricità a lunghe distanze. Tesla parlava di una distribuzione senza fili.000 volt. come potevano le compagnie ricavare profitti? L’energia elettrica veniva fornita a mezzo di un filo. Westinghouse offrì a Tesla 25.25 corrente che passa attraverso il filo. si chiamò "General Electric". È il famoso effetto pelle o di Kelvin. Tesla iniziò a lavorare al suo motore a corrente alternata. George aveva inventato lo scambio di rotaia e il freno ad aria compressa. il quale. Era inoltre la persona che voleva scalzare il sistema di Edison. Quindi si può avere un alto voltaggio e poca corrente. eliminando il nome Edison. La "Edison Electric" era stata creata per riscuotere le royalty e i banchieri che la gestivano proposero allo scienziato di comprare le sue fabbriche e formare una nuova società che si chiamò "Edison General Electric Company". coinvolgendo l’amico Alfred Brown sovrintendente della "Western Union Telegraph" a dividere i rischi. Fece domanda all’ufficio brevetti e gli furono concessi ben 30 brevetti diversi. Come si poteva disconnettere gli utenti morosi se i fili non esistevano? Le idee del croato andavano contro gli interessi dei banchieri come Morgan. Westinghouse senza pagare le royalty produceva lampade Edison e questo spinse Edison a intraprendere una campagna denigratoria delle tecnologie utilizzate dal concorrente. La conferenza tenuta all’"American Institute of Electrical Enginers" suscitò l’interesse di George Westinghouse. ma al suo esterno.50 a CV. secondo Brown era la persona giusta per commercializzare il prodotto di Tesla. Nacque la "Tesla Electric Company". i fili venivano recisi e il banchiere tutelato. Per questo Tesla usava dare spettacolo facendosi passare dalla corrente a 250. Era in corso la "guerra delle correnti". utilizzando alternatori Westinghouse. ingegnere elettronico. se l’utente non pagava. La campagna denigratoria produsse l’interessamento dell’Assemblea Legislativa che promulgò l’uso della sedia elettrica al posto dell’impiccagione. quanto poteva essere pericolosa la corrente alternata. causa e ricorso furono vinti da Edison nonostante che Westinghouse dimostrasse che Alva non fosse esperto di elettricità. Il processo aveva messo in crisi anche Westinghouse. L’elettricità . un trasformatore riduceva e aumentava la corrente. Maggiore la lunghezza del filo. non sapeva come pagare gli stipendi ai suoi duemila dipendenti e come comprare la materia prima per far fronte agli ordini che giungevano numerosi. Fece stampare opuscoli dove sottolineò il pericolo derivante dall’uso dell’alto voltaggio usato nei sistemi ad arco e dimostrò. maggiore deve essere il voltaggio. per questo vengono utilizzati fili di acciaio rivestiti di rame. chiunque poteva avere l’energia elettrica gratuitamente attraverso la collocazione di una semplice antenna. affinché non rappresenti un pericolo mortale. il cui padre possedeva una fabbrica che produceva materiale rotabile per lo stato di New York. Ma Edison era in piena crisi. maggiore sarà la caduta di tensione. oppure alta corrente e un basso voltaggio. ossia la capacità dell’elettricità di correre lungo il filo e portare un numero sufficiente di elettroni che arrivino alla lampadina. La cosa forse influenzò anche la sentenza del tribunale. perché incassava solo dopo la consegna. Nel frattempo Tesla era stato abbandonato dai suoi finanziatori e costretto a guadagnarsi da vivere scavando fossi. si offrì di fornire un finanziamento. L’acciaio rende il filo resistente mentre il rame fornisce una bassa resistenza dove scorre la corrente. Peck e Brown decisero di vendere il brevetto a chi avesse offerto di più.000 dollari più 50. Nel 1886 presentò un brevetto per un motore elettromagnetico e. La comunità scientifica lo invitò a tenere una conferenza. ebbe l’occasione di avvicinare l’avvocato Charles Peck. parlando dell’invenzione con il suo caposquadra. Al di là del risparmio del rame. Poteva produrre un campo magnetico rotante iniettando due correnti alternate in una coppia di bobine poste ai lati opposti dello statore. Charles Coffin che dirigeva la "Thomson Houston" concluse un accordo con la "Edison General Electric" divenendo presidente di una nuova società che. I fulmini che colpiscono un aereo non mettono in pericolo i passeggeri al suo interno dato che la scarica corre sulla superficie della fusoliera.

i neon. che aveva adottato la nuova tecnologia. un condensatore e uno spinterometro producono un campo magnetico rotante. inventò una lampadina senza fili. che si illuminava quando veniva messo a contatto con un campo elettrico ad alta frequenza. e la famosa "bobina" per generare altissimi voltaggi. alimentate dai generatori Tesla. uno di trasmissione. In quel periodo cominciò a studiare la velocità di inversione. Forbes costruì un canale a monte per portare l’acqua alla centrale e alle turbine attraverso un tubo di due metri di diametro. illuminarono i locali della Esposizione Universale di Chicago dedicata a Colombo. infine al capezzale della madre morente. un collegamento a terra. un impianto di ricezione. definita la più importante opera di ingegneria mai realizzata e Nikola Tesla divenne il più eminente scienziato e ricavò 500. trovò un finanziatore in Curtis. Ritornò in America giusto in tempo per aiutare Westinghouse che finalmente era riuscito a produrre una lampada senza violare i brevetti della "General Electric". A lui si attribuisce anche l’invenzione del telegrafo pluricanale senza fili. togliendo l’aria da un tubo di vetro. sarebbe stata la prima torpediniera silurante senza equipaggio. In una gigantesca vasca girava una barca lunga un metro e mezzo dotata di luci colorate e una antenna. era nata la "Niagara Falls Power and Conduit Company". Tesla iniziò a studiare i fulmini. il microscopio elettronico. L’apertura avvenne nel 1895. Due anni dopo. Il sistema Tesla aveva salvato l’industria mineraria locale e Curtis offrì al croato un lotto di terreno dove costruire un laboratorio. che generavano scintille lunghe fino a 40 metri. In quel periodo costruì le prime lampade a fluorescenza. Ideò un sintonizzatore che divenne la base di tutte le radio e televisori. un circuito per la sintonizzazione. sintonizzati uno sulla risonanza dell’altro. La bobina altro non è che un trasformatore di risonanza che permette la produzione di corrente alternata usando sistemi polifase che si basano sull’induzione magnetica con il passaggio di corrente in più fasi. Tutto perché aveva scoperto che il passaggio della corrente ad alta frequenza attraverso una bobina e un condensatore generava un effetto di risonanza a distanza senza bisogno di fili. Tesla ne dirigeva a voce i movimenti e l’immersione. insieme risuonavano un milione di volte al secondo. Nei suoi esperimenti utilizzando correnti di diverse frequenze riuscì a produrre voltaggi altissimi. Nel giugno del 1899. attraverso un alternatore speciale. Il primo gennaio del 1893 ben 96. Rendendosi conto che una valvola rilevava onde radio descrisse le caratteristiche basilari dell’impianto radio prima di Marconi: un’antenna. cedendo i diritti sui brevetti di Tesla allo scopo di presentare un offerta congiunta e realizzare una centrale elettrica alle cascate del Niagara. Aveva installato un filo elettrico intorno alle pareti esterne dove faceva passare corrente elettrica ad alta frequenza. un detector dei segnali. non poteva essere distribuita gratuitamente. Costruì trasmettitori capaci di amplificare i segnali elettrici per giungere a frequenze e voltaggi mai raggiunti. ossia la frequenza. se sollecitato su tale frequenza. Westinghouse inoltre aveva stipulato un accordo con la "General Electric". il circuito di sintonia. nel nuovo laboratorio costruito a Colorado Springs. iniziava a vibrare fino a raggiungere il punto di rottura. Nel 1897 presentò al Madison Square Garden il primo sommergibile radiocomandato. La realizzazione del progetto venne affidata ad un ingegnere scozzese tale George Forbes.26 doveva rimanere in mano alle compagnie. Oggi Colorado Springs è noto per la vicinanza del NORAD il sistema di difesa missilistico situato sotto i . Meccanismo alla base degli alti voltaggi dei tubi catodici delle TV. In quel periodo l’inventore effettuò un giro in Europa. inoltre un tubo che emetteva raggi "X". Due bobine concentriche di filo di rame avvolto con centinaia di spire. i loro effetti e come sfruttare le loro cariche elettriche. le famose bobine di Tesla. il tubo catodico. l’avvocato che si era occupato del suo primo brevetto. di nuovo a corto di fondi. l’acqua dopo aver percorso un tunnel riaffluiva nel fiume proprio sotto le cascate.000 cavalli vapore.620 lampade a incandescenza. La marina militare non comprese l’importanza di quella invenzione. Leonard Curtis si era ritirato a Colorado Springs divenendo direttore della "Colorado Springs Power Company". Scoprì che ogni oggetto possiede una naturale frequenza e. la centrale avrebbe utilizzato tre generatori Tesla da 5. Costruì un vibratore senza parti mobili e lo collegò ad un condensatore. prima Londra. Ideò luci fluorescenti senza fili con le quali illuminò il laboratorio. tale circuito radio diffondeva la corrente che veniva raccolta in cuscinetti di filo collegati ai terminali posti ad ogni lampada fluorescente che funzionavano in tal modo con corrente senza fili. poi Parigi.000 dollari oltre alla libertà di continuare i suoi esperimenti. altra invenzione non compresa.

tale effetto dimostrava che la Terra e l’atmosfera erano cariche elettricamente. La sonda sovietica Mir accertò. Nel corso degli esperimenti si rese conto che diverse velocità di vibrazione producevano onde stazionarie di diverso tipo. nel 1997. L’unica cosa che permette ai materiali di resistere è l’utilizzo di una bolla di plasma come quella che ideò Tesla per generare il fulmine globulare. Le 200 lampade degli apparecchi riceventi che s’illuminarono furono la prova che l’impianto senza fili funzionava. tale fusione avviene a temperature talmente elevate che non esiste un materiale resistente alla fusione. alto due metri e lungo il perimetro scorreva un grosso cavo elettrico. al centro del capannone un traliccio e su di esso un’asta di rame che sosteneva una sfera. La miscela di ioni e elettroni scoperta.000 watt. Quindi il nostro corpo ha una data quantità di elettricità misurabile. il pavimento era di legno circondato da un recinto. con un rintocco ogni due ore. sotto il tetto aperto. Il fulmine produceva un tipo di onda radio capace di produrre voltaggi regolari. e che. Tesla dimostrò quindi che l’energia elettrica può essere diffusa utilizzando la superficie terrestre. dodici metri misurava la parte inferiore. sintonizzandosi con opportuni apparecchi. Aveva realizzato il suo sogno e trovato il sistema di produrre plasma elettromagnetico prima ancora che si coniasse il termine. aumentando la potenza smisuratamente. nota come ionosfera. Quando Tesla produsse con il suo apparato il primo fulmine ottenne un lampo di 60 metri e un violento tuono che venne udito a 42 chilometri di distanza. Il cellulare che usiamo tutti i giorni è dotato proprio del tipo di antenna di sintonizzazione inventata da Tesla. raggiunse l’altra parte e ritornò indietro. che i temporali appaiono sempre su delle linee a distanze regolari nella parte scura della Terra dimostrando la possibilità della trasmissione dell’energia elettrica senza l’uso dei fili. La corrente che lo scienziato iniettò nel suolo si propagò come un’onda radio alla velocità della luce. Il trasmettitore riceveva impulsi di corrente alternata a basso voltaggio dalla vicina centrale e generava 10. La struttura del laboratorio di Colorado era alta circa 60 metri. Lanciando simili raggi è stato possibile stilare mappe di Venere e della Luna. simile ad un granaio. L’obbiettivo di Tesla era scoprire il limite della risonanza. può ottenere corrente gratuitamente. all’esterno del recinto file di condensatori. anch’essa di rame. Lo scopo era studiare le onde radio a bassissima frequenza capaci di raggiungere qualsiasi luogo. chiunque. La recinzione era percorsa da avvolgimenti di filo elettrico. La Terra è in grado di assorbire elettricità e per questo tutti gli strumenti elettrici scaricano a terra. sempre di legno. magnetici e gravitazionali generati dalla Terra . dalla Terra. attraverso la quale otteniamo energia pulita ed economica in seguito alla trasformazione dell’idrogeno in elio. quella che in gergo si chiama "lunghezza d’onda del segnale". In effetti il nostro pianeta è circondato da una particolare carica elettrica. Tesla aveva scoperto che poteva far risuonare elettricamente la Terra come una campana. cambiando la lunghezza dell’asta e regolando la sintonizzazione della lunghezza d’onda. Secondo lo scienziato la frequenza della risonanza elettrica terrestre era di dieci cicli al secondo. oggi viene chiamata "Gas ionizzato" ed è in grado di sprigionare luce e calore. che inizia a 80 km. I brevetti di Tesla sono stati menzionati nella costruzione di armi dotate di proiettili al plasma capaci di neutralizzare satelliti spia. sfruttando la zona atmosferica dove risiede la risonanza di Schumann e. È il funzionamento del Sole.27 monti Cheyenne. All’interno della gabbia vari oggetti diversi fra loro. misurabili allontanandosi dalla fonte. il secondo impulso si unì al primo rafforzandolo. sia sotto il mare. Il 20 marzo 1900 depositò il brevetto e nel 1902 tutti gli altri brevetti relativi. L’asta scendeva sopra ad un’enorme bobina situata al centro. scoperta che si è dimostrata importante per lo studio della quantistica. Fra questa e il suolo esiste una zona con un potenziale costante di 220 volt per metro dentro il quale noi viviamo. e così fece il terzo. Per capire l’importanza di quanto scoperto dal Nikola pensiamo alla fusione termonucleare. ma il sovraccarico bruciò il generatore della centrale che gli forniva la corrente e mise al buio l’intera città di Colorado. ma è anche circondato e penetrato da molti campi elettrici. che fanno parte del progetto "Scudo stellare". poteva ricavare il massimo voltaggio nella sfera di rame. il valore usato oggi è di 7. e il quarto.8 cicli. Tesla era anche in grado di produrre la risonanza del campo elettrico terrestre e dominare di conseguenza il tempo meteorologico. sia sulla superficie.

P. Nikola però non conosceva i meccanismi del mercato. ma sappiamo molto bene il perché. un sistema per sintonizzare su una determinata lunghezza d’onda un ricevitore. Quando Tesla comunicò a Westinghouse l’esito delle ricerche effettuate a Colorado Spring e i suoi progetti per il futuro. conosciuto come Mark Twain. distribuire elettricità gratuita e illimitata ovunque. Queste eruzioni sprigionano intensi campi magnetici che riducono il flusso di energia e producono perturbazioni fisiche sulla Terra. per trasmettere l’energia elettrica. campi elettromagnetici dovuti agli ultravioletti. La bobina per produrre correnti ad alto voltaggio e alta frequenza. è trasmettere energia elettrica in qualunque luogo senza l’uso di fili. . Oggi sappiamo che il Sole con la sua energia e la sua attività determina il clima sulla Terra. il trasmettitore d’amplificazione. Si potevano già realizzare in quegli anni alcune delle cose in uso oggi come la trasmissione di messaggi segreti di stato. e J. Se avesse lavorato come fece Marconi con i militari e il governo. ne influenza l'ecosistema e di conseguenza l'esistenza degli esseri viventi su di essa. anzi intraprese una serie di azioni che miravano a denigrarlo davanti all’opinione pubblica in modo che le sue ricerche non fossero finanziate da altri. telefonare in ogni luogo e a chiunque. sincronizzare gli orologi con precisione astronomica. creare un sistema monitorato di navigazione per determinare le rotte delle navi. il sistema elettrico senza fili. L’unica cosa che ancora oggi non possiamo fare. In quel tempo Tesla parlò della possibilità di trasmettere calore al Polo Nord. Si racconta che ebbe l’occasione di sperimentare anche l’effetto delle vibrazioni meccaniche prodotte da un meccanismo consistente in una piattaforma montata su cuscinetti elastici azionata da aria compressa. Rinunciò così a procedere oltre. anche se è stato dimostrato nell’ultimo decennio che sia possibile. utilizzando il campo elettrico terrestre. oggi sicuramente avremmo un mondo notevolmente diverso. Gli unici che lo hanno considerato seriamente. manoscritti. l’uomo d’affari vide nello scienziato un pericolo per i suoi affari e gli negò ogni ulteriore finanziamento nell’intento di fermarlo. Nel 1900 Westinghouse e la "General Electric" avevano il monopolio assoluto dell’erogazione di corrente alternata e si erano notevolmente arricchite con il suo commercio. apparecchi televisivi. per questo non viene ricordato neanche oggi per il grande uomo che è stato e per quello che ha fatto. interferendo con il campo magnetico terrestre. con l’aumento della frequenza raggiunse un livello in grado di far vibrare l’intero edificio con il pericolo di provocare un crollo.28 e dagli altri pianeti. in pratica un grande condensatore che Tesla riuscì a far vibrare con l’energia elettrica. Esiste una zona nell’atmosfera carica di elettricità fra la superficie e la ionosfera. la possibilità di scambiare messaggi fra i cittadini in modo rapido e sicuro. Quando l’inventore ancorò il meccanismo ad una colonna di ferro del suo laboratorio. era possibile trasmettere elettricità senza dispersione di energia. Nessuno avrebbe potuto esaurire l’energia trasmessa in quel momento. inviare fotografie e trasmettere musica in ogni angolo della Terra. Tesla aveva scoperto che la Terra rispondeva a vibrazioni elettriche di una determinata velocità e se venivano prodotte onde stazionarie intorno al globo. campi generati da emittenti radio. trasmettere le notizie dei quotidiani di tutto il mondo. gli elettroni e l'idrogeno ionizzato si propagano ovunque. Cosa che Tesla non aveva compreso appieno. Le sue invenzioni lo rendevano un uomo credibile e pericoloso. per questo rifiutò anche l’offerta di acquisto dei Lloyds di Londra per un impianto senza fili da installare su un panfilo. Morgan. Sappiamo che l'attività solare si manifesta nelle macchie solari prodotte dalla differente velocità di rotazione di due campi magnetici: quello polare e quello equatoriale. per generare la risonanza dei campi prodotti con i fulmini con la carica della Terra. oltre alla musica. videoregistratori. sono stati Samuel Clemens. per quello che in effetti era. erano le invenzioni che permettevano la trasmissione della corrente senza fili. Da quel momento perse notorietà e divenne per l’opinione pubblica uno scrittore di fantascienza. ove si accumulano le particelle elettriche che modificano gli effetti climatici. anziché procedere da solo. Infatti. telefoni e così via. Il primo. attraverso il "vento solare". conosciuta come "cavità Shumann". foto. di formare il ghiaccio ai tropici. folle e fuori dal mondo. in qualità di amico e appassionato al tema dei suoi esperimenti divenne un assiduo frequentatore del laboratorio di Tesla al 35 di South Fifth Avenue. disegni e documenti. Vibrazioni rivelatesi curative di problemi di digestione ed altri disturbi e con le quali Clemens curò la sua stipsi. contribuendo all'esistenza delle due fasce di Van Allen.

l’uso medico della risonanza magnetica (3). fra le quali l’illuminazione elettrica. Morgan. l’auto elettrica senza generatore di corrente. per interesse personale. Gli esperimenti non furono portati a termine perché si accorse che potevano generare terremoti artificiali di inaudita potenza. Il 23 luglio del 1901 Tesla. il contagiri meccanico. Vengono attribuiti a Tesla 700 invenzioni. come il giorno in cui era sbarcato a New York. modificando le naturali frequenze di cui sono dotati tutti i corpi e sfruttando quella che chiamò "frequenza risonante". Difatti se il trasmettitore avesse inviato una forte energia in un solo punto si sarebbe verificata una distruzione totale. il progetto non era affidabile e tutti si tirarono indietro. Due turbine senza pale da 200 CV che furono collaudate nella centrale di Waterside a New York e che non trovarono consensi all’epoca. Per il mondo. profondamente ferito. in modo da utilizzare il pianeta per intercettare energia. costringendo Morgan a dichiarare apertamente che non intendeva finanziare ulteriormente lo scienziato.000 dollari dal Canada per trasmettere l’energia per quello Stato. sottoposta ad amari processi nella spietata lotta per affermarsi sul mercato".29 J. Inoltre. un uomo pieno di orgoglio che non si era mai voluto sposare e quindi non aveva avuto modo di provare le gioie di una famiglia. se Morgan non rischiava i capitali.P. Concepita e costruita come sistema per le telecomunicazioni senza fili. usufruendo delle stazioni riceventi dislocate opportunamente sul globo. il motore rotante. Negli anni che seguirono. non interessato ai soldi. manipolando la biofisica umana. l’energia elettrica a corrente alternata. pieno di fiducia infantile verso un mondo che non lo comprendeva e lo disprezzava. trasmettendo frequenze estremamente basse. dagli interessi egoistici. interessato ai lavori dello scienziato per motivi economici. ma nel frattempo Tesla riuscì ad ottenere 10. idoneo a raccogliere una carica elettrica. la prima stazione di energia idroelettrica. che poteva alterare le correnti nell’alta atmosfera e modificare il clima. Aggiunse che i raggi cosmici ionizzano l’aria creando particelle libere come ioni ed elettroni. aprendo la possibilità di comunicare e trasmettere potenza attraverso la crosta terrestre. a mezzo della quale un corpo si mette a vibrare fino alla rottura. uomo chiave della creazione della "General Electric". Nella scrittura trovò lo sfogo dei suoi risentimenti definendo il mondo "pusillanime e incredulo. la turbina Tesla senza palette. utilizzando tali onde. quella per l’accensione dei motori elettrici. . solo. se la prese con "un’umanità non sufficientemente progredita in un mondo dove un’idea o un’invenzione viene ostacolata e maltrattata dalla volontà del denaro. Gli esperimenti erano volti ad utilizzare la Terra come conduttore trasformandola in un gigantesco trasmettitore elettrico. convinto di essere stato abbandonato dagli uomini e da Dio. il tachimetro. Intendeva concepire una stazione trasmittente in grado d'inserire energia elettromagnetica nella crosta fino a raggiungere la risonanza elettrica della Terra stessa. le cariche vengono catturate in un condensatore che funziona come scarico per il circuito del motore. offrì 150. Lo scienziato scoprì. vedendo nel progetto un pericolo futuro per i suoi interessi. Morgan. attaccata e repressa. che sosteneva un elettrodo di rame di 35 metri di diametro. consapevole che il successo della società si basava sui brevetti di Tesla e che il controllo sui brevetti dava anche il diritto di sopprimerli o nasconderli. era il mezzo per dimostrare che era possibile distribuire l’energia senza utilizzare i fili e continuare quanto iniziato a Colorado Springs. si poteva interagire con l’attività bioelettrica del cervello e con la naturale vibrazione delle molecole del corpo. Tesla dichiarò di svolgere esperimenti tesi a imbrigliare l’energia dei raggi cosmici e costruire un dispositivo funzionante attraverso l’utilizzo di tale energia. Tesla. oggi le turbine a gas si basano sui progetti di Tesla. ignaro delle vere intenzioni di Morgan. negò allo scienziato altro denaro. A 50 anni Tesla si ritrovò senza soldi. la cui cecità costa cara a tutti".000 dollari per il 51% dei brevetti sviluppati sulla nuova tecnologia senza fili e rese pubblico il finanziamento iniziale a difesa dei suoi interessi. la sua fervida mente partorì altri progetti. la lampada per flash fotografici. si mise a scrivere per riuscire a sbarcare il lunario. iniziava a Long Island i lavori per erigere una colossale torre di legno di 60 metri nota col nome di Wardenclyffe. la diffusione radio. dalla stupidità e dall’ignoranza. la sismologia. dalla pedanteria. mentre Morgan possedeva tutti i suoi brevetti dell’elettricità senza fili e Westinghouse controllava l’energia a corrente alternata. Presso Colorado Springs aveva concepito un nuovo sistema di esplorazione geofisica utilizzando oscillatori meccanici inventati in precedenza.

ma non è questo il tempo per parlarne. "National Broadcasting Company".". Il cadavere venne ritrovato due giorni dopo. Sempre dell’RCA il trasmettitore portatile indossato dagli agenti segreti dislocati in territorio nemico. nel 1890 nacque la "Edison General Electric Co.30 E ancora. dal Titanic nell’Aprile 1912. indipendentemente dalle condizioni atmosferiche. Perfezionò un apparecchio per inviare energia nello spazio interstellare che in pratica era un prototipo del Laser e di un ordigno al plasma che produceva particelle ad alta energia nella ionosfera. Nel 1917 fu costituita la "GE Aircraft Enginers" per la fabbricazione dei motori aeronautici. in seguito alla messa a punto di un altimetro di alta precisione per le missioni di bombardamento ad alta quota. Nel 1928 un apparato di trasporto aereo a decollo verticale. con il quale comunicare direttamente. benché sembra che girovagasse da un albergo all’altro. capace di sostare nell’aria anche in presenza di forti venti. la "NBC". L’FBI che seguiva Sava confiscò tutto quanto rimaneva dello scienziato. a causa della potenza di trasmissione raggiunta si ripartì in altre due società: il network rosso. Il dipartimento della guerra la considerò la farneticazione di un pazzo. il silenzio.O. in un’intervista sul "New York Times". nel 1930 il primo reparto della "GE Plastics" in seguito agli esperimenti condotti da Edison riguardo ai filamenti plastici per le lampadine effettuati nel 1893. all’operatore che li aveva eseguiti. e il network blu.200 dollari l’anno e l’occasione di trovare una dimora stabile per gli ultimi anni. nel 1891. Fra la notte del 5 e quella dell’8 gennaio 1943 Tesla morì nella stanza dell’Hotel New Yorker. Il presidente era il generale David Sarnoff. con il pilota di un aereo che sorvolava la zona. L’unico membro della famiglia che gli fu vicino fino alla fine fu il nipote Sava Kosanovich. si dedicò allo studio della dinamo e produsse una lampada ad incandescenza. reclamizzato solo venti anni dopo. "Radio Corporation of America". Nel 1940. Sembra fosse il telegrafista che ricevette l’S. La vicenda Tesla ci spinge ad analizzare più da vicino alcune cose a lui collegate: Nel laboratorio a Menlo Park. negli anni ottanta. in grado di muoversi a volontà nell’aria in ogni direzione e in perfetta sicurezza." Navi che potevano volare utilizzando energia elettromagnetica trasmessa da trasmettitori simili a quelli concepiti a Colorado Springs. mai trovato. nel New Jersey. . Nel 1919 la GE formò la "RCA".". Russia. ma l’albergo rifiutò di consegnarla all’FBI.. Il governo jugoslavo concesse a Tesla una piccola pensione di 7. dalla marina militare e dal vicepresidente. Reclutato in seguito nell’esercito. Quando scoppiò la seconda guerra mondiale l’RCA era divenuta parte integrante della struttura della difesa americana. pesante. la "ABC". John di New York. Parlò inoltre di una macchina "volante." guidata da Charles Coffin ebbe origine la "General Electric Co. Si parla della sua presenza durante avvistamenti definiti "non convenzionali" (UFO) avvenuti nel 1946 in Svezia e nel 1966 sopra la base militare di Andros nelle Bahamas. uno studio sulla dispersione di energia in un pulsar stellare dimostrò che le onde gravitazionali esistono e la sua concezione sulla gravità riconsiderata. e altri scritti conservati nel Museo a Belgrado. che aveva lavorato nella "Marconi Wireless Company". a velocità mai raggiunte. Era considerato un esperto in materia di UFO. nato a Minsk. "America Broadcasting Company". Thomas Alva Edison. a causa della mancanza di un brevetto. l’iniettore elettrico per auto. Faceva parte di una équipe di esperti militari e in lui viene indicata la persona che ordinò il sequestro dei filmati e intimò. onde radio ad alta frequenza che rimbalzano sugli oggetti tornando indietro alla fonte generatrice. Un’invenzione risultò depositata nel 1932 presso la cassaforte dell’hotel Grosvoner Clinton.. l’invenzione delle porte logiche utilizzate oggi nei computer e nella robotica che Tesla adoperò nel battello radio comandato a comando vocale. Nel 1892 dalla fusione fra la "Thomson Houston Co. non rilevabile dai tedeschi. divenne direttore della Divisione della guerra psicologica col grado di generale di brigata. dichiarò di poter consegnare al governo il segreto della sua "teleforza" con la quale si poteva distruggere il motore di un aereo: era il famoso "raggio della morte". che nel tempo.S. Nel 1917 i principi relativi ai livelli di frequenza e potenza che permisero nel 1934 le prime apparecchiature Radar. cosa risultata molto utile nella conduzione della RCA. Tutto il suo lavoro fu dichiarato Top Secret dall’FBI. Il 12 gennaio 1943 si svolsero i funerali nella cattedrale St. famoso per le dichiarazioni a favore della guerra fredda. solida e stabile. senza usare codici criptati. nel 1896 l’altoparlante. La notte dell’8 il nipote ed altri due uomini rovistarono nella sua stanza in cerca di un testamento.

in un terreno situato a Nord Est di Anchorage in Alaska. come la famosa "Guerra dei Mondi". per generare oltre 1. l’Aviazione. a 350 chilometri di distanza. I brevetti di Tesla riguardavano il metodo e il dispositivo per alterare uno strato dell’atmosfera terrestre. secondo le numerose dichiarazioni rilasciate a riguardo. Il procuratore distrettuale Garrison. L’area interessata si trova a Gakona. o silos di missili. testimonierebbero che tale uso si è protratto nel tempo e non sia avvenuto per caso.31 Le apparecchiature della base di Andros erano state fabbricate dall’RCA. i suoi affari non erano più solo radiofonici. un’innocente ricerca sulla ionosfera al fine di migliorare le comunicazioni. ionosfera e/o magnetosfera terrestre". La sigla HAARP significa "High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project": "Metodo ed apparecchiatura per l’alterazione di una regione dell’atmosfera. alimentate da sei turbine di 3600 CV che bruciano qualcosa come 95 tonnellate di diesel al giorno. è considerato da molti l’arma ultima degli USA. Una zona scelta per la sua vicinanza al Polo e alla zona di concentrazione delle linee magnetiche del nostro pianeta. modificare il tempo atmosferico. e di altre trasmissioni riguardanti gli UFO. che sosteneva l’ipotesi dell’assassinio di Kennedy da parte dei sostenitori della guerra fredda. Nel tempo raggiunse un'invidiabile posizione nel panorama economico nazionale e mondiale. nel Golfo del principe Guglielmo di proprietà del Dipartimento della Difesa USA. emettere onde ELF in grado di influenzare il comportamento umano. come "la lunga mano del Governo Invisibile". un consorzio petrolifero dietro al quale si celano la Marina. nelle quali si parla liberamente del gruppo "Majestic 12". la proprietà dei quali è detenuta dalla società APTI-ARCO. per esperimenti riguardo alla risonanza della Terra e dell’atmosfera. ovunque. anche in centri urbani. noto per essersi dedicato alla costruzione della bomba all’idrogeno ed ha contribuito al sistema "Guerre Stellari". in grado di interrompere tutte le comunicazioni Hertz. Collegati al progetto vi sono oltre 400 brevetti. Si può interferire con ampie zone . per la presenza di fonti energetiche naturali situate nel sottosuolo e per la distanza dai centri urbani. eurodeputata belga.8 a 7 Megahertz e un’altra per la banda alta da 7 a 10 Megahertz. che trasmettono. e il Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti. impegnato in una intensa campagna d’informazione ostile al procuratore. presentato dal Pentagono come un innocuo esperimento. Si può dirigere l’energia ad alta frequenza verso un’antenna ricevente. consta di 360 antenne alte oltre 20 metri. Anche il fisico nucleare Edward Teller. La messa in onda di alcune trasmissioni tipo "Dark Skies". per la maggior parte armi offensive che sfruttano il sistema d’irraggiamento a fascio diretto dalla Terra verso lo spazio. che ha preso spunto dai lavori di Nikola Tesla.5 miliardi di Watt. Un sistema tecnologico militare capace di scannerizzare il sottosuolo alla ricerca di basi segrete sotterranee. Un’arma che agisce sulla ionosfera con conseguenze imprevedibili e indescrivibili.. Doppie antenne a dipoli incrociati. La Ionosfera è costituita da particelle ionizzate cariche di energia all’altezza media di 48 chilometri fino a 800 chilometri dalla superficie terrestre. ha collaborato al progetto. Magda Haalvoet. Un progetto da 30 milioni di dollari l’anno. di conseguenza il generale Sarnoff viene indicato quale membro di una struttura coperta che si serviva dell’RCA per scopi "occulti" oltre a quelli ufficiali. Da segnalare infine che Guglielmo Marconi credeva negli extraterrestri. ionosfera e magnetosfera e creare un ciclotrone artificiale per riscaldare una zona di plasma e produrre uno scudo di particelle relativistiche ad un’altezza superiore della superficie terrestre. che si serve di immense riserve di gas e petrolio appartenenti alla società ARCO e che. La progettazione di radar e di altri strumenti molto sofisticati per le forze armate e la commessa militare di oltre un miliardo di dollari negli anni sessanta aveva conferito all’RCA un posto importante nel meccanismo bellico statunitense. ricerche che dovevano servire ad Eastlund per scoprire vasti giacimenti di gas naturali che la compagnia petrolifera ARCO stava cercando in Alaska ed hanno fruttato dodici brevetti fra il 1987 e il 1994. una coppia per la banda bassa da 2. un cuscino ad alta densità energetica che è vitale per il pianeta e che protegge i suoi abitanti dagli effetti nocivi del sole. definì il gruppo RCA/NBC. afferma che questo tipo di armamento implica conseguenze tecnologiche disastrose e mette in pericolo la democrazia delle Nazioni. Nel 1993 il dipartimento della difesa americano dichiarò di aver iniziato a costruire un centro ricerche nel campo delle alte frequenze applicate alle aurore boreali. dopo gli esperimenti eseguiti nel 1933 s’incontrò con David Sarnoff quando questi era un personaggio di rilievo dell’Intelligence statunitense. Il sistema HAARP si basa sulle ricerche di Bernard Eastlund. per la sua straordinaria potenza e polivalenza. provocare terremoti o tsunami e bloccare ogni meccanismo elettronico. un raggio di energia ad alta frequenza nella ionosfera..

E nulla le può resistere. descrive cosa le accadde una mattina del 1936 mentre percorreva con l’auto la Roma-Ostia: "Un giorno.32 dell’atmosfera per abbattere qualsiasi tipo di oggetto volante. ELF. definendo il progetto HAARP un’arma geofisica con la quale condizionare il clima alterando attraverso l’emissione di microonde la temperatura e l’umidità. Nel suo libro "Mussolini privato". capace di bloccare qualsiasi motore. un testimone di tutto rilievo: Rachele Mussolini. in quanto il suo raggio di azione era attivo entro diciotto metri. possono influenzare le attività cerebrali. Si è saputo che l’impianto pilota di Gakona è in grado di irradiare 1. Così una corrente più sottile di un filo può trasmettere migliaia di cavalli vapore. possa alterare le forze della natura sconvolgendo il regime delle piogge. Il Ministero dell’Aviazione inglese non fu convinto dalla prova. dichiarò: "Non si può abolire la guerra mettendola fuori legge. Il Dr. Ma si può fermarla rendendo tutti i paesi in grado di difendersi. Il progetto HAARP rappresenta lo sviluppo negativo dell’invenzione di Tesla. e sembra con esiti positivi. la caratteristica della luce solare. Durante una dimostrazione sarebbe riuscito a bloccare il motore a scoppio di una moto. che permettono di trasmettere a gran distanza un’energia milioni di volte più forte di quella ottenibile con qualsiasi altro raggio. alla fine di giugno del 1936. a Pine Bush in Australia ed a Steeplebush in Inghilterra. la temperatura. ma quando sarà completata. avevo detto a Benito che nel pomeriggio mi sarei recata ad Ostia a controllare alcuni lavori in una proprietà agricola. pur in modo indiretto. riprendendo un vecchio un progetto di Tesla per teletrasportare energia elettrica." Nel 1934 Tesla descrisse in un articolo un’apparecchiatura simile al laser. Nel 2002 ben 220 deputati della Duma firmarono un appello indirizzato all’ONU per chiedere la messa al bando degli esperimenti elettromagnetici dell’HAARP ritenuti una nuova arma in grado di influenzare gli elementi naturali con le onde ad alta frequenza. Nel 1970 Zbignieu Brezinski. desideri. costruire una grande officina per fabbricare quest’arma.700. Non vi si può porre fine disarmando i forti. Ho appena scoperto una nuova arma di difesa che. A convalidare tale impresa.000 Watt nell’atmosfera. Nel 1925 Grindell si recò in America e al suo ritorno in patria dichiarò di aver venduto il brevetto agli USA. professore dell'Università di Yale. dal mare o dall’aria. Vi sono altre installazioni simili in varie parti del pianeta: ad Arecibo. Anche la Russia si è dedicata ad una simile ricerca prima della divisione del suo territorio. generate dal sistema. Dichiarano di avere forti preoccupazioni per gli esperimenti americani in Alaska. Da segnalare che Brezinski era anche direttore della sicurezza nazionale del presidente Carter e fondatore della "Federal Emergency Management Agency". trasformerà completamente i rapporti tra le nazioni. in tale impresa si cimentò. a Fairbanks in Alaska. scoprì che si poteva modificare il comportamento emozionale del pensiero. Robert Becker dimostrò che tali onde potevano provocare paura. Egli odiava la guerra e. Le renderà tutte. nello specifico gli Stati Uniti. affermando: "Questo strumento proietta particelle che possono essere relativamente grandi o microscopiche. Cinesi e russi denunciano da tempo la possibilità che un paese. Nel 1914 Harry Grindell Matthews dichiarò di aver inventato un raggio invisibile. Il progetto è tuttora in opera. sarà possibile distruggere uomini e macchine in un raggio di 320 Km. se verrà adottata. fondatore della commissione trilaterale David Rockfeller’s pubblicò un libro sulla possibilità di controllare il clima per produrre periodi di prolungata siccità o inondazioni. il livello del mare." Le onde a bassa frequenza. in primo luogo. a Tromso in Norvegia. Jose Delgado. Sicuramente se ne stanno costruendo altre. invulnerabili a qualsiasi attacco proveniente da terra. La sua tecnologia fu impiegata per proiettare in cielo immagini pubblicitarie.000. Da quel momento lo scienziato venne dimenticato. Nel 1952 il Dr. L’intensità e la frequenza dei disastri che si sono registrati in questi ultimi anni sarebbero da imputare ai test del progetto HAARP. a tal proposito. in quanto in tale progetto verrebbero usati metodi in grado di provocare terremoti e modificare le precipitazioni. depressione. Non fu l’unico a costruire un sistema per generare un raggio simile. conosciuto come il "raggio della morte". Mio marito sorrise e mi . anche Guglielmo Marconi. a pranzo. a far esplodere polveri a distanza ed accendere una lampada senza fare uso di corrente elettrica. Bisognerà. grandi e piccole che siano. morì nel 1941.

produrre energia elettrica. Da Donna Rachele sappiamo che Marconi riferì tutto a Mussolini che. Ighina aveva inventato una macchina capace di controllare le nuvole con la quale liberava il cielo dalla loro presenza. Vi sono inoltre due fatti da registrare. Primo: sembra che nel 1939 nella città di Essen. I medici diagnosticarono la morte in seguito ad un attacco di . Rachele guardò l’orologio: erano le 3. All’autista disse di aspettare fino alle 3." Mussolini spiegò alla moglie che Marconi utilizzando un raggio misterioso poteva interrompere il circuito elettrico dei motori di qualsiasi tipo. Era stato sottratto ai fascisti il progetto del raggio della morte? Secondo: il segreto di Marconi lo conosceva un certo Pier Luigi Ighina." Al giornalista Mussolini disse che Marconi ebbe degli scrupoli e chiese consiglio al Papa che gli disse di nascondere la scoperta. a Orbetello aerei radiocomandati furono incendiati a duemila metri di altezza. sia quelle che viaggiano verso Ostia. Inutile dirlo l’auto si rimise in moto. causa l’annullamento del matrimonio dalla sacra rota.33 disse: Trovati sull’autostrada fra le tre e le tre e mezza. Marconi morì. Accadde lo stesso a tutte le auto che si trovarono in zona. il 1937. Ighina costruì un’apparecchiatura per regolare le vibrazioni atomiche magnetiche basata sull’energia dell’atomo magnetico. Per riuscire a fare questo aveva sepolto quintali di polvere di alluminio sotto il prato del suo giardino trasformandolo in un monopolo magnetico. in una intervista. L’esperimento fu ripetuto sulla strada di Anzio. fondere metalli a distanza. La sera a cena narrò l’accaduto a tavola e Mussolini confermò che era stato fatto un esperimento segretissimo in quel punto dell’autostrada. con la ricomparsa del sereno nella zona interessata e trattata da Ighina con monopoli magnetici. ma dopo aver visto inutili i suoi tentativi di far ripartire il motore. saputo della cosa. lasciò libertà di scelta allo studioso. a metà strada l’auto si fermò e nonostante che l’autista facesse di tutto per rimetterla in moto. L’anno dopo.35 Rachele Mussolini disse all’autista di riprovare a far ripartire l’auto. fu lui a scoprire l’"atomo magnetico" che si trova in mezzo agli altri atomi e fornisce loro il movimento continuo. Qualcosa ti sorprenderà. con tale energia secondo l’inventore si poteva guarire qualsiasi malattia. Una scoperta che poteva risolvere il problema delle siccità e delle alluvioni nel mondo. Marconi sta continuando le ricerche. I giornali non menzionarono l’accaduto. sia quelle dirette verso Roma. Dividendolo scoprì il "monopolo magnetico". un radiotecnico milanese che per dieci anni fu aiutante dell’inventore. suo collaboratore. investigare nel sotto suolo alla ricerca di giacimenti petroliferi e falde acquifere. Alla 3. "Un’invenzione di Marconi che può dare all’Italia una potenza superiore a quella di tutti gli altri paesi del mondo. camion." Secondo quanto riportato nel libro. Se ne accorse quando vide la salma e osservò sotto la pelle alcuni "gnocchetti neri". "È vero sulla strada di Ostia. L’atomo magnetico è più piccolo degli altri atomi e pulsa più velocemente. Isolando gli atomi della materia dagli atomi magnetici i primi non hanno la possibilità di muoversi e la materia non si trasforma. la macchina non ne volle sapere. pur facendogli presente che la scoperta poteva essere fatta da altri e utilizzata contro l’Italia. quindi l’atomo magnetico produce anche le variazioni degli atomi della materia. Durante il Primo Congresso Internazionale di Medicina Ufficiale e Naturale di Milano venne proiettata una videocassetta del filmato inerente al dissolvimento dell’agglomerato nuvoloso sul cielo di Imola. ma lo studioso morì improvvisamente poco tempo dopo. nell’ora di punta del traffico. non volendo inimicarsi il Papa. Disse anche che non si sentì di obbligarlo nella scelta. si allarmò e chiese allo scienziato di non proseguire le ricerche. dato che lo stesso duce lo confermerà a Ivanoe Fossati. e papa Pio XI. viene bloccata e riflessa divenendo energia terrestre. moto. Purtroppo Marconi era devotissimo alla chiesa. il 20 Marzo 1945. il quale sospese le ricerche ma non distrusse la documentazione e la scoperta stessa. delle moto. La cosa è più che certa. orologi.30. alla fine si arrese. tutto quanto era elettrico e meccanico si bloccò per dieci minuti: auto. perché come spiegò il radiotecnico i monopoli scompongono la materia sulla stessa materia.10. ad Acilia Marconi ha fermato i motori delle automobili. L’uomo chiese perché aspettare tanto. Dall’interazione dell’energia solare con quella terrestre si produce materia. aumentare la produzione agricola. Secondo quanto dichiarato da Ighina il monopolo è il principio positivo o negativo dell’energia solare che giunge sulla Terra. (Il progetto Haarp?) Da quanto dichiarato da Ighina sembra che Marconi sia rimasto ucciso dal suo stesso esperimento durante il quale aveva provocato l’interruzione della circolazione del sangue.

o "della morte". un acceleratore di particelle oggi in uso nei laboratori nucleari e nello scudo spaziale. In merito a questo "raggio invisibile". nonostante che l’esplosione della Tunguska non abbia lasciato crateri prodotti da meteoriti o comete. Sembra che nei primi del novecento le auto elettriche avessero buone prospettive. come lo abbiamo oggi. In virtù di questo. Nessun inquinamento. "Baker". "Rauch & Lang" e "Woods" furono le principali aziende tra quelle che producevano questo tipo di veicoli elettrici. velocità contenuta e meno incidenti mortali. negli anni '90 giornali e TV diffusero la notizia che la polizia statunitense sarebbe stata dotata di un meccanismo capace di bloccare il motore dell’auto usata dai malviventi per darsi alla fuga. Le batterie erano però scarse. quindi non si poteva nascondere il fatto. più veloci e con maggiore autonomia. Atto a produrre un’arma al plasma. Fenomeni riscontrati anche nelle vicende riguardanti il famoso Triangolo delle Bermuda. grandi o microscopiche. è stato fatto due più due. un problema con i paesi islamici e non avremmo alimentato e finanziato di conseguenza il terrorismo. acqua per un radiatore. localizzata nella linea retta compresa fra il laboratorio e il luogo dell’esplosione. ma questo solo in città. L’unico effetto prodotto alcuni giorni dopo. fenomeni che interessano campi elettromagnetici. Era guidata da tale Petar Savo indicato come un giovane parente di Tesla. l’inventore. Sembra però che tale progetto sia stato abbandonato perché in virtù del suo ampio raggio d’azione. Una tecnologia che può diventare un’arma capace di abbattere migliaia di aerei a 400 chilometri di distanza. "La Westinghouse Electric" e la "Pierce- . qualcuno lo ha indicato come l’autore involontario dell’esplosione del 30 giugno 1908 nella Tunguska. "Columbia". ma mantenne il riserbo più assoluto in merito ai progetti che potevano produrre armi ad energia distruttiva.34 angina pectoris. un personaggio che parlando dello scienziato si riferiva a lui come "zio". L’apparato costruito da Tesla proiettava particelle. Dato che il suo trasmettitore poteva generare una forza distruttiva pari a una bomba all’idrogeno di 10 megatoni. non ci sarebbe stato bisogno di un accordo di Kyoto che nessuno rispetta. Si racconta che nell’estate del 1931 le strade della cittadina di Buffalo fossero percorse da una Pierce Arrow che non presentava emissione di fumi dal tubo di scarico in quanto avrebbe avuto uno motore elettrico e non combustione interna. al piombo. L’unico che poteva far luce sull’evento era proprio Tesla. raccontò l’episodio dell’auto elettrica che collaudò per conto di Tesla. Noi sappiamo che il nome del nipote controllato dall’FBI era diverso. Richiedevano molto tempo per la ricarica per un’autonomia massima di 160 chilometri. costi ribassati anche a livello produzione. una manovella per far girare il motore. intervistato nel 1967. ingombranti. oltre gli 80 Km/h la batteria si poteva deteriorare. Petar Savo era stato nell'esercito austriaco ed era un esperto pilota. inoltre risultano testimonianze contraddittorie riguardo alla traiettoria. in Siberia. fermerebbe anche i pacemakers e interrompe la corrente nelle abitazioni circostanti al luogo di azione. Quindi quando l’affidabilità e la velocità delle auto a benzina migliorò le auto elettriche sparirono. Non esistono però prove a conferma. le strade americane venivano percorse da veicoli con motore a combustione interna. I grandi magazzini impiegavano camion elettrici. in modo da concentrarle in una piccola area e inviarle a grandi distanze utilizzando energie "trilioni di volte" più potenti di quelle attualmente in uso. Un fascio più sottile di un capello a cui niente resiste. ogni meccanismo si ferma. apparecchiature che oggi farebbero parte del progetto HAARP. in molti avevano anticipato veicoli alimentati da batterie. la luce elettrica viene a mancare. caduta di UFO. le auto avevano prestazioni limitate. L’auto a benzina necessitava di una valvola a farfalla. "Detroit Electric". non ci furono segnalazioni in merito a tali fenomeni. stava eseguendo un esperimento con lo scopo di inviare un’onda di immensa energia e stabilire la comunicazione con una spedizione artica. Esiste la strana coincidenza che lo stesso giorno in si manifestò il fenomeno in Russia. non avremmo avuto. quando proprio a quel tempo vi erano poche officine per auto e un normale elettricista poteva eseguire la manutenzione del semplice motore a corrente continua. Nonostante questo rimangono molti interrogativi: doveva avere una potenza di 30 megatoni e per raggiungerla doveva coinvolgere più centrali. pesanti. Tutto questo porta a pensare alla tecnologia in possesso degli UFO. così i medici e le donne perché tali auto erano più facili da guidare. dato che in molti casi di avvistamenti i motori delle auto si bloccano. A Tesla è legata una storia riguardo ad un’auto elettrica. una luce aurorale anomala che potrebbe far pensare all’uso di apparecchiature da parte di Tesla.

sfruttando proprio la risonanza di Schumann sulle frequenze di 30 Hz riscontrata nella costruzione. si parlava di un "esperimento programmato per spingere un'automobile utilizzando la trasmissione senza fili di energia elettrica". A detta di Tesla il dispositivo che alimentava l’auto era in grado di alimentarlo per sempre e soddisfare il fabbisogno energetico di un'abitazione. al fine di produrre acqua ed energia elettrica nello spazio. La comunità scientifica pur interessata inizialmente preferì optare per la dinamo. dopodiché venne consegnata in tutta segretezza in una fattoria vicina a Buffalo e Tesla si portò via il suo dispositivo. in pratica. Durante un esperimento di elettrolisi. Nel New York Daily News del 2 aprile 1934 un articolo intitolato "Il sogno di Tesla di un'energia senza fili vicino alla realtà". sia Shuttle. con emissione di vapore acqueo.800 giri al minuto. oggi parliamo di auto con motore a celle di combustibile. posizionò 12 valvole termoioniche in un dispositivo all’interno di una scatola di circa sessanta centimetri per trenta e alta quindici. o pila a gas. raggiungendo i 145 km/h in perfetto silenzio. Considerando tutto questo non possiamo fare a meno di pensare che la Grande Piramide potesse assumere la funzione di quella valigetta. Non più camere di scoppio.35 Arrow" avevano preparato un’auto sperimentale seguendo le indicazioni di Tesla con finanziamenti della "Studebacker Corporation". si potrebbe riconvertire l’intero parco auto. fece qualche regolazione. Una valigia come quelle dei ricevitori a bassa frequenza rimodulava la corrente alternata del campo magnetico terrestre in corrente continua necessaria alla batteria fornendo una quantità illimitata di energia. raffreddato da una ventola frontale e due terminali di alimentazione sotto il cruscotto. . Gli esperimenti durarono una settimana. Si verifica il consumo di un combustibile. si accorse che. scoperta poco tempo dopo da Werner Siemens. si comporta come un generatore di energia elettrica prodotta attraverso la reazione chimica controllata tra idrogeno e ossigeno grazie a un catalizzatore di platino. Ironia della sorte la cella a combustibile (4). Tesla venne anche reclutato dalla Westinghouse per ricerche non ben specificate sulle trasmissioni senza fili ed egli interruppe le sue dichiarazioni pubbliche sui raggi cosmici. Savo racconta che Tesla sollevò il cofano. le pile a combustibile sono state utilizzate per tutte le missioni spaziali sia Apollo. Leggende metropolitane. Riguardo le auto all’Idrogeno. cioè l’idrogeno e l’ossigeno si riunivano generando elettricità. massimo sette. Aveva un motore elettrico a corrente che poteva raggiungere 1. l’inventore affermò che sfruttava una "misteriosa radiazione proveniente dall'etere. disponibile in quantità illimitata". azzerare il tasso d’inquinamento mettendosi in regola con l’accordo di Kyoto e sganciarsi dal petrolio e da tutti i problemi che dal suo uso derivano. L’auto aveva una batteria ricaricata da una antenna che entrava in sintonia con la risonanza di Schumann intorno ai 7. Passarono 120 anni prima che la NASA adottasse le "fuell cells" per il progetto Apollo e invogliasse il loro uso a livello industriale. pistoni. nel caso idrogeno e ossigeno. l’auto percorse vari tipi di strade alla velocità di 150 chilometri orari. L’auto percorse circa 80 chilometri attorno a Buffalo. Nello stesso periodo la "Westinghouse Corporation" pagò per la sistemazione di Tesla al "New Yorker Hotel" di New York .83 Hz. il processo riprendeva al contrario. nel momento in cui le batterie che alimentavano le celle elettrolitiche venivano escluse. a idrogeno. a partire dagli anni ’60. o studiati cover p su invenzioni che potevano danneggiare il potere di qualcuno? Su tutta la storia non vi sono molti riscontri. procedimento attraverso il quale si può separare idrogeno e ossigeno dall’acqua. fu ideata nel 1839 da William Grove. assorbendo dalla Terra energia elettrica per distribuirla senza l’uso dei fili. Nel 1933 per problemi amministrativi la "Pierce Arrow" venne liquidata e la storia si ferma qui. senza spazzole. dove visse per tutto il resto della sua vita. combustione. Infatti. In soli cinque anni. La cella. un curioso avvocato del Galles con l'hobby della chimica. Una nuova frontiera già disponibile che viene ostacolata esclusivamente da problemi politici visto che quelli economici potranno essere risolti nel momento in cui si passerà ad una produzione industriale con l’abbattimento dei relativi costi. Poi eseguì la connessione al motore.

La descrizione ricorda le torri di vetro girevoli di cui disponevano i Thuata de Danan. La scelta vincente è rappresentata dalle celle a combustibile alimentate da idrogeno se ottenuto dall’acqua attraverso l’energia elettrica prodotta da fonti rinnovabili. un secondo sistema è produrlo partendo dall’acqua. Secondo quanto riportato riguardo alle dichiarazioni del veggente Cayce. Vidi qualcosa che riluceva. Oltre al settore dell'autotrazione. personal computer e fabbisogni domestici. Le Piramidi potevano essere state immense celle a combustibile per fornire energia al popolo che occupava le terre tredicimila anni fa.36 Fra i cinque tipi di celle a combustibile. Cayce parlò anche di Faser e Maser. società canadese di alta tecnologia. noto come "Steam Reforming". Il metodo più economico per disporre di idrogeno è estrarlo dal gas naturale ma. Secondo Alan Alford la Camera della Regina nella Grande Piramide di Giza. I documenti con le descrizioni per costruire tali "pietre" verrebbero custoditi in tre posti diversi: nei templi di Atlantide sommersi a Bimini. comprendente anche "i raggi distruttivi". Sotto di essa un basamento in pietra sono sopra una piastra sempre di pietra. Ecco la sua testimonianza: "La costruzione era in pietra liscia. e grazie alla collaborazione con la "Ballard Power Systems".5 grammi e produce 100 milliwatt di energia in un compatto che misura appena 22x56x4. a quaranta metri di profondità. una vasta città sommersa e una piramide con un'apertura sulla sua sommità. Per il suo funzionamento necessita solo di 2 millilitri di combustibile per assicurare 20 ore di autonomia in un riproduttore di MP3 audio. Questo ci porta a fantasticare ancora un po' e a compiere un viaggio fino ad Atlantide. Nel 1970 il Dottor Ray Brown durante un’immersione con alcuni suoi amici nelle acque del triangolo delle Bermuda. sarebbe stata il punto dove si doveva trovare la cella energetica idonea a produrre la separazione fra l’ossigeno e l’idrogeno. Cayce parlò di televisione. specializzata in catalizzatori. vide. attraverso un sistema che ricorda quelli descritti da Tesla. apparecchiature per telecomunicazioni. le seconde nella locomozione dei veicoli. in un tempio in Egitto e nel tempio di Itlar nello Yucatan.5 mm. la civiltà Atlantidea disponeva di una avanzata tecnologia. le cinque stanze sopra tale camera. Bahamas. il dispositivo di raffreddamento. dvd portatili. protagonisti delle saghe irlandesi. sistemi di alimentazione per cellulari. Dal soffitto pendeva un’asta metallica con incastonata una pietra rossa sfaccettata e affusolata in punta. dalla "General Electric". I cristalli sarebbero stati isolati in un edificio "foderato di pietra non conduttrice". è stata presentata. Pesa 8. L’acqua generata dalle "Fuel Cell" è così pura che viene bevuta dagli astronauti sullo Shuttle. ossia il Ded. vicino alle isole Bari. audio digitali. Completamente priva di alghe e coralli e stranamente ben illuminata senza che ci fosse nessuna luce diretta. costituita da una mini cella a combustibile alimentata da un’alta concentrazione di metanolo (99. dicendo che proprio il cattivo uso di tale energia scatenò forze incontrollabili che causarono la distruzione del continente. la più grande Fiera dell’Elettronica del mondo. Alford ipotizza che nelle 27 nicchie allineate nella Grande Galleria e adesso vuote. l'energia derivante dalla luce polarizzata.5%) come combustibile. Le pile Pem sono state sviluppate alla fine degli anni Cinquanta negli Usa. viene liberata come sottoprodotto anidride carbonica. dalla Toshiba una piccolissima centrale. rivestite appunto di un materiale isolante a protezione delle radiazioni emanate dalle armi nemiche. L'apertura era una specie di pozzo che immetteva in una stanza interna rettangolare. telefoni cellulari. Uno strumento idoneo e alternativo per ricaricare le batterie di Notebook. sulla quale due mani di . il costo del platino in una cella Pem è sceso drasticamente. le più interessanti sono quelle ad acido fosforico e a membrana scambiatrice di protoni detta anche Pem. In occasione della rassegna IFA. con tale procedimento. quando ancora non esistevano. Le prime usate negli impianti di potenza. e con l’inglese "Johnson Matthey". il sarcofago nella camera del Re il recipiente dove avveniva la combustone controllata dell’idrogeno. aeromobili. si trovavano cristalli capaci di risuonare a diverse frequenze e impiegati per comunicare. separandolo dall’ossigeno attraverso l’elettrolisi. tenutasi a Berlino nel settembre del 2005. le giunzioni fra i blocchi si distinguevano appena. i campi di applicazione delle "fuel cells" sono la produzione di energia. dichiarò che quel popolo era capace di alterare la struttura atomica dei cristalli per ricavare enormi quantità di energia.

Qualcosa che potrebbe fornire la spiegazione delle strane sparizioni nel famoso triangolo delle Bermude. lavorava ad un progetto relativo ad una "barriera di luce" in grado di alterare tempo. Voci dal sapore di leggenda abbinano il suo nome al "Progetto Filadelfia" riguardante la sparizione di una nave e il suo equipaggio dopo averla esposta ad un forte campo magnetico. né il punto esatto del suo ritrovamento e cosa ne è stato del cristallo. annerite da evidenti bruciature. di metalli che in contatto con essa si magnetizzano temporaneamente. tre per l’esattezza e tenendolo in mano si avvertiva una vibrazione." Pervaso dal timore che la sfera gli fosse confiscata non ne ha rivelata l’esistenza fino al 1975. individui privi di coscienza che perseguono i propri interessi non tenendo conto dei danni provocati all’umanità. Solo un campo di forza può spiegarlo e la sua assunzione dispensa la curvatura spaziale dell’esistere. afferrai il cristallo e venni via. rammentano le mani degli isolatori che sostengono le "lampade" rappresentate sulle pareti di Dendera. L’Eldridge fu vista apparire e scomparire a Norfolk in Virginia e l’equipaggio subì conseguenze sconvolgenti devastanti. gravità e materia. Oggetto dell’esperimento il cacciatorpediniere Eldridge D173 che finì avvolto da una strana nebbia luminescente e verdastra appena i generatori magnetici furono messi in funzione. La vicenda è stata divulgata da Manson Valentin con il quale Jessup era in contatto e. sorreggevano una sfera di cristallo. indifesi ignoranti. Dal passato saltiamo al futuro in quanto Tesla non era in accordo con Einstein riguardo alla curvatura dello spazio per lui impossibile: "Se esistesse non si spiegherebbe il moto dei corpi come li osserviamo.000 documenti custoditi nel Museo a lui intestato a Belgrado testimoniano la sua grande conoscenza dell’elettromagnetismo. da Charles Berlitz che intervistò Valentin. La pietra rossa poteva essere un rubino. poveri. Jessup morì in circostanze misteriose e sospette. Il cristallo della sfera testimonia l’esistenza di civiltà in possesso di una tecnologia avanzatissima perché perfino gli esperti dell’Istituto Smithsoniano di Washington hanno dichiarato che. nel corso di una conferenza a Phoenix." Consapevole che il mondo è governato da pochi furbi e facoltosi. lasciando ben visibile la sua impronta nell’acqua. All'interno di questo cristallo rotondo vi era una serie di forme piramidali. astronomo e ricercatore. l’enorme serietà. l’amore per la natura che lo spingeva a compiere lunghe passeggiate. autore di un libro collegato alla storia. quindi la piramide catalizzava una sorta d’energia indirizzandola. Non riuscendo a smuovere l’asta e la pietra rossa. Il particolare delle mani metalliche che sorreggono un cristallo. La sua mania di perfezionismo. Un collegamento al teschio di cristallo? Speculazioni? Fatto che non si può negare. Queste le vicende collegate a Tesla. "The case for the Ufo". Si è parlato di casi di guarigione dopo averla toccata. nascosti nelle stanze del comando. retta da principi egualitari. attraverso l’asta. La nave sparì davanti agli occhi degli osservatori rimasti a bordo della SS Furuseth e della SS Malay. successivamente." Tesla condivideva la visione della luce intesa come particella e come onda. pietra solitamente usata nei laser per concentrare e proiettare l’energia. nella sfera di cristallo. Uomini che apparivano e sparivano in ogni luogo si trovassero. un personaggio scomodo all’epoca e sicuramente lo sarebbe anche ai nostri tempi. all’interno di un campo di forza di forma sferica di circa cento metri d’ampiezza. Appare come un uomo che desiderava una società sana e giusta. In quanto alla sfera vi sono testimonianze che parlano di fenomeni paranormali. Mentre uscivo da quel luogo mi parve di avvertire una presenza. 150. intenti a raggirare una massa di illusi. come lui li definiva. La storia venne rivelata da un non ben identificato Carl Allen in corrispondenza epistolare con il dottor Morris Jessup. le doti di eloquenza. solo dopo il 1900 siamo entrati in possesso di una tecnologia con la quale poter tagliare il quarzo e ricavarne una sfera perfetta. Sapeva come cambiare gli equilibri mondiali ponendo a "disposizione di tutti illimitate e smisurate sorgenti di . spazio. la sua capacità di visualizzare nella mente il problema e passare alla soluzione senza dover stilare disegni ed effettuare calcoli. senza di lui non saremo giunti a questo grado di sviluppo tecnologico. l’ago della bussola girerebbe prima in senso orario e poi in senso opposto. ma riconosciuto come l’inventore del mondo che noi conosciamo. "non dominata dagli interessi egoistici di oscuri manovratori dell’economia e della politica.37 bronzo. Il fatto che siano state viste annerite e bruciate significa che erano state sottoposte ad un fortissimo calore.

000 ai 50. Estremamente importante per la diagnosi degli organi interni del corpo umano specie in caso di tumori e processi degenerativi del cervello e della colonna vertebrale. Henry Ford. I nuclei atomici mostrano la loro presenza assorbendo o emettendo onde radio una volta esposti ad un campo magnetico sufficientemente forte. il generale Pershing (5). La cerimonia avvenne il 18 maggio 1917. il cambiamento richiedeva tempo. Note: 1.. Più forte è il campo magnetico più forte la quantità dei segnali radiofonici tratti dagli atomi del corpo e quindi più alta la qualità delle immagini. Il genio invece innesca salti quantici nello sviluppo tecnologico che costringono a cambiamenti repentini degli equilibri. 5. nel quale elogiava i meriti dell’inventore croato. le sue invenzioni non dovevano modificare lo status quo raggiunto. Fenomeno possibile in quanto la Terra è una gigantesca calamita. La preparazione all’esame è insolita in quanto è necessario lasciare fuori della stanza ogni oggetto metallico smontabile. creato cultura. comprese protesi dentarie. Considerando il principio dell’attrazione dei poli opposti. dicendo: E alla fine Dio disse "Sia Tesla e la luce fu". 3. qualsiasi magnete libero di ruotare tende a orientare il proprio polo sud verso quello nord terrestre. Per queste sue idee Tesla fu contrastato. Tutte le macchine per la risonanza magnetica nucleare sono calibrate con l’unità di Tesla. uno dei membri della "Enginering Society Building" chiuse il suo discorso. Il corpo umano tende ad immagazzinare tale elettricità naturalmente. a riconoscimento del suo enorme e indiscusso talento. Utopia. Tesla. Nell’elite militare e industriale del tempo figuravano uomini come John Rockefeller Jr. Per questo vennero tagliati i fondi all’inventore. lo combatteva. portando il mondo ad un autocontrollo. Herbert Hoover. conoscenza e consapevolezza. Lo fecero passare per pazzo. gli fu conferita solo la Edison Medal. quindi chi gestisce il potere deve bloccarli o rallentarli con ogni mezzo.38 energie che avrebbero diffuso il benessere. ben consapevoli che le invenzioni di Edison non avevano un futuro. Pershimg John Joseph generale statunitense (1860-1948) che durante la prima guerra mondiale venne nominato comandante capo delle forze nordamericane in Europa e che sotto la sua direzione costituirono uno dei principali fattori della vittoria alleata. Nell’occasione. L’elettricità statica varia dai 20. lo fu quando scoprì le frequenza di risonanza della Terra. ma cinquanta anni dopo Shumann disse che aveva ragione. Julius Rosenwald. non in quel momento. ma i tedeschi in guerra fecero lo stesso con i missili ed oggi si fa uso delle "smart bombs" guidate da Laser e GPS. ma non fu premiato con il premio Nobel come avrebbe meritato. acustiche e di altro tipo. Lo dotarono di poteri extraterrestri quando pilotò il battello col radiocomando. 4. 2. La Cella a combustibile è come un piccolo generatore che produce energia da combustibili quali l’idrogeno o l’alcool per generare una reazione chimica senza combustione o uso di parti mobili come le turbine. Il segnale dell’idrogeno nel tessuto canceroso è diverso da quello di un tessuto sano perché i tumori contengono più acqua e quindi più atomi di idrogeno. L’unità di misura del flusso magnetico porta il suo nome.000 volt. Un Tesla equivale a 1000 Gauss (unita di misura del flusso magnetico). togliendo ai gruppi di potere l’opportunità di manipolare la massa per conseguire il loro egoistico interesse". ma Edison era asservito al sistema. . ed è quello che fa l’ago di una bussola perché è un piccolo magnete i cui poli si orientano parallelamente alle linee dello spettro magnetico terrestre. da 2 a 9. un onore concesso a pochi. al contrario. Harvey Firestone.

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Nikola Tesla: Mechanical Oscillator

L. Anderson: Tesla's Teleforce & Tele-Geodynamics Proposals D. Pond & W. Baumgartner: Nikola Tesla's Earthquake Machine J. O'Neill: Prodigal Genius: The Life and Times of Nicola Tesla M. Cheney: Tesla: Man Out of Time Miscellanies N. Tesla: US Patent # 514,169 ~ Reciprocating Engine N. Tesla: US Patent # 517,900 ~ Steam Engine

Nikola Tesla's Teleforce & Telegeodynamics Proposals
Leland Anderson ISBN: 0-9636012-8-8 "Two important papers, hidden for more than 60 years, are presented for the first time. The principles behind teleforce -- the particle-beam weapon, and telegeodynamics -- the mechanical earth-resonance concept for seismic exploration, are fully addressed. In addition to copies of the original documents, typed on Tesla's official stationery, this work also includes two Reader's Aid sections that guide the reader through the more technical aspects of each paper. The papers are followed by Commentary sections which provide historical background and functional explanations of the two devices. Significant newspaper articles and headline accounts are provided to document the first mention of these proposals. A large Appendix provides a wealth of related material and background information, followed by a Bibliography section and Index. "This book contains the original texts of two unique proposals that Nikola Tesla offered up during his later years. In both cases, the technologies described trace their roots back to an earlier and tremendously productive decade in Tesla's life beginning in the early 1890s. At the time of the proposals' unveiling, "teleforce," the particle beam concept, and "telegeodynamics," the mechanical earth-resonance concept, received significant press coverage... "On the occasion of his annual birthday celebration interview by the press on July 10, 1935 in his suite at the Hotel New Yorker, Tesla announced a method of transmitting mechanical energy accurately with minimal loss over any terrestrial distance, including a related new means of communication and a method, he claimed, which would facilitate the unerring location of underground mineral deposits. At that time he recalled the earth-trembling "quake" that brought police and ambulances rushing to the scene of his Houston Street laboratory while an experiment was in progress with one of his mechanical oscillators..." Excerpt:

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Reactive Forces Obtainable by Tesla's Isochronous Oscillators ~ "These are generated by Tele-Geo-Dynamic transmitters which are reciprocating engines of extreme simplicity adapted to impress isochronous vibrations upon the earth, thereby causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which are, essentially, sound waves like those conveyed through the air and ether. . . . With a machine of this kind it will be practicable, in the differentiation of densities and aggregate states of subterranean strata and tracing their outlines on the earth's surface, to reach a precision approximating that which is secured in the investigation of the internal structure of bodies by penetrative rays. For just as the vacuum tube projects Roentgen shadows on a fluorescent screen, so the transmitter produces on the earth's surface shadows which can be detected by acoustic devices or rendered visible by optical instruments. The receiver can be made so sensitive that prospecting may be accomplished while riding in a car and without limit of distance from the transmitter." Table of Contents Introduction Nikola Tesla's Teleforce Proposal Reader's Aid New Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-Dispersive Energy Through Natural Media. By Nikola Tesla Commentary New York Times, September 22, 1940, "'Death Ray' for Planes" Nikola Tesla's Telegeodynamics Proposal Reader's Aid Relative Merits of the Lucas Method of Prospecting by Detonations of Explosive Compounds and of The Tesla Method of Prospecting by Isochronous Oscillations Theoretically Considered. By Nikola Tesla Tesla correspondence from George Scherff, June 17, 1937 Commentary New York Times, July 11, 1935, "Tesla, 79, Promises to Transmit Force" Appendix Teleforce Proposal Possibilities of Electrostatic Generators. By Nikola Tesla Tesla Correspondence to J. P. Morgan, Jr., November 29, 1934 Telegeodynamics Proposal Tesla correspondence from George Scherff, April 19, 1918 Address Before The New York Electrical Society, "Mechanical and Electrical Oscillators" by Nikola Tesla Electric Generator ~ U.S. Patent No. 511,916 Reciprocating Engine ~ U.S. Patent No. 514,169 Steam Engine ~ U.S. Patent No. 517,900 Mechanical Therapy by Nikola Tesla Detroit Free Press, Jan. 18, 1896, "Tesla's Health Giver" Bibliography Teleforce Telegeodynamics Afterword Bibliography

Nikola Tesla's Earthquake Machine

it can be deduced that there must be a great source of energy available through it. At each point every varying inclination of the crank and pistons work at a disadvantage and result in loss of efficiency. yields an oscillation of a constant period. Why can a resonance be created in the oscillator-generator when it cannot in a ordinary reciprocating engine? With the oscillator-generator. transmissions. gears. a reciprocating motion is converted into rotary motion by a means of shafts. There is of course much sonic equipment available now for different applications. This type of engine. all governing mechanisms are eliminated. but the greatest loss occurs in the change from reciprocating to rotary motion. Serious students of Tesla's work may recognize this machine as the basis of his system for producing electrical vibrations of a very constant period. under the influence of an applied force such as the tension of compressed air. plus a comprehensive description of the machine in Tesla's own words." Included are mechanical drawings that will guide you through the construction of a working model of the Tele-GeoDynamic Oscillator. Since resonance seems to be an ever increasing effect with this oscillator-generator. Starting with the cylinder. In Tesla's oscillator-generator. the piston is entirely free to move as the medium impels it without having to encounter and overcome the inertia of a moving system and in this respect the two types of engines differ radically and essentially. The objective of the Tesla oscillator-generator is to provide a mechanism capable of . These parts all consume work by friction. steam. consider the car engine. cranks. In Tesla's oscillator-generator." Excerpt from: Prodigal Genius: The Life and Times of Nicola Tesla John O'Neill Tele-Geo-Dynamics ~ Tele-Geo-Dynamics is the transmission of sonic or acoustic vibrations. which can be produced with comparatively simple apparatus.tfcbooks. In 1898 another variation was used to create a small earthquake in the neighborhood surrounding his Houston Street lab. or other gases under pressure. a Resonance effect can be observed. On the other hand. but this has little or nothing to do with Nikola Tesla's oscillator-generator. Tesla called this method of transmitting mechanical energy "telegeodynamics. drivetrains.44 Dale Pond & Walter Baumgartner Available from: http://www. What Tesla proposed represents a new technology in sonic transmission even today. etc.com/ "Much of the material presented in this book is related to the construction of a class of machine invented by Tesla and known as the reciprocating Mechanical Oscillator.

but at last the great steel link began to tremble. In other words. and then freed. And with the same oscillator I could drop Brooklyn Bridge in less than an hour. being stretched.45 converting the energy of compressed gas or steam into mechanical power. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. he told a reporter. Finally the structure began to creak and weave. will be of constant period. World-Telegram (July 11. "For a long time nothing happened. As far as the period in general is concerned. irrespective of variation of load. 1935). he clamped the oscillator to one of the beams. Before anything serious happened. It is a well-known priciple that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia is brought under tension." Pleased with this beginning. but a fusillade of taps. "Nikola Tesla. i. Gradually the trembling increased in intensity and extended throughout the whole great mass of steel. This is known as Simple Harmonic Motion. 10 stories high with nothing up but the steelwork. increased its trembling until it dilated and contracted like a beating heart. the piston floats freely in air and is capable of converting all pressure into mechanical energy. Y. Since the oscillator-generator is denuded of all governing devices. it will depend on the rigidity of the spring.. at 79. "In a few minutes I could feel the beam trembling. Finding a half-built steel building in the Wall Street district. did it. and the steelworkers came to the ground panic-stricken. "crowbars could not have done it. Excerpt from: Tesla: Man Out of Time Margaret Cheney He attached an oscillator no larger than an alarm clock to a steel link 2' long and 2" thick. But if I had kept on 10 minutes more. Uses Earth to . and went away. Our objective in building the engine is to provide an oscillator which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of a gas under pressure will yeild an oscillating movement which within very wide limits. frictional losses. Earl: N. put it in my pocket. believing that there had been an earthquake. and finally broke. This simple harmonic motion in the form of isochronous sound vibrations can be impressed upon the earth. Sledgehammers could not have done it". he put the little oscillator in his coat pocket. friction is almost non-existent.e. it will perform vibrations which are isochronous. no one of which would have harmed a baby. I could have laid that building flat in the street. causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which pass through its remotest boundaries without attenuation so that the transmission is affected with an efficiency of one hundred percent. I took off the oscillator." Miscellanies Sparling. and other factors which in ordinary engines change in the rate of reciprocating.

New York. Section 2. The caption reads: "Tesla claims that in a few weeks he could set the earth's crust into such a state of vibration that it would rise and fall hundreds of feet and practically destroy civilization. 1912). Figure 2 (April 1895) ~ In 1893 Tesla constructed a preferred embodiment of the mechanical oscillator which he described as a "double compound mechanical and electrical oscillator for generating current of perfect." The bewildered newspapermen pounced upon this as at least one thing they could understand and "the father of modern electricity" told what had happened as follows: "I was experimenting with vibrations. N. Dreamer" ~ An illustration for the article shows an artist's conception of the planet splitting in two. We told the police it must have been an earthquake. "With this principle one could split the earth in half like an apple". he says. which brought the police there to stop him. A Startling Discovery".At Birthday Luncheon He Announces Machine for 1-Way Communication" . 921.000 Within Two Years" ~ Here Tesla tells the story of the earthquake generated by the mechanical oscillator in his NYC laboratory in 1898. I told my assistants to say nothing. Expects to have $100. New York Herald Tribune (July 11. was the result of a little machine he was experimenting with at the time which "you could put in your overcoat pocket. The building would have been about our ears in another few minutes. "New Apparatus Transmits Energy . They entered the lab just in time to see Tesla swing a slegehammer and smash the tiny device. I put it up notch after notch.000. "The police and ambulances arrived. There was a louder cracking sound. constant. Benson: World Today (Feb. he boasted that.Tesla Announces Method of Remote Control. at 79. Y." In another interview. "I asked my assistants where did the sound come from. 1935). "Nikola Tesla. I grabbed a hammer and broke the machine. Century Magazine. Outside in the street there was pandemonium." New York Sun (July 10. I pushed the machine a little higher. It would only be necessary to step up the vibrations of the machine to fit the natural vibration of the building and the building would come crashing down. They did not know. "Suddenly all the heavy machinery in the place was flying around. 1.. There was a peculiar cracking sound." Some shrewd reporter asked Dr. "Tesla's Controlled Earth Quakes Power Through the Earth. I knew I was approaching the vibration of the steel building. eventually split the earth in two.46 Transmit Signals. pp. A continuation of this process would. 1935)." . 1935). I put the machine up a few more notches. That's why soldiers break step crossing a bridge. in 1898. "Tesla. I had one of my machines going and I wanted to see if I could get it in tune with the vibration of the building. Tesla at this point what he would need to destroy the Empire State Building and the doctor replied: "Vibration will do anything." Allan L. Houston St. 8. That's all they ever knew about it. dynamo frequency of 10 horsepower. p. American (July 11. Discovers New Message Wave . which was mounted on a girder: Nikola Tesla revealed that an earthquake which drew police and ambulances to the region of his laboratory at 48 E.

1935). p.169 Reciprocating Engine Nikola Tesla To all whom it may concern: . "Nikola Tesla Describes New Invention . Promises to Transmit Force Transmission of Energy Over World. "Tesla. 23. 79.47 New York Sun (July 11. 8." US Patent # 514.Art of TeleGeodynamics" New York Times (July 11. 1935). col.

as by being stretched. in the practice of the invention I may employ any kind of spring or elastic body of which the law or principle of operation above defined holds true. of which the following is a specification. In carrying out my invention and for securing the objects in general terms stated above. capable of converting the energy of steam or gas under pressure into mechanical power more economically than the forms of engine heretofore used. in the county and State of New York. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. acting through proper mechanism. It is a well known principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia be brought under tension. in certain cases. and. Heretofore. to maintain in oscillation a piston. residing at New York. I prefer. renders impossible the attainment of the result at which I have arrived. Moreover. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. frictional losses and other factors which in all ordinary engines produce change in the rate of reciprocation. within very wide limits. in order to avoid the influence of the varying pressure of the steam or . or generally speaking a confined body or cushion of elastic fluid. where reciprocating engines or tools have been used without a rotating system of great inertia. and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. and the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. This. On the other hand. While. primarily to provide an engine. irrespective of variations of load. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. or cause to act upon it. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Reciprocating Engines. a citizen of the United States. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement. I connect with said piston.48 Be it known that I. upon which dependence was mainly placed for the maintenance of constant speed. as to period. and is attended by disadvantages which by my invention are entirely obviated. and which is capable of useful and practical application to general industrial purposes. The invention is based upon certain well known mechanical principles a statement of which will assist in a better understanding of the nature and purposes of the objects sought and results obtained. which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of steam or gas under pressure will yield an oscillatory movement which. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. In the invention which forms the subject of my present application. to the tendency to break. is better adapted for use at higher temperatures and pressures. will be of constant period. so far as I know. taking advantage of the law above stated. has been made to secure conditions which would necessarily yield such results as I have reached. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston. no attempt. The further objects of the invention are to provide a mechanism. instead of permitting the piston to impinge directly upon such cushions within its own cylinder. chiefly by overcoming the losses which result in these by the combination with rotating parts possessing great inertia of a reciprocating system. while securing in a measure this object. I prefer to use an air spring. owing mainly. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. as the mechanical difficulties in the use of metallic springs are serious. Nikola Tesla. my object has been. where the pressure of steam or any gas has been utilized and applied for the production of mechanical motion it has been customary to connect with the reciprocating or moving parts of the engine a fly-wheel or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. a spring. which also. particularly in small units.

The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except as a small leakage my occur through the bearings V. The main supply line L for steam or compressed air leads into this chamber. A small channel O is thus formed which has air vents P in its sides and drip pipes Q leading out from it through which the oil which collects in it is carried off. If a source of steam or compressed air be then connected to the inlet ports CC of the cylinder A and a movement be imparted to the piston as by a sudden blow. for thus a spring of practically constant rigidity is obtained. which communicate through openings G in the piston with the cylinder on opposite sides of said piston respectively. A is the main cylinder in which works a piston B. extend through the jacket K to the outside air and the chamber between the cylinder and jacket is made steam or air tight as by suitable packing. Exhaust ports DD extend through the wall of the cylinder and are formed with branches that open into the interior of the cylinder on each side of the inlet ports and on opposite sides of the cylinder. I do not consider as of special importance the particular construction and arrangement of the cylinder. except that it is desirable that all the ports. the exhaust ports should be made very much larger than is usually the case. or when the piston is at the middle point of its stroke. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air will tend to retard of affect the return of the piston in either direction. the piston and the ports for controlling it. To explain now the operation of the device above described. Inlet ports CC pass through the sides of the cylinder. and more especially. In the position of the parts shown. The bearings V in the cylinder I. which works in suitable stuffing boxes in the heads of the cylinder A. The bearings V in the cylinder I. In the particular form of engine shown the jacket K which contains the cylinder I is provided with a flange N by which it is screwed to the end of cylinder A. The cylinder I is surrounded by a jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it.49 gas that acts upon the piston and which might disturb the relations necessary for the maintenance of isochronous vibration. the plunger J is at the center of the cylinder I and the air on both sides of the same is at the normal pressure of the outside atmosphere. and also to better utilize the heat generated by the compression. to employ an independent plunder connected with the main piston. and a chamber or cylinder therefore. which experience has shown need not be fitted with any very considerable accuracy. I refer now to the accompanying drawing which represents in central cross-section an engine embodying my improvements. In order to describe the best manner of which I am aware in which the invention is or may be carried into effect. This rod is prolonged on one side and extends through bearings V in a cylinder I suitably mounted or supported in line with the first. and the two pipes that lead to the cylinder A run from the said chamber. The movement of the piston in either direction ceases when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired . containing air which is normally. The piston B is formed with two circumferential grooves EF. but the air or gas within the cylinder may be maintained at any pressure. at the same pressure as the external atmosphere. The piston B is secured to a piston rod H. extend through the jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. the latter is caused to reciprocate in a manner well understood. opening at the middle portion thereof and on opposite sides. and within which is a disk or plunger J carried by the rod H. oil cups M being conveniently arranged to deliver oil into the said pipes for lubricating the piston.

. give rise to a very considerable amount of heat. are not materially exceeded. however. In constructing the apparatus I allow for a variation in the length of stroke by giving to the confining cylinder I of the air spring properly determined dimensions. and it may be successfully used as a prime mover wherever a constant rate of oscillation or speed is required. A forward stroke compresses the air ahead of the plunger J and tends to drive it forward. The greater the pressure upon the piston. Consequently the two chambers may be considered as a single spring. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. and this action is continued as long as the requisite pressure is applied. the effect of variations in such force being merely to produce corresponding variations in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. the higher will be the degree of compression of the air-spring. The rate or period of reciprocation of the piston. The pawl R is pivoted at R’ and its bifurcated end engages with the teeth of the ratchet wheel alternately on opposite sides of the same. The pressure of the air confined in the cylinder when the plunger J is in its central position will always be practically that of the surrounding atmosphere. and an engine constructed as herein described my be made to follow the principle of operation above stated and maintain a perfectly uniform period through very much wider limits of pressure than in ordinary use it is ever likely to be subjected to. In any given engine of this kind the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. As an instance of the uses to which this engine may be applied I have shown its piston rod connected with a pawl R the oscillation of which drives a train of wheels. upon the force which periodically impels it.50 are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam or compressed air in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. This heat I utilize by conducting the steam or compressed air to the engine cylinder through the chamber formed by the jacket surrounding the air-spring cylinder. than would be the period of oscillation of a pendulum permanently maintained in vibration. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which is equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. This action of the plunger upon the air contained in the opposite ends of the cylinder is exactly the same in principle as though a piston rod were connected to the middle point of a coiled spring. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately. and this will be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal. the ends of which are connected to fixed supports. The compressions of the air in the cylinder I and the consequent loss of energy due mainly to the imperfect elasticity of the air. These may constitute the train of a clock or of any other mechanism. provided the limits within which the forces tending to bring the moving system to a given position are proportionate to the displacements. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system. one end of the pawl at each half oscillation acting to propel the wheel forward through the space of one tooth when it is engaged and locked by the other end on the last half of the oscillation which brings the first end of the oscillation into position to engage with another tooth. These conditions are all readily determinable. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. for while the cylinder is so constructed as not to permit such sudden escape of air as to sensibly impair or modify the action of the air spring there will be a slow leakage of air into or out of it around the piston rod according to the pressure therein. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. The heat thus taken up and used to raise the temperature of the steam or air acting upon the piston is availed of to increase the efficiency of the engine. is no more dependent upon the pressure applied to drive it. and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly portioning these factors. so that the pressure of the air on opposite sides of the plunger will always tend to remain at that of the outside atmosphere. and the consequent counteracting force upon the plunger.

what I claim is: [ Claims not included here ] . Having now described my invention.51 Another application of the invention is to move a conductor in a magnetic field for generating electric currents. and in these and similar uses it is obvious that the characteristics of the engine render it especially adapted for use in small sizes or units.

900 Steam Engine Nikola Tesla .52 US Patent # 517.

and have shown and described the same in [ US Patent # 514. a citizen of the United States. Nikola Tesla. residing at New York. have been provided with a flywheel. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same.53 To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. to maintain in oscillation a piston.169 ]. operated by the application of a force such as the elastic tension of steam or a gas under pressure. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. an oscillating movement of constant period. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Steam Engines. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston and the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. of which the following is a specification. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. In utilizing this principle for the purpose of producing reciprocating movement of a constant period. preferably an air spring. or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. I have produced. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. and other disturbing causes. engines. Heretofore. which was relied upon for maintaining a uniform speed. and connect with it or cause to act upon such piston a spring. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement. When a spring which possess a sensible inertia is brought under tension as by being stretched and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. acting through proper mechanism. it is obvious that the . load. in the county and State of New York. as to period. an engine which without such appurtenances produces. In such an apparatus it being essential that the inertia of the moving system and the rigidity of the spring should bear certain definite relations. A description of the principle of the construction and mode of operation of this device is necessary to an understanding of my present invention. however. under very wide variations of pressure.

The parts thus described may be considered as exemplifying any cylinder.54 practicable amount of work performed by the engine. . But since a variation of the temperature of the air in the chamber would affect the rigidity of the air spring. the latter.f which communicate through openings g in the same with the cylinder chambers on opposite sides of the piston. G designates a slide valve which when reciprocated admits the steam or the gas by which the engine is driven. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately. are steam ducts communicating with the cylinder at or near its ends and E is the exhaust chamber or passage located between the steam ports. constructed substantially as follows: a is the cylinder. is not connected with a flywheel or other like device for regulating or controlling its speed. DD. An inlet pipe c passes through the side of the cylinder at the middle portion of the same. as will be understood. the piston b is provided with two circumferential grooves e. Referring to Figure 1. Figure 1 being a central vertical section of an engine embodying my invention. and constitutes an ordinary form of air spring. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except that leakage may occur around the piston rod which does not require to be very close fitting. piston and slide valve with the proper ports controlled thereby. The piston B is provided with the usual passages FF’ which by the movements of the piston are brought alternately into communication with the exhaust port. The special construction of this device may be varied considerably. and more particularly. I therefore propose. in order to secure all the advantages of such performances as this engine is capable of. I maintain the temperature uniform as by surrounding the cylinder I with a jacket a’ which is open to the air and filled with water. If steam or a gas under pressure be admitted through the port c to either side of the piston b. A designates a cylinder containing a reciprocating piston B secured to a rod C extending through on or both cylinder heads. and this results in the heqating of the cylinder. The drawings hereto annexed illustrate devices by means of which the invention may be carried out. may be maintained in reciprocation. in the sense that its movement in either direction ceases only when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving. and Figure 2 a similar view of a modification of the same. to utilize it as the means of controlling the admission and exhaust of steam or gas under pressure in other engines generally. the exhaust ports be made larger than is usually done. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air in the chambers will tend to retard or accelerate the movement of the piston in either direction. and this action is continued as long as the requisite pressure is applied. the lower end carrying the slide valve above described and the upper end having secured to it a plunger j in a cylinder I fixed to the cylinder a and in line with it. in which works the piston b. and it is free to move. from the pipe G’ through the ducts DD’ to the ends of the cylinder. The cylinder exhausts through ports dd into a chamber d’ provided with an opening d". or in other words. but the slide valve instead of being dependent for its movement upon the piston B is connected in any manner so as to be reciprocated by the piston rod of a small engine of constant period. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. when this involves the overcoming of inertia is a limitation to the applicability of the engine. The piston b is ecured to a rod h which extends through the cylinder heads. but more especially those forms of engine in which the piston is free to reciprocate. but it is desirable that all the ports. and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point.

and thus any tendency to a change of the period of vibration in the main engine is overcome. The control of the main engine by the engine of constant period may be effected in other ways --. constitute the inlet ports of the cylinders AA’ and the exhaust of the latter is effected through the ports m. The reciprocating movement of the piston may be converted into rotary motion or it may be utilized and applied in any other manner desired.55 In such an engine as that just described the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length.of which Figure 2 will serve as an illustration. Whatever may be the load on the main engine therefore the steam is admitted to the cylinder at defined intervals. The cylinder of the controlling engine is formed by or in the casing intermediate to the two main cylinders but in all other essential respects the construction and mode of operation of the controlling engine remains as described in connection with Figure 1.com . In [ US Patent # 514. In the figure I have shown two cylinders AA’ placed end to end with a piston B and B’ in each.m which are controlled by the pistons B and B’ respectively. In this case the piston of the controlling engine constitutes the slide valve of the main engine. however. which may be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal and due allowance is made in constructing the engine for a variation in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly adjusting these factors. while the engine is simple and its weights for a given capacity is very greatly reduced. the controlling engine is not designed nor adapted to perform other work than the regulation of the period of the other. A much more perfect regulation and uniformity of action is secured. however. either directly or indirectly. Since the only work which the small engine has to perform is the reciprocation of the valve attached to the piston rod. In the present case. This latter is readily accomplished by making provision for the attachment to the piston rod of one or more weights h’. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. and it is moreover an engine of defined character which has the capability of an oscillating movement of constant period. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which may be equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. The inlet port for the admission of the steam to the controlling engine is similar to that in Figure 1 and is indicated by the dotted circle at the center of the piston b. its load is substantially uniform and its period by reason of its construction will be constant. The exhaust ports dd. What I claim is: [ Claims not included here ] Top ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links rexresearch.169 ] I have shown and described two reciprocating engines combined in such manner that the movement or operation of one is dependent upon and controlled by the other. so that the latter may be considered as operated by the exhaust of the former. An engine of the kind described possess many and important advantages.

1894) titled "Reciprocating Engine". because of their ability to resonate with a building or a large construction and produce earthquakelike effects. and when the external source frequency equals the resonant frequency the oscillation amplitude becomes maximum. 2. Tesla claimed that with such a device he could split the planet. Tesla himself described an incident of experimenting with one such device in 1887. he destroyed the device with a hammer. When he realized what was happening. which is the frequency the construction freely vibrates and depends on physical parameters. Related interesting web sites • The Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge by Rachel Martin. 514. These devices became famous as "earthquake machines". or on the other hand relieve the stress is tectonic plates and thus avoid earthquakes. Each construction has an oscillation frequency (also called resonant frequency). 6.916 (Jan. An external vibration produces driven oscillations. when he tuned to the building's frequency and a cracking sound was heard. Later on. Mechanical resonance is a well known physical phenomenon. 511. usually resulting to a collapse.56 Nikola Tesla's Inventions The Earthquake Machine Apart from his work on electricity Tesla also experimented with mechanical oscillations and invented devices that could produce mechanical oscillations of desired frequency. is a fundamental principle in Tesla's work. and that the police was on the way. As he changed the frequency the sound became more intense until everything in his laboratory started "flying around" and people nearby were terrified. either electrical or mechanical. A bridge that collapsed in 1940 probably due to resonance with a light breeze.169 (Feb. There are two related patents registered by Tesla: Patent No. . 1894) titled "Electric Generator" and Patent No. Resonance.

A Tesla force field generator the flying stove ." responded Dr.57 Flying Machine | Part 2. the flying machine. Tesla. Car (FEVj) Tesla's Flying Machine "Not the airplane. Photos | Biography | US patents | Tesla's Ele.

58 "I am now planning aerial machines devoid of sustaining planes.Y. however.." According to museum officials at The Nikola Tesla museum in Belgrade.com Tesla Memorial Society of N. has not been made available to western scholars..Tesla's autobiography "To a Westinghouse manager.just a big mass of steel. . propellers. copper and aluminum comprising a stationary and rotating part. if some day you see me fly from New York to Colorado Springs in a contrivance which will resemble a gas stove and weigh as much.198 Tesla intended the world to have a free. wireless. a short biography page Tesla's Autobography on-line How Tesla intended to power his flying machine ." pg. peculiarly assembled. and could.TESLA: Man Out of Time. which will be capable of immense speeds" . "he left sketches of interplanetary ships. and other external attachments. source of power "My power generator will be of the simplest kind -. 203 Nikola Tesla www. if necessary enter and depart through a window. pg.TeslaSociety. This information.'" . Tesla wrote 'You should not be at all surprised. ailerons.

frank. My idea was a flying machine propelled by an electric motor. It will be substantial. regardless of weather and oblivious of 'holes in the air' or downward currents." from the book Tesla's Engine -. for it would give a stability that would result in the machine being torn to pieces by the wind. but it will not be an airplane. I was working entirely in electricity then and did not realize that the gasoline engine was approaching a perfection that was going to make the airplane feasible." he replied. locomotives and steamships." Through gyroscopic action of my engine.59 "Not the airplane.will be heavier than air. Tesla smiled an inscrutable smile. It will have no wings.germano. But whatever my airship may be. and by vigorous use of my gray matter for a number of years I grasped the possibilities of the principle of the viscosity and adhesion of fluids and conceived the mechanism of my engine. Yet it will be able to move at will through the air in any direction with perfect safety.A New Dimension For Power and from "PART I" of the Tesla Turbine And Pump at http://www. by men working in a different field. "All I have to say on that point is that my airship will have neither gas bag. Tesla. There is nothing new about the airplane but its engine. the product of years of intense and painful toil and research." Now you have struck the point in which I am most deeply interested--the object toward which I have been devoting my energies for more than twenty years--the dream of my life. The gyroscope can never be successfully applied to the airplane. the flying machine. [However] When I found that I had been anticipated as to the flying machine.htm . "The flying machine of the future -. but upon positive mechanical action. Its lifting power will not depend upon any such delicate devices as the bird has to employ. I felt certain there must be some means of obtaining power that was better than any now in use. solid." "Twenty years ago I believed that I would be the first man to fly. What I was working on twenty years ago was the wireless transmission of electric power." "With a thousand horse power engine.com/teslaturbine." There is the "rub". to regard it as a mechanical rather than an electrical problem." "You will get stability through gyroscopes?" I asked. My flying machine will have neither wings nor propellers. higher speeds than have yet been reached." responded Dr. It will ascend in such currents if desired. You might see it on the ground and you would never guess that it was a flying machine. I have not accomplished this as yet. I am not going to talk about it any further. weighing only one hundred pounds. with power supplied from stations on the earth. here at least is an engine that will do things that no other engine ever has done. "It is the child of my dreams. I began to study the problem from other angles. some source of power needed to drive it. you know. that I was on the track of accomplishing what no one else was anywhere near reaching. assisted by some devices I am not yet prepared to talk about. but am confident that I will in time. just as the unprotected airplane on the ground is torn to pieces by a high wind. Dr. It can remain absolutely stationary in the air even in a wind for great length of time. and that is something tangible. In the space now occupied by the engines of the Lusitania twenty-five times her 80. were it possible to provide boiler capacity sufficient to furnish the necessary steam. You cannot have a stable airplane. It was in seeking the means of making the perfect flying machine that I developed this engine. wings nor propellers. imagine the possibilities in automobiles.000 horse power could be developed.my flying machine -." he said. stable.

germano. "When the manager of Westinghouse's railway and lighting division wrote asking for details on the turbine. Indeed. in the US military -. They call it the "Tesla space Drive".) Tesla. There are many books written by people claiming to have some of this. there is a wealth of it locked up where no one can get to it .htm chapter 20: "Flying Stove" .Aerial Machine page 31 .com/flying_machine. for us to duplicate the device. Along with general info. (And.000 rpm.in Belgrade. and or other.. Tesla replid confidently that it was superior to anything in the competition in terms of extreme lightness and high performance." pg. averaging 35.. He spoke of even more which he intended to do but never got around to. They are all very secretive about it. on Tesla and a few fables. the centrifugal force was so great that it stretched the metal. he was planning to use it in a boxlike flivver airplane.frank.60 see http://www. in the FBI. Man of Mystery is one of those books.it is hard to know. information. here it is: The Tesla Space Drive The Flying Stove . there is one diagram and enough information about it." (above) So.Margaret Cheney "At the tremendously high speeds at which the turbine operated. he said. It may be the heart of what Tesla said would look like flying on "a gas stove" and is "peculiarly assembled. 198 We know that Tesla invented many things which no one else has been able to duplicate since.

Man of Mystery © 1992 Chapter 4: "The Tesla Space Drive" .61 Diagram from page 31 of Tesla.

What they may not know is the weight and speed needed to achieve success . Collectively. (San Jose). and the other in Australia (Melbourne). I hope that if I reduce the weights. it does something Phenomenal! The object is not spinning nor do any one of the spinning weights match the orbit of the object (frame) and yet. This effect fades out. eccentrics. Instead of acceleration by the left hand rule. the same motors will be able to increase in speed enough to reach the new required speed which will now be higher. just applying whatever motors are handy hasn't worked for me yet either. in some way. this system functions in accordance with the right-hand rule. The . Otherwise. Interesting! . No one seriously interested in a new. Even that makes sense. if I am lucky. cheap. Like electrons in orbit in a stationary coil .. [ It will ] wobble noticeably at low thrust levels. on my most recent frame. and yet. one in Calif.000 hp. however. ". of course ) I tried 3 or 4 before I finally got to the current air motors and I am not sure about them) From the information we can put together on Tesla." pg. I have heard of 2 people working on this. going fast enough.. I put 1/2 hp air motors and that may be just barely enough. Like I say. as the thrust is increased. I will have to find stronger motors. ." pg. the center of orbit of the four "eccentrics" defines a circle for which the center point is the center of mass for the frame the eccentrics are built on.34-35 My first observation is that it is a set of 4 spinning weights arranged on a frame "peculiarly assembled" as Tesla said.. I found the machine easy to build but. now it is by the right hand rule. Well. just guessing at the rotational speed needed for the weights ("eccentrics") did't work for me and. the mass of the object is in orbit. source of propulsion need question or dispute anything. . A turbine that might weigh 100 lbs and produce 1. there is a common point about which the center of mass of the eccentrics and the center of mass of the device as a whole gyrate..It is so simple (easy & cheap!) to build..if you can get the spinning weights. just build it and see if you can get it to rise up . guessing is not very helpful.32 "The reaction to this angular acceleration is a linear acceleration along the system axis (X) and directed outward from the page.see below. ( motors A and B above.62 "The first step in developing this system is to cause a counter-clockwise (sense chosen arbitrarily) acceleration of the center of mass of the four eccentrics (refer to diagram) in a circular orbit about the X axis..an area in which Tesla is already famous. to drive it. it looks like he intended to use a turbine.

ele. I may not have been too far short. who but Tesla would think of this novel. directions. They are mounted above the base. I now live in Florida.000 rpm. It was not till the 2nd set of motors that I figured out the required speed and only with the last motors that I realized just how far short I was from producing enough power to get there. However. and all my experimenting came to a halt. phenomenal. to a 1/2hp 22. Bloyce must now be 70+ (or more) years old and among the few surviving to have studied under Tesla . pages 270-277. and am getting restarted. I started looking at some hydraulic motors.63 direct approach is to build the device symmetrically about the center point: with a top as well as a bottom.000 rpm ele." which won't exist unless the unit is symetrical. I moved from Phoenix to Omaha.000rpm air motor.. He studied Tesla's papers. I believe. did not have a clear picture of Tesla's intentions. An issue not mentioned is the speed requirement (of the eccentrics).000 to 10. and before these could be seized by the authorities.depending on the amount of weight I put on the eccentrics (see below). None of the motors would get the system "up to speed" which I thought was in the neighborhood of 2. lastly. carrying them home to study every night and took them back the next day. It needs a top plate to keep it as rigid and as light weight as possible as well as symetrical. motion. Everything is mounted between the top and base plates: ". no forward. assembly. motor. "We recently received a set of plans from a former pupil * of Nikola Tesla who believes that a space ship.. .not angled to catch or create any air or wind . Nothing is mounted on the base. can actually be constructed.000 rpm . for the building of this devicemotor and. I believe whoever wrote this chapter in this book. "He bases his plans.over 50 years ago.. I believe Tesla knew that turbine blades would be needed .30 * Bloyce D. He was the one of two who worked with Tesla daily during the few weeks before his death.. upon existing files he secretly obtained shortly before Tesla's death. A significant motor (always a pair) will be required. That I believe will be more than enough to demonstrate the system but. The 4 eccentrics must be able to spin. Fitzgerald is virtually the only person that this could refer to. Surely he did not want his name given out because he is an old man and wants to be left alone.there is a common point. then. he told us. near Fort Lauderdale. upgraded to a 1/4th hp 10. Because the motors did not have the power to handle the inertia and weight of the eccentrics. He and Tesla had been very close friends and had worked together on a number of projects. just for demonstration purposes.but parallel and flat so as to pass through the air with the least resistance possible. a that time. See TESLA: Man Out of Time by Margaret Cheney. only weighed 2 or 3 pounds and developed 25 hp. motor. Then as now. . one of which. my job situation changed. I started out using a 1." pg. up.. He had never met Tesla before and he was the one who called the authorities upon Tesla's death and then tried to view the sealed papers two years later. The air motors were light-weight enough and powerful enough to see a reaction occurring (more than "normal" vibrations) at only 300 to 400 rpm) but.. The speed needed makes things difficult.

Examples of that acceleration are: On a 50 inch radius. 3. the radius of those 4 loads (aka 4 eccentrics. If the mass of the 4 inertial loads totals 1/10th the total mass of the entire device. 3. and. It is the rotation of the entire system (device) that must get up enough centrifugal acceleration to defeat gravity. entire atoms. then the radius of rotation of the center of mass of the system (the entire device) is 1/20th that of the radius of any one of the rotating loads. It is likely that he realizes it will go with him to his grave if he does not "give it to the public" before it is too late.64 In any case. (not 1/10th. If he no longer felt any reason to hide anything. in orbit. is not known. what is not mentioned. The principal is the same for the way that the centrifugal acceleration of electrons. exert linear acceleration on a metal rod placed in the center of the coil. the mass of the entire device 2. I overlooked it for a time) (only 2 of 4 weights going left to right and only 2 of 4 going front to back) 2. unless it changes hands. generates linear acceleration. 4 masses) 4. something greater than 26. the acceleration is exerted on the frame. the mass of the 4 rotating inertial loads. the entire device. (4 masses). what it IS. An electric motor is the result of electrons in orbit. Here. then. how it WORKS: By Greg Smith FORCE FIELD GENERATOR / MOTOR The Tesla Drive This device converts inertial energy into centrifugal acceleration which. TESLA's INVENTION Explanation of . This is just geometry but.. anything that has been dormant for 50 years is not likely to change now. gravity 1.. which he has just done. according to the right-hand rule. in a coil.5 rpm. The rotation (rpm) necessary to generate acceleration depends upon: 1. (28+ rpm) . what it DOES. this (protonian) motor is the result of protons.

gives the same rate of oscillation with very little. it will.05" ( 900= 885 X 885 = 784. it is intuitive that if there is any (constant) energy entered into the system to maintain spin.25" This example is about what I have had with my most recent frame and 1/2 hp air motors. Florida. Another example system: If the mass of the 4 inertial loads totals about 8 oz. So. A friend said "Something is happening here" when it started shaking more than we thought it should have . in my (50") experimenting.5 rpm. in this example. almost no.living near the beach (Atlantic ocean) in Pompano Beach.5 cycles per minute (cpm). in my continued experimenting.5 x 26. I thought we were close to 400 and maybe we were.25" ( 400 x 400 = 1600 ) ( 396 x 396 = 156.1" ( 626 X 626 = 392. and the center of mass of each of the 4 masses is out about 4" from its shaft.979 X 1. though only very slightly. the total mass of the entire device about 10 lbs. "blueprint".7 = 1576 ) ( 39. the total mass of the entire device (including the moving weights) about 10 lbs. then the net radius for the system is 1/20" and the needed speed is about 900+ rpm. be spinning at a rate greater than 26. to keep it spinning around . in south Florida (where I was). If the same 1/2 hp motors can get up over 625rpm (.as it got up as much speed as we could give it. and the center of mass of each of the 4 masses is out about 2" from its shaft.000 ) and about a 2.65 This can be observed with a weight on a string. arc as it does with significantly more . (10/16)/10 x 4" = 5/80 x 4 = 5/20 = .000 ) Example system: If the mass of the 4 inertial loads totals about 20 oz.6 x 39. my best drawing. to get more power out of them. not just back and forth.1) by cutting the arms down from 4" to 2".800 ) and about a 900 rpm minimum at . of the Force Field Motor . Arizona and most recently at sea level .5 rpm ( & 26. I only needed about 400+ rpm In any case.979 = 3.12 -> .840.800 rpm minimum at .000 rpm minimum at .0000284 = "X" pounds of force exerted on each shaft. With a 50" string.Greg . with altitude and latitude. Note: the force exerted by each mass on each shaft (in pounds) is: the rotating mass (in pounds) times the radius in inches times the RPM's squared ( rpm x rpm ) times 0. (if you are enough closer to the poles or at a high altitude (Colorado?) do this same experiment and compare) if a 50" radius requires more than 26. which we had trouble with.000 ) and about a 625 rpm minimum at . I will say that I first performed this test in Phoenix. at sea level. I found it took about 28 rpm actually. Keeping in mind that these results will vary.01" ( 1.5 = 702 (700) ) then a 25" radius requires more than 1400^½ rpm = more than 37.005" ( 2800 X 2800 = 7. about 28 rpm ( & 28 x 28 = 784 ) ( 784 x 2 = 1568 ) and about a 40 rpm minimum at 25" (40= 39. or if we can get more air pressure into the 2 air motors. Since there is no energy being applied to the pendulum and it will eventually come to a rest.7 x 39.6 = 1568 ) and about a 400 rpm minimum at .about 26. then maybe we could get it off the ground with the equipment we have now. then the net radius for the system is 1/4" and the needed speed is about 400+ rpm.920.000 ) and about a 2. just swinging the weight back and forth like a pendulum.44 rpm (1402) or.

66 Fig.1 .

I left out the motors in this diagram (see 1st diagram above). They can be anything you can get ahold of.67 I admit. Some information here is temporarily suspended while being enhanced. then the other two. aluminum alloy. . Please check back in few weeks. now. motors: Sept. since there is no design specificiation for them. 1993 The shafts and pillow blocks are also. 4th.000 rpm ele. the frame was just a little flimsy ( the top was removed for the purpose of the photo ) Watch 2 that are opposite each other. with 10. Third model. This model was fine but. The only requirement is that they be able to get your weights up to your needed speed.

March 24th..68 photographed on Fri. 2006 the frame is rigid and the motors are very light weight .

that was not necessary.69 I made the frame taller to accomodate longer arms and. . There is an increased strength and reduced stress benefit to the double arms. slower speed requirements but.

8 m/s^2. perhaps. more precisely. by laser timing of an object falling freely in a vacuum. The acceleration of gravity can be found by using a pendulum or. It varies with latitude and elevation (and. The result is about 9.70 The radius of the earth varies from about 6357 (polar) to 6378 (equatorial) km. with .

a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 22. as expected.m2/kg2). Isaac Newton showed that every particle in the Universe attracts every other with a force which is proportional to the products of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation.300 miles would require exactly 24 hours to orbit the Earth . Newton's law of universal gravitation About fifty years after Kepler announced the laws now named after him. Hence: If F is the force due to gravity. Florida). g the acceleration due to gravity. g' becomes equal to g when r = re. G the Universal Gravitational Constant (6. Using this we can express the acceleration due to gravity (g') at a radius (r) outside the earth in terms of the Earth's radius (re) and the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (g) g' = (re2 / r2) g Acceleration due to gravity inside the Earth Here let r represent the radius of the point inside the earth. For small amplitude oscillations. The formula for finding out the acceleration due to gravity at this point becomes: g' = ( r / re )g In both the above formulas.67x10-11 N. Then F = G m 1 m 2 / r2 Acceleration due to gravity outside the Earth It can be shown that the acceleration due to gravity outside of a spherical shell of uniform density is the same as it would be if the entire mass of the shell were to be concentrated at its center. the period of the pendulum is proportional to the square root of the length (radius) and is inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration of gravity.71 density of local rocks ex: Colorado vs. m the mass and r the distance between two objects.

2632 = 15.3% of our gravity = 1/44 of our gravity here at the surface One must get up at least about 4000 mi.705. just to get to where the gravity is 1/4th of our surface gravity.369 / 689.72 Earth's Equatorial radius = 3963 miles so the difference in gravity at 22. distance. geostationary. Here is a July 14th 2003 depiction of many of our satelites in orbit.300 mi. The ring being those at the 22.0227692 = 2. Or about 9.000 mi above the surface to get to 1/10th our gravity.000 = .300 + 3963 (r) miles is 39632 / 26.745. .

the description of his experiments on radiant matter. a good time ago.E. at least. February. Give me leave to introduce the subject in a few words. in a large measure. light. But if. and. which can make such an impression upon the mind of a student. even with my present experience. to be more precise. Hardly have we become familiar with one fact. This investigation. when I trace back the mental process which led me to these advances -. would embarrass me to answer. of the country greatest in scientific achievements. that same vague world which Professor Crookes has so ably explored. Each day we go to our work in the hope of discovering -. most surprising of all. we establish the connections to the generator. but also as a convenient means of obtaining. The results which I have the honor to present before such a gathering I cannot call my own. to transmit and direct energy at will. but very high frequencies are desirable. in the induction apparatus employed. after a long period of constant thought. and. and we see the mass of iron and wires behave as though it were endowed with life. more than this. but one..which even by myself cannot be considered trifling. and also with the view of rendering the study here presented self-contained.names of those among you who are recognized as the leaders in this enchanting science.will have the sway. I must mention -. engineers and electricians.in the most surprising manner. Of the various branches of electrical investigation. or more clearly expressing. and so many able scientific men. it is because I have more than one reason to do so. was that fascinating little book which I read many years ago. which I hope you will not find so feeble as the first. partly realized. since they are so appreciated by you -. One reason. to entertain you. mechanical energy. and with wonder and delight we note the effects of strange forces which we bring into play. spinning a heavy armature.73 — Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency — Lecture delivered before the I.in the hope that some . Even at this hour possibilities not dreamed of before are. in a translation (for then I was not familiar with you magnificent language). Just in how much a very high frequency is essential for the production of the results presented is a question which. We wind a simple ring of iron with coils. We observe how the energy of an alternating current traversing the wire manifests itself -. It is a name associated with the most beautiful invention ever made: it is Crookes! When I was at college. Some of the experiments may be performed with low frequencies. and my remarks on the subject of this evening's lecture consistent. I cannot find words to express how deeply I feel the honor of addressing some of the foremost thinkers of the present time. all is wave motion. that which started me to work in this direction. There are among you not a few who can lay better claim than myself on any feature of merit which this work may contain. with alternating currents of high potential and high frequency. when novel experiences are met with and new avenues of research are opened. then. let me say. and. 1892. through invisible connections. it goes without saying. which in their turn are necessary to the demonstration of most of the experiments here contemplated. by the use of these currents. All these observations fascinate us. some ideas advanced by me before. with great speed and power with the energy possibly conveyed from a great distance. not only on account of the many effects secured by their use. so it seems that in all branches of industry alternating currents -. the high potentials. why this brand of science is being so rapidly developed is to be found in the interest which is attached to its experimental study. I read it only once in my life -. perhaps. and fill us with an intense desire to know more about the nature of these phenomena. on the present occasion. I read.not so much in the wire as in the surrounding space -. The progress in this branch of applied science has been so great in recent years that it justifies the most sanguine hopes. I will not dwell upon the experiments already described. deals with alternating currents. Few are the books. which allow us to transform. perhaps the most interesting and immediately the most promising is that dealing with alternating currents.I believe that their real origin.yet every detail about that charming work I can remember this day.a name which could not bc omitted in a demonstration of this kind. London. except with the view of completing. We arrange the circuits properly.that time -. A short time ago I had the honor to bring before our American Institute of Electrical Engineers some results then arrived at by me in a novel line of work. taking the forms of heat. And now that I have made a feeble effort to express my homage and acknowledge my indebtedness to him and others among you. For what I have to tell you and to show you this evening concerns.electric wave motion -. I will make a second effort. and brought me to them. I need not assure you that the many evidences which I have received that English scientific men and engineers were interested in this work have been for me a great reward and encouragement. As In nature all is ebb and tide. even chemical affinity. I mention this name as one of many your institution can boast of. I need not mention many names which are world-known -.E.

very interesting. but although he . or. but all captivate our attention. So well known is this apparatus. Here.and each succeeding day we return to our task with renewed ardor. in all these experiments. by disruptively discharging a condenser through the primary. its soft. I dare say. H. In the experiments such as performed this evening.at random. I bring my body in contact with a wire conveying alternating currents of high potential. It would not surprise a student were the lecturer to say that the secondary of this coil consists of a small length of comparatively stout wire. have used a rapid break in connection with the coil. obtained by disruptively discharging a Leyden jar. we all have passed many delightful hours in experimenting with the induction coil. can there be. once more. That this statement is applicable to the subject of this lecture the many curious and unexpected phenomena which we observe afford a convincing proof. which. in spite of this.ever since the greatest experimenter who lectured in this hall discovered its principle -. down to the inexperienced student. Our knowledge and experience of to-day enables us to see clearly why these coils under the conditions of the tests did not disclose any remarkable phenomena. form the subject of this evening's demonstration. they are all equally interesting. a few of which only.74 one. Standing on an insulated support. Is there. and even if we are unsuccessful. I grasp it. or by the use of an alternator. I aid the passage of the discharge. take for instance the most obvious phenomena. and the tube in my hand is brilliantly lighted. others surprise us. By way of illustration. and a platinum button mounted in it is brought to vivid incandescence. and I set the coil to work. as I insert the plate. again. wherever I may move it in space. as far as I can reach. and in using either of these means we enter a field as yet unexplored. In whatever position I may put it. which. and thought and pondered over the beautiful phenomena which it disclosed to our ravished eyes.with the end of s wire many miles long -. Here in reality is the same apparatus. and why able experimenters failed to perceive many of the curious effects which have since been observed. that I have ventured to entertain you with that same old subject. You may see a small spark pass between the plates. it would not surprise him were the lecturer to state that. which by my fingers' touch casts a shadow-. to your lecturer.the induction coil. that my courage nearly fails me when I think that I have ventured to address so able an audience. of the stem inside of it. and instead of rendering altogether impossible. Gordon. for many years past -. Here is a simple glass tube from which the air has been partially exhausted. Here. we have hours of untold pleasure. equally inciting to thought. an appliance familiar to every one. Here. pleasing light persists with undiminished brightness.the Crookes shadow. and we have directed our energies to the benefit of mankind. which ate so very. our work has not been in vain. no matter who.we have had a steady companion. which is set in violent vibration. We have watched its play. if we so desire. Earlier English investigators. Here is an exhausted bulb suspended from a single wire. the phenomena are presented in n different aspect. and by no means the mast striking. so familiar are these phenomena to every one. a plaything once. for in these strivings. a thing of momentous importance now -. It is impossible to pursue an investigation in any novel line without finally making some interesting observation or learning some useful fact. I bring my body in contact with one of the terminals of the secondary of this induction coil -. I insert a thick plate of one of the best dielectrics between them. and here are the same phenomena. for in scientific investigation each novel result achieved may be the centre of a new departure. if you choose -. We may take -. merely changes in appearance and assumes the form of luminous streams. each novel fact learned may lead to important developments. Here still another. as I touch its metallic socket. Usually in operating an induction foil we have set up a vibration of moderate frequency in the primary. a more interesting study than that of alternating currents? In all these investigations. There is no dearer appliance to the electrician. those of the discharge of the induction coil. we set up a vibration in the secondary circuit of a frequency of many hundred thousand or millions per second. in these efforts.and you see streams of light break forth from its distant end. may find a solution of one of the pending great problems. I set them a distance apart. attach these two plates of wire gauze to the terminals of the coil. E. -. Here is a coil which is operated by currents vibrating with extreme rapidity. I ask. to mention only Spottiswoode and J. Some of the results we find as expected.any of the many experiments which may be performed with alternating currents. only the apparatus is operated somewhat differently. as we are used to expect. I take hold of it. we operate the coil either from a specially constructed alternator capable of giving many thousands of reversals of current per second. is filled with magnificent colors of phosphorescent light. attached to a leading wire is another bulb. either by means of an interrupter or break. the coil is capable of giving any potential which the best insulation of the turns is able to withstand. From the ablest among you. insulated as I stand on this platform.

and close to it. This may be done in many ways -. and even be indifferent as to the anticipated result. had I made the necessary arrangements -. The secondary s of this coil is provided with knobs or spheres K K of the proper size and set at a distance suitable for the experiment. For this purpose I establish between the terminals of the coil which charges the condenser a long. To increase the current of air I place on each side of the arc. supplying the primary P of an induction coil. two currents of a slightly different period.75 may be prepared. the secondary S of which charges the condensers or jars C C. The discharge of this coil appears in the form of powerful brushes and luminous streams issuing from all points of the two straight wires attached to the terminals of the secondary (Fig. if the knobs are of the required size and properly set. which is periodically interrupted by the upward current of air produced by it.) Now compare this phenomenon which you have just witnessed with the discharge of a Holtz or Wimshurst machine -.which could have been made easily. by way of contrast. even the keenest observer among you would find it difficult. The terminals of the secondary are connected to the inside coatings of the jars. which produce in the secondary circuit sparks occurring at comparatively long intervals. even with the means at hand this evening. here is a form of discharge of a coil. Every one is familiar with the discharge of an ordinary coil. and preferably adjusting the discharge circuit so that there are no oscillations set up in it. But. 1. and are accompanied by the same sharp crackling sound. had I the coil hidden from your view and only two knobs exposed. What a difference there is between these phenomena! And yet. yet the aspect of the discharge of the coil will surprise and interest him. I may succeed in imitating the spark of a Holtz machine. as those obtained from a friction or influence machine. But.I could have produced with this coil sparks which. a more or less rapid succession of sparks of great intensity and small quantity. The scheme of connections in the present experiment is indicated in Fig. A long arc is established between the terminals A B of the first induction coil. so dear to the experimenter. if not impossible. to distinguish from those of an influence or friction machine. M M are the mica plates. it need not be reproduced here. This primary p p has a small air gap a b. Another way is to pass through two primary circuits. which possess the same brilliancy. a large plate of mica. The discharge of an ordinary coil appears as a simple line or band of light. which is necessary to produce a sudden rush of current through the primary. unsteady arc. were it not that they would interfere with other experiments -. by operating the induction coil which charges the condenser from an alternating-current machine of very low frequency. the primary current of which is vibrating several hundred thousand times per second. 2. Each time the arc is broken between A and B the jars are quickly charged and . having a common secondary.for instance. We then obtain in the secondary circuit. the outer coatings being connected to the ends of the primary p p of a second induction coil.that other interesting appliance. G is an ordinarily constructed alternator. The condenser charged from this coil discharge into the primary circuit of a second coil through a small air gap.

which we may yet find means to produce efficiently. Indeed. even with frequencies obtained from a dynamo machine. that both phenomena might not be due to the same agent -. the electrical characteristics of the brush discharge would completely vanish -. are produced in the primary P P. and it would lead us too far from the subject presented this evening. but it seems to me desirable to show you one of them. However. a systematic study of the phenomena is rendered mud•1 more easy. Upon the arc forming between A and B the potential falls. and the jars cannot be charged to such high potential as to break through the air gap a b until the arc is again broken by the draught. and again we make other observations of interest. But with such low frequencies we would have to deal always with something of the nature of an electric current. which to the eye appear so very different. We know that the phenomenon is due to the agitation of the molecules near the terminal. In my first paper before referred to I have pointed out the curious properties of the . yet. perhaps. we may observe five distinct forms of discharge. as in the next experiment. and only a little thought leads us to the conclusion that. which are comparatively few in number.no spark would pass. and. and which would resemble in every particular an ordinary flame. or something else besides. intensify the action to such a degree as to bring the terminal to melting heat. we operate it from a high frequency alternator.76 discharged through the Primary p p. In this manner sudden impulses. even with the frequencies used this evening. which I have described in my former paper on the subject* before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 1891. and provided that electric impulses of such high frequencies could be transmitted through a conductor. producing a snapping spark between the knobs K K. It would take too much time. and with the much higher frequencies obtainable by the disruptive discharge of a condenser. as we can augment the energy simply by raising the potential. with incomparably higher frequencies. could we but reach sufficiently high frequencies. perhaps. It is a brush discharge. which is interesting in more than one respect. for instance. are only two of the many discharge phenomena. the sparks show much resemblance to those of a Holtz machine. When.save. at long intervals. save. In such case. but in the broad. We only need to change the conditions of the test. But these two effects. May 20. So. we find that the brush is hot. Viewed from a near position it resembles much a jet of gas escaping under great pressure. As the production of heat and light is here due to the impact of the molecules. if I hold a metallic sphere at some distance above the terminal you may see the whole space between the terminal and sphere illuminated by the streams without the spark passing. which in the secondary s give n corresponding number of impulses of great intensity. the tendency to spark is not very great. to reproduce all these forms. that chemical affinity might not be electrical in its nature. modern interpretation of the word. instead of operating the induction coil as in the last two experiments. we could produce a brush which would give intense light and heat. we might. sparking would not occur even at very small distances. or atoms of air. and we anticipate that some heat must be developed by the impact of the molecules against the terminal or against each other. no shock would be felt -. If the secondary knobs or spheres K K are of the proper size. in varying the strength and frequency of the currents through the primary.yet we would still have to deal with an electric phenomenon. were it not for the sudden impulses. a thin little spark passes. If I approach a conducting object to the brush.

if it be so well insulated as to stand a difference of potential of several thousand volts per turn. because of its absorbing interest. It is. The power of the brushes. often better with one than with two. seem to dart in every possible direction as though the terminals were perfectly independent of each other. as it might introduce many errors. But of all the discharge phenomena observed. ~o do away with the metal covet. is often amazing. such as boiled-out oil. coveted on the outside with zinc sheet Z.in fact. What adds to their interest is that they may be produced with one single terminal as well as with two -. When a coil is operated with currents of very high frequency. the employment of the metal cover offers some practical advantages.77 brush. But even if imperfectly produced. even if the coil be of comparatively small dimensions. to show these discharge phenomena to advantage. beautiful brush effects may be produced. 1891. principally on account of its complex action upon the coil. when accuracy is of great importance. when the terminals of the coil are set at a considerable distance. but these are not of sufficient importance to be dwelt upon. the abundance of the sparks. Immersion in a liquid may be considered almost an absolute necessity for the continued and successful working of such a coil. and. of course. the sparks may be so abundant that the whole coil may appear a complete mass of fire. are those observed with a coil which is operated by means of the disruptive discharge of a condenser. they afford a pleasing sight. As the sparks would soon destroy the insulation it is necessary to prevent them. for the sake of completeness. With even a very small coil. July 11. in an experimental lecture. give a short description of the coil and other apparatus used in the experiments with the disruptive discharge this evening. in a strictly scientific investigation. with only a few minutes at disposal for the performance of each experiment. they are sufficiently striking to interest an intelligent audience. 3) of thick boards of hard wood. if it were nothing else. Curiously enough the sparks. as they are likely to be this evening. * See The Electrical World. It might be advisable. which is carefully soldered all around. . and the most instructive. when the conditions are patiently adjusted. The experimenter may vary them in many ways. out of the question. Before showing some of these curious effects I must. but I have thought it worth while to endeavor to express myself more clearly in regard to this phenomenon. This is best done by immersing the coil in a good liquid insulator. as a condenser of very small capacity and as an electrostatic and electromagnetic screen. the most pleasing to the eye. as to produce each phenomenon at its best a very careful adjustment is required. It is contained in a box B (Fig. and described the best manner of producing it. When the coil is used for such experiments as are here contemplated.

as. One of the changes is that the adjustable knobs A and B (Fig. The construction here shown is. 24 centimetres square.78 The coil should be placed symmetrically to the metal cover. The primary P P is wound in two parts. should be sufficiently remote from the latter. and with the primaries in multiple. upon a wooden spool W. in the primary and secondary circuits. 1:5. the thickness of the insulation. in order to make the field . To avoid this. The ends of the secondary T1 T1 are also led out of the oil through rubber tubes tl tl of great thickness. 24 turns in each. S S. the connection between both being made over the primary. bearing some proportion to the difference of potential between the turns of the different layers.M. upon which are screwed two flanges F F. likewise of hard rubber. and so doing away with the tedious process or frequent polishing up. this gives a ratio of conversion of about 1:2. giving for each half a total of 260 turns. when both of its terminals T1 T1 are connected to bodies or devices of equal capacity -.Fs. sparks will be apt to pass to the primary. If they are mentioned. say. of course. not the best on general principles. The coil consists of two spools of hard rubber R R held apart at a distance of 10 centimetres by bolts c and nuts n. In connection with the coil I use either the ordinary form of discharger or a modified form. This disposition besides being convenient. and produces a strong magnetic field between them. certainly not less than. Each half of the primary has four layers.there is not much danger of breaking through to the primary. When both the parts are connected in series. In using the coil it is advisable to attach to both terminals devices of nearly equal capacity.7. 10 turns in each. and the space between should. but I believe it is a good and convenient one for the production of effects in which are excessive potential and a very small current are needed. of course.4 but in operating with very rapidly alternating currents this ratio does not convey even an approximate idea of the ratio of the E. Where the oil is not specially needed. has the advantage that when the coil is well balanced -. which is placed with its axis at right angles to the line joining the knobs A and B. 4). and 3 millimetres thick. and the insulation between the primary and the secondary need not be thick. but much more if possible. this giving a total of 96 turns. and oppositely. J J. there being about 5 centimetres thickness of oil all round. has 26 layers. of the discharger are held in jaws of brass. especially the two sides of the zinc box. and the four ends are led out of the oil through hard rubber tubes t t. it is only in the hope that some experimenter may find them of use. when the capacity of the terminals is not equal. The pole pieces of the magnet are movable and properly formed so as to protrude between the brass knobs. and which are obvious. The coil is held in position in the oil on wooden supports.that is. as otherwise they might impair its action and be a source of loss. not be too small. The primary and secondary layers are insulated by cotton cloth. this allowing of turning them successively into different positions. In the former I have introduced two changes which secure some advantages. by spring pressure. of course. and for this purpose principally the wooden box B surrounding the whole is used. The two halves are wound oppositely and connected in series. The secondary. but this is not always practicable. The other change consists in the employment of a strong electromagnet N S. Each spool comprises a tube T of approximately 8 centimetres inside diameter. the space between the flanges being about 3 centimetres. the middle point of the secondary may be connected to the primary. of the best gutta percha-covered wire. which are at right angles to the axis of the coil. the space is filled with pieces of wood. five centimeters.

6 and 7. in Fig. thirdly.and a column above. the dielectric strength of a given total width of air space is greater when a great many small air gaps are used instead of one. the Polished surfaces are made to last much longer. a draught or blast of air may be employed with some advantage. On each side one of the screws is for large and the other for small wires. which in such case are insulated and preferably provided with polished brass caps. In another arrangement with the magnet I take the discharge between the rounded pole pieces themselves. 7) to fit the middle portion of the pieces c c. of course. 2 (the knobs a b being generally joined. When a magnet is employed to break the arc. First. By taking any number of spaces the experimenter has a rough idea of the electromotive force. In this case the arc is preferably established between the knobs A B. with planed grooves g g (Fig. as he has not the trouble of setting the knobs again and again. of the arc being replaced by a vacuum tube. but to prevent the discharge from jumping to thc magnet the pole pieces are protected by a layer of mica. and is easily affected by the draught.which is merely used to fasten the piece in a lathe when polishing up the discharging surface -. of sufficient thickness. The use of the magnet permits. each of which comprises a spherical middle portion m with an extension e below -. and the magnetic field exercises a greater influence. It should. Instead of the magnet. which permits of working with a smaller length of air gap.79 as intense as possible. and the fundamental discharges occur in quicker succession. and he finds it easier to repeat an experiment. L L are screws for fixing in position the rods R R. I usually set the pieces by putting between them sheets of uniform thickness at a certain very small distance which is known from the experiments of Sir William Thomson to require a certain electromotive force to be bridged by the spark. or entirely done away with). secondly by reason of splitting the arc up into smaller arcs. serve to clamp the latter and hold them firmly in position by means of two bolts C C (of which only one is shown) passing through the ends of the strips. In the use of this kind of discharger I have found three principal advantages over the ordinary form. It consists of a number of brass pieces c c (Fig. which consists of a knurled flange f surmounted by a threaded stem I carrying a nut n. as in this disposition the arc is long and unsteady. sl sl and s2 s2 are screws for fastening the wires. With this kind of discharger I have been able to maintain an oscillating motion without any spark being visible with the naked eye . and also for turning it in any position when it becomes necessary to present a fresh discharging surface. by means of which a wire is fastened to the column. In such a case the number of the fundamental discharges between the knobs may be so small as to render the currents produced in the secondary unsuitable for many experiments. be remembered that the sparking distance is much diminished as the frequency is increased. Two stout strips of hard rubber R R. 6). as in this case the currents forming the arc are much more powerful. however. The flange f conveniently serves for holding the brass piece when fastening the wire. and. The other form of discharger used in these and similar experiments is indicated in Figs. it is better to choose the connection indicated diagrammatically in Fig 5. the apparatus affords some gauge in the experiments. which support the knobs. The employment of an intense magnetic field is of advantage principally when the induction coil or transformer which charges the condenser is operated by currents of very low frequency. The intense magnetic field than serves to blow out the arc between the knobs as soon as it is formed. but I have encountered great difficulties in working with an exhausted tube. M M. and that means smaller loss and less deterioration of the metal.

the arc as soon as established was broken by the air current. My opinion is that the heat as well as light effects produced should be proportionate. whatever it may be. would be exceedingly difficult. calculable. at any rate. We would then be simply using burners or flames. in which the discharge surfaces were rotated with great speed. thus starting the vibration at intervals in rapid succession. I have also used mechanical interrupters in many ways. necessary to adjust carefully the capacity of the jars. In the preceding experiment it is of considerable interest to know what relation the quantity of the light emitted bears to the frequency and potential of the electric impulses. heavily coated with some insulating compound. in which there would be no chemical process. and in cases when. consisting of two small adjustable metal plates. No particular advantage was. This form of discharge also lends itself to many arrangements of condensers and circuits which are often very convenient and timesaving. or ends. I have used it preferably in a disposition similar to that indicated in Fig. which may even be very thick. I may here mention that I have also used dischargers with single or multiple air gaps. but the experimental verification of the law. the experimenter gains at once an idea from a rough trial. except in cases where the currents from the condenser were large and the keeping cool of the surfaces was necessary. the length of the wires is about right. to the product of frequency and square of potential. or other interrupter. Upon turning the lights off in the room you see the wires strongly illuminated by the streams issuing abundantly from their whole surface in spite of the cotton covering. The conducting cover should not be too near the terminals. and they would not show a very appreciable rise in temperature. unless the self-induction. of the wire. capacity and resistance are so related that there are oscillations set up upon each interruption. They are supported on insulating cords at a distance of about 30 centimetres. in connection with this and similar experiments. One thing is certain. My experience is that calculation of the length of the wires leads.this preferably extending under the surface of the oil. I attach now to each of the terminals of the coil one of the wires and set the coil in action. gained by this method. the arc between the knobs and the length of the wires. of course. to no result whatever. however. produces an effect worth noticing. though it may be very sanguine. and. it is surely not altogether hopeless to expect that we may succeed in producing a practical illuminant on these lines. and provided with n conducting covering -. the discharge not being oscillating of itself. however. and then adjust by cutting off first long pieces. in such case. as a spark would be apt to jump from the wire to it. and which . To avoid the difficulties with frictional contacts. The size of the plates in oil is. it should be an oil condenser by all means. but merely a transfer of energy. and that is. To produce the best result it is. I have stretched across the room two ordinary cotton covered wires. the light from the wires is sufficiently intense to allow distinguishing the objects in a room. under otherwise equal conditions of test. that in augmenting the potential and frequency we rapidly intensify the streams. that the employment of a magnet. A convenient way is to use an oil condenser of very small capacity. when the currents forming the arcs are small. When a condenser is used in connection with experiments with such a coil. as the dielectric losses are very small. if they diminish the wires are too long for that frequency and potential. As to the size of the vessel containing the oil and the site of the plates. The conducting coating is used to diminish the air losses. The wires leading to the plates in the oil should be very thin. of course. in virtue of its action as an electrostatic screen. and then smaller and smaller ones as he approaches the right length. each about 7 metres in length. as in using an air condenser considerable energy might be wasted. no consumption of material. When the experiment is performed under good conditions. The experimenter will do best to take the wires at the start very long. If the streams for the wires increase by approach of the plates. the Preferred plan adopted was to establish the arc and rotate through it at great speed a rim of mica provided with many holes and fastened to a steel plate. air current. It is understood.80 between the knobs. 2. In such case I take wires rather short and set at the beginning the condenser plates at maximum distance. I will now endeavor to show you some of the most noteworthy of these discharge phenomena.

of hard rubber (Fig. and the wires become so strongly luminous that.81 would. owing to the harmonic rise and fall. is a tinfoil coating t t. by varying the strength and frequency of the currents through the primary. and in the dark one-half of the brass sphere is strongly illuminated.at least. a luminous hollow cone is formed. The wires may be bare or covered with the best insulation -. are preferable. upon which I have glued two very thin wires w w. 9). when the light in the room is turned off the name formed by them appears in brilliant letters. In order to intensify the streams. al the same time. so as to form a name. This may be shown by the following experiment: I attach to one of the terminals of the coil a wire w (Fig. the streams are very uniform. but much less satisfactorily. the surface of the wire being preferably equal to the surface of the sphere. and the centre of the latter being in a line at right angles to the plane of the wire circle and passing through its centre. Here. It is now easy. to find a point at which the capacity of the system is best suited to the conditions. It is perhaps preferable to perform this experiment with a coil operated from an alternator of high frequency. as shown in the cut. indicated by the shaded portion. but as in this case their capacity would be generally too small for the coil . and to the other terminal I fasten a small brass sphere s. When the discharge is established under proper conditions. for such a one as the present -. in all probability emit more light and less heat than ordinary flames. 8). however. though they are less abundant than when produced with such a coil as the present.it is immaterial for the success of the experiment. it is easy to concentrate the streams upon small surfaces and to produce very strong light effects. Two thin wires may thus be rendered intensely luminous. This experiment.it is necessary to augment the capacity to the required value. The two tinfoil coatings I have joined by a conductor C. On the back of each plate. may be performed with low frequencies. I have two plates R R. considerably increased when they are focused upon a small surface. for instance. This may be done in many ways. and the two wires I presently connect to the terminals of the coil. . By some artifice or other. The luminous intensity of the streams is. as then. bent in a circle of about 30 centimetres in diameter. the surface of the wires remains very small. the wires should be very thin and short. Well-insulated wires. of course. while. The plates are placed in line at a sufficient distance to prevent a spark passing from one to the other wire. if anything.

you see the whole space between the wires uniformly filled with streams. by reason of its very high frequency. forming a luminous disc. The frequency of the vibration. the circle has been taken smaller. the dense air would break down as in a lightning discharge. The outer circle could have been much larger than the present one.then the luminous streams formed are perfectly uniform. and the streams consist of distinct threads. generally mingled with thin sparks.43 square metre. I take two tubes of thick Bohemian glass. which is a remarkable effect with this very small coil. which render luminous the air at ordinary pressures. the air gives way in more or less the same manner. the oil reaching about an inch above the tubes. a high potential is likewise required. When the frequency is very low. the primaries preferably in multiple arc. with this coil I have used much larger circles. and the quickness of succession of the sparks between the knobs. and the area is how about 0. but may look forward quite seriously to the possibility of obtaining the light effects without the use of any vessel whatever. The two secondaries I connect in series. I have purposely dwelt upon this apparently insignificant experiment. If the frequency were very low or even more so. such as eruptions at the sun's surface. as by a steady difference of potential. The tubes are then placed in a large glass vessel. C and c (Fig. are set at the proper distance. attached to the terminals of the coil. On the top of each tube I wind a secondary of much thinner gutta-percha covered wire. but the discharge traverses. like the ordinary discharge through a moderately exhausted tube. we need not limit our research to the vacuum tube. I have no doubt that if. To each of the terminals of the coil I attach one of the circles. the streams between them may be so intense as to produce a continuous luminous sheet. one being about 80 centimetres and the other 30 centimetres in diameter. and I have been able to produce a strongly luminous sheet. The supporting wires are so bent that the circles may be placed in the same plane. which set the electrostatic charge of the earth in an extremely rapid vibration the red glow observed is not confined to the upper rarefied strata of the air. about 5 centimetres in diameter and 20 centimetres long. on insulating supports. the aurora borealis is produced by sudden cosmic disturbances. Indications of such breaking down of the lower dense strata of the air have been repeatedly observed at the occurrence of this marvelous . Two four-pint jars joined in series may be used to discharge through the primary. as many believe. and the vessel is filled with boiled out oil. When the necessary adjustments in the length and distance of the wires above the oil and in the arc of discharge are made. To avoid uncertainty. such is the intensity of the streams. with air at ordinary pressure. which could be seen from a considerable distance.82 When two wires. in endeavoring to discover novel methods of producing light by the agitation of atoms. such as we ordinarily produce in a slightly exhausted tube. When the light in the room is turned off and the coil set to work. But when the frequency is extremely high. of rather stout wire. or molecules. in fact. we have probably often occasion to witness in Nature. no particular degree of exhaustion is needed. and the arc of the discharge produces a very loud but smooth sound -showing both that oscillation takes place and that the sparks succeed each other with great rapidity -. 10). a luminous sheet is produced between the wires. but this is a merely incidental necessity. to pass ordinary luminous discharges through gases. of a gas. In trials of this kind the experimenter arrives at the startling conclusion that. To accomplish this. To show this phenomenon I have here two circles. but that the gas may be at ordinary or even greater pressure. coinciding as nearly as possible. which is perfectly smooth and textureless. To reach this result very small coils and jars of small capacity should be used. The ends which are scraped should be dipped in the oil. also the dense .atmosphere in the form of a glow. a very high frequency is essential. These experiments teach us that. affect to a marked degree the appearance of the streams. covering an area of more than one square metre. if the charge were not at all vibrating. at a distance of l0 to 15 centimetres from each other. In each of the tubes I slip a primary of very thick copper wire. The free ends of the secondary are lifted out of the oil and placed parallel to each other at a distance of about 10 centimetres. which probably correspond to the successive discharges occurring between the knobs. Such discharges of very high frequency.

With a coil not widely differing from the present. jumps from the terminal only upon the hand being brought much nearer.or. the streams become white. It occurs under these conditions that misty white streams break forth from the edges of the discs and spread out phantom-like into space. but if the secondary should have a much greater number of turns the primaries should preferably be used in series. In the experiment before shown with the two wires across the room. causing a shock. Fig. so that the brush discharge cannot form anywhere except on the small spheres or plates which are exposed to the air. but if it does occur. there is a corresponding throbbing of the streams. I have worked with a great electric density. the superimposed vibrations probably pass unnoticed. the coil is capable of an extremely rapid vibration. vibration. In this case. A most curious form of discharge is observed with such a coil when the frequency and potential are pushed to the extreme limit. If the molecules of the air around a wire are moderately agitated. if there are any. it can only be attributed to thc fundamental disturbances. When the hand is held against them no sensation is produced. the gas changes to a white color. for the vibration produced by them would be far too rapid to allow a disruptive break. and the ends of the secondary reaching out of the oil are covered with an airtight cover of hard rubber of great thickness. as otherwise the vibration might be too fast for the secondary. When an ordinary low frequency discharge is passed through moderately rarefied air. The coil here used immersed in oil. as far as the experimenter judges proper. the air assumes a purplish hue. in the experiment with the thin wires glued on the rubber plate I have concentrated the action upon a very small surface -. It is the original and irregular impulses which affect the instruments. every part of the coil should be heavily insulated. All cracks. or atomic. .in other words. since there are no large plates or other bodies of capacity attached to the terminals. which are few in number. I have endeavored to secure the result by pushing to a high value both the frequency and potential. the rate of change of the primary current. and now the hand or other conducting object may be brought in still greater proximity to the terminal without a spark being caused to jump.should be exposed to the air. better still.83 phenomenon. 11) of no mote than a few centimetres in diameter -. The potential may be raised by increasing. two sharp-edged metal discs (d d. and only two small spheres -. We may accomplish this in various ways. and a spark. If the oscillation of the primary current is rendered intermittent by some means or other. when fairly well produced. they are about 25 to 30 centimetres long. To perform the experiment. the brush formed is reddish or violet. if the vibration is rendered sufficiently intense. A similar change occurs at ordinary pressures with electric impulses of very high frequency. it is best to connect the two primaries in multiple arc. should be carefully stopped up. With this coil. If by some means or other we increase the intensity of the molecular.

which a disruptive discharge coil is capable of exciting in innumerable cases where ordinary coils. the interest excited in it has been considerable. boiling the coil a long time in pure wax. Considering its probable uses for many practical purposes. and lead us to some conclusions of interest. so as to keep the coil well balanced. it seems that the presence of a large body of wax affects the coil disadvantageously. and the surfaces of both being preferably equal. of course. The advantage of such a coil is that it can be easily handled. Besides. Quite recently Siemens performed some experiments in which fine effects were obtained. and its possible introduction into laboratories for scientific research. Early experimenters describe the display of sparks produced by an ordinary large induction coil upon an insulating plate separating the terminals. by far. It affords us a means for producing any potentials by the aid of inexpensive coils operated from ordinary systems of distribution. but present no particular feature of novelty. or a mass of loud brilliant sparks. To give an idea. Perhaps it is because the dielectric losses in the liquid are smaller. equal the magnificent display of streams and sparks obtained from such a disruptive discharge coil when properly adjusted. But the largest coil ever made could not. a coil such as the present one will cover easily a plate of 1 metre in diameter completely with the streams. a few additional remarks as to the construction of such a coil will perhaps not be found superfluous.84 Among the many beautiful phenomena which may be produced with such a coil I have here selected only those which appear to possess some features of novelty. The washer and ring should be connected to the terminals by heavily insulated thin wires. whereas this does not seem to be the case with oil. . even the largest. One will not find it at all difficult to produce in the laboratory. even if operated with currents of low frequencies. in my paper before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at the beginning of the past year.it enables us to convert currents of any frequency into currents of any other lower or higher frequency.what is perhaps more appreciated-. but it cannot probably give as satisfactory results as a coil immersed in pure oil. and on the other a circular washer. absolutely necessary to employ in such a coil wires provided with the best insulation. Good coils may be produced by employing wires covered with several layers of cotton. and cooling under moderate pressure. The best way to perform such experiments is to take a very thin rubber or a glass plate and glue on one side of it a narrow ring of tinfoil of very large diameter. No doubt large coils. It is easy in observing the effect of the capacity to produce a sheet of uniform streams. But its chief value will perhaps be found in the help which it will afford us in the investigations of the phenomena of phosphorescence. It is. would utterly fail. or a fine network of thin silvery threads. by means of it. Since I have advanced the idea of the conversion by means of the disruptive discharge. which were seen by many with interest. are capable of producing beautiful effects. many other phenomena which appeal to the eye even more than these here shown. which completely cover the plate. the centre of the latter coinciding with that of the ring. and -.

I would only imply different adjustments. so easy that they could be hardly called engineering feats. and covered with closely fitting metal sheets.air bubbles which are caught by inserting the primary. This feature may be easily observed with an ordinary induction coil by taking the primary out. Between the layers I use cloth boiled out thoroughly in oil. In a condenser especially the gaseous matter must be most carefully expelled. the oil begins to circulate. The air is most completely excluded. looking from the top through the oil. a breaking through and injury of the apparatus would be inevitable. and this advantage should be secured at any price. and if the potentials are high. the more so as a blowhole is apt to contain gas at low pressure. until the bubbles are dispersed and the luminous points disappear. we not only observe phenomena which please our eye. On the top two small holes are drilled. There seems not to be a very great difference whatever kind of oil is used. however. if all gaseous matter were carefully excluded. gutta-percha will withstand much more than an equal thickness of oil. whereas. when subjected to rapidly changing electric stresses. no matter how thick. should remain between the turns. I have dwelt at some length upon the various forms of brush discharge because. the only effect being a moderate warming up of the oil. the results aimed at would not be materially affected. 12 and the secondary No. passing through the metal sheet and the wood. generally long before any injurious break can occur. many luminous points -. but if we employ an oil as an insulator the distribution of electrical energy with something like 100. is not practicable. and is provided with a stopcock. and even more. In this manner. carrying some of the air along with it. When a fairly good vacuum has been obtained. The latter tube has a very small hole at the bottom. of course. for in it the charged surfaces are near each other. which proved most satisfactory. 24 Brown & Sharpe gauge wire. beats it. by its impact against the oil. or in a condenser.000 volts. just as sure as a weight will fall if let go. Unless a special method is followed to expel all air. in studying them. the brush discharge is a source of great danger to the insulation. the latter is closed with a strong lid. is the following: Construct a box of hard wood of very thick boards which have been for a long time boiled in oil. When the coil is set to work one may see. and lead us to conclusions of practical importance. an excellent way to proceed. The occluded air. and diffuse them through its mass. but also afford us food for thought. The coil being placed and fastened in position within the box. it is much safer to use the first kind. but I have been gradually led to use guttapercha covered wires. which. With oil insulation and alternate current motors transmissions of power can be effected with safety and upon an industrial basis at distances of as much as a thousand miles. but they are not to be had. In the use of alternating currents of very high tension. so the insulation will give way if a single gaseous bubble of some site be present. it should never be taken out of the oil for more than a few hours. be the best to employ for the primaries. when gutta-percha coated wires are used. Guttapercha is probably slowly attacked by the oil. is a great disadvantage when extreme frequencies are desired. but the sections maybe varied considerably. which are the principal danger. A primary of s diameter something like six millimetres smaller than the inside of the tube may be inserted in the oil. the stopcock is opened and the oil slowly fed in. to the capacity of the coil. the joints of which are soldered very carefully. Strands of very thin insulated wires properly interlaced would. In an experimental coil the size of the wires is not of great importance. Gutta-percha insulation adds. especially if the coil be large. A peculiar property of oils. For the primaries I use ordinary line wire with thick cotton coating. One of the tubes is connected to a vacuum pump and the other with a vessel containing a sufficient quantity of boiled-out oil. and easily practicable with small coils. I have obtained in commerce two kinds of gutta-percha wire: in one the insulation sticks tightly to the metal. is to disperse any gaseous bubbles whid•1 may be present. Once the coil has been immersed. The exclusion of gaseous matter from any apparatus in which the dielectric is subjected to more or less rapidly . it is impossible that any big bubbles. and in these holes two small glass tubes are inserted and the joints made air-tight. but. in an induction coil or transformer. and which ate rendered luminous in consequence of the violent bombardment. too much precaution cannot be taken to prevent the brush discharge. A main conveying alternating currents of very high tension may be injured merely by a blowhole or small crack in the insulation. If. The boards should be so joined as to safely withstand the external air pressure. were used. else the gutta-percha will crack up and the coil will not be worth half as much as before. The cost is a great drawback. a solid insulation. I am led to believe that in our future distribution of electrical energy by currents of very high tension liquid insulation will be used. such as paraffin oil. become. In the coil here used the primary is No. In a main conveying such currents. I wind the coil within an oil tank so that all interstices are filled up with the oil. unless large bubbles are occluded in such way that circulation is rendered impossible. and as it appears almost impossible to completely obviate such little imperfections. To exclude more perfectly the air. but after an immersion of eight to nine months I have found no ill effects. Proceeding in this manner. the condenser would safely withstand a much higher difference of potential. I use paraffin or linseed oil. and fining it with some fairly transparent insulator. plugging up the end of the tube upon which the secondary is wound. in the other it does not. at least with higher frequencies. a damaging break is averted. probably better than by boiling out. and this. of course. and liquid insulation in general.85 I have tried at first silk and cotton covered wires with oil immersion. instead of the liquid. calculating the thickness according to the difference of potential between the turns. on the other hand.

When high frequencies are used. as the machine might be injured. but also on account of economy. the molecules are free to move. and the energy of their impact is lost in heat or otherwise. in regard to the general manipulation of induction coils. If capacity is added to the terminals. The first thing. by all means a bulb having no leading-in wire should be used. unless the force be very great. One may use a condenser connected to the ends of the primary or to the terminals of the alternator. of course. it is of equal importance to combine a condenser with the primary. a stronger current passed now. the capacity of the condenser formed counteracted the self-induction of the secondary. I think it best at this juncture to bring before you a phenomenon. the primaries on the top. though it be of aluminium. but in a gas the displacement. and is capable of giving currents of a frequency of about 10. I make the primary on each side at least one centimetre shorter than the secondary. and the discharge was by far more powerful. In most of the succeeding experiments I prefer. The latter I provide with a handle reaching out of the oil. When the plates of wire gauze were close together. When the primary is made movable. I cover the secondary with wax. To one entirely unacquainted with the properties of alternating currents nothing will look more puzzling. 12 and 13. the loss is small. will be found in several electrical journals of that period. not only desirable in order to avoid a possible injury of the apparatus. and many times convenient for the purposes of adjustment. which serves to shift it in any position along the secondary. to prevent the breaking through on the ends. the self-induction is counteracted. the displacement due to the force is made smaller. sufficient to enable any engineer to build a similar machine. containing from 5. the brush has but an ephemeral existence. In studying one phenomenon. May 20. the coil performed more work.in fact. which would surely occur unless the insulation on the top of the secondary be very thick. If Leyden jars are used. The condenser should be adjustable by very small steps. the arc prevented a strong current from passing through the secondary. they reach high speeds. and a small arc passed between them. They are immersed in boiled-out linseed oil. this allowing the use of a much bigger primary. This machine has been illustrated and briefly described in my first paper before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. would be disadvantageous. and are even now often overlooked. which. a single terminal in high vacuum. to which I have already referred.000 turns in the secondary. which to the purely scientific investigator may perhaps appear more interesting than any of the results which I have the privilege to present to you this evening. and cannot. and may be so even when the terminals ate joined by a conductor of small resistance. It has 384 pole projections. of course. or near. In a condenser. If the gas be strongly compressed. to employ the alternator before referred to. for instance. It may be quite properly ranked among the brush phenomena -. unfortunately. which is necessary in some experiments.000 to 15. and this. and to adjust its capacity so as to annul the self-induction of both the latter.86 changing electric forces is. a few observations bearing upon points which have not been fully appreciated in earlier experiments with such coils. This feature was illustrated in the experiment performed at the beginning with the top plates of wire gauze attached to the terminals and the rubber plate. however. 1831. The secondary of the coil possesses usually such a high self-induction that the current through the wire is inappreciable. formed at. and. even in a bulb devoid of any conducting electrode. In bulbs provided with a conducting terminal. . in operating the induction coil is to combine capacity with the secondary to overcome the selfinduction. The best way is undoubtedly to use the condenser in series with the primary and with the alternator. as long as only a solid or only a liquid dielectric is used. therefore. and turn it off in a lathe to a diameter slightly smaller than the inside of the primary coil. chiefly on account of the regular and positive action. but the latter is not to be recommended. I have found it advantageous to reverse the usual position of the wires. and a stronger current is made to flow through the secondary. they should be immersed in oil. I have found it best to use bulbs constructed as indicated in Figs. but if a gas under ordinary or small pressure be present the loss may be very great. it seems that in a solid or liquid the molecular displacement produced by the force is small: hence the product of force and displacement is insignificant. The induction coils operated from the machine are rather small. and for a finer adjustment a small oil condenser with movable plates may be used conveniently. contained in wooden boxes covered with zinc sheet. If the frequencies and potentials are very high gaseous matter should be carefully kept away from the charged surfaces. because it did away with the capacity on the terminals. when the rubber plate was inserted between. reduces the danger of overheating and increases the output of the coil. it is a brush. Whatever the nature of the force acting in the dielectric may be. This is one of the several machines constructed by me for the purposes of these investigations. though its terminals are insulated from each other.000 per second. as otherwise considerable dissipation may occur if the jars are greatly strained. this product is considerable. be indefinitely preserved in its most sensitive state. and to wind. then. I will now venture to make. and the losses are reduced. A more detailed description. in these coils. observed by me some time ago.

to act by induction upon the gas contained in the globe L. as indicated in the drawing. The small hollow sphere s is filled with some conducting powder. To excite it. the neck n is provided with a tinfoil coating. as in such a bulb it very soon disappears -. 15 and 16 indicate different forms. It is of advantage to make the tube t very thick. in the neck of which is sealed a barometer tube 6. the end of which is blown out to form a small sphere s. The construction shown in Fig. and a wire w is cemented in the neck for the purpose of connecting the conducting powder with the generator. 12 and 13) is exhausted to a very high degree. sealed to it. 13 was chosen in order to remove from the brush any conducting body which might possibly affect it. of the brush. 14. Fig. The bulb consists in this case of a lamp globe L. generally the bulb is not excited upon connecting the wire w (Fig. so that two entirely independent compartments are formed.often after a few minutes -. When the bulb is in use. 14 shows the brush as it first appears in a bulb provided with a conducting terminal: but. of aluminium sheet. This sphere should be sealed as closely as possible in the centre of the large globe. Figs. the hole through it very small.87 In Fig. but it is not important to employ it. which has a neck n. and to blow the sphere s very thin. provided with a tube b and small sphere s. or stages. which is connected to the generator and acts inductively upon the moderately rarefied and highly conducting gas enclosed in the neck. From there the current passes through the tube b into the small sphere s. a thin tube t. 12 the bulb comprises an incandescent lamp globe L. It is of the greatest importance that the sphere J be placed in the centre of the globe L. may be slipped in the barometer tube. An intense phosphorescence then spreads at . 13) to the terminal of the induction coil. it is usually sufficient to grasp the globe L with the hand.I will confine myself to the description of the phenomenon as seen in a bulb without conducting electrode. It is observed under the following conditions: When the globe L (Figs. Before sealing. 12) or the tinfoil coating of the bulb (Fig.

would speak for this view. In such case it would turn at any point of the earth's surface. That the formation of the stream is due to an irregularity is apparent from the fact that it has the tendency to remain in one position. I think the brush would not form. The rotation may be reversed by a magnet kept at some distance. The sensitiveness is likewise affected by the variations of temperature. The sphere s should be small and of uniform thickness. I think it is due to thc electrostatic action of the globe and the dissymmetry of the parts. or to the action of the field produced by one of the elements upon the other. it is affected by a magnet and at a certain stage it is susceptible to magnetic influence to an astonishing degree. It very likely rotates. and if he walks around the bulb it will always keep on the opposite side. 16. and rotation occurs most generally only when it is brought out of this position by electrostatic or magnetic influence. 16. this rotation in one direction may be due to the action of two elements of the same current upon each other. but it cannot be reversed by putting the bulb in any position. The brush rotates best. which retards the rotation. any dissymmetry of course has the effect to diminish the sensitiveness. and all objects being remote from it. when it is at right angles to the lines of force of the earth. the rotation is always clockwise. as far as I could observe. as in a series motor. As to the causes of the formation of the brush or stream. When the bulb hangs with the globe L down. on the other hand. days or weeks. My explanation is. Changing either of these but little will generally stop the rotation. without necessarily one impulse being stronger than the other. according as the bulb is worked. Of course.000 times a second. If the small bulb s and the globe L were perfect concentric spheres. but soon gives place to a white. I think I have observed that at the stage when it is most sensitive to magnetic. When it begins to turn around principally. that the electrostatic attraction between the brush and the glass of the bulb. and the glass throughout of the same thickness and quality. and one must assume the preponderance of impulses of one kind. it is not most sensitive to electrostatic. The fact that the brush rotates in a definite direction in a permanent magnetic field seems to show that in alternating currents of very high frequency the positive and negative impulses are not equal. hours. but also before. misty light. From this stage the phenomenon will gradually pass to that indicated in Fig. slowing down or accelerating the rotation according to how it is held relatively to the brush. it may be brought to a state of extreme sensitiveness to electrostatic and magnetic influence. Warming the bulb or increasing the potential hastens the transit. will affect it visibly at a distance of two metres. Shortly afterward one may notice that the luminosity is unevenly distributed in the globe. as otherwise the electrostatic action of the glass of the globe will tend to stop the rotation. The fact that the brush turns. in synchronism with the alternations. A small permanent magnet. when at its maximum speed. The rotation can be slowed down or accelerated by the approach or receding of the observer or any conducting body. It may begin to spin around the terminal long before it reaches that sensitive stage. with its poles at a distance of no more than two centimetres. after some minutes. seemingly. But. it is then hard to explain why a permanent magnet should reverse the rotation. in any position. When it is in the state of the highest sensitiveness and the potential or frequency be varied the sensitiveness is rapidly diminished. as the tendency to pass would be equal on all sides. influence. In the southern hemisphere it would occur in the opposite direction and on the equator the brush should not turn at all. When in an extremely sensitive state it rests in one position.88 first over the globe. grows much quicker than the magnetic influence when the intensity of the stream is increased. and after passing the current for some time the bulb appears as in Fig. the approach of the observer at a few paces from the bulb will cause the brush to fly to the opposite side. The bulb hanging straight down from a wire. 15. but that one always preponderates over the other. most curious . When the brush assumes the form indicated in Fig. say 10. To attain great sensitiveness it is necessary to have the small sphere s in the centre of the globe L.

or if. and the apparent rotation of the latter was. for the first time. and he may cause the brush to pass off by merely stiffening the muscles of the arm. for in these experiments. and even with alternating currents of very low frequency. will prove a valuable aid in the investigation' of the nature of the forces acting in 2n electrostatic or magnetic field. approach the hand at a certain considerable distance to the bulb. But if one of the opposite surfaces is screened. since its sensitiveness may be so great that the slightest changes will affect it. For this purpose I mounted a light mica fan so that its vanes were in the path of the brush. quite the opposite rule holds good. and greatly affect the flow of the current through the primary. although I tried the experiment repeatedly. it rotates best with a steady potential. In such case. for instance. With a steady potential. or even by a steady potential. never quite satisfactory. thereby diminishing the potential. The experimenter may bring his body in contact with the terminals of the secondary of the coil. be omitted and simply a thickness of insulating material fastened to one of the sides of the fan. we may use the "electric" radiometer with similar effect. the critical capacity is very small. such as bulbs. If it were possible to make the stream more intense and very narrow. It is. and the wire is vibrated when the experimenter brings his insulated body in contact with the other terminal of the coil. although every other of these phenomena can be tell produced by it -. but that by connecting the other terminal of the coil with an insulated body it rises to a much greater value. When it begins to rotate slowly. it would not turn. in which a brush appears at a wire attached to one terminal. in which case it would be still more sensitive to magnetic influence. and close to it. This curious observation was made conjointly by Professor Crookes and myself. an insulated metal plate. there remains the repulsion exerted upon the other. and the hands are held at a proper distance. it is very easy to adjust the conditions so that the potential is normally not sufficient to turn the fan. the experimenter may. the repulsion would be equal on the opposite sides. with any speed. of . when the air is highly conducting. we realize with astonishment. the fan may be placed upon the terminal and it will readily rotate when the coil is operated by currents of very high frequency. the sudden rise of potential was made evident. in fact. When the coil is set to work. so to speak. a beam of light. the bombardment on this side is weakened in some wag or other. fastened to a needle and arranged to rotate freely in a metal piece screwed to one of the terminals of the coil. it is impossible to make even the slightest motion without producing a visible effect upon the brush. the molecules of which then do not act as independent carriers of electric charges. and it is likewise possible to stop the rotation by connecting to the terminal a body of different size. slowing down the rotation often to one turn a second. the molecules of the air are rhythmicallv attracted and repelled. of course. I could produce no distinct rotation of the fan. but as the fan exerted a noticeable influence on the stream. With a pin wheel. such a brush ought to reveal it. consequently. The screening is best effected by fastening upon one of the opposing sides of the fan insulated conducting coatings. so as to rotate the fan. by fastening on one side. I think that it may find practical applications in telegraphy. and need be but slightly varied to produce a very considerable change. smaller bombardment.89 experiments may be performed with it. frictionless. the experiment did not appear to be conclusive. the great importance of the relation of capacity.many. or whether there is simply a stress traveling around in the bulb. in this case. generally speaking. I have been unable to produce the phenomenon with the disruptive discharge coil. I have here a little light fan of aluminium sheet. A metal plate connected to the other terminal of the coil affects it at a great distance. but act all together as a single conducting body. but in the latter case it might turn if the potential were excessive. and the fan is set in rotation. since the self-induction and frequency both are high. If there is any motion which is measurable going on in the space. Instead of using the fan in this experiment. I may show you the behavior of the coil in another manner which possesses a feature of some interest. In the experiment before shown. But in this case it will be found that the vanes will rotate only at high exhaustion or at ordinary pressures. or attach to one or both terminals insulated bodies of very small bulk. it results that there is repulsion exerted on the surfaces of the fan. self-induction and frequency as regards the general result. its deflections could be easily photographed. devoid of inertia. and the effort is the smaller the higher the frequency. try selecting a proper position. and would produce no effect. much better than with coils operated from an alternator. they will not rotate at moderate pressures. As the force with which they are repelled is greater than that with which they are attracted. If the stream itself was rotating the fan would be spun around. It may be possible to produce the brush by impulses of one direction. With such a brush it would be possible to send dispatches across the Atlantic. I am firmly convinced that such a brush. To show the behavior of the coil. The static screen may however. For instance. or. The effects of capacity are the most striking. because of the very slow exchange of air and. and he may produce a considerable rise or fall of potential. I attribute the result to the high conductivity of the air. If the fan were made simply of a metal sheet. when we learn how to produce it properly. if the fan is made in the shape of an ordinary propeller screw. Now. I have been interested to find whether there is a rotation of the stream itself. In operating an induction coil with rapidly alternating currents.

and a freely movable copper disc in proximity to the latter. If he touches the free terminal with an object held in the . created n moving field of force. In a type of alternate current motor invented by me some years ago I produced rotation by inducing. but it is not essential to the operation. must remain an open question. being that there must be a true time lag in the magnetization of the core. 17). I have. and leading thought in trying the experiment. To demonstrate a novel and interesting feature. now well known. I remember the pleasure I had when. whether the retardation is due to eddy currents circulating in minute paths. that is to say. then. What I wish to show you is that this motor rotates with one single connection between it and the generator. secondary currents. self-induction. and close to it a secondary coil. A simple but crude form of such a motor is obtained by winding upon an iron core a primary. the iron core is made to encircle the armature. repel its lines as it may. jointly with the primary or inducing current. instead of passing off from the conducting vanes. In trying the preceding experiment with the electric radiometer the potential should not exceed a certain limit. which I desire to perform. Whether there is a true time lag. which means that in that experiment the magnet may not rotate. the secondary coil is made to overlap partly the primary.90 course. that rotation is produced by means of a single coil and cote. Once more to improve. by means of a single alternating current passed through a motor circuit. joining the ends of the latter and placing a freely movable metal disc within the influence of the field produced by both. to mention that in lag or phase motors I have produced rotation in the opposite direction to the moving field.the other terminals of motor and generator being insulated in space. It is possible. In many respects this feature is of great interest. or may even rotate in the opposite direction to the moving disc. however. it must be very small. To improve the motor. in the mass or other circuits of the motor. in the writings of Professor Ayrton.in this case the secondary of a high-tension induction coil -. is a motor (diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. however. Here. The experimenter's body is more than sufficient. I had discovered. that the result is in part due to the fact that the greater part of the discharge passes from the leading-in wire through the highly conducting gas. When the ends of the coil are connected to the terminals of an alternator the disc is set in rotation. Again to improve. in conjunction with the historical Arago experiment. for a reason which I will explain. so that it cannot free itself from a strong inductive action of thc latter. the proper difference of phase is obtained between the primary and secondary currents by a condenser. comprising a coil and iron core. which came later to my hand. The iron core is employed for obvious reasons. resistance or equivalent windings. selected this type of motor. To produce rotation it is generally (but not absolutely) necessary to connect the free end of the motor coil to an insulated body of some size. as then the electrostatic attraction between the vanes and the glass of the bulb may be so great as to stop the rotation. capable of setting an armature: in rotation. if there is any repulsion at all of the molecules from the vanes. A most curious feature of alternate currents of high frequencies and potentials is that they enable us to perform many experiments by the use of one wire only. my explanation of the phenomenon.It is of some interest. but the fact is that a coil wound upon an iron core and traversed by an alternating current creates a moving field of force. one terminal of the motor is connected to one terminal of the generator -. I found the idea of the time lag advocated. But it is not this experiment. which.

There is no doubt that with the enormous potentials obtainable by the Use of high frequencies and oil insulation luminous discharges might be passed through many miles of rarefied air. however. In this instance one of the motor terminals is connected to the insulated plate or body located within the alternating electrostatic field. Ere many generations pass. the higher the frequency -.and allows the passage of but a minute current. the greater the self-induction of the coil the smaller need be the plate. a current passes through the coil and the copper disc is set in rotation. we find it among the subtile speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians and in many hints and statements of thinkers of the present time. The upper strata of the air are rarefied. could be operated by conduction through the rarefied air at considerable distances. In this case the plate acts as a condenser in series with the coil.91 hand. or eventually a lower potential. In such a combination. as the secondary cuts off almost completely the lines of the primary -. This idea is not novel. But such schemes are mentioned merely as possibilities. motors or lamps might be operated at considerable distances from stationary sources. our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. living . in order to produce rotation. a small metal sheet suspended on a cord may be used with the same result. But there is an additional feature of interest about this motor. for a higher potential would endanger the insulation of the small primary coil. Were a secondary closed coil wound upon the core. It counteracts the self-induction of the latter and allows a strong current to pass.and this we know it is. showing the passage of a strong current. it has been expressed in many ways. and a higher frequency would result in a materially diminished torque.then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature. Of all. to make the primary and secondary coils overlap each other more or less. by thus directing the energy of many hundreds or thousands of horse-power. it is not necessary to have even a single connection between the motor and generator. Alternate currents. It should be remarked that when such a motor with a closed secondary is used. It is quite possible. perhaps. as they might be called. To reach a number of miles out into space requires the overcoming of difficulties of a merely mechanical nature. and in many places. this type of motor was chosen to perform the experiment. for this reason principally. the tube lights brilliantly. through the ground. We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus. We shall have no need to transmit power at all. If an exhausted tube is put in series with the coil. In such a case. Neither would be advisable. in the history of old and new. it is almost essential. it is not at all easy to obtain rotation with excessive frequencies. if kinetic -. and this means that a lower frequency. Throughout space there is energy. who derives power from the earth. Men have been led to it long ago by instinct or reason. it would tend to diminish the self-induction. Is this energy static or kinetic! If static our hopes are in vain. namely. Instead of the experimenter's body.and this. and that. that such "no-wire" motors. pass with astonishing freedom through even slightly rarefied gases. and then it would be necessary to employ a much higher frequency and potential. but it likewise capable of deriving it from an alternating electrostatic field. for certain . though in the latter case the available energy is much smaller. A single coil wound upon a core has a high self-induction. except. the more. especially of high frequencies. for not only is an insulated plate capable of giving off energy into space. unless the secondary is closed through a condenser. and the other terminal preferably to the ground. is required to operate the motor. of course.

In each bulb the piece of filament was fastened to the leading-in wire of platinum. Some experiences have already been gained in this direction. unfortunately. The function of this aluminium tube will be explained subsequently. and on any point of the same we are able to obtain a heavy current. in the production of light. When all the three bulbs were connected in multiple arc to the coil. this beautiful little machine. beyond a certain and rather small size of vessel. I have lately found that at ordinary or only slightly differing atmospheric pressures. and connected to a source of rapidly alternating electric impulses. the largest bulb being placed at the end of the wire. A current was then turned on successively on each bulb. and if wires were used at all we ought to be able to supply that energy without a return wire. must likewise be put on record as the most inefficient machine ever invented! The preceding experiment is only one of many equally interesting experiments which may be performed by the use of only one wire with alternate currents of high potential and frequency. of course. it will turn everywhere where there is heat. but the smallest did not get its share by far. when the matter in the bulb becomes "radiant". obviously because. no perceptible difference in the heating. and I will dwell on them briefly. decompose a solutic4n in any electrolytic cell by connecting only one pole of the cell to the line or source of energy. we may pass an inappreciable current over the line. whether the bulb be small or large. more energy may be given off from the body when the bulb is large. Or we may. that it would be difficult to give a generally applicable rule under which this maximum heating occurs. by the help of some artifice. at some distance from it the smallest bulb. The bulbs were then sealed off and separately tried. over the small bulb. Crookes came nearest to doing it. there was less difference between the largest and the middle sited than between the latter and the smallest bulb. and in the centre of each was mounted an equal length of an ordinary incandescent lamp filament of uniform thickness. as it presents a feature of interest. a large bulb has still an advantage.92 or dead. which was connected to a Sprengel pump. The three bulbs were sealed to a glass tube. contained in a glass stem sealed in the bulb. hence the three bulbs constituted really one vessel. and hence practically the same amount of energy by a certain potential and frequency is given off from the body. which cannot be reached except by the employment of special means. but a comparatively slight one. when air becomes more or less conducting. capable of fusing a thick copper wire. This result was expected. may have been slightly brighter. It is. When a high vacuum had been reached. of which one. On each glass stem in the inside of the bulb was slipped a highly polished tube made of aluminiun sheet. The heating of a conducting body inclosed in a bulb. because of the better confinement of heat in this case. it certainly seems practicable. by attaching to the line. worth while to attempt to determine the best conditions and to invent the best appliances for attaining this object. It is sufficient to say now that under these conditions equal lengths of filament of the same thickness -. 3 inches and 4 inches diameter were taken. Finally. showing the effect of the size of the bulb at a high degree of exhaustion may be described and shown here. and in the smallest it only came to redness. and even recommendable. the body is brought to a higher temperature if inclosed in a small bulb. This observation led me to exchange . the glass tube carrying the bulbs was sealed off. light up an incandescent lamp. in the hope that they might prove useful. At lower pressures. As regards the size of the vessel. At very high degrees of exhaustion. or only bringing into its vicinity. A perfected lamp would require but little energy. there seems to be. when air is a good insulator. or if the air be sufficiently warmed as to become conducting. in the next smaller it was a little less bright. and that in this manner a quantity of light sufficient to afford a practical illuminant may be produced. and an equal distance from the latter the middle-sized one. However impracticable this plan of working may appear in many cases. But. the body is rendered more intensely incandescent in a large bulb. His radiometer will turn in the light of day and in the darkness of the night. and heat is everywhere. and it was found that the filaments came to about the same brightness. Accordingly. Three spherical bulbs of 2 inches. is dependent on so many things of a different nature. which was placed midway between the two larger ones.were brought to incandescence. The three bulbs were suspended from a straight bare wire connected to a terminal of the coil. therefore. bodies of equal bulk --. It is now a fact that a body may be rendered incandescent or phosphorescent b) bringing it either in single contact or merely in the vicinity of a source of electric impulses of the proper character. or ~ phosphorescent bulb. The carbons glowed then to both the larger bulbs about as expected. this surface in each case representing one of the coatings of a condenser. if anything. The brightness of the filaments was now such as mould have been expected on the supposition that the energy given off was proportionate to the surface of the bulb. the smallest bulb. which fitted the stem and was held on it by spring pressure. care being taken. to say the least. to make everything as nearly alike as possible. an exhausted tube. These observations were the result of a number of experiments.in other words. Or we may. for when either of the bulbs was connected to the coil the luminosity spread through the other two. under otherwise equal conditions of test. We may connect an insulated line to a source of such currents. at excessively high degrees of exhaustion. An interesting observation was made in this experiment. in the largest of them the filament glowed brightest. In each bulb an equal length of filament protruded above the metal tube. while it goes down to posterity as the most interesting. and.

In order to bring a refractory body inclosed in a bulb to incandescence.may be lost for the purpose contemplated. for self-evident reasons. the filament in the former glows uniformly throughout all its length. But when that phenomenon occurred many times in succession I recognized its real cause. it should be radiated. In any case the body should be mounted in the centre. this corner turns toward the inside and comes very near to. found to be due to the electrostatic action between the bulbs. Its only fault is that it is easily fusible and. and in the first trials I attributed it to a defect in the carbon. most of the energy will be lost in heating the former.especially when exceedingly high frequencies are used -. grasping the sheet firmly with clean chamois leather or blotting paper. but it is possible by a proper construction of the illuminating device to approximate it more or less. as the electrified atoms should in all cases rebound normally from the surface they strike. but if the exhaustion be high and the bulb be spherical or pear-shaped. and a highly polished tube of one or three layers of the sheet is obtained. it is desirable. as it often happens that. the wire. or when they were attached to the corners of an equilateral triangle of copper wire. or filament. The upper inside corner of the sheet -. In experience it has been demonstrated that in such a globe a refractory body of a given bulk is more easily brought to incandescence than when otherwise shaped bulbs are used. by its conductivity. A curious point is that the phenomenon occurs even if two filament: are mounted in a bulb. the refractory body is placed in the centre of the bulb and it is usually supported on a glass stem containing the leading-in wire. focal points form and the filament is heated to a higher degree at or near such points. that portion of the filament which is in the centre of the bulb glows far more intensely than the rest. if the exhaustion be low. each being connected to one terminal of the coil. the pressure is generally sufficient to prevent it from slipping off. and the glass stem is violently bombarded and heated. The greater part of the energy supplied to the bulb is then used up in heating the metal tube. This object is best attained in the spherical bulb. To illustrate the effect. the lower edge of the sheet may be turned inside. but it is also attained in a cylindrical vessel with one or two straight filaments coinciding with its axis. and spinning the rod very fast. where the atoms rebounding from the glass collide. When they were placed at a considerable distance. a thin tube. To illustrate the effect of the screen. of a diameter somewhat smaller than that of the glass stem. As the potential of this wire is alternated. supporting the refractory body. of course.that is. Perhaps the best way is to make the top of the glass tube for about an inch. The preceding remarks are only made to aid the experimenter in the first trials.93 thc position of the bulbs. and also with the view of preventing an electrical connection between the metal tube and the electrode. on account of economy. To still further reduce the danger arising from the heating of the glass stem. It seems beyond doubt that the best among metals to employ for this purpose is aluminium. It is. I noted in experiments with such bulbs that the filaments would give way usually at a certain point. whereupon it may be ruptured. I usually screen the rarefied gas surrounding the stem from the inductive action of the leading-in wire by providing. In some bulbs I have also used an outside insulating cover. the one which is nearest to the refractory incandescent body -. I have here two bulbs of the same size. and from nowhere else. whereas in the latter. Of all the possible constructions. that all the energy supplied to the bulb from the source should reach without lass the body to be heated. but. I preferably wrap. When slipped on the stem. When connected to the coil. establish a good electrical connection between the metal tube and the leadinq-in wire. or in contact with. again. therefore.should be cut out diagonally. For many reasons. in consequence of the intense heat. they glowed about in the order determined by their surfaces. though the latter is not probable. what is still more curious. it seems that a spherical globe with the refractory body mounted in its centre is the best to employ. provided the vacuum be very high.one inch or so -. No matter what shape the vessel may have. for the difficulties which he encounters he may soon find means to overcome in his own way. and. in which case. or may. As to the shape of the vessel. and I then observed that whichever of the bulbs was in the middle it was by far less bright than it was in any other position. in which case they would probably follow the general law of reflection. the rarefied gas surrounding the stem is acted upon inductively. only one is exhausted to a low and the other to a very high degree. The tube is conveniently prepared by wrapping around a rod fastened in a lathe a piece of aluminium sheet of the proper size. as usual. the stem with several layers of thin mica which extends at least as far as the metal tube. it may be strongly heated and become more or less conducting. In this manner by far the greater portion of the energy supplied to the bulb -. To obviate this loss. The aluminium sheet should project above the glass stem more or less -. with . This mystifying result was. a filament mounted in the globe is brought to the same degree of incandescence in all parts. or at least to reduce it to a minimum. is made of the finest aluminium sheet. I have here two small bulbs which are alike. from there. for safety. it is also of some importance. There is also an advantage in giving to the incandescent body the shape of a sphere. of course. out of the question to reach this theoretical result. if they be very near together. The sheet is wound tightly around the rod. the stem with a tube or coating of conducting material. of a much smaller diameter.or else. and possibly also in parabolical or spherical bulbs with the refractory body or bodies placed in the focus or foci of the same. and slipped on the stem. Usually. on account of its many remarkable properties. unless the speed were excessive. and the bulb is rendered useless for the purpose. its distance from the incandescing: body should be properly estimated. especially at high degrees of exhaustion. and the advantage of using it. if the glass be too close to the incandescing body.

neither of the above effects can occur. or of the glass stem containing the leading-in wire. the metal tube not only does not act as an electrostatic screen. the screen still does well. The stem of one bulb is provided with an aluminium tube. with the greater freedom they move. When they are separately connected to the coil giving a certain potential. although in reality the latter bulb takes generally more energy than the former.94 their stems. leading-in wires and incandescent lamp filaments tied to the latter. the repulsion which the electrified tube must exert upon the similarly electrified atoms. I assume the action as follows: Suppose a rhythmical bombardment to occur against the conducting tube by reason of its imperfect action as a screen. Those which come first in contact with it give up their superfluous charge. to whatever extent it may fail to act electrostatically. at very low degrees of exhaustion. so as to carry away the smallest possible amount of heat by conduction. even though the potential be much higher. Originally the two bulbs were joined by a tube which was connected to a Sprengel pump. It is clear that when the exhaustion is very low. of course. as a sort of equalizer or dampener of the bombardment against the stem. by impulses. first the connecting tube. is not. the less the spark discharge is able to jump between the terminals. of low frequency. but at any rate it must diminish the energy of their impact. and the tube is electrified. its usefulness is therefore limited to very high degrees of exhaustion when it is insulated from the electrode . the conductor acts as a dampener of the motion of the atoms in the two ways pointed out. and the rarefied gas well conducting. or currents. This repulsion may perhaps be sufficient to prevent a large portion of the atoms from striking the tube. showing the importance of the screening. a much higher potential is needed if a conductor. and then the bulbs. but even is a drawback. the metal tube is in good electrical connection with -the leading-in wire. the carbon filament in the bulb provided with the aluminium screen in rendered highly incandescent. that a discharge through a bulb is established with much greater facility when an insulator than when a conductor is present in the same. In my opinion. When a high vacuum had been reached. In this case. and consequently intense heating and possible deterioration of the slender support of the refractory incandescent body. in the true meaning of the word. act as independent carriers of electric charges. strike the tube sooner than others. namely. At ordinary atmospheric pressures just the reverse rule holds good: the higher the frequency. This. thus economizing the energy supplied to the bulb. At a somewhat lower degree of exhaustion. aiding to a considerable extent the dissipation of the energy laterally from the leading-in wire. the fewer the atoms. as the tube is electrified by the atoms which first come in contact with it. the charge given up by the atoms spreads over a great area. When they are both connected together to the terminal. hence. by reason of its conductivity. and the atoms are rebelled with less energy than they would be if they would strike against a good insulator. secondly. it acts mechanically. the conducting tube or coating may also act. . Crookes. which is about the ordinary "nonstriking" vacuum. still it protects the support of the refractory button. Of all the supports used I have found an ordinary incandescent lamp filament to be the best. they are therefore of the same degree of exhaustion. in other words.when the matter in the globe is in the ultra-radiant state. Finally. second. In such case the discharge may pass with great freedom through the rarefied gas through which a low-frequency discharge may not pass. with the same potential. the energy lost in the bombardment for two reasons: first. the stem of the other has none. it certainly must happen that some molecules. it acts most perfectly. were sealed off. and generally as long as the matter moves predominantly in straight lines. while the filament in the other bulb may. as nearly alike as possible. The metal tube placed in the stem containing the leading-in wire performs really two distinct functions: First. is to be expected. In addition to acting as a more or less effective screen. when the gas is well conducting. especially of many surfaces. and. up to a limit. by far. especially if they are knobs or spheres of some site. As long as the electrical connection is not good.which are reached by using great care and special means in connection with the Sprengel pump -. To whatever extent the aluminium tube performs the function of a screen. the more telling will be both the effects: What I have just said may afford an explanation of the phenomenon observed by Prof. to cause a visible discharge to pass through the bulb. and. preventing the bombardment. when the gas as a whole is nonconducting. I say slender support. or atoms. for it is evident that in order to confine the heat more completely to the incandescing body its support should be very thin. and is a means for concentrating more energy upon the same. the electrification instantly spreading over its surface. be present.that is. as ordinarily. principally because among conductors it can withstand the highest degrees of heat. the progress of the following atoms against the tube is more or less checked by. The effectiveness of the metal tube as an electrostatic screen depends largely on the degree of exhaustion. the higher the degree of exhaustion. In elucidation of the preceding remark it is necessary to state that what is a "non-striking" vacuum for a coil operated. At excessively high degrees of exhaustion -. and most of the bombardment is directed upon the tube. But this must diminish. and hence the electric density at any point is small. on the other hand. the difference is even more apparent. and the molecules. To be explicit. namely. so when the coil is operated by currents of very high frequency. the conducting tube is always of some advantage for although it may not greatly economize energy. or atoms. it acts more or less as an electrostatic screen. The shadow of the upper edge of the tube is then sharply defined upon the bulb. not even come to redness.

with the glass stem s. as mica powder. which serves to investigate the effect of the tube under various conditions.the space between the plug P and the neck of the bulb should be filled with some good insulating material. 18.95 For the sake of clearness of some of the remarks before made. Since the bombardment against the stem containing the leading-in wire is due to the inductive action of the latter upon the rarefied gas. if the cement used is conducting and most generally it is sufficiently so -. and 20. Fig. and a is the aluminium tube. which has a lamp filament 1 fastened to it. Fig. in the centre of which is fastened a metallic terminal t. therefore. serving to support the refractory button m in the centre. 21). containing the leading-in wire w. of insulating material. In this bulb the aluminium tube is provided with an external connection. it is of advantage to reduce this action as far as practicable by employing a very thin wire. and by making the wire passing through the rarefied gas as short as practicable. for the connection to the lead-in wire w. l9 illustrates such a bulb in a somewhat more advanced stage of perfection. surrounded by a very thick insulation of glass or other material. 19. I must now refer to Figs. It is referred to chiefly to suggest a line of experiment followed. This terminal must be well insulated from the metal tube S. M is a sheet of thin mica wound in several layers around the stem s. 20 shows a bulb made for experimental purposes. l8 is a section though a spherical bulb L. which protrudes . which illustrate various arrangements with a type of bulb most generally used. To combine these features I employ a large tube T (Fig. Fig. In the tube is screwed a plug P. A metallic tube S is fastened by means of some cement to the neck of the tube.

as compared with steady currents. For this purpose it is sufficient to surround a conducting electrode with a non-conducting material. but its brightness immediately diminishes. The first sparks are singularly bright. A bulb.96 into the bulb to some distance.with a glass tube. and cease when the glass at the ruptured place becomes incandescent.the phenomenon would of course not occur. The energy supplied to the wire leading into the bulb is given off partly by direct action through the carbon button. Although this appears most singular at first. nearly to the point when phosphorescence begins to appear. as they heat the glass rapidly. The case is thus analogous to that in which a condenser shunted by a conductor of low resistance is connected to a source of alternating currents. and therefore the potential necessary to operate the lamp very high. it is in reality what we might expect to occur. of course. In this case the wire leading from the outside into the bulb is omitted. the piece of carbon. the tube T. or currents of low frequency. into which is sealed the leading-in wire w. in spite of the fact that the platinum wire is in good electrical connection with the rarefied gas through the piece of carbon or metal at the top. should be well insulated -. As long as the frequencies are low. The wire w. when it is desired to produce the incandescence of a body inclosed in a bulb by means of these currents. for instance -. may be mounted in it upon a platinum wire sealed in thc glass stem. 22 illustrates a similar arrangement. not necessary. I have found that mica powder is the best to employ. Fig. but with frequencies obtainable with condensers I have no doubt that the glass may give way without previous heating. and party by inductive action through the glass surrounding the wire. or impulses. the energy required being supplied through condenser coatings C C. preferably a large one. . notwithstanding the fact that the terminals are joined by a conductor of low resistance. When observed for the first time the phenomenon must appear very curious. that the body should be a conductor. I think that the rupture of the glass is more or less the consequence of the bombardment. but when the frequency becomes excessive. in the form of bright sparks. for even a perfect non-conductor may be quite as readily heated. It is. passing through the large tube to the outside of the bulb. and carries on the top a very short glass stem s. they. may become highly incandescent at first. which warms it up and impairs its insulating power. and shows in a striking manner how radically different alternate currents. near the exhausted globe. recalling those drawn from a clear surface of mercury. will surely be cracked in consequence o~ the heating by the brushes which are apt to form in the upper part of the tube. With such currents . with a large tube T protruding into the part of the bulb containing the refractory button m. lose their brightness. as usual. the conductor gets the most. if small. When the bulb is connected with the coil. the latter -. may be taken. and a good conducting body. The insulating packing P should in this construction be tightly fitting to the glass. aluminium tube a and a layer of mica underneath the same. or generally sufficiently hot to conduct. But. especially if the vacuum be excellent. If this precaution is not taken.and the space between ought to be filled out with some excellent insulator. or otherwise the discharge might avoid passing through the wire w. which connects the inside condenser coating to the incandescent button m. As illustration I will cite a phenomenon only too frequently and unwillingly observed. and then the discharge may break through the glass somewhere in the middle of the stem. such as a piece of carbon. When frequencies such as are obtained by mechanical means are used. the role of the conductor may become quite insignificant. of course. protruding into the bulb. The molecular bombardment against the glass stem in the bulb is a source of great trouble. Among many insulating powders I have tried. and I protect the top of the glass stem against the heat by a small. of high frequency behave. and rather wide. The bulb may be exhausted to a fairly high degree. and the condenser is perfectly safe.namely. In the latter case the difference of potential at the terminals of the condenser may become so great as to rupture the dielectric.

21. In this instance a nonconductor m is mounted in a piece of common arc light carbon so as to project some small distance above the latter. 24 was found to be an inferior one when it was desired to render incandescent a filament or button supported in the centre of the globe. some observations of interest were made. for instance. The globe L is blown out on the bottom into a very small bulb b. As soon. the body to be rendered incandescent. I have also constructed during these experiments many such single-wire bulbs with or without internal electrode. The carbon piece is connected to the leading-in wire passing through a glass stem. indicated in Fig. on the top. in the bulb described before in Fig. which is wrapped with several layers of mica. Fig. . It consists of a spherical globe L. in which the radiant matter was projected against. 24 illustrates one of the bulbs used. In many experiments in which bodies of a different kind were mounted in the bulb as. and the external electrode is connected to a terminal of the coil. then the bombardment continues in the ordinary way. 23. or focused upon. which serves to hold it firmly in a socket S of insulating material into which it is cemented. as far as the socket S reaches. At the start the bombardment goes on by inductive action through the non-conductor. provided with a long neck n. as the non-conductor m is heated it is rendered good conducting. for instance. where the bombardment proceeding from the lower inside surface of the globe is most intense. until the same is sufficiently heated to become conducting.97 as. supported on a wire w. It is so arranged that it reaches very nearly as high as the carbon and only the non-conductor m projects a little above it. is rendered conducting. being most exposed to the same. A fine lamp filament f. An aluminium tube a is employed as usual for screening. and then it becomes the centre of the bombardment. but it was convenient when the object was to excite phosphorescence. either by g tinfoil coating or otherwise. 23. A different arrangement used in some of the bulbs constructed is illustrated in Fig. the lower parts being protected by the aluminium tube. passes through the centre of filament is rendered incandescent In the middle portion. and supports a button of the same material on the top. however. in which a thin incandescent lamp filament is coated with a non-conductor. for increasing the action in some cases by the application of an external conducting coating. The lower portion of the globe. The bombardment goes at first against the upper surface of carbon. The arrangement diagrammatically indicated in Fig.

for a weak invisible discharge occurs always.that is. as upon an increase of the temperature the body is still more easily disintegrated. These places of the glass are evidently mote violently bombarded than others. among other things. When the point of the ruby fuses the phosphorescence becomes very powerful. higher speeds were reached. so that with a fairly high potential the discharge cannot pass -. necessitated. In a chemical process we are limited. at least when the electrode is at a lower temperature. Fig. instantly most of the discharge passes through that point. but likewise of larger lumps. in order to be most durable. zirconia -. Assume that a point of the electrode gets hotter. The observation made was in accordance with generally accepted notions. no matter where the bombardment began. more particles would strike the glass. This quality appeared to depend principally on the point of fusion. by sharp projections. at any rate. of a temperature far above the mean. or others. and the stream of the particles projected out of the carbon cup was of a vivid white. When oxygen and hydrogen combine. and this materially hastens the process of deterioration. molecules. We cannot go very far with a blast. soon the glass gets hot and "tired". irregularities of the electrode. and this the more. Interesting and useful results can no doubt be reached in the direction of extreme degrees of heat. two. Generally during the process of fusion magnificent light effects were noted. 23 is intended to illustrate the effect observed with a ruby drop. How can such high temperatures be arrived at! How are the highest degrees of heat reached in nature! By the impact of stars. by high speeds and collisions. would enable us to reach the highest temperature.I presume because in such cases. it was carried off before it could be fused. most of the electricity supplied is carried off from that body. nor by confining heat in a furnace. however. For instance. they fall. but in an exhausted bulb we can concentrate any amount of energy upon a minute button. the local tearing off meets with the limitations incident to the experiment. or. per unit of time. It is now possible that in consequence of the violent disintegration the spot attacked sinks in temperature.98 It was found. generally speaking. which. of course. 23. because it cannot be compressed in so hard a cake that it would not be carried off quickly. in all probability.as. the other. or molecules. From experiences of this kind I am led to infer that. of the residual atmosphere. with the same potential. and this indicates that the configuration of the electrode is rapidly changing. 13ut the luminous patches are constantly changing in position. I endeavored repeatedly to fuse zirconia. But a great difficulty when proceeding in this way is encountered. but as the atoms are projected with much greater speed from the surface of the drop.into a small drop. but whether it was compressed in a cake o~ made into a paste with carbon. of course. and then keep it in the bulb at a temperature somewhat below its point of fusion. which is especially well observable if one manages to produce very few. when an oxide was first fused in an oxygen blast and then mounted in the bulb. disintegrated-. not a luminous one. even if the surface is highly polished. when the body mounted in the carbon cup offered great resistance to deterioration. more matter was projected -. this being due to the unevenly distributed electric density. The carbon cup containing the zirconia had to be mounted very low in the neck of a large bulb. Such a small sphere could be manufactured from a diamond or some other crystal. metaphorically speaking. in most cases the body is carried off before it can fuse and form a drop. in my opinion. which are partly the atoms. some oxide . There is bound to be some irregularity. for instance. namely. In a highly exhausted bulb electricity is carried off from the electrode by independent carriers. and also because. being thereby relieved. It seems to me quite probable that a similar process takes place in the bulb even with a homogenous electrode. generally speaking. If the electrode is composed of bodies of different character. and on the facility with which the body was evaporated. just as soon as a high temperature was reached there was generally one of the bodies which seemed to take most of the bombardment upon itself. It glowed with a most intense light. then. which is then brought to a higher temperature than the others. where it produces an irregularly outlined phosphorescent patch. and . and I think it to be the principal cause of the disintegration. or that a counter force is created. as the heating of the glass by the projected particles of the oxide was so rapid that in the first trial the bulb was cracked almost in an instant when the current was turned on. In a collision any rate of heat generation may be attained. where upon the same process occurs on another place. At first one may see a narrow funnel of white light projected against the top of the globe. it melted very readily into a drop. or lumps thrown off from the electrode. or half a dozen phosphorescent spots mill appear on the globe. and partly the atoms.that is. and a minute patch is probably fused and evaporated. that in such cases. The heating of the glass by the projected particles was found to be always greater when the carbon cup contained a body which was rapidly carried off -. but a better way would be to fuse. placing it in a cup or arc light carbon as indicated in Fig. as in an arc.meaning by the latter term not only the throwing off of atoms. by the employment of extreme degrees of temperature. would be the means which. Now raise slowly and carefully the potential. To the eye the electrode appears uniformly brilliant. At a certain point. That some such thing occurs. sufficient experimental evidence can be obtained in the following manner: Exhaust a bulb to a very high degree. from a definite height. of which it would be difficult to give an adequate idea. Leaving practicability out of consideration. leaving the primary current on no mote than for an instant. This difficulty exists principally with an oxide such as zirconia. the refractory button in the bulb should be in the form of a sphere with a highly polished surface. and if one of these is more easily disintegrated than the others. or. The before mentioned difficulty did not exist. this. is impossible with most of the refractory bodies employed as electrodes. but there are upon it points constantly shifting and wandering around. three.

a lamp filament is not capable of withstanding as long with currents of extreme frequency as it does with steady currents. As it is more than likely that this body is not yet generally known. for example. sharply defined line. as the gas is of no consequence.diamond and carborundum. G. is produced.99 now only the outer edge of the patch glows. glow with the same brilliancy as before. Now. It has been recently produced by Mr. One of the experiments performed may be mentioned here by way of illustration. I obtained a short while ago some samples which I desired to test in regard to their qualities of phosphorescence and capability of withstanding high degrees of heat. supply energy which rises and falls according to a certain law. and two kinds of invisible waves: that is. high frequencies are preferable. and even probable. This means that for rapidly alternating currents the filament should be shorter and thicker. When it forms a drop it will emit visible and invisible waves. The button was heated to the point of fusion. Electrodes made of ordinary carbon buttons were decidedly more durable when the buttons were obtained by the application of enormous pressure. S. When the mass begins to boil. In the course of these experiments a great many trials were made with all kinds of carbon buttons. In this case the observation is rendered very difficult on account of the intense heat produced. and this will say that with the former we can work with a lower potential or with a less violent impact. The platinum wire had to be taken of sufficient thickness to prevent its melting in the fire. . waves of a well-defined character. apparently. The wire was next placed between two pieces of charcoal and a burner applied so as to produce an intense heat. and I have been informed that it accomplishes this object quite successfully. which spreads slowly: over the globe as the drop gets larger. assuming that it be worked at the same luminous intensity.that is. the question is. and first melted to it in a gas burner. Pa. when the drop is formed. although the vibrations may be few -. suppose we diminish to any degree we choose the energy steadily supplied. which I believe to have noted in the course of these experiments. still they help to jar and loosen the structure. corresponding to the outline of the drop. the current was turned on slowly so as to prevent the cracking of the button. A. small bubbles and cavities are formed. Thus it would seem that when a platinum wire. can a body under these conditions be brought from a solid to a liquid state with evolution of less light! When the potential of a body is rapidly alternated it is certain that the structure is jarred. Next. and when it melted it did not. in addition. Electrodes prepared by depositing carbon in well known ways did not show up well. but the liquid state must be one of great instability. When the potential is very high. From many experiencies I conclude that lamp filaments obtained in this manner can be advantageously used only with low potentials and low frequency currents. Or. unless there is something in the process of its manufacture which justifies this selection. for many reasons. and. the greater the departure from the steady flow -.the effect upon the structure may be considerable. I do not know why the name "carborundum" has been given to it. that a ruby is melted into a drop by a steady application of energy. But this is due to the fact that a high frequency discharge passes through a rarefied gas with much greater freedom than a steady or low frequency discharge. and to the eye the drop will appear to be of a certain brilliancy. is fused by currents alternating with extreme rapidity. The latter would not exist by a steady supply of the energy. I will venture to call your attention to it. error. at least..that is. If this really be the case. From experience I may say that just the opposite holds good: the button withstands the bombardment better with currents of very high frequency. Suppose. Through the kindness of the inventor. A small piece of pumice stone was stuck on a platinum wire. and upon exhausting the same to a high degree. they blackened the globe very quickly. of Monongahela City. but the latter was preferable. and. and this would indicate a lower temperature.the worse it would be for the filament. In this manner an intensely phosphorescent. or when held in a burner to get a better idea of the degree of heat. as the mass possesses considerable viscosity. for instance. U. But if the truth of this remark were demonstrated. then. which will be in a definite ratio. As long. Leaving out of consideration the observer's possible. These two showed up about equally. but as soon as the action of the gas is desired and important. I may mention here another feature of some interest. the ordinary dark waves of all lengths. Acheson. Some kinds of carbon withstand so well that. there will be emitted from it three different kinds of vibrations -. Nevertheless there can be no doubt that all kinds of carbon are fused under the molecular bombardment. it emits at the point of fusion less light and more invisible radiation than it does when melted by a steady current.000 per second -. the button glowed with great brilliancy. etc. then the ruby drop will emit relatively less visible and more invisible waves than before. it would be erroneous to conclude that such a refractory button as used in these bulbs would be deteriorated quicker by currents of extremely high frequency than by steady or low frequency currents. it is necessary to employ very small buttons. It is intended to replace ordinary diamond powder for polishing precious stones. in order to bring them to the point of fusion.say 20. to cite another example. The bulb may be turned downward without fear of the drop falling off. judging from the quantity of the light emitted..the ordinary visible. though the observations do not amount to a certitude. a steady or low frequency current is better. It appeared that under the molecular impact caused by the rapidly alternating potential the body was fused and maintained in that state at a lower temperature in a highly exhausted bulb than was the case at normal pressure and application of heat in the ordinary way -. The wire with the button was then mounted in a bulb. The higher the frequency -. though the total energy used up in the process of fusion is the same in both cases. While in the charcoal fire. Of all the bodies tried there were two which withstood best -. E. which cause dark colored spots to sweep across the globe. instead. sufficient to melt down the pumice stone into a small glass-like button.

but are very brilliant. is practically non-conducting.of carborundum. finally. The former appear to the naked eye dark colored. first a weak and then a strong discharge is passed through the bulb to carbonize the tar and expel all gases. When the powder is used I have found it best to proceed as follows: I make a thick paint of carborundum and tar. even such as diamond or ruby. When viewed under a microscope the samples of crystals given to me did not appear to have any definite form. I suppose. when a good vacuum has been reached. and I think that it is even possible to produce thin threads or sticks of carborundum which will replace the ordinary filaments in an incandescent lamp. and as to whether the various phenomena . but not as well as ordinary carbon. a metal of any other conductor might exhibit the quality of phosphorescence. but also because it seems to unite with the carbon better than any other material I have tried. occurs. probably in consequence of the fusion of impurities they contain. can a conductor phosphoresce? What is there in such a body as a metal. for instance. being exceedingly fine. When compressed strongly they conduct very well. or some other thick substance or paint which may be readily carbonized. A carborundum coating seems to be more durable than other coatings. the powder. but there were some which were transparent and colored. even though it be entirely incapable of phosphorescing under the impact of a low-frequency discharge. and then hold it vertically over a hot plate. are finely powdered. I then once more dip the button in tar and hold it again over a plate until the tar is evaporated. another possible way how a conductor might at least appear to phosphoresce. and these came in durability nearest to those prepared of carborundum. would not be apt to exhibit very prominently this quality. The time has been too short to make a satisfactory study of the properties of this product. but enough experience has been gained in a few weeks I have experimented upon it to say that it does possess some remarkable properties in many respects. and later it is brought to a very intense incandescence. It was of interest to find whether carborundum possesses the quality of phosphorescence. and the carborundum is slowly thrown off after some time. a small quantity of a glass-like residue is left. The powder. By regulating the distance from the plate the tar is slowly dried out and the button becomes solid. but rather resembled pieces of broken up egg coal of fine quality. is melted alumina. it should be capable of phosphorescence. which is obtained from the crystals in some way. but a slow carrying off. that would deprive it of the quality of phosphorescence. or perhaps entirely deprived of that property. and I generally also cover the filament a certain distance below the button with crystals. not only because the carborundum can withstand high degrees of heat.properly prepared under great pressure -. Therefore it is quite possible that at some extremely high frequency. and it does not blacken the globe as ordinary carbon does. but the binding paste gave way much more quickly in the diamond buttons: this. as regards the rough product. One is. Considerable doubt still exists as to what really is phosphorescence. if a metal be in a large measure. It withstands excessively high degrees of heat. which. I have here a number of bulbs which I have provided with buttons of carborundum. it might be found useful for coating the filaments of ordinary Incandescent lamps. The question presents itself here. Then. they are extremely hard. leaving only a hard mass which firmly binds the crystals. for instance. the "crystals". and. The crystals are a kind of carbon containing some impurities. When a larger button is required I repeat the process several times. and it is a fact that conductors do not phosphoresce.in the form of "crystals" and of powder. they are good conducting. A coating of zirconia or any other oxide. On the point of the coated filament I form a button in the same manner. I attributed to the site and irregularity of the grains of the diamond. the latter is of neatly the same color as ordinary diamond powder. I hold it over a hot plate until the tar evaporates and the coating becomes firm. will withstand the effect of the bombardment fully as well as anything we know. or burning. It affords a magnificent polishing material for stones. The button being mounted in a bulb. second. especially of powder of the best quality. I prepared buttons of diamond dust in the same manner as of carborundum. The majority were opaque. when behaving practically as a non-conductor. since we know that when crystals. The tar softens and forms a drop on the point of the filament. There is no doubt that such a button -. The difficulty is that the binding material gives way. Taking then most of the paint off by rubbing the filament against a piece of chamois leather. is far more quickly destroyed. When the blast is directed against them they at first form a cake of some compactness. unless it is that property which characterizes it as a conductor? For it is a fact that most of the phosphorescent bodies lose that quality when they are sufficiently heated to become more or less conducting. The mass withstands for a very long time the blast without further fusion. There is. the crystals adhering to the surface of the drop. however.100 Carborundum can be obtained in two forms . To make such a button of carborundum crystals I proceed in the following manner: I take an ordinary lamp filament and dip its point in tar. they lose the property of phosphorescence to a considerable degree. and withstand for a long time even an oxygen blast. and pass a lamp filament through the paint. I repeat this process as many times as it is necessary to obtain a certain thickness of coating. however. it is little deteriorated by molecular bombardment. prepared to encounter two difficulties: first. of course. I next pass the point of the filament through the crystals. As it does not seem to blacken the globe in the least. The only difficulty which I have found in its use in connection with these experiments was to find some binding material which would resist the heat and the effect of the bombardment as successfully as carborundum itself does. but very much finer.

its chief value will be found in the production of coatings. Still. for it is a mere question of potential of speed. but rather like powdered ruby or diamond. thin conductors. If the carborundum proves useful in connection with these and similar experiments. which is separated by a dark space from the glow filling the bulb. certainly 20 times. and snow-white. for instance. The crystals possess a noteworthy feature. How could the observer call the luminosity thus produced! Even if the analysis of the light would teach him something definite. owing to the manner in which the energy is supplied.101 comprised under this head are due to the same causes. principally because it would have been of special interest to find that they are capable of phosphorescence. because powdered carborundum probably does not behave like a phosphorescent sulphide. adapted to affect our sense of vision. to be sufficiently high. since the process of heat generation would be incompatibly faster than that of radiating or conducting away from the surface of the collision. In the eye of the observer a single impact of the atoms would cause an instantaneous flash. on account of their being conducting. is possible. Suppose that in an exhausted bulb. . but at the same time it is found that it remains comparatively cool. the film is far more intense. which I had not observed before. still he would probably rank it under the phenomena of phosphorescence. but in reality I think it is far from being so. the quantity of light which is obtained in the present incandescent lamp by the same expenditure of energy. which could be finely powdered without impairing the phosphorescence. in the other less. obtained with carborundum in the first trials. by means of currents of very high frequencies. It is conceivable that in such a way both conducting and nonconducting bodies may be maintained at a certain-luminous intensity. but it did not exhibit with sufficient distinctness the red of the latter.that is. but in subsequent experiments it appeared that it was devoid of that quality. Some effects. and what kind of vibrations we set up: in one case the vibrations are more. and. if not more. the surface of the metal piece against which the atoms are projected would be rendered highly incandescent. but the energy required would very greatly vary with the nature and properties of the bodies. The production of a small electrode capable of withstanding enormous temperatures I regard as of the greatest importance in the manufacture of light. the surface of a piece of metal or other conductor is rendered strongly luminous. would not this luminosity be called phosphorescence! Now such a result. By their help we may cause a body to emit more light. As this statement might be misunderstood I think it necessary to expose clearly the problem with which in this line of work we are confronted. Assume the potential of the electrode. or other electrodes capable of withstanding extremely high degrees of heat. but I am now convinced it does not phosphoresce. I made a number of experiments with the samples of crystals obtained. It would enable us to obtain. I attributed to phosphorescence. But the supplied energy might under such conditions not be sufficient to bring the body to any more than a very moderate mean temperature. but if the impact were repeated with sufficient rapidity they would produce a continuous impression upon his retina. theoretically at least.to many exaggerated. but I must remark that a decisive opinion cannot be formed until other experimenters have gone over the same ground. buttons. The metal piece would rise in temperature until equilibrium was attained -. while at a certain mean temperature. for example. the tests with the powder are not conducive. again. until the energy continuously radiated would equal that intermittently supplied. emit a strong light. These and some foregoing remarks of a speculative nature were made merely to bring out curious features of alternate currents or electric impulses. to obtain it in a large lump and polish up the surface. in order to make a decisive test. under the molecular impact. I could not produce phosphorescence distinctly. and yet be at a comparatively very low mean temperature. The body would now. while in reality the light would be either intermittent or at least changing periodically in intensity. and the manner in which. The powder behaved in some experiments as though it contained alumina. we may bring a body to the point of fusion. In a bulb provided with a single electrode in the shape of a small circular metal disc. a solution will be arrived at. and therefore it would be necessary. for when an aluminium electrode was highly polished it exhibited more or less the same phenomenon. This estimate may appeal. When the metal disc is covered with carborundum crystals. at a certain degree of exhaustion the electrode is covered with a milky film. than it would emit if brought to that temperature by a steady supply. It all depends on how we supply the energy. and consequently the speed of the projected atoms. To him then the surface of the metal would appear continuously incandescent and of constant luminous intensity. in my opinion. especially if the frequency of the atomic impacts be very low -just enough that the fluctuation of the intensity of the light emitted could not be detected by the eye. and cause it to emit less light than when fused by the application of energy in ordinary ways. This I found later to be merely an effect of the bright surface of the crystals. Its dead color brightens considerably under the molecular impact.

but around it is a mass of highly incandescent gas. the bulb could be done away with. One of the elements of loss in such a lamp is the bombardment of the globe. At first. and the rules for the most economical working must be considerably modified. it is desirable that the vibration be harmonic. therefore. the bombardment against the globe. There the gas is not at all concerned: the whole of the work is performed on the filament. an electrode which can withstand to a very high limit the effect of the bombardment and outward strain. but is it the less a flame because it does not scorch my hand! Is it the less a flame because it does not hurt my eye by its brilliancy! The problem is precisely to produce in the bulb such a flame. but when a highly conducting photosphere is formed the button is comparatively relieved. the deterioration of the electrode is reduced by reason of the fact that we employ a great many small impacts. it will always be necessary to keep the incandescent mass away from the glass. With a diamond. There he will be mistaken.lies principally the future value of such a lamp. theoretically. and for transmitting them. Without much reflecting one would think that in pushing so far the incandescence of the electrode it would be instantly volatilized. The high frequency secures. not the object to excite phosphorescence. An electrode lasts much longer when kept at incandescence by currents. or to economize the energy by confining the heat. the potential needed to perform a given amount of work is much smaller. of course. or impulses. Under the violent impact of the molecules of the gas surrounding it. which shatter quickly the structure. In other words. instead of a few violent ones. the greater is the economy of the light production. is experimentally demonstrated -. is performed on the gas.102 Any one who begins a study of the problem will be apt to think that what is wanted in a lamp with an electrode is a very high degree of incandescence of the electrode. nor did it glow with an intense light. first. a flame photosphere. obtained from a high-frequency alternator. comparatively. But to maintain a mass of gas at a high degree of incandescence in a glass vessel. It is of the greatest importance to employ the smallest possible button. the formation of a large photosphere is facilitated.which.so far that the brush emits a powerful light. with extreme frequencies. the action of the gas cannot be neglected. they strike the glass. the molecules are projected with great speed. is a relative one. secondly. it is necessary to employ impulses of very high frequency. Were there means at hand for producing electric impulses of a sufficiently high frequency. theoretically. Given. The higher the incandescence. the small electrode is of course brought to an extremely high temperature. and it should not be thought that by pushing the incandescence higher the electrode is actually less deteriorated. carborundum or zircon button the photosphere can be as much as one thousand times the volume of the button. In an incandescent lamp quite different considerations apply. and the more. that is. In the latter case there is no doubt that most of the damage is done by the fundamental sudden discharges. The higher the incandescence of the photosphere the more it approaches in conductivity to that of the electrode. which have a most important bearing upon the economy of the light production. The formation of a powerful photosphere is consequently the very means for protecting the electrode. unless it were used to protect the electrode. a source of heat and light. the solid and the gas form one conducting body. as in such case it is. In the bulb we are able to intensify the action to any degree -. it would be safe no matter how much it is forced beyond that limit. much smaller in site. however. and the I•3s on the electrode. and on the electric density on the surface of the electrode. The effect produced is very pretty but for economical reasons it would be perhaps preferable to prevent. It did not emit much perceptible heat. the quicker the mean vibration. In one of the experiments this evening a brush was produced at the end of a wire. for any suddenness hastens the process of destruction. in order to push the density very far. and in this fact -. In order to bring such a lamp with one or two electrodes to a great perfection. this result must be reached. In order to reduce the deterioration of the electrode to the minimum. when the bombardment begins. In employing very high frequencies the loss of energy by the bombardment is greatly reduced. Still. then. as a result. to confine it as much as possible to the central portion of the globe. or at least reduce to the minimum. but probably at a temperature too high for most of the refractory bodies known. but incomparably more powerful. for. But if an incandescent lamp is operated with currents of very high frequency. and. it should not occur. it becomes necessary to place The terminal in a bulb and rarefy the air in the same. First. As the potential is very high. which rise and fall more or less harmonically. two chief advantages. The consequence is that the further is forced the incandescence the more work. but what is really wanted is the high incandescence of the gas surrounding thee button. But as such means are not at disposal. The high incandescence of the button is a necessary evil. many hundred times the volume of the electrode. than by impulses obtained from a disruptive discharge coil. This brush was a flame. and as some loss of energy results from the bombardment. But after a careful consideration he would find that. secondly. This protectic4n. most of the work is performed on the surface of the button. and usually excite a strong phosphorescence. the problem in such a lamp is to bring a mass of gas to the highest possible incandescence. by producing a highly . The intensity of the light emitted depends principally on the frequency and potential of the impulses. This is done merely to enable the apparatus to perform the work which it is not capable of performing at ordinary air pressure. among others. and the life of the lamp diminishes so rapidly with the increase of the degree of incandescence the economical reasons compel us to work it at a low incandescence. This loss in the bulb is principally dependent on the potential of the impulses and on the electric density on the surface of the electrode.

Once it is decided to use very high frequencies. the shock from it producing no inconvenience. so that. but the means for the production and conveyance of impulses of such character impose. in order to perform the experiment in a more suitable manner. and this. to use as high frequencies as can be obtained. be reduced by using two electrodes instead of one. one of the electrodes might glow more intensely than the other. the higher the frequency and potential used. not sufficient to bring the button to incandescence when the bulb was hanging from the wire. 22. and all the appliances are simplified. for then the safety is absolute. the higher the economy of the lamp or other device. or merely in the vicinity of the same. If the frequency could be brought high enough. There are two ways of rendering an electric appliance safe. Still. say 50. one electrode may be connected to one terminal and the other to the ground or to an insulated body of some surface. and. In such case each of the electrodes may be connected to one of the terminals. and get nearer to the object sought by the expenditure of mud•1 less energy. In the latter case. The economy demands the employment of energy in the form of extremely rapid vibrations. and incidentally. as far as the illuminating device is concerned. high potentials are not objectionable -. it is perfectly safe. The loss due to bombardment of the globe may. when operated from an ordinary alternate current machine of low tension. or we may keep up the note by delivering frequent gentle taps. an insulated body of some surface. to construct a transformer capable of giving. in the eyes of practical men. since the energy required can be as well transmitted through the glass. a shade on the lamp. the button was taken so large that a perceptible time had to elapse before. the body of the experimenter merely served to intensify the action. which miqht be required to light a highly exhausted phosphorescent tube. also. for instance. there is some difficulty in fitting the parts. the same result is obtained as though the electrode were much larger. which is equivalent to a smaller electric density. unaffected by any possible combination of circumstances which might render even a low-potential appliance dangerous to life and property. might be an objectionable feature. 13. It should be said a barely audible note. the other is to determine the dimensions of the apparatus so that it is safe no matter how high a potential is used. The problem of producing light has been likened to that of maintaining a certain high-pitch note by means of a bell. for instance. by avoiding violent shocks. One is to use low potentials. The surface need. and with these high frequencies the losses are very small. It is easy. be the smaller. By the use of obvious means the same result is obtained as though the return wire were used. In experimental bulbs the leading-in wire is most generally used on account of convenience. there can be only one rule -.103 conducting photosphere around the electrode. Yet. So. as. I am convinced that the illuminating device of the near future will not require for its operation more than one lead. and even these words would not express it. and. Of the two the latter seems to me the better way. In the production of light. waste a good deal of energy. But be it by the diminution of the maximum potential or of the density. at any rate. great limitations. such a transformer would be expensive. however. at present at least. But on the whole I find it preferable when using such high frequencies to employ only one electrode and one connecting wire. in reality. what energy was obtained from it would not be economically used for the production of light. The bulb used was similar to that illustrated in Fig.000 volts. or else. and necessarily. the gain is effected in the same manner. when the incandescence of a button was produced by grasping the bulb with the hand. But the practical conditions require not only the judicious determination of the dimensions of the apparatus.certainly not in the least as far as the safety of the devices is concerned. the return wire becomes unnecessary. it will have no leading-in wire. for instance. This plan of working has been resorted to on several occasions this evening. so wonderful is the sensitiveness of the eye. Such illuminating deices will necessarily involve the use of very high potentials. . in spite of the high potential. as in employing condenser coatings in the manner indicated in Fig. namely. the loss due to the imperfect elasticity of the glass would be entirely ne6ligible.that is. and the coil was excited to a small potential. unless some judgement is used. We may deliver powerful blows at long intervals. which strain the glass much beyond its limit of elasticity. for example. besides. and in itself inefficient. It is sufficient for this purpose to bring in contact with the bulb. and still not get what we want. of course. otherwise the energy can be conveyed through the glass as well as through a wire. they likewise necessitate the employment of energy of the proper kind. if it is preferable to use only one wire. but these difficulties would not exist if a great many bulbs were manufactured.

A zinc sheet Z. when phosphorescence was excited. 13. by touching the bulb with one or two fingers. by touching the socket with a metallic object held in the hand. by using a rather large bulb with an exceedingly small electrode. however. If the bu15 stands in a socket upright. can be easily adapted to the purpose. and would be quite unnecessary with still higher frequencies. In Fig. with a tubular . Sum a lamp as illustrated in Fig. but when it is desired. and that the incandescence subsides upon his receding. In this case the construction of the bulb is as shown and described before. it could be rendered incandescent. a bulb was used as illustrated in Fig. 12. It is easy. a shade of conducting material may be slipped in the neck n. for example. A more perfected arrangement used in some of these bulbs is illustrated in Fig. 26. it is not necessary to resort to such means. the touch of the finger producing thc same result as the application of an external negative electrode under ordinary circumstances. one or two shadows of the stem inside were projected against the glass. The electrode in the bulb was a carbon button so large that it could not be brought to incandescence. 25 may also be lighted by connecting the tinfoil coating on the neck n to the terminal. In this instance. or tube. to present a different feature. an experimental bulb L is shown. the bulb. originally. which may be connected to a body of larger surface. and thereby spoil the effect produced by phosphorescence. In another experiment. in another of the early experiments. Again. The contact with the bulb was. the potential was not sufficient to excite phosphorescence until the action was intensified -. In all these experiments the action was intensified by augmenting the capacity at the end of the lead connected to the terminal. where reference was made to Fig. Here again. quite unnecessary.in this case. a similar bulb was used. which is provided with a neck n on the top for the application of an external tinfoil coating. and the leading-in wire w to an insulated plate. As a rule. 24. of course. to adjust the conditions so that the latter is brought to bright incandescence by the mere approach of the experimenter within a few feet of the bulb. as shown in the cut.104 upon grasping the bulb. and the action thus magnified.

if the charge is not lost. on the whole. indicating the passage of a strong current through the helix how does the insulated sphere act in this case! It can be a condenser. When the coil is set to work. is alternating. in order to make the experiences gathered in the course of these investigations perfectly clear. if not with all. what is more. To reduce the dissipation it is necessary to work with a small electric density the smaller the higher the frequency.on the surface and in the vicinity of the sphere. Suppose a small helix with many well insulated turns. 27. having had an additional charge imparted to them by contact. no matter whether the molecules after coming in contact with the sphere lose the imparted charge or not. then. which connects to the wire w. storing and returning the energy supplied to it. insulated in space. it follows that. or devices of any kind are perfected. The economical use of such a reflector or intensifier would require that all energy supplied to an air condenser should be recoverable. Otherwise. When the potential of the sphere. since the charge imparted to the molecule is proportionate to that density. the conditions are entirely different. for example -. so as to make the density exceedingly small. which can be accomplished only after a great many collisions. it is advisable to use spheres or plates of large surface. Assuming the preceding considerations to be true. which are near the sphere are of course more attracted. but generally it is small and of no consequence as long as the frequencies are not very great. In using extremely high frequencies. This would seem to make it very difficult to tell from the measured or computed capacity of an air condenser its actual capacity or vibration period. 17. for the sake of simplicity. or the frequency and the energy lost-in each impact. Absorption always exists more or less. but little loss of energy can be caused in this way. any amount of energy may be dissipated into space. as in experiment Fig. instead of being steady. or whatever gaseous medium there might be. On the lower end is placed an outside conducting coating C. by rapidly alternating the potential of a body immersed in an insulating gaseous medium. as the energy absorbed it the air condenser may be any fraction of the supplied energy. From the fact that with a steady potential there is but little loss in dry air. the loss of energy due to the presence of a gaseous medium -. It is now clear that. But since. the loss may be very great. But when extremely high frequencies and more or less high potentials are used. The wire has a hook on the upper end for suspension. The reflector is separated from the terminal t by an extension of the insulating plug P.in the case of an insulated sphere. on the assumption before made. especially if the distances are great. it acts inductively upon the surrounding air. the impacts are only the more violent. Most of that energy then. that there should not be any losses. On the outside of the upper end of the tube T is another conducting coating C1. and the other to a metal plate. also high potentials. the loss caused hg the impacts and collisions would not be serious unless the potential were excessive. when it is practicable. but is consumed -. or. one must come to such a conclusion. lamps. economical reasons will make it advisable to use only one wire.105 extension T. if motors. a sphere. fortunately. but this law needs experimental confirmation. I believe. necessarily in such case. in other words. and collisions occur at all distances within the inductive action of the sphere. and the small helix now behaves as though its free end were connected to the other terminal of the induction coil. and passes through the centre of the inside tube. it is better to employ one wire than two. The bulb hang3 downward from the terminal t. at least with most of the additional charge. propagated to considerable distance. or it can be a mere sink of energy. the zinc sheet Z. Therefore. and the conditions of the experiment determine whether it is more one or the other. The tube T is prepared from two short tubes of a different diameter. and. The sphere being charged to a high potential. A similar disposition with a phosphorescent tube is illustrated in Fig.in impact and collisional losses -. heat vibrations -. is not dissipated in the form of long ether waves. what is here meant more particularly by this term. But the energy of an impact must be proportionate to the square of the electric density of the sphere. capable of being advantageously operated by currents of extremely high frequency. as is thought most generally. As many important results are dependent upon the correctness of the estimation of the vibration period.that is. the potential of the sphere is alternated. is slipped over the metallic socket S. and move through a greater distance than the farther ones. had one of its ends connected to one of the terminals of the induction coil. and since currents of very high frequencies involve considerable waste when transmitted through conductors. which is filled with some good and tightly packed insulator. or. If an iron can be held within the small helix it is quickly brought to a high temperature.is an important factor to be considered. To reduce the probable error as much as possible in experiments of the kind alluded to. are not Attracted until they have parted. or atoms. I conclude from this that the total energy lost must be proportionate to the product of the frequency and the square of the electric density. which are sealed on the ends. the absorption -or. for the molecules which are nearest to the sphere. but. When energy is absorbed in a condenser the same behaves as though its capacity were increased. When the nearest molecules strike the sphere they are repelled. neither in the gaseous medium nor through its action elsewhere. This is far from being so. performing the double office of intensifier and reflector. this subject demands the most careful scrutiny of other investigators. the losses may be reduced to anything desired. especially if the condenser is of very small surface and is charged to a very high potential. an oil condenser . Still if the frequency of the impulses be very small. The total energy lost per unit of time is proportionate to the product of the number of impacts per second. if the potential be steady. the loss is diminished with the square of the density. In this case a rhythmical bombardment occurs. A few remarks are necessary on this subject. The molecules. which should be separated by a thick insulation from the end of wire w. upon which is slipped a metallic reflector Z.

In Leyden jars the loss due to air is comparatively small. In oil or other liquid dielectrics there are seemingly no such losses as in gaseous media. From the remarks before made one may see what an important factor of loss the air in the neighborhood of a charged surface becomes when the electric density is great and the frequency of the impulses excessive. As both the frequency of the vibrations of the charge and the potential are in all probability excessive. a rise of temperature can be distinctly observed only when the body connected to the coil is very small. a large sphere is inclosed in the bulb. If the jar be immersed in boiled-out oil. are very small. the energy converted into heat may be considerable. in experiments with such a coil. as. such condensers should be immersed in oil. as before stated. or at extremely small. would spend itself in molecular impacts and collisions. and may produce rain and storms. presents itself here. When the gas is at very low pressure. and the charged surfaces not directly exposed. I think. where the air is principally acted upon. But if in such case the frequency could be sufficiently increased. they can then be strained to the utmost and will remain cool. for economical reasons if nothing else. The variations may be gradual or very sudden. probably only little of the energy of the vibrations set up would be lost into space in the form of long ether radiations. or on account of the condition of the atmosphere in various places. or with impulses of low frequency. streams can he seen to issue from the electrode and the air in the bulb is heated. instead of a small electrode. Considerable variations in the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere may in this manner be caused at any point of the surface of the earth. and since not only the apparatus. Owing to this. and the loss will be inappreciable. If the gas around the electrode is strongly compressed. the upper edge of the foil. in fact.106 should be used in preference. the displacements. inclosed in an unexhausted bulb. This is the case only when the air is at something like ordinary or greater. exhausting the bulb is only necessary because we cannot produce (and possibly not convey) currents of the required frequency. or locally modify the weather in any way. But with appartus on a larger scale.that is. the effect produced would accordingly vary from place to place. if the apparatus were judiciously designed. A question of some interest. since there is. Nor should it be thought that the temperature of an air condenser would give even an approximate idea of the loss in heat incurred. still the air is heated. but the air at some distance from it is heated in consequence of the collisions which must occur. then true conduction losses occur also. pressure. and pass off into space in the form of short heat. for instance. as in such case heat must be given off much more quickly. It should not be thought that the loss in heat in an air condenser is necessarily associated with the formation of visible streams or brushes. of course. Since the density must be unevenly distributed. and I think that skilled physicians might make observations of utility in such experiments. and consequently the speeds. which. would not present the slightest danger. and possibly light. When the air is slightly rarefied and conducting. but is it a perfect: or a very imperfect one -. if. according to the nature of the general disturbance. even a body of considerable bulk would be heated. a very active carrying away of heat by independent carriers going on. no streams are observed. In such case. the loss may be more or less considerable at. In such case. How does the earth behave! The earth is an air condenser. If a small electrode. as the tinfoil coatings are large. close together. But it might be different when its charge is set in vibration by some sudden disturbance occurring in the heavens. but when the potentials are very high. But the action as explained implies that the air is insulating -. an electrode is heated more because higher speeds can be reached. but most of the energy.a mere sink of energy! There can be little doubt that to such small disturbance as might be caused in an experiment the earth behaves as an almost perfect condenser. It being impossible to exclude entirely the gas in condensers with solid dielectrics. and the heating is insignificant. principally to meteorologists. waves. in addition to the ordinary radiation. that it is composed of independent carriers immersed in an insulating medium. it will be capable of performing four times the amount of work which it can for any length of time when used in the ordinary way. the electrode would be brought to a high temperature as well as if the gas were at very low pressure. or near. is connected to one of the terminals of the coil. if the density is very great. considerable energy may be dissipated into space even with a steady potential. the body of a person. . either in consequence of the irregularity of the earth's surface.

to place. Often the outer globe L was exhausted only just enough to allow the discharge to pass through. Instead of making the inside bulb large. and the phosphorescence would cease. over the refractory button contained in the globe. when the exhaustion in globe L was very low. In some of these bulbs constructed as illustrated in Fig. In this arrangement usually only the small bulb shows phosphorescence. 28.107 Returning to the subject of electrode lamps. that it was well to make the stem J near the seal at e very thick. for example. Here a small bulb 6. the diameter of which is properly estimated. is always present when the refractory button is mounted in a Fig. 28 the small tube was coated with phosphorescent paint. the vacuum in the bulb b would be impaired in a comparatively short time. which was then moderately exhausted and sealed off. The globe L has in this case a large neck n. This arrangement is illustrated in Fig. it answers the purpose to make the electrode m larger. and beautiful effects were obtained. where it entered the bulb at e. 18. In tube a by several layers of mica M. as the highly conducting air weakened the effect somewhat. probably by being acted upon inductively from the wire w. containing the refractory button m. the glass might get too hot. It was found. to the ground. In this case the bombardment is weakened by reason of the smaller electric density. The principal advantage of this construction was that it allowed of reaching extremely high vacua. but to place a small bulb. Many bulbs were constructed on the plan illustrated in Fig. . namely. if so. producing a curious effect. Another difficulty -which. and the air good conducting. as it occurred sometimes that the stem at e was heated and the bulb was cracked. In some cases. in order to prevent the cracking of the neck by the rapid heating of the aluminium tube upon a sudden turning on of the current. The small bulb is conveniently supported upon the stem s. in the course of experiences with bulbs such as illustrated in Fig. else it would be apt to get too hot.existed in the construction illustrated in Fig. allowing the small bulb b to slip through. the bulb should be larger. A simple way to improve in this direction is to employ a globe of the required site. If it is desired to produce phosphorescence. The inside bulb should be as small as possible when it is desired to obtain light only by incandescence of the electrode. If a very small bulb be taken. and. it is obviously of advantage in such a lamp to confine as much as possible the heat to the electrode by preventing the circulation of the gas in the bulb. but it might not be of sufficient capacity to be operated from the coil. a tinfoil coating which was connected to an insulated body. in order to bring the button m to high incandescence. it would confine the heat better than a large one. it was found necessary. carrying the refractory button m. as there is practically no bombardment against the outer globe. however. Otherwise the construction is the same as shown in Fig. or to the other terminal of the coil. in order to avoid undue heating. 29. and the space between the bulbs appeared crimson. or. 29. upon being exhausted to a very high degree was sealed in a large globe L. at the same time use a large bulb. 29 very small bulb -. preferably on the upper part of the neck of the globe. and the leading-in wire w thin. 29.

assuming they could be transmitted to and impressed upon the flame. which I was able to obtain without difficulty from a specially constructed alternator. and renewal being necessary to maintain the burner. But the renewal being rendered difficult. and a queer flame it would be.would be to reach sufficiently high frequencies. For this it would be only necessary to assume that the independent bodies are irregularly shaped.because of the additional vibration imparted. and I think that a frequency may be reached at which there would be no exchange whatever of the air molecules around the terminal. and because of a slowing down of the process of carrying off. say 10. is that it is out of the question to reach any such frequencies as might -assuming some of the views before expressed to be true produce any of the results which I have pointed out as mere possibilities. it appeared to me of great interest to demonstrate the rigidity of a vibrating gaseous column. a sufficiently high frequency of the impulses would probably result in a gravitation of the gas all around toward the electrode. This may be so. We may cause the molecules of the gas to collide by the use of alternate electric impulses of high frequency. and from experiments with frequencies which we are now able to obtain. but with air moderately rarefied I obtain what I think to be an unmistakable experimental evidence of the property sought for. so that finally only atomic vibrations could be set up. meaning by this term only the cessation of the chemical process. a continued increase of the frequency of the impulses. As a result of this kind might lead able investigators to conclusions of importance I will describe one of the experiments performed. As the brush. 28 be chosen.108 The chief idea in the two last described constructions was to confine the heat to the central portion of the globe by preventing the exchange of air. We would then produce a flame in which there would be no carrying away of material. the potential energy of each would diminish. I think that the result is producible with impulses which are transmissible through a conductor. that in the case of an electrode immersed in a fluid insulating medium. for. In connection with thoughts of a similar nature.the ideal way -. I think. The general opinion. would result in the "extinction" of the latter. or flame. Thus an ordinary gas burner connected to a source of rapidly alternating potential might have its efficiency augmented to a certain limit. .000 per second. But by far the better way -. An advantage is secured. I made a series of experiments. for it would be rigid! With sud•1 high frequencies the inertia of the particles. and so we may imitate the process in a flame. from the observation of many phenomena I have gained the conviction that these frequencies would be much lower than one is apt to estimate at first. but in the course of these investigations. The higher the frequency the slower would be the exchange of the air. the task looked discouraging at first. however. or that of the discharges and the oscillations of the condenser. and this would be a position in which the fluid resistance to approach would be smaller than that offered to the receding. the exchange of the latter would be prevented. But what is the ratio of the frequency of the collisions and that of the vibrations set up! Certainly it must be incomparably smaller than that of the knocks of the bell and the sound vibrations. even if the construction illustrated in Fig. The trials with air at ordinary pressure led to no result. which can be acted upon inductively. I do not doubt. and surrounded by independent carriers of electric charges. in which both bulbs communicate. and this for two reasons -. and the motion of translation through measurable space would cease. In a flame we set up light vibrations by causing molecules. would gain rigidity in virtue of the inertia of the particles. but owing to the heating of the inside bulb and slow evaporation of the glass the vacuum is hard to maintain. of atoms. they would then turn toward the electrode their side of the greatest electric density. to collide. would come into play. the number ~f the impulses being augmented. This would necessarily occur. Although with such low frequencies as.

If a magnet be approached to it. If it possessed rigidity it resembled. an analogous result was produced. it might not be out of the way to say a few words about the method of. we can make the potential alternate with great rapidity. and two very sharply marked nodes. obtained from a coil operated as usual. Molecules and atoms can be thrown out of a bulb under the action of an enormous potential: this will be the principle of the vacuum pump of the future. producing excessively high degrees of exhaustion of which I have availed myself in the course . There is a subject which I must mention in connection with these experiments: it is that of high vacua. how must a gaseous medium behave under the influence of enormous electrostatic stresses which may be active in the interstellar space. not exactly an elastic cord stretched tight between two supports.that a vibrating gaseous column possesses rigidity. As long as ordinary coils. and if deformed and suddenly released should vibrate.which still needs better experimental confirmation -. The tube was exhausted to a point at which. the study of the subject was limited. it could be brought locally out of position by electrostatic or magnetic action. rapidly alternating electrostatic field. by raising the potential of frequency. It must be remarked here that the general aspect of the tube. therefore. even very large ones. but it was clear that the electrostatic action was not the cause of the vibration. in a liquid the speed would be likely to be small. the vibration was quickened.109 It is well known that when a tube is slightly exhausted the discharge may be passed through it in the form of a thin luminous thread. also. In doing this the luminous thread was set in vibration. But presently we are able to obtain from a small disruptive discharge coil potentials much higher than even the largest coil was capable of giving. In such a case the work is performed on the filament and the gas is little concerned. as far as I could see. and the degree of exhaustion materially modifies the results. In a gas the speed may be considerable. are quite different than when ordinary low frequency currents are used. a much higher vacuum than obtained at present would not secure a very great advantage. Think we as we may. and. might greatly modify the views of thinkers. By approaching the hand to the lower coating of the tube. In commercial apparatus such as incandescent lamps. it should be more or less rigid. for the thread was most generally stationary. according to the direction of the lines of force of the magnet. were used. the tube prepared was suspended from the end of a wire connected to the terminal. I did not obtain any experimental evidence with condenser discharges. and ultimate perfection will not be attained until we shall have discarded the mechanical and perfected an electrical vacuum pump. and appatatus for. would be but trifling. But when we begin to use very high frequencies and potentials. A luminous band excited in a bulb by repeated discharges of a Leyden jar must possess rigidity. and a third indistinct one. and at rest. for it may lead to results of great practical importance. and when the disturbing object was very quickly removed. What determines the rigidity of a body! It must be the speed and the amount of moving matter. and as it was visible it could be easily studied. by a little working the thread discharge could be obtained. but the density is exceedingly small. the observation in sud•1 a case is rendered extremely difficult on account of the fundamental vibration. were formed. dying gradually out.of a vibrating electrostatic field -. Accordingly I prepared a tube about 1 inch in diameter and 1 metre long. we must secure the best results we can with mechanical appliances. The speed of the vibration often varied perceptibly. With a magnet the thread could be split in two and both parts vibrated. It occurred to me that if such a thread would be produced with currents of very high frequency. this thread is inert. Both of these results enable us now ~o pass a luminous discharge through almost any vacua obtainable. When produced with currents of low frequency. it being merely necessary as a connecting link to enable interaction. and in both cases the inertia resistance offered to displacement is practically nil. As it was found preferable to work with one terminal. and could always be set in vibration by passing the finger quickly near the upper part of the tube. ether might be a true fluid.would show B possible way how solids might have formed from the ultra-gaseous uterus. and it could be observed that the electrostatic attraction of the glass affected the vibrating thread. continued for fully eight minutes. or insulated plate if attached. the part near the same is attracted or repelled. and which may alternate with inconceivable rapidity! The existence of such an electrostatic. and the degree of exhaustion. set the particles vibrating with enormous speeds. the improvement. the tinfoil coating being connected to the wire. But probably the amount of vibrating matter is so small that in spite of the extreme speed the inertia cannot prominently assert itself. once set up. For the present. A body might move with more or less freedom through the vibrating mass. Besides. though the density may be considerable. In this respect. but as a whole it would be rigid. When with low frequencies and insignificant potentials indications of that property may be noted. but a cord suspended from a height with a small weight attached at the end. But to reach extreme vacua the appliances must be much mote improved. because just at a point when it became most interesting it had to be interrupted on account of the "non-striking" vacuum being reached. as though a suspended cord would be displaced and quickly released near the point of suspension. and the field of our investigations is greatly extended. then the inertia resistance asserts itself. and to the lower coating sometimes a small insulated plate was attached. either increasing the frequency or passing a stronger discharge of the same frequency corresponded to a tightening of the cord. operated from ordinary systems of distribution. what is more. Then. devoid of rigidity. When the finger or a magnet was approached to the upper end of the luminous thread. The vibration. of all the possible directions to develop a practical illuminant. the action of the gas becomes all important. The demonstration of the fact -. This is a subject the study of which is not only interesting. But place a gaseous (or liquid) column in an intense. rhythmically throbbing force -. but useful. the line of high vacua seems to be the most promising at present. and how transverse and all kinds of vibrations may be transmitted through a gaseous medium filling all space. When the thread was formed it extended through the upper part of the tube and lost itself in the lower end. with outside coating at each end. Thus.

110 of these investigations. It is very probable that other experimenters have used similar arrangements; but as it is possible that there may be an item of interest in their description, a few remarks, which will render this investigation more complete, might be permitted.

The apparatus is illustrated in a drawing shown in Fig. 30. S represents a Sprengel pump, which has been specially constructed to better suit the work required. The stopcock which is usually employed has been omitted, and instead of it a hollow stopper has been fitted in the neck of the reservoir R. This stopper has a small hole h, through which the mercury descends; the size of the outlet o being properly determined with respect to the section of the fall tube t, which is sealed to the reservoir instead of being connected to it in the usual manner. This arrangement overcomes the imperfections and troubles, which often arise from the use of the stopcock on the reservoir and the connection of the latter with the fall tube. The pump is connected through a U-shaped tube t to a very large reservoir R1. Especial care was taken in fitting the grinding surfaces of the stoppers p and P,, and both of these and the mercury caps above them were made exceptionally long. After the U-shaped tube was fitted and put in place, it was heated, so as to soften and take off the strain resulting from imperfect fitting. The U-shaped tube was provided with a stopcock C, and two ground connections g and gl -- one for a small bulb b, usually containing caustic potash, and the other for the receiver r, to be exhausted. The reservoir R1 was connected by means of a rubber tube to a slightly larger reservoir R2, each of the two reservoirs being provided with a stopcock C1 and C2 respectively. The reservoir R2 could be raised and lowered by a wheel and rack, and the range of its motion was so determined that when it was filled with mercury and the stopcock C, closed, so as to form a Torricellian vacuum in it when raised, it could be lifted so high that the mercury in reservoir R1 would stand a little above stopcock C1: and when this stopcock was dosed and the reservoir R2 descended, so as to form a Torricellian vacuum in reservoir R1, it could be lowered so far as to completely empty the latter, the mercury filling the reservoir R2 up to a little above stopcock C2. The capacity of the pump and of the connections was taken as small as possible relatively to the volume of reservoir, R1, since, of course, the degree of exhaustion depended upon the ratio of these quantities. With this apparatus I combined the usual means indicated by former experiments for the production of very high vacua. In most of the experiments it was convenient to use caustic potash. I may venture to say, in regard to its use, that much time is saved and a more perfect action of the pump insured by fusing and boiling the potash w soon as, or even before, the pump settles down. If this course is not followed the sticks, as ordinarily employed, may give moisture off at a certain very slow rate, and the pump may work for many hours without reaching a very high vacuum. The potash was heated either by a spirit lamp or by passing a discharge through it, or by passing a current through a wire contained in it. The advantage in the latter case was that the heating could be more rapidly

111 repeated. Generally the process of exhaustion was the following: -- at the start, the stopcocks C and C1 being open, and all other connections closed, the reservoir R32 was raised so far that the mercury filled the reservoir R1 and a part: of the narrow connecting U-shaped tube. When the pump was set to work, the mercury would, of course, quickly rise in the tube, and reservoir R2 was lowered, the experimenter keeping the mercury at about the same level. The reservoir R2 was balanced by a long spring which facilitated the operation, and the friction of the parts was generally sufficient to keep it almost in any position. When the Sprengel pump had done its work, the reservoir R2 was further lowered and the mercury descended in R1 and filled R2, whereupon stopcock C2 was closed. The air adhering to the walls of R, and that absorbed by the mercury was carried off, and to free the mercury of all air the reservoir R2 was for a long time worked up and down. During this process some air, which would gather below stopcock C2, was expelled from R2 by lowering it far enough and opening the stopcock, closing the latter again before raising the reservoir. When all the air had been expelled from the mercury, and no air would gather in R2 when it was lowered, the caustic potash was resorted to. The reservoir R2 was now again raised until the mercury in R1 stood above stopcock C1. The caustic potash was fused and boiled, and the moisture partly carried off by the pump and partly re-absorbed; and this process of heating and cooling was repeated many times, and each time, upon the moisture being absorbed or carried off, the reservoir R2 was for a long time raised and lowered. In this manner all thc moisture was carried off from the mercury, and both the reservoirs were in proper condition to be used. The reservoir R2 was then again raised to the top, and the pump was kept working for a long time. When the highest vacuum obtainable with the Dump had been reached the potash bulb was usually wrapped with cotton which was sprinkled with ether so as to keep the potash at a very low temperature, then the reservoir R2 was lowered, and again reservoir R1 being emptied the receiver r was quickly sealed up. When a new bulb was put on, the mercury was always raised above stopcock C1, which was closed, so as to always keep the mercury and both the reservoirs in fine condition, and the mercury was never withdrawn from R1 except when the pump had reached the highest degree of exhaustion. It is necessary to observe this rule if it is desired to use the appartus to advantage. By means of this arrangement I was able to proceed very quickly, and when the apparatus was in perfect order it was possible to reach the phosphorescent stage in a small bulb in less than 1S minutes, which is certainly very quick work for a small laboratory arrangement requiring all in all about 100 pounds of mercury. With ordinary small bulbs the ratio of the capacity of the pump, receiver, and connections, and that of reservoir R was about 1--20, and the degrees of exhaustion reached were necessarily very high, though I am unable to make a precise and reliable statement how far the exhaustion was carried. What impresses the investigator most in the course of these experiences is the behavior of gases when subjected to great rapidly alternating electrostatic stresses. But he must remain in doubt as to whether the effects observed are due wholly to the molecules, or atoms, of the gas which chemical analysis discloses to us, or whether there enters into play another medium of a gaseous nature, comprising atoms, or molecules, immersed in a fluid pervading the space. Such a medium, surely must exist, and I am convinced that, for instance, even if air were absent, the surface and neighborhood of a body in space would be heated by rapidly alternating the potential of the body; but no such heating of the surface or neighborhood could occur if all free atoms were removed and only a homogeneous, incompressible, and elastic fluid -- such as ether is supposed to be -- would remain, for then there would be no impacts, no collisions. In such a case, as far as the body itself is concerned, only frictional losses in the inside could occur. It is a striking fact that the discharge through a gas is established with ever increasing freedom as the frequency of the impulses is augmented. It behaves in this respect quite contrarily to a metallic conductor. In the latter the impedance enters prominently into play as the frequency is increased, but the gas acts much as a series of condensers would: the facility with which the discharge passes through seems to depend on the rate of change of potential. If it act so, then in a vacuum tube even of great length, and no matter how strong the current, selfinduction could not assert itself: to any appreciable degree. We have, then, as far as we can now see, in the gas a conductor which is capable of transmitting electric impulses of any frequency which we may be able to produce. Could the frequency be brought high enough, then a queer system of electric distribution, which would be likely to interest gas companies, might be realized: metal pipes filled with gas -- the metal being the insulator, the gas the conductor -- supplying phosphorescent bulbs, or perhaps devices as yet uninvented. It is certainly possible to take a hollow core of copper, rarefy the gas in the same, and by passing impulses of sufficiently high frequency through a circuit around it, bring the gas inside to a high degree of incandescence; but as to the nature of the forces there would be considerable uncertainty, for it would be doubtful whether with such impulses the copper core would act as a static screen. Such paradoxes and apparent impossibilities we encounter at every step in this line of work, and therein lies, to a great extent, the charm of the study. I have here a short and wide tube which is exhausted to a high degree and covered with a substantial coating of bronze, the coating allowing barely the light to shine through. A metallic clasp, with a hook for suspending the tube, is fastened around the middle portion of the latter, the clasp being in contact with the bronze coating. I now want to light the gas inside by suspending the tube on a wire connected to the coil. Any one who would try the

112 experiment for the first time, not having any previous experience, would probably take care to be quite alone when making the trial, for fear that he might become the joke of his assistants. Still, the bulb lights in spite of the metal coating, and the light can be distinctly perceived through the latter. A long tube covered with aluminium bronze lights when held in one hand -- the other touching the terminal of the coil -- quite powerfully. It might be objected that the coatings arc not sufficiently conducting; still, even if they were highly resistant, they ought to screen the gas. They certainly screen it perfectly in a condition of rest, but not by far perfectly when the charge is surging in the coating. But the loss of energy which occurs within the tube, notwithstanding the screen, is occasioned principally by the presence of the gas. Were we to take a large hollow metallic sphere and fill it with a perfect incompressible fluid dielectric, there would be no loss inside of the sphere, and consequently the inside might be considered as perfectly screened, though the potential be very rapidly alternating. Even were the sphere filled with oil, the loss would be incomparably smaller than when the fluid is replaced by a gas, for in the latter case the force produces displacements; that means impact and collisions in the inside. No matter what the pressure of the gas may be, it becomes an important factor in the bearing of a conductor when the electric density is great and the frequency very high. That in the heating of conductors by lightning discharges air is an element of great importance, is almost as certain as an experimental fact. I may illustrate the action of the air by the following experiment: I take a short tube which is exhausted to a moderate degree and has a platinum wire running through the middle from one end to the other. I pass a steady or low frequency current through the wire, and it is heated uniformly in all parts. The heating here is due to conduction, or frictional losses, and the gas around the wire has - as far as we can see - no function to perform. But now let me pass sudden discharges, or a high frequency current, through the wire. Again the wire is heated, this time principally on the ends and least in the middle portion; and if the frequency of the impulses, or the rate of change, is high enough, the wire might as well be cut in the middle as not, for practically all the heating is due to the rarefied gas: Here the gas might only act as a conductor of no impedance diverting the current from the wire as the impedance of the latter is enormously increased, and merely heating the ends of the wire by reason of their resistance to the passage of the discharge. But it is not at all necessary that the gas in the tube should be conducting; it might be at an extremely low pressure, still the ends of the wire would be heated -- as, however, is ascertained by experience -only the two ends would in such case not be electrically connected through the gaseous medium. Now what with these frequencies and potentials occurs in an exhausted tube occurs in the lightning discharges at ordinary pressure. We only need to remember one of the facts arrived at in the course of these investigations, namely, that to impulses of very high frequency the gas at ordinary pressure behaves much in the same manner as though it were at moderately low pressure. I think that in lightning discharges frequently wires or conducting objects are volatilized merely because air is present, and that, were the conductor immersed in an insulating liquid, it would be safe, for then the energy would have to spend itself somewhere else. From the behavior of gases to sudden impulses of high potential I am led to conclude that there can be no surer way of diverting a lightning discharge than by affording it a passage through a volume of gas, if such a thing can be done in a practical manner. There are two more features upon which I think it necessary to dwell in connection with these experiments -- the "radiant state" and the non-striking vacuum". Any one who has studied Crookes work must have received the impression that the ''radiant state'' is a property of the gas inseparably connected with an extremely high degree of exhaustion. But it should be remembered that the phenomena observed in an exhausted vessel are limited to the character and capacity of the apparatus which is made use of. I think that in a bulb a molecule, or atom, does not precisely move in a straight line because it meets no obstacle, but because the velocity imparted to it is sufficient to propel it in a sensibly straight line. The mean free path is one thing, but the velocity -- the energy associated with the moving body -- is another, and under ordinary circumstances I believe that it is mere question of potential or speed. A disruptive discharge coil, when the potential is pushed very far, excites phosphorescence and projects shadows, at comparatively low degrees of exhaustion. In a lightning discharge, matter moves in straight lines at ordinary pressure when the mean free path is exceedingly small, and frequently images of wires or other metallic objects have been produced by the particles thrown off in straight lines.

But the particles move in straight lines because the velocity imparted to them is great. and if no other improvement were made. yet the degree of exhaustion is low. As the bombardment goes on.113 I have prepared a bulb to illustrate by an experiment the correctness of these assertions.a stage at which the discharge does not pass between two electrodes in a narrow tube. and this is due to three causes -. When the lime has been sufficiently heated. 32 a wide tube r was sealed to a smaller Wshaped tube U. but it is difficult to reach a point at which a luminous discharge would not occur around each electrode. the lime piece l and the projecting parts of the filament f are bombarded. The lime containing moisture. This stream is composed of "radiant" matter. of phosphorescent glass. and a white stream of lime particles (Fig. If the difference of potential between thc terminals is raised. 33. and reached into the U tube. The lamp filament is connected with a wire which leads into the bulb. the ends of which were provided with small spheres t and tl of aluminium.to the great electric density. is to make use of their powerful electro-dynamic inductive action to product: light effects in a sealed glass globe. As to the "non-striking vacuum". of which some were indicated in my former paper. that imperfection at least should be done away with. before described. the high temperature of the small point. With potentials which we are able to obtain. But with very high frequency impulses there is no necessity for such breaking down. In the tube T was placed a coil C of aluminium wire. and the fact that the particles of the lime are easily torn and thrown off -far more easily than those of carbon. even with a disruptive discharge coil. I have mounted upon a lamp filaments of a piece of lime l. but I believe that such a thing is impossible. one point of the lime piece is more heated than other points. and the rarefied gas in the small U tube was excited to strong luminosity by the high-tension currents induced in the . 32 and Fig. The leading-in wire is one of the defects of the present incandescent lamp. A thought which naturally presents itself in connection with high frequency currents. and the latter being set to work. provided the frequency is high enough. the phosphorescence lasts only for a few moments. The bulb being suspended from a wire connected to the terminal of the coil. The tube T was slipped into a socket containing a primary coil through which usually the discharges of Leyden jars were directed. each of these being connected to one of the terminals of the coil. 31). With frequencies such as we are able to obtain. I may here mention one or two more lines of experiment which have been followed up. In Fig. Many bulbs were constructed as shown in Fig. but disappears as soon as the vacuum is impaired. the point to be noted is that it can occur only with low frequency impulses. the speed must be quite insignificant. In a globe L (Fig. 19. the particles are bodily thrown off and projected to a considerable distance. and moisture being given off as soon as heating occurs. It would be out of the question to reach any such frequency on the assumption that the atoms move with the speed of light. but with sufficiently high frequencies no such thing would occur: in such case only a stress would spread or a vibration would be propagated through the bulb. enough moisture has been given off to impair materially the vacuum of the bulb. The degree of exhaustion is just such that with the potential the coil is capable of giving phosphorescence of the glass is produced. and it is necessitated by the impossibility of carrying off enough energy with such impulses in high vacuum since the few atoms which are around the terminal upon coming in contact with the same are repelled and kept at a distance for a comparatively long period of time. for this an enormous potential would be required. the dielectric breaks down. since any amount of work can be performed by continually agitating the atoms in the exhausted vessel. 31) then breaks forth from that point. Following this thought. and the results is that finally practically all the discharge passes through that point which is intensely heated. and not enough work can be performed to render the effect perceptible to the eye. I have carried on experiments in various directions. It is easy to reach -.even with frequencies obtained from an alternator as here used -. and the general construction of the latter is as indicated in Fig.

provided that means are invented for efficiently obtaining such high frequencies. for he arrives . In this case a tube T is sealed to a globe L. even with low frequencies a luminous discharge could be induced in such a tube closed upon itself. if coatings were used. In using extremely high frequencies the length of the secondary -. communicated with the tube T. jamming the latter as tight as possible up to very nearly the end. to many that as a vacuum tube is made longer the electromotive force per unit length of the tube. Thomson that I could add but little to what he has made known. no doubt. especially when the primary was thick and the air gap. The tube T. was to induce by electro-dynamic induction a current or luminous discharge in an exhausted tube or bulb. as I have before stated. it was found necessary to pack the tube T tightly with insulating powder. 33 an aluminium tube a was fastened to the upper end s of each of the tubes t and tl. in order to protect that end against the heat. and the refractory buttons m and m1 was first prepared. with low frequencies the light conversion itself would be inefficient. it would be better to supply the current directly to the tube by connecting the coatings to a transformer. But this would be an appliance hard to manufacture and extremely unmanageable. Thus one is led. In such bulbs with two buttons a very curious effect is produced by the formation of the shadows of each of the two buttons. Another line of experiment. The tube was then packed with insulating powder. and this means high electromotive forces and small currents in the primary. a few words must be devoted here to this subject. if the exhausted tube be made long enough. gets continually smaller. But even if all objections of such nature were removed. In Fig. with the small tubes. and besides.in other words. It would not do to make the tube up of small lengths. the ends of which pass through two small glass tubes t and tl.and they are the only means up to the present known for reaching these extreme frequencies -. merely to hold the wires. and at once a simple appliance capable of giving considerable light would be obtained. as a discharge would occur frequently between the turns of the coil. whereupon the coil C was slipped in and the connections made to its ends. Generally in bulbs made on this plan the globe I. wires through the same. necessary to pass a luminous discharge through the latter. which are sealed to the tube T. through which the jars discharged. from theoretical and practical considerations. but not to interfere with the communication. When Leyden jar discharges were used to induce currents in the coil C. since experiences in this line have gradually led me to the present views and results. then it was closed and only a small hole left through which the remainder of the powder was introduced. It has occurred. The buttons m and ml could be brought to any degree of incandescence by passing the discharges of Leyden jars around the coil C.114 coil C. J. Two refractory buttons m and ml are mounted on lamp filaments which are fastened to the ends of the wires passing through the glass tubes t and tl. which has been assiduously followed. even had I made it the special subject of this lecture. to the use of high frequencies. J. therefore. electromotive forces of several thousands of volts per turn of the primary. Such a tube might be placed around a hall or on a ceiling. the site of the vessel -. This matter has received such able treatment at the hands of Prof. large.he gets tr. The tube contains a coil C. He cannot multiply the electro-dynamic inductive effect by taking more turns in the primary. 33 is illustrated another form of the bulb constructed. and no little trouble was experienced in this way. Usually in bulbs constructed as shown in Fig. When he works with condenser charges -. For this purpose the ends of the small tubes t and t1 were just a trifle heated in the burner. and finally the end of the tube was closed. still. and then sealed to globe L. because there would be with ordinary frequencies considerable loss in the coatings. Still. and the efficiency of the light conversion is increased.can be reduced as far as desired.

lighting up a tube no matter where it was held in space. for instance. and this would make it still worse for the electro-dynamic effects. which is joined to an inside coating C. by converting the oscillatory current of a condenser to a higher potential. for I cannot see. and these effects grow relatively to the electro-dynamic in significance as the frequency is increased. the vacuum being very high. except electrostatic forces. I thought I recognized that I had made a step in advance. or combining self-induction and capacity to raise the potential. only instead of the lamp filament a small platinum wire P. On the other hand. Now. The tube is provided with outside and inside coatings. and now it will light in the electrostatic field. with a platinum wire sealed in the latter. the electric impulses of high frequency can be more easily transmitted through a conductor. Of all these phenomena observed with currents. establish electrostatic alternating fields which acted through the whole extent of a room.-and he must get along with whatever inductive effect he can obtain with one turn. and is filled as far as the coatings reach with conducting. to produce the effect desired either by direct connection of the body of the experimenter or of another body to the wire w. To prevent the fan from falling out. These and similar thoughts determined me to devote more attention to the electrostatic phenomena. of high frequency. Since I have exhibited these phenomena for the first time. At the beginning the task appeared difficult. I have produced the incandescence of a button. and if a strain exerted in the dielectric. 35. is connected to the copper wire w. and the best an unskilled lecturer can do is to begin and finish with the exhibition of these singular effects. and it is lighted wherever I may hold it. 34 a short tube T1. But I may take another tube and it might not light. For instance. and connection to the outside is made through a thin copper wire w. impulses of several hundred millions per second. Even with such stifling frequencies the energy would be practically all potential. 34 and Fig. The stem s is provided with an aluminium tube a for purposes before explained. The construction is the same as before.namely. By holding the tube T1 anywhere in the electrostatic field the filament is rendered incandescent. C and C1 respectively. a thin stem of glass g is bent properly and fastened to the aluminium tube. In Fig. A very thin lamp filament I is fastened to this wire. What change have I produced in the tube in the ad of exciting it! If a motion imparted to the atoms. it is produced by tremendous electrostatic stresses vibrating with extreme rapidity. to whatever kind of motion light may be due. A more interesting piece of apparatus is illustrated in Fig. but the experiences gathered permitted me to teach the result easily. and I have perserved in this line. and alternating as fast as they could be made to alternate. To get to this result it was necessary to economize the energy which is obtained from the field and direct most of it on the small body to be rendered incandescent. sealed in a stem s. what there would remain to act between two circuits conveying.115 at the conclusion that the best way is to work with one single turn -. if anything is desirable in this case. It should also be remembered that. such as a simple electrification would produce. it is easy to see how it may persist indefinitely but very difficult to understand why such a condition should aid the excitation when we have to deal with potentials which are rapidly alternating. on the point of which is arranged to rotate very freely a very light fan of mica v. and the mica vanes are rotated very fast. or electric impulses. is provided with a stem s. In Fig. it is difficult to perceive how it can persist so long without being arrested by frictional losses. or wire enclosed in a tube.though he must sometimes depart from this rule -. it is to increase the frequency. and bent above it in a circle. I think that this departure is the right one. I have obtained some other interesting effects. and to endeavor to produce potentials as high as possible. still it retains the faculty of being excited. I may put it away for a few weeks or months. in reducing the current to the smallest value and increasing the potential. but I wish to say that I share with all lovers of science and progress the one and only desire -. and that I could. When the glass tube is held anywhere in the electrostatic field the platinum wire becomes incandescent. throughout space the invisible forces act. from the observation of the phenomena which manifest themselves as the frequency is increased. But before he has long experimented with the extreme frequencies required to set up in a small bulb an electromotive force of several thousands of volts he realizes the great importance of electrostatic effects.to reach a result of utility to men in any direction to which thought or experiment may lead me. and the space above with insulating powder. and only a small part of the filament reaches out of this tube. and my conviction has grown strong that. it is easy to exalt the electrostatic action as far as one likes by taking more turns on the secondary. sealed to another long tube T. the most fascinating for an audience are certainly those which are noted in an electrostatic field acting through considerable distance. I excite it by means of a disruptive discharge coil. I take a tube in the hand and move it about. I then found that I could excite vacuum tubes at considerable distance from a conductor connected to a properly constructed coil. or by acting inductively through the glass. 35 two such tubes are illustrated which are prepared for the occasion. filament. A small stem sl is provided with a needle. These coatings are merely used to enable me to perform two experiments with the tube -. .

means more economy. A small phosphorescent bulb. In this direction some improvements have been made. In all cases we require high frequencies and high potentials. the deplorable losses incurred in our best systems of light production. must have asked himself. But to light such a lamp we require a high potential. but incomparably more efficient! There is little chance to perfect a gas burner. In no branch of electric industry is an advance more desired than in the manufacture of light. not. These thoughts occurred to me a long time ago. assuming. The effects produced are magnificent. when attached to a wire connected tl. It was of interest to see how some of the phosphorescent bulbs of Professor Crookes would behave with these currents. Discarding.116 Intense phosphorescence may be excited in a bulb by merely connecting it to a plate within the field. and that is by trying to reach higher degrees of incandescence. there remain the three ways first mentioned.though this argument is not devoid of force -. again. but the progress is hampered by many limitations. and that. and renewal is repeated passing from low to high vibrations. The phosphorescence excited with these currents is incomparably more powerful than with ordinary apparatus. their chief interest lies for the present in the possibilities they offer for the production of an efficient illuminating device.but because in a burner the higher vibrations can never be reached except by passing through all the low ones. the difficulties connected with the operation of such a lamp to be effectively overcome. and to get this economically we must use high frequencies. Suppose the light of the immediate future to be a solid rendered incandescent by electricity. as in the present lamp. Such considerations apply even more to the production of light by the incandescence of a gas. and he has had the kindness to lend me z few for the occasion. that means more light from the same material. emits sufficient light to allow reading ordinary print at a distance of five to six paces. One way only seems to be open to improve a burner. From the disruptive discharge coil they glow intensely merely by holding them in the hand and connecting the body to the terminal of the coil. Every thinker. or by phosphorescence. For how is a flame produced unless by a fall of lifted weights! Such process cannot be maintained without renewal. Would it not seem that it is better to employ a small button than a frail filament! From many considerations it certainly must be concluded that a button is capable of a higher economy. To whatever results investigations of this kind may lead. . Higher incandescence is equivalent to a quicker vibration. or a phosphorescent body. when considering the barbarous methods employed. the burner. and the plate need not be any larger than an ordinary lamp shade. a coil. or an incandescent gas. perhaps. What is likely to be the light of the future! Is it to be an incandescent solid. or something like a burner. of course. especially by the sulphide of calcium and sulphide of zinc. then. because human ingenuity has been bent upon that problem for centuries without a radical departure having been made -. which are essentially electrical.

and let the flow correspondingly diminish. A perfect screen is of course out of the question. if nothing else. then such impulses -. the gutta-percha covered wire should be provided with a third conducting coating subdivided in sections. which would be very small. Such an arrangement does not still afford a perfect screen. It would then be possible to send over the wire current vibrations of very high frequencies at enormous distance without affecting greatly the character of the vibrations. In conclusion. but it is ten thousand times better than none. According to my ideas. The first thought is.can no doubt be transmitted through a wire even if their frequency be many hundreds of millions per second. This. so frequently and generously accorded has told me that I have succeeded. every one will naturally ask how to transmit them when the necessity arises. many advantages. The question is. is to find means to reduce as much as possible the dissipation. But such cables will not be constructed. or through a condenser of extremely small capacity. If a ground connection is made it can only be made through a conductor offering an enormous impedance. but I believe that with a screen such as I have just described telephony could be rendered practicable across the Atlantic. the possibility of doing away with the leading-in wire. then corresponding short waves will be sent up in the conducting coating. such as a higher economy in the light production. and transmit. let me thank you most heartily for your kindness and attention. even if thc wire were provided with a thick and excellent insulation for most of the energy would be lost in molecular bombardment and consequent heating. It would. The end of the wire connected to the source would be heated.variations merely of pressure. of course. employ the thinnest possible wire surrounded by the thickest practicable insulation. by the use of very high frequencies. for ere long intelligence -. and the remote end would receive but a trifling part of the energy supplied. Assume the means for the production of impulses of very great frequency brought to the utmost perfection. no attempt is being made to disturb the electrostatic or magnetic condition of the earth. I think it preferable to cut up the conducting coating in small sections. In transmitting such impulses through conductors we must remember that we have to deal with pressure and flow. etc. If the wave length of the impulses is much smaller than the length of the wire. the pleasure I have had in presenting these results to a gathering of so many able men and among them also some of those in whose work for many years past I have found enlightenment and constant pleasure -. the possibility of working with one lead. If a wire were provided with a perfect electrostatic screen. and assure you that the honor I have had in addressing such a distinguished audience. It is therefore necessary to cut up the coating in sections much shorter than the wave length. if such electric impulses are to be used. The prime necessity. however. in the ordinary interpretation of these terms. as it were -. Let the pressure increase to an enormous value. But this would not do.transmitted without wires will throb through the earth like a pulse through a living organism. . It has been my chief aim in presenting these results to point out phenomena or features of novelty. does not do away with other difficulties. intelligence. as then all the energy would pass through the conducting coating to the ground and nothing would get to the end of the wire. even if the current waves be much longer than the coating. how far can we go with frequencies! Ordinary conductors rapidly lose the facility of transmitting electric impulses when the frequency is greatly increased. The next thought is to employ electrostatic screens. On the top of this should be again placed a layer of gutta-percha and other insulation. and it will be more or less the same as though the coating were directly connected to earth.I shall never forget. and on the top of the whole the armor.117 Incidentally we gain. it would be the same as though all objects were removed from it at infinite distance. It has been my chief desire this evening to entertain you with some novel experiments. The insulation of the wire may be covered with a thin conducting coating and the latter connected to the ground. Your applause. then. and to advance ideas which I am hopeful will serve as starting points of new departures. The capacity would then be reduced to the capacity of the wire itself. The wonder is that. be out of question to transmit such impulses through a wire immersed in a gaseous medium. with the present state of knowledge and the experiences gained.

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Tesla era un’ingegnere elettrico al quale sia la scienza ufficiale, sia quella non ufficiale, devono molto. Questo è un dispositivo di risonanza, utile per tramettere onde attraverso la terra. Ma, una volta costruito, va maneggiato con estrema cautela.

L’Oscillatore di Tesla
fonte:http://www.angelfire.com/scifi/EclipseLab/Tesla/Oscillator.html(Nostra traduzione)

A Nikola Tesla si pensa principalmente come ad un genio dell’elettricità, ma fu pure autore di un mucchio di dispositivi meccanici. Uno dei più famosi di questi fu la sua "Macchina per Terremoti" anche conosciuta come l’Oscillatore di Tesla. La macchina che Tesla ha provato fu piccola, circa 7 pollici di lunghezza, e pesante solo uno o due pounds; del tipo "potresti metterlo nella tasca del tuo cappotto". Nel 1898, il laboratorio di Tesla a New York fu vicino cadere a pezzi con questo piccolo dispositivo, azionato solo da solo cinque pounds di pressione dell’aria che agiscono contro uno speciale pistone pneumatico. L’intero sistema fu progettato per essere alimentato dalla pressione del vapore. Tesla stava sperimentando modi per trasmettere forza motrice attraverso la Terra! Versioni più grandi di questi oscillatori, forse pesanti 200 pounds, e essendo circa alta tre piedi poteva trasmettere forza motrice utilizzabile ovunque nell’intero pianeta. Se vi sembra fantastico, questo dispositivo poteva anche trovare navi, sottomarini e palazzi ovunque e su scala globale. Il dispositivo di Tesla era del tutto meccanico, ed è mostrato qui di seguito:

Il vapore potrebbe essere forzato nell’oscillatore, e uscire attraverso una serie di portelli, il cui effetto era

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di portare l'armatura a vibrare ad alta velocità. Il rivestimento era per necessità molto forte, in quanto le temperature dovute alla pressione di riscaldamento nella camera superiore superavano i 200 gradi, e la pressione portata a 400psi. Furono create altre versioni di questa macchina, progettate per produrre energia elettrica sia alternata che continua (senza il bisogno di aggiustamenti).

Il Piano
Con questo in mente, ho iniziato a pensare al modo in cui poter costruire uno di questi oscillatori più facilente che con un recipiente a pressione in acciaio. Poichè il pistone ad aria fa affidamento sull'aria compressa per realizzare il movimento d’oscillazione, mi sembra che dovrebbe essere utile un altro modo di forzare pistone a muoversi. Ho battuto sull'idea di usare un campo magnetico per creare parte del movimento. Il disporre di una corrente alternata a frequenza variabile potrebbe essere la soluzione perfetta a questo problema, permettendo una perfetta modulazione delle frequenze d’oscillazione con la sistemazione di una semplice bobina, senza il bisogno di aria o di vapore. Eventualmente, la soluzione che meglio sembra essere adatta al lavoro può essere la seguente:

Il sistema lavora come segue. L’aria compressa entrando nel vano d'ingresso forza la testa pistone verso l'alto. Comunque, l'asta del pistone è impedita a muoversi verso l'alto dall’azione di campi magnetici opposti tra le due bobine. La corrente nelle bobine può essere variata per creare un campo di una forza specifica, e quindi l'ammontare di forza richiesta per il pistone da dover aumentare. Il campo preme giù e

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l’aria preme su. Quando la spinta dell'aria supera la spinta del campo, il pistone verrà sparato verso l'alto, ma appena la testa del pistone supera l'apertura dell'aria, la cavità verrà depressurizzata. Quando accade, il campo sbatterà il pistone verso il basso, e la testa del martello colpirà la lamiera d'acciao alla base. Al variare della pressione dell’aria e della forza del campo magnetico, si può creare qualsiasi intervallo di frequenza si desideri.

Buttiamo Giù la Casa!
Ogni cosa in natura vibra ad una certa frequenza. Quando un oggetto è vibrato alla sua risonanza naturale, inizia a subire un pesante shock, appena prova a scuotere se stesso a distanza. Potrebbe sembrare ridicolo immaginare che un minuscolo oscillatore possa da solo buttare giù un palazzo, se non per il principio di risonanza. Come un bambino sull’altalena, solo una piccolissima forza è richiesta per mantenere un movimento reciproco e abbastanza ampio. Una maggiore vibrazione potrebbe essere stabilita in una casa facendo coincidere ciascun colpo del pistone col ritorno delle singole vibrazioni attraverso il palazzo dove si trova l’oscillatore. Ogni volta che il pistone batte,ingrandisce la forza un po’ di più. Alla frequenza di 1000Hz, la forza accumulata può essere molto apprezzabile! La frequenza di risonanza è collegata al tempo che prende per le vibrazioni per espandersi attraverso l'edificio, riverberare, ed “echeggiare” per ritornare ancora all’oscillatore. Trovando la corretta frequenza, può essere distrutta OGNI struttura. Infatti, più grande è la struttura, più è bassa la frequenza di risonanza, più è facile da distruggere. Tesla una volta scherzava quando diceva che poteva spaccare la Terra con una di queste macchine, e nessuno sa veramente se stava scherzando...

Costruzione
Sto attualmente considerando di costruire un oscillatore per prova, basato sul progetto di questa pagina. Il dispositivo è alquanto pericoloso così avrò bisogno di lavorarci con cautela. Se qualcuno ha un suggerimento su ulteriori miglioramenti che possono essere fatti, è pregato di (EclipseG@Angelfire.com). scrivermi

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and went away. I told my assistants to say nothing. I knew I was approaching the vibration of the steel building. New York. and the steelworkers came to the ground panic-stricken. 1935 in his suite at the Hotel New Yorker. There was a louder cracking sound.. July 11. They did not know. I had one of my machines going and I wanted to see if I could get it in tune with the vibration of the building. It would only be necessary to step up the vibrations of the machine to fit the natural vibration of the building and the building would come crashing down. I put it up notch after notch. But if I had kept on 10 minutes more. Outside in the street there was pandemonium. There was a peculiar cracking sound." . which would facilitate the unerring location of underground mineral deposits. was the result of a little machine he was experimenting with at the time which "you could put in your overcoat pocket. 1935 - Tesla's Earthquake Machine Nikola Tesla revealed that an earthquake which drew police and ambulances to the region of his laboratory at 48 E. "crowbars could not have done it. and finally broke. I put the machine up a few more notches. I pushed the machine a little higher. he put the little oscillator in his coat pocket. "In a few minutes I could feel the beam trembling. Tesla announced a method of transmitting mechanical energy accurately with minimal loss over any terrestrial distance. At that time he recalled the earth-trembling "quake" that brought police and ambulances rushing to the scene of his Houston Street laboratory while an experiment was in progress with one of his mechanical oscillators. "the father of modern electricity" told what had happened as follows: Tesla stated. Finally the structure began to creak and weave." The bewildered newspapermen pounced upon this as at least one thing they could understand and Nikola Tesla. he clamped the oscillator to one of the beams." Some shrewd reporter asked Dr.. We told the police it must have been an earthquake. no one of which would have harmed a baby. increased its trembling until it dilated and contracted like a beating heart. I could have laid that building flat in the street. but at last the great steel link began to tremble. he claimed. That's why soldiers break step crossing a bridge. but a fusillade of taps." "On the occasion of his annual birthday celebration interview by the press on July 10. Tesla at this point what he would need to destroy the Empire State Building and the doctor replied: "Vibration will do anything. believing that there had been an earthquake. in 1898. Finding a half-built steel building in the Wall Street district. 10 stories high with nothing up but the steelwork. "Suddenly all the heavy machinery in the place was flying around. Gradually the trembling increased in intensity and extended throughout the whole great mass of steel. I asked my assistants where did the sound come from." Excerpt from: "Tesla: Man Out of Time" by Margaret Cheney He attached an oscillator no larger than an alarm clock to a steel link 2' long and 2" thick. The building would have been about our ears in another few minutes. including a related new means of communication and a method. put it in my pocket. And with the same oscillator I could drop Brooklyn Bridge in less than an hour.. "For a long time nothing happened. Sledgehammers could not have done it". I took off the oscillator. I grabbed a hammer and broke the machine. That's all they ever knew about it. "I was experimenting with vibrations." Pleased with this beginning. he told a reporter. Before anything serious happened.138 the Complete Nikola Tesla Tesla Quotes Tesla's Lost Inventions the Amazing Nikola Tesla Tesla's Flying Machine Tesla's Wonderworld the Tesla Turbine Tesla's Black Box Tesla time-line Chronography Tesla's Earthquake Machine Greatest Hacker? Machine To End War Radiant Energy Receiver Magnifying Transmitter Viktor's Patents Viktor Schauberger The Bio-Sphere Airship Power From The Oceans Dynamic Hydropower Vortex Science Sympathetic Vibratory Physics Walter Russell Water Power WhirlPower Joe Fuel Cell Help Frank Germano Global Energy Technologies Applications The Bookstore Products I Endorse Excerpt from the New York World Telegram. did it. The police and ambulances arrived. Houston St.

Houston St. 8. I knew I was approaching the vibration of the steel building. The caption reads: "Tesla claims that in a few weeks he could set the earth's crust into such a state of vibration that it would rise and fall hundreds of feet and practically destroy civilization. There was a louder cracking sound. 1935). constant. at 79. There was a peculiar cracking sound. was the result of a little machine he was experimenting with at the time which "you could put in your overcoat pocket. he (Tesla) boasted that. eventually split the earth in two.At Birthday Luncheon He Announces Machine for 1-Way Communication" New York Sun (July 11. Figure 2 (April 1895) ~ In 1893 Tesla constructed a preferred embodiment of the mechanical oscillator which he described as a "double compound mechanical and electrical oscillator for generating current of perfect. That's why soldiers break step crossing a bridge. A Startling Discovery".Art of TeleGeodynamics" New York Times (July 11. col. I put the machine up a few more notches." In another interview. It would only be necessary to step up the vibrations of the machine to fit the natural vibration of the building and the building would come crashing down. 1935). pp. "Nikola Tesla. "Tesla.. Tesla at this point what he would need to destroy the Empire State Building and the doctor replied: "Vibration will do anything.Tesla Announces Method of Remote Control" N. Dreamer" ~ An illustration for the article shows an artist's conception of the planet splitting in two. Benson: World Today (Feb." "I asked my assistants where did the sound come from.. They did not know. I told my assistants to say nothing. Outside in the street there was pandemonium. The building would have been about our ears in another few minutes. A continuation of this process would. "Promises to Transmit Force Transmission of Energy Over World" Excerpt from: Prodigal Genius: The Life and Times of Nicola Tesla by John O'Neill Tele-Geo-Dynamics: . 1912). The police and ambulances arrived. 1935). 1." New York Sun (July 10. I put it up notch after notch. "Suddenly all the heavy machinery in the place was flying around. p. "New Apparatus Transmits Energy . 1935). Earl: N." The bewildered newspapermen pounced upon this as at least one thing they could understand and "the father of modern electricity" told what had happened as follows: "I was experimenting with vibrations. Section 2. 23. 8. which brought the police there to stop him. "Tesla. which was mounted on a girder: Nikola Tesla revealed that an earthquake which drew police and ambulances to the region of his laboratory at 48 E." Allan L.000 Within Two Years" ~ Here Tesla tells the story of the earthquake generated by the mechanical oscillator in his NYC laboratory in 1898. "Nikola Tesla Describes New Invention . he says. Expects to have $100.000. New York. • • • • • • • Century Magazine.139 More Information: Sparling. Uses Earth to Transmit Signals. in 1898." Some shrewd reporter asked Dr. at 79. dynamo frequency of 10 horsepower. "Tesla's Controlled Earth Quakes Power Through the Earth. New York Herald Tribune (July 11. 79. "With this principle one could split the earth in half like an apple". We told the police it must have been an earthquake. Y. 1935). World-Telegram (July 11. Y. "Nikola Tesla. p. I had one of my machines going and I wanted to see if I could get it in tune with the vibration of the building. They entered the lab just in time to see Tesla swing a sledge hammer and smash the tiny device. 921. American (July 11.. Discovers New Message Wave . I pushed the machine a little higher. 1935). I grabbed a hammer and broke the machine. That's all they ever knew about it.

The objective of the Tesla oscillator-generator is to provide a mechanism capable of converting the energy of compressed gas or steam into mechanical power. it will depend on the rigidity of the spring. The further objects of the invention are to provide a mechanism. Why can a resonance be created in the oscillator-generator when it cannot in a ordinary reciprocating engine? With the oscillator-generator. These parts all consume work by friction. In other words. steam. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. cranks. which can be produced with comparatively simple apparatus. irrespective of variation of load. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Reciprocating Engines. Heretofore. friction is almost nonexistent.169 . Starting with the cylinder. of which the following is a specification. Tesla's Mechanical Oscillator: US Patent # 514. where the pressure of steam or any gas has been utilized and applied for the . which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of steam or gas under pressure will yield an oscillatory movement which. a citizen of the United States. chiefly by overcoming the losses which result in these by the combination with rotating parts possessing great inertia of a reciprocating system. will be of constant period. Since resonance seems to be an ever increasing effect with this oscillator-generator. it can be deduced that there must be a great source of energy available through it. Nikola Tesla. the piston floats freely in air and is capable of converting all pressure into mechanical energy. This type of engine. drivetrains.e. As far as the period in general is concerned. under the influence of an applied force such as the tension of compressed air. The Patent. capable of converting the energy of steam or gas under pressure into mechanical power more economically than the forms of engine heretofore used. There is of course much sonic equipment available now for different applications. This simple harmonic motion in the form of isochronous sound vibrations can be impressed upon the earth. will be of constant period. is better adapted for use at higher temperatures and pressures. in the county and State of New York. frictional losses. frictional losses and other factors which in all ordinary engines produce change in the rate of reciprocation. On the other hand. Our objective in building the engine is to provide an oscillator which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of a gas under pressure will yield an oscillating movement which within very wide limits. At each point every varying inclination of the crank and pistons work at a disadvantage and result in loss of efficiency. This is known as Simple Harmonic Motion. yields an oscillation of a constant period. it will perform vibrations which are isochronous. The invention is based upon certain well known mechanical principles a statement of which will assist in a better understanding of the nature and purposes of the objects sought and results obtained.Reciprocating Engine . being stretched. etc. In the invention which forms the subject of my present application. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. a reciprocating motion is converted into rotary motion by a means of shafts. within very wide limits. consider the car engine. all governing mechanisms are eliminated. which also. gears. but the greatest loss occurs in the change from reciprocating to rotary motion. In Tesla's oscillator-generator. or other gases under pressure. What Tesla proposed represents a new technology in sonic transmission even today. and which is capable of useful and practical application to general industrial purposes. a Resonance effect can be observed.Nikola Tesla To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I. primarily to provide an engine. but this has little or nothing to do with Nikola Tesla's oscillator-generator. transmissions. my object has been. particularly in small units. irrespective of variations of load. i. and other factors which in ordinary engines change in the rate of reciprocating. and then freed.. residing at New York. the piston is entirely free to move as the medium impels it without having to encounter and overcome the inertia of a moving system and in this respect the two types of engines differ radically and essentially. causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which pass through its remotest boundaries without attenuation so that the transmission is affected with an efficiency of one hundred percent. Since the oscillator-generator is denuded of all governing devices. It is a wellknown principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia is brought under tension. In Tesla's oscillator-generator.140 Tele-Geo-Dynamics is the transmission of sonic or acoustic vibrations.

A is the main cylinder in which works a piston B. for thus a spring of practically constant rigidity is obtained. as the mechanical difficulties in the use of metallic springs are serious. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. renders impossible the attainment of the result at which I have arrived. and. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air will tend to retard of affect the return of the piston in either direction. The piston . The piston B is formed with two circumferential grooves EF. to the tendency to break. This. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement. to maintain in oscillation a piston. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. Moreover. acting through proper mechanism. On the other hand. I refer now to the accompanying drawing which represents in central cross-section an engine embodying my improvements. While. as by being stretched. I connect with said piston. in certain cases. opening at the middle portion thereof and on opposite sides. which communicate through openings G in the piston with the cylinder on opposite sides of said piston respectively. to employ an independent plunder connected with the main piston. upon which dependence was mainly placed for the maintenance of constant speed. and is attended by disadvantages which by my invention are entirely obviated. a spring. as to period. taking advantage of the law above stated. In carrying out my invention and for securing the objects in general terms stated above. while securing in a measure this object. and also to better utilize the heat generated by the compression. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. the piston and the ports for controlling it. where reciprocating engines or tools have been used without a rotating system of great inertia. in order to avoid the influence of the varying pressure of the steam or gas that acts upon the piston and which might disturb the relations necessary for the maintenance of isochronous vibration. Inlet ports CC pass through the sides of the cylinder. and more especially. at the same pressure as the external atmosphere. has been made to secure conditions which would necessarily yield such results as I have reached. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston. It is a well known principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia be brought under tension. In order to describe the best manner of which I am aware in which the invention is or may be carried into effect. except that it is desirable that all the ports. or cause to act upon it. and the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. the exhaust ports should be made very much larger than is usually the case. and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. I do not consider as of special importance the particular construction and arrangement of the cylinder. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. instead of permitting the piston to impinge directly upon such cushions within its own cylinder. Exhaust ports DD extend through the wall of the cylinder and are formed with branches that open into the interior of the cylinder on each side of the inlet ports and on opposite sides of the cylinder. no attempt. in the practice of the invention I may employ any kind of spring or elastic body of which the law or principle of operation above defined holds true. containing air which is normally. owing mainly. and a chamber or cylinder therefore. I prefer to use an air spring.141 production of mechanical motion it has been customary to connect with the reciprocating or moving parts of the engine a fly-wheel or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. or generally speaking a confined body or cushion of elastic fluid. so far as I know. but the air or gas within the cylinder may be maintained at any pressure. I prefer.

To explain now the operation of the device above described. which works in suitable stuffing boxes in the heads of the cylinder A. A forward stroke compresses the air ahead of the plunger J and tends to drive it forward. The cylinder I is surrounded by a jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which is equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. and the two pipes that lead to the cylinder A run from the said chamber. for while the cylinder is so constructed as . In the particular form of engine shown the jacket K which contains the cylinder I is provided with a flange N by which it is screwed to the end of cylinder A. and an engine constructed as herein described my be made to follow the principle of operation above stated and maintain a perfectly uniform period through very much wider limits of pressure than in ordinary use it is ever likely to be subjected to. A small channel O is thus formed which has air vents P in its sides and drip pipes Q leading out from it through which the oil which collects in it is carried off. The heat thus taken up and used to raise the temperature of the steam or air acting upon the piston is availed of to increase the efficiency of the engine. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately. and the consequent counteracting force upon the plunger. and it may be successfully used as a prime mover wherever a constant rate of oscillation or speed is required. This action of the plunger upon the air contained in the opposite ends of the cylinder is exactly the same in principle as though a piston rod were connected to the middle point of a coiled spring. which experience has shown need not be fitted with any very considerable accuracy. or when the piston is at the middle point of its stroke. If a source of steam or compressed air be then connected to the inlet ports CC of the cylinder A and a movement be imparted to the piston as by a sudden blow. and this will be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal. the ends of which are connected to fixed supports. and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly portioning these factors. The greater the pressure upon the piston. This rod is prolonged on one side and extends through bearings V in a cylinder I suitably mounted or supported in line with the first. are not materially exceeded. the latter is caused to reciprocate in a manner well understood. and within which is a disk or plunger J carried by the rod H. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. In any given engine of this kind the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. The movement of the piston in either direction ceases when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam or compressed air in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except as a small leakage my occur through the bearings V. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. extend through the jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system. The bearings V in the cylinder I. however. is no more dependent upon the pressure applied to drive it. In constructing the apparatus I allow for a variation in the length of stroke by giving to the confining cylinder I of the air spring properly determined dimensions. This heat I utilize by conducting the steam or compressed air to the engine cylinder through the chamber formed by the jacket surrounding the air-spring cylinder. The bearings V in the cylinder I. the higher will be the degree of compression of the air-spring. The main supply line L for steam or compressed air leads into this chamber. The rate or period of reciprocation of the piston. upon the force which periodically impels it. oil cups M being conveniently arranged to deliver oil into the said pipes for lubricating the piston. than would be the period of oscillation of a pendulum permanently maintained in vibration. provided the limits within which the forces tending to bring the moving system to a given position are proportionate to the displacements. extend through the jacket K to the outside air and the chamber between the cylinder and jacket is made steam or air tight as by suitable packing.142 B is secured to a piston rod H. These conditions are all readily determinable. In the position of the parts shown. The compressions of the air in the cylinder I and the consequent loss of energy due mainly to the imperfect elasticity of the air. the effect of variations in such force being merely to produce corresponding variations in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. the plunger J is at the center of the cylinder I and the air on both sides of the same is at the normal pressure of the outside atmosphere. The pressure of the air confined in the cylinder when the plunger J is in its central position will always be practically that of the surrounding atmosphere. Consequently the two chambers may be considered as a single spring. and this action is continued as long as the requisite pressure is applied. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. give rise to a very considerable amount of heat.

one end of the pawl at each half oscillation acting to propel the wheel forward through the space of one tooth when it is engaged and locked by the other end on the last half of the oscillation which brings the first end of the oscillation into position to engage with another tooth. however. engines. Also: see the newest article on this site. These may constitute the train of a clock or of any other mechanism." Much of the material presented in this book is related to the construction of a class of machine invented by Tesla and known as the reciprocating Mechanical Oscillator. In 1898 another variation was used to create a small earthquake in the neighborhood surrounding his Houston Street lab.Nikola Tesla To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I. plus a comprehensive description of the machine in Tesla's own words. under very wide variations of pressure. to maintain in oscillation a piston. so that the pressure of the air on opposite sides of the plunger will always tend to remain at that of the outside atmosphere. he explained. I have produced. When a spring which possess a sensible inertia is brought under tension as by being stretched and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. Having now described my invention. of which the following is a specification. what I claim is: (Claims not included here). Another application of the invention is to move a conductor in a magnetic field for generating electric currents. and in these and similar uses it is obvious that the characteristics of the engine render it especially adapted for use in small sizes or units. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. A description of the principle of the construction and mode of operation of this device is necessary to an understanding of my present invention. written by Dale Pond and used by permission . In utilizing this principle for the purpose of producing reciprocating movement of a constant period. Pick one up from Amazon. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement.com (below).900 ." Included are mechanical drawings that will guide you through the construction of a working model of the Tele-Geo-Dynamic Oscillator. Notes: His early experiments in vibration. Serious students of Tesla's work may recognize this machine as the basis of his system for producing electrical vibrations of a very constant period. an oscillating movement of constant period. and connect with it or cause to act upon such piston a spring. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring."Sympathetic Vibratory Physics.143 not to permit such sudden escape of air as to sensibly impair or modify the action of the air spring there will be a slow leakage of air into or out of it around the piston rod according to the pressure therein. and have shown and described the same in [ US Patent # 514. residing at New York. The pawl R is pivoted at R’ and its bifurcated end engages with the teeth of the ratchet wheel alternately on opposite sides of the same. or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. in the county and State of New York."Tesla's Earthquake Machine. by Dale Pond . operated by the application of a force such as the elastic tension of steam or a gas under pressure. a citizen of the United States.Steam Engine . an engine which without such appurtenances produces. which was relied upon for maintaining a uniform speed. Heretofore. load." (For more detailed information on this device. preferably an air spring. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. "led to his invention of his "earth vibrating" machine. acting through proper mechanism. have been provided with a flywheel. please check out a fantastic book. Nikola Tesla. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Steam Engines. It Truly Is A Musical Universe!" Tesla's Steam Engine Patent: US Patent # 517. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. END. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston and . Tesla called this method of transmitting mechanical energy "telegeodynamics. As an instance of the uses to which this engine may be applied I have shown its piston rod connected with a pawl R the oscillation of which drives a train of wheels. as to period. and other disturbing causes.169 ].

the exhaust ports be made larger than is usually done. in the sense that its movement in either direction ceases only when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving. piston and slide valve with the proper ports controlled thereby. but more especially those forms of engine in which the piston is free to reciprocate. but the slide valve instead of being dependent for its movement upon the piston B is connected in any manner so as to be reciprocated by the piston rod of a small engine of constant period. The parts thus described may be considered as exemplifying any cylinder. G designates a slide valve which when reciprocated admits the steam or the gas by which the engine is driven. Referring to Figure 1.144 the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. but it is desirable that all the ports. and Figure 2 a similar view of a modification of the same. the latter. f which communicate through openings g in the same with the cylinder chambers on opposite sides of the piston. An inlet pipe c passes through the side of the cylinder at the middle portion of the same. The drawings hereto annexed illustrate devices by means of which the invention may be carried out. A designates a cylinder containing a reciprocating piston B secured to a rod C extending through on or both cylinder heads. constructed substantially as follows: a is the cylinder. the lower end carrying the slide valve above described and the upper end having secured to it a plunger j in a cylinder I fixed to the cylinder a and in line with it. Figure 1 being a central vertical section of an engine embodying my invention. from the pipe G’ through the ducts DD’ to the ends of the cylinder. The piston b is secured to a rod h which extends through the cylinder heads. and this action is continued as long as the requisite . in which works the piston b. If steam or a gas under pressure be admitted through the port c to either side of the piston b. and constitutes an ordinary form of air spring. DD. The special construction of this device may be varied considerably. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. The cylinder exhausts through ports dd into a chamber d’ provided with an opening d. and it is free to move. when this involves the overcoming of inertia is a limitation to the applicability of the engine. The piston B is provided with the usual passages FF’ which by the movements of the piston are brought alternately into communication with the exhaust port. are steam ducts communicating with the cylinder at or near its ends and E is the exhaust chamber or passage located between the steam ports. it is obvious that the practicable amount of work performed by the engine. the piston b is provided with two circumferential grooves e. I therefore propose. and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. In such an apparatus it being essential that the inertia of the moving system and the rigidity of the spring should bear certain definite relations. may be maintained in reciprocation. and more particularly. or in other words. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air in the chambers will tend to retard or accelerate the movement of the piston in either direction. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except that leakage may occur around the piston rod which does not require to be very close fitting. in order to secure all the advantages of such performances as this engine is capable of. to utilize it as the means of controlling the admission and exhaust of steam or gas under pressure in other engines generally. as will be understood. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. is not connected with a flywheel or other like device for regulating or controlling its speed.

and it is moreover an engine of defined character which has the capability of an oscillating movement of constant period. The inlet port for the admission of the steam to the controlling engine is similar to that in Figure 1 and is indicated by the dotted circle at the center of the piston b. and thus any tendency to a change of the period of vibration in the main engine is overcome. In the figure I have shown two cylinders AA’ placed end to end with a piston B and B’ in each. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly adjusting these factors. they have a way of working. while the engine is simple and its weights for a given capacity is very greatly reduced. Nikola Tesla. I have shown and described two reciprocating engines combined in such manner that the movement or operation of one is dependent upon and controlled by the other. In such an engine as that just described the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately. In US Patent # 514. The exhaust ports dd. Since the only work which the small engine has to perform is the reciprocation of the valve attached to the piston rod.145 pressure is applied..m which are controlled by the pistons B and B’ respectively.. An engine of the kind described possess many and important advantages. A much more perfect regulation and uniformity of action is secured.169 . however. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which may be equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. so that the latter may be considered as operated by the exhaust of the former. and this results in the heating of the cylinder. Whatever may be the load on the main engine therefore the steam is admitted to the cylinder at defined intervals. its load is substantially uniform and its period by reason of its construction will be constant. Frank Germano . In this case the piston of the controlling engine constitutes the slide valve of the main engine. The reciprocating movement of the piston may be converted into rotary motion or it may be utilized and applied in any other manner desired. either directly or indirectly. however.Tesla's inventions. In the present case. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. But since a variation of the temperature of the air in the chamber would affect the rigidity of the air spring. I maintain the temperature uniform as by surrounding the cylinder I with a jacket a’ which is open to the air and filled with water. the controlling engine is not designed nor adapted to perform other work than the regulation of the period of the other. This latter is readily accomplished by making provision for the attachment to the piston rod of one or more weights h’. The control of the main engine by the engine of constant period may be effected in other ways of which Figure 2 will serve as an illustration. I hope this got some of you thinking. which may be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal and due allowance is made in constructing the engine for a variation in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. The cylinder of the controlling engine is formed by or in the casing intermediate to the two main cylinders but in all other essential respects the construction and mode of operation of the controlling engine remains as described in connection with Figure 1. constitute the inlet ports of the cylinders AA’ and the exhaust of the latter is effected through the ports m. What I claim is: (Claims not included here) END.

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