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Monografie di Altra Scienza
n.10 Ottobre 2006
3 6 16 22 39 42 56 57 73 118 127 130 138 Andromeda Nikola Tesla W.E.Burton M.Paoletti F.Malgarini L'automobile di Nikola Tesla Brevetto Como Construir una Turbina Tesla Tesla: Un Talento Scomodo Il Sistema di Nikola Tesla per Trasmettere Energia Senza Fili In Ogni Parte della Terra AA.VV. Mechanical Oscillator The Earthquake Machine Tesla's Flying Machine Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency Luke Tesla's (real) Flying Machine L'Oscillatore di Tesla W.B.Carlson L'Inventore di Sogni Tesla Earthquake Machine
Tenía 25 discos con un espesor de 0. Estos dos modelos tienen varias cosas en común: A pesar de que son para fines de diversión y experimentación. (2) introdujeron principios revolucionarios. a pesar de que apenas medía 61 x 91 centímetros y que tenía una altura de sólo 61 centímetros. Ahora he aquí su famosa turbina de vapor. logró producir una potencia de 200 caballos a una velocidad de 16. Constituye un trabajo muy sencillo para el modelista.16 COMO CONSTRUIR UNA TURBINA TESLA He aquí un gran motor que se ha relegado al olvido: La turbina Tesla. La trayectoria espiral del vapor llegó a ser de casi 5 metros.8 milímetros y. construido para una compañía de fuerza eléctrica. Burton Click en la imagen para ver más grande y claro PARECE PERSEGUIRNOS el fantasma de Nikola Tesla. están basados en originales que (1) fueron construidos por razones prácticas. La vista seccional a la izquierda muestra cómo funcionó en realidad un prototipo. . y la presión del vapor de escape alcanzó apenas 0.000 rpm con un chorro de vapor a una presión de 8. aunque rara vez puede verse. Y funciona con aire o vapor Por Walter E. la cual siempre se menciona.07 kilogramo por centímetro cuadradoprueba de la extraordinaria eficiencia de la turbina.8 kilogramos por centímetro cuadrado. El año pasado describimos aquí cómo construir un modelo de la bobina de alta frecuencia de ese gran inventor (septiembre de 1964). pues no requiere tolerancias. y (3) nunca se produjeron para fines comerciales.
Si el cilindro que escoge usted tiene un tamaño excesivo y tiene que quitarle un segmento -o si tiene usted que construir un cilindro de lámina plana-una los extremos con una tira de metal remachada a través de la junta y sellada con soldadura. tal como la Unimat que se muestra en las fotos acompañantes. puede utilizar aluminio. La manera en que funciona la turbina se muestra en este esquema basado en informes de ingeniería de 1911 sobre el motor que Tesla construyó para una compañía de fuerza eléctrica de Nueva York. de los Estados Unidos la está sometiendo a serias consideraciones. Nuestro modelo de 35 onzas (922. Ahora están corriendo rumores de que ha vuelto a nacer el interés en ella. Un chorro de aire (o vapor) aplicado contra el borde de este conjunto de rotor describe una trayectoria espiral por los espacios entre los discos. Cuando el vapor proveniente de la tobera a la derecha describe una trayectoria espiral entre los discos.05El eje se labra en tres pasos.17 La otra característica que dio origen a un revuelo en aquel entonces (antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial) fue la facilidad con que el motor podía invertirse. El arrastre del gas contra las superficies de los discos hace que todo el rotor gire. De todos modos. conviene que una de las placas de extremo pueda desmontarse. Es posible que todavía se convierta en una importante unidad de fuerza. El rotor Tesla consiste en discos montados en posición paralela sobre un eje y espaciados entre sí a una distancia equivalente a su espesor o ligeramente mayor. el Departamento de Marina.32 cm). posiblemente en relación con las plantas atómicas de vapor. a fin de poder ajustar el rotor más adelante. Foto abajo. a fin de encontrar las lumbreras de escape en el centro. la varilla mm) que mide 5 x 8" (1. Si va a de 3/8" ya se ha torneado en un extremo para luego funcionar con aire.25 g) de peso y 3 1/2" (8. En la foto de arriba. en vez de soldadura. . La turbina de Tesla nunca llegó a producirse comercialmente. Simplemente se hacía fluir el vapor a una tobera en el lado opuesto del eje del rotor. se cortan círculos en una Pero si proyecta utilizar vapor. La caja cilíndrica para nuestro modelo se cortó de un viejo extinguidor de fuego hecho de latón. Si construye usted la caja de aluminio. Todo el labrado para un modelo de este tamaño se puede realizar con una herramienta para trabajos de metal. éstos comienzan a girar El principio de funcionamiento que estimuló todo este interés en 1911 puede demostrarse en nuestro modelo. estos discos eran de acero endurecido. pero como usted hará funcionar el modelo con presiones pequeñas solamente. por ejemplo. En la turbina de Tesla. utilizando una lata vacía paraextremo. Las turbinas de norma en aquellos tiempos sólo se podían invertir mediante un complicado y engorroso procedimiento. el armado se puede efectuar mediante soportes remachados. la caja debe ser decortadora de los discos de aluminio del rotor aluminio y el eje de acero inoxidable. puede construir la turbina deinvertirse por completo con objeto de tornear el otro casi cualquier metal.se rosca después. el cual es fácil de labrar. el extremo derecho del centro de espesor mayor la caja (C) y acero laminado en frío para el eje (S).89 cm) de altura se halla montado sobre una plataforma de madera terciada de 3/4" (19.27 x 20. Es posible que fuera demasiado adelantada para sus tiempos.
una T para el tubo de cobre que se suelda a un par de grifos. Nótese la abrazadera de ángulo de hierro para asegurar la caja. es necesario hacer un árbol de soporte (centro) con el extremo roscado para dar cabida a un perno Las lumbreras de escape (izquierda) se perforan can una broca de 1/4". Las ranuras para las toberas en las cajas de aire y la del motor se liman a ancho suficiente para dar cabida a la unidad de éstas . Una sencilla guía ubica todos los agujeros a la misma distancia del centro (el espaciamiento de 120 grados no es crítico). y las toberas que se sueldan en otros codos de tubo. Los bordes de los discos se redondean con una lima plana y luego se pulen con tela abrasiva de grano fino. Consiste en (foto abajo) un tubo sobre el cual se desliza el tubo de caucho del suministro de aire. N átese que el diámetro exterior mayor de los extremo exige pivotar el cabezal para dejar el claro necesario. luego se escarían a un diámetro de 3/8".18 Los extremos de la caja (izquierda) y los discos del rotor (derecha) se rectifican al diámetro exacto con una fresa partidora. el agujero central de los discos es demasiado pequeño. por lo tanto. puede verse cómo se labran tapas de cojinetes de varillas de latón El conjunto de la tobera se monta en la base con una abrazadera en forma de U. A la derecha. A pesar de que los extremos pueden montarse en el mandril. Las ranuras para el chorro de aire se cortaron (centro) perforando una serie de agujeros con una broca de guía y luego utilizando la broca como fresadora para eliminar el metal entre los agujeros.
El extremo se amuescó. una manera de aplanarlos consiste en insertar cada uno de ellos entre placas de acero.08 cm) con un extremo cerrado. Se utilizaron cojinetes de bolas Fafnir No. pero que no se hallan ajustados apretadamente contra los montantes. por lo que se sueldan grifos en las líneas de suministro. Este modelo no es para funcionar a altas velocidades Es fácil doblar los montantes si se tienen bloques de acero de tamaño adecuado. Sea cual sea el tipo de cojinetes que escoja usted. Las cajas de aire que se muestran arriba se hicieron de tubo de latón de 1/8" (3. Los montantes deben hacerse de material bastante rígido. A continuación. Puede usted ahorrarse este paso si encuentra trozos de tubo de 2" (5. estos cojinetes tienen un diámetro exterior de 1/2" (1. tal como latón de calibre 18 (0. La canal entre el montante y la placa permite la salida del escape. Note en la vista seccional de la página 72 que los aros de retención se hallan rebajados para dar cabida a las tapas de los cojinetes.76 mm). Si no hay disponibles cojinetes similares. 33K5 en el modelo que se muestra. instale en su lugar la placa de extremo que se ha quitado y suspenda el eje entre los cojinetes para ubicar los agujeros de montaje en las placas de extremo. Las ranuras en la caja (C) que dan cabida a estas toberas se deben cortar después de terminar el armado de las toberas.27 cm). En nuestro modelo. fíjelos a los montantes con un par de tornillos de 2-56 introducidos a través de un aro de retén y dentro de agujeros roscados en los montantes. antes del armado. un ancho de 5/32" (3. Se utilizan cuatro cortos tornillos de 2-56 para fijar cada montante a la placa de extremo. tal como se muestra en el esquema. con aire o vapor a alta presión. y golpear la placa superior con un martillo. estas piezas se han pulido con una varilla de caucho abrasivo asegurada en un taladro de banco.97 mm) y una perforación de 3/16" (4. sobre cada lumbrera de descarga suelde una tobera que se forma atornillando y soldando placas entre sí con cuñas para formar una ranura.75 mm) -o puede ser una serie de agujeros de 1/32" espaciados a corta distancia entre sí. coloque el rotor en la caja. puede usted construir una sola tobera para un funcionamiento en una sola dirección.19 La caja se suspende entre dos montantes (parte U) que también sostienen los cojinetes del rotor. Recuerde también que los discos y arandelas deben ser planos. cambie la alineación de los cojinetes. aflojando o apretando los tornillos del aro de retención o insertando cuñas entre los montantes y las placas de extremo.0403").05 mm) para cojinetes. Después de montar los cojinetes en los montantes (centrados sobre los agujeros de 5/16" (7. Las arandelas de presión en el interior evitan que los tornillos se aflojen a causa de las vibraciones.86 cm) y un ancho de 1/32" (0. Se hallan ubicadas en las posiciones de las 10 y las 2 horas (imagine Que las placas de extremo son esferas de reloj). La dirección de la rotación depende de la tobera que se halla conectada.94 mm) . Si el eje no gira libremente cuando se termina el armado. Al someterse a tales tensiones se producirían problemas con la resistencia de se perforan agujeros para fijarlos a la base ya la los discos del rotor y de otras piezas. tendrá usted que alterar las dimensiones afectadas-o labrar cojinetes de buje de tipo sólido. Esta se puede soldar directamente a la ranura de la caja. Antes de doblarlos. empleando varilla de bronce de 3/4" (19. La lumbrera de descarga debe consistir en una ranura con un largo de aproximadamente l 1/8" (2. La ubicación de los cojinetes en relación con el eje del rotor se muestra en la foto inferior derecha de la página 75.17 mm) para lámparas eléctricas. Pero el modelo caja y para montar los cojinetes . se martilló hacia adentro para formar una cúpula cerrada y luego se selló con soldadura. tal como se muestra. Para simplificar la unidad.
diámetro de 2 1/2" Discos de aluminio de calibre 18. o haga una "T" o "Y" soldando piezas de tubo entre sí Pequeños. 3 x 1/2 para tornillos de madera de cabeza redonda Tubo de cobre con D. con cabeza red. x 1 3/4".E.Número 6 . 12 Tubo de latón 1/8". cuatro tuercas correspondientes No. etc. de 1/4" 1 2 1 Madera natural o madera terciada de 3/4" x 5" x 8" Bloques de madera de 1/2" x 1/2" x 2 1/2" Perforación de 3/16" Notas: * Tamaño total de lámina de latón para piezas C. de 2-56 x 1/4".20 que se muestra ha funcionado eficientemente durante meses enteros al conectarse directamente a un compresor de aire de 1/4 caballo de fuerza. de latón 1/4"-28 Varilla de latón de 3/4" con longitud de 1" para los dos Discos de latón de calibre 18 (o más grueso) con D. tal como se muestra en las fotos Tubo de cobre de aproximadamente 3/4" con D. con los cojinetes ya montados. a una presión comparable. de 1/2" Hexagonal.Diciembre 1965 . contra las piezas de extremo y se les marcan los agujeros de montaje LISTA DE MATERIALES PIEZA Montantes Caja Extremos de caja Aro de soldadura. de 1 1/8" Fafnir 33K5 o equivalente Pasadores pequeños de latón para placas o equivalentes Tornillos de máq.: 5 1/2" x 12" **Tamaño total de lámina de aluminio para discos.E. E. de 1/4". U.Volumen 37 . escariado con broca espiral No. arandelas: 11 1/2" x 14" Fuente: Revista Mecánica Popular . de 2 7/8" x 3" Cilindro de 2 3/4" D. de 3" x 3" Latón de calibre 18. de 1/4" X 12" para los dos Varilla de acero laminado en frío de 3/8" x 4" (o una aleacion de acero inoxidable) Discos de aluminio de calibre 18. D. longitud de 4 1/4" Pieza de latón de calibre 18 de aproximadamente 1 1/2" X 1 1/2" Material de bronce para cuñas de 0. El rotor se centra en la caja con cuñas de cartón y luego se colocan los montantes.003" x 1/4" x 1" Cobre de 1/4" Para dar cabida a tubo anterior. de latón. de latón. funcionará de manera similar con vapor.E. o latón de calibre 18 de 1 3/4" x 8 3/4" para formar cilindro Latón de calibre 18.I. abrazadera de fleje de "te" de aire Eje Discos de rotor Arandelas de rotor Tuerca Tapas de cojinetes Aro de retención de cojinete Cojinetes de bolas Remaches Tornillos Mangas Cajas de aire Placas de toberas de aire Arandelas espaciadoras Tubo Te Grifos Mangas para unir grifos y tubo Base olea pequeña de latón o aluminio T-1 CLAVE CANTIDAD U C E 2* 1* 2* 1 S D W BC R BB 1 18** 20** 1 2 2 2 12 8 6 4 2 4* 4 14" 1 2 DESCRIPCION Latón de calibre 18.I.
Esto elimina a aquellos que ya han oprimido un exceso de botones.Marzo de 1964 . como medida de seguridad. Inc. oprime el botón correspondiente. Comenta esta y otras notas en el foro. la máquina se niega a funcionar a no ser que la persona que oprima el botón tenga el pulso firme. All Rights Reserved. totalmente mezclada.Volumen 34 .: Click Aquí :. ¿Que más te gustaria leer en notas historicas?. Fuente: Revista Mecánica Popular . ya que puede usted oprimir cualquier combinación de botones para inventar su propia bebida.: Click Aquí :. El cliente escoge una de las bebidas en la lista. Mini Nota Histórica Cantinero Electrónico Es posible que estén tocando a su fin los días del cantinero. Cierta firma de Alemania ha desarrollado un bar electrónico que suministra bebidas con sólo oprimir un botón. y la bebida cae.: Click Aquí :.Número 34 Más Mini-Notas Historicas aquí Mecánica Popular-Copyright (c) 2006 Hearst Communications.21 Notas similares a esta o continuación: HAGA UNA FANTáSTICA BOBINA TESLA Comenta esta nota en el foro. dentro de un vaso colocado de antemano bajo el tubo de entrega. No es necesario limitarse a la lista impresa. Además. Idea original de Mi Mecánica Popular por: Ricardo Cabrera Oettinghaus Créditos .
come fosse sempre stato così. una luce più efficace. è più facile chiedersi perché d’un tratto viene a mancare perché non può. doveva essere mantenuto acceso e un solo falò. non fornivano luce a sufficienza. I bassorilievi ricordano le lampade a luminescenza e le ampolle in atmosfera rarefatta. un vero incubo. Il gas però era molto pericoloso per le frequenti le fughe dovute all’usura e rottura delle tubazioni che servivano per il suo trasporto. più comoda e di basso costo. non deve. che intensificavano la luce. ideò altri tipi di ampolle. Che fine farebbe la nostra spesa? Fino a pochi decenni fa per la conservazione dei cibi si faceva uso del sale. dopo che il sole cala dietro l’orizzonte e le tenebre nascondono il mondo nel buio assoluto. una volta acceso. delle spezie e del ghiaccio. .. nel caso. veniva prodotto un gas. Nelle lampade venivano messe delle reticelle. create dall’inglese William Crookes nel 1879. diventa difficoltoso anche preparare da mangiare. consistente in ampolle prive dell’aria dove si accendeva una striscia di carta quando veniva attraversata dalla corrente elettrica. recente invenzione che funziona grazie all’elettricità. bassorilievi che mostrano enormi bulbi trasparenti con all’interno sinuose serpi.. nel tempio di Hator a Dendera.. trasportabile e duratura. Il nuovo sistema d’illuminazione aveva molti limiti ma da quel momento l’uomo poté dire: "sia fatta luce" ed ottenerla. la divinità si era risvegliata. Come e da dove proviene l’elettricità? Distrattamente e profondamente inseriti nel sistema non lo chiediamo. assumerebbe la funzione di generatore. diveniamo prigionieri degli ascensori. Siamo elettro dipendenti. TESLA: UN TALENTO SCOMODO di Mauro Paoletti per Edicolaweb Secondo le sacre scritture. Quando Edison aprì la prima centrale elettrica a corrente continua il buio venne eliminato col semplice scatto di un interruttore. Come facciamo senza la luce. venivano accesi la sera e spenti all’alba. bruciando il carbone. Col tempo si giunse alla candela di sego o di cera. è sempre stato un antico problema dell’uomo. Nel 1875 molti fabbricati erano illuminati con gas combustibile. ideate da Welsbach. In Egitto. Fra i bassorilievi del tempio possiamo vedere rappresentato anche il procedimento dell’elettrolisi. all’inizio. dove uno stoppino immerso nel liquido forniva.. condizionati dall’elettricità. La pallida luce lunare non era soddisfacente e il fuoco di difficile trasporto e di breve durata.22 ARCHEOLOGANDO. peraltro già conosciuta in un remoto passato. Alva Edison ricercando un sistema migliore e più sicuro avvalendosi dell’invenzione di Swan. è necessario che vi sia la corrente elettrica. La svolta importante nel 1892 quando William Murdock scoprì che. fa parte delle cose acquisite. o una sola fiaccola. collegati attraverso cavi a treccia al "Djed" che. senza elettricità? Tutto si ferma. le comunicazioni si complicano. E la luce fu!" Il fiore di loto si era schiuso e la luce aveva inondato l’intero universo. nelle strade cittadine il caos. accendendosi. illumina l’ambiente. Abbiamo il difetto di dare molte cose per scontate a causa del loro uso quotidiano. lampade che permisero a Roentgen di scoprire i raggi X nel 1895. l’elettricità. usando diversi tipi di gas e altri materiali filiformi al posto della striscia di carta ottenne lampade più efficaci. Per dare forma ad una parte dell’incubo pensiamo al frigorifero.C. in uso fin dal 3000 a. ma avere la luce. Il gas sottoposto a calore generava la luce.. il computer si spegne. Venne adottato l’uso di una ciotola piena d’olio o di grasso. il mondo era immerso nelle tenebre quando Dio disse: "Sia la luce. restiamo senza televisione. Non tutte le abitazioni erano dotate delle tubazioni per l’erogazione del gas e per molti anni furono usate ancora le lampade a petrolio. Ma la lampadina da sola non basta. lo testimoniano le Pietre delle Serpi. I lampioni a gas rischiararono così alcune città. Oggi tutti noi ripetiamo quel gesto quando entriamo in una stanza immersa nel buio e premiamo l’interruttore che permette alla corrente elettrica di correre lungo il filo fino alla lampadina che. Non si può lavorare.
illuminato da globi di pietra posti su altissimi pali che al tramonto iniziavano a brillare di una strana luce bianca. dinamo. Gli investimenti erano cospicui. medico della regina Elisabetta. se carente di elettroni. se diverse. George Ohm declamò la legge sulla resistenza elettrica. convinto di vedere realizzati i suoi progetti sulla corrente alternata. quindi i vuoti lasciati dagli elettroni dell’ambra vengono rimpiazzati dagli elettroni contenuti nella carta. parlava con chiunque fosse disposto ad ascoltarlo e. (2) Scoprì che pezzi di ambra carenti di elettroni si respingevano mentre si attiravano se gli elettroni erano in eccesso. a riscoprire l’elettricità strofinando proprio l’ambra sulla lana e sulla pelliccia. Nikola nacque il 10 luglio 1856 a Smiljan in Croazia. motori e sistemi di illuminazione. comprese perché l’ago della bussola punta sempre verso il nord. Faraday al primo generatore elettrico. Un antico documento indiano conosciuto come Agastya Samhita fornisce una serie di istruzioni per costruire una batteria elettrica. gli propose di creare una società con lui. un condensatore chiamato "bottiglia di Leida". il caporeparto. che aveva messo in pericolo la vita dell’imperatore tedesco Guglielmo I. Cosa confermata anche da Beccaria con il suo pozzo e da Faraday con la sua gabbia. si attraggono. Un anno dopo Edison e Graham Bell crearono la "Oriental Telephone Co. Si trattava dell’elettricità statica (1). Tesla. accorgendosi di poter attirare piccoli oggetti leggeri. Nel 1746 due studiosi dell’Università di Leida inventarono un apparecchio per raccogliere l’elettricità statica. ma se questa avviene in un conduttore la carica in movimento genera una corrente che fluisce nel conduttore e cessa di essere statica. Chiamò la strana forza "elettrica" dal nome greco dell’ambra Elektron. Edison produceva solo dispositivi a corrente continua. enunciando che due cariche uguali si respingono mentre. Nel 1785 August De Coulomb inventò la bilancia di torsione per misurare il campo elettrico dimostrando che la carica si distribuisce in modo uniforme sopra una superficie sferica. tale Cunningham. nel 1859 Pacinotti col suo anello trasformò l’energia meccanica in energia elettrica continua. Cronache antiche di commercianti parlano di un villaggio presso il monte Wilhelmina. illuminando la notte. più lunga la scintilla prodotta dagli elettroni. Nel 1882 Edison attivò il primo sistema di distribuzione dell'energia al mondo. durante una partita a biliardo. ingegneria al Politecnico di Graz e all’Università di Praga. Lo spostamento si chiama carica. Hans Christian Oersted sviluppò la teoria elettromagnetica e nel 1826 Ampère enunciò le leggi dell’elettromagnetismo inventando lo strumento per misurare il flusso della carica elettrica. in Nuova Guinea. nel 1880 Alva Edison costruì la prima centrale brevettando un sistema di distribuzione. A questo punto compare un personaggio definito "dimenticato benefattore dell’umanità" e che morì nell’anonimato in assoluta povertà: Nikola Tesla. come la carta. Fu William Gilbert. Gilbert studiò l’elettricità e il magnetismo.". l’argomento era la tensione della carica. Fatto curioso perché sono abbastanza recenti esperimenti per ottenere una luminescenza da pannelli e oggetti percorsi da correnti deboli senza l’uso di filamenti e bulbi. attraverso il trasformatore Tesla e trasportata da un sistema trifase Tesla. Venne dedotto che maggiore era la quantità di elettricità accumulata. e negativa. Dopo aver lavorato nella società telefonica di Budapest trovò lavoro a Parigi nella "Continental Edison" filiale della "Edison Electric Light". Studiò al "Real Gymnasium" di Carlstadt. La Continental non attraversava un felice periodo in seguito ad un incidente avvenuto durante l’inaugurazione del nuovo sistema di illuminazione a Strasburgo. Dopo che Talete di Mileto e Plinio il Vecchio studiarono per primi le proprietà elettriche dell’ambra. Volta diede forma alla prima pila. Gli elettroni si trasferiscono da un materiale isolante all’altro. nel 1866 Heinrich Hertz scoprì le onde elettromagnetiche. la dinamo e l’alternatore. Colui che ha inventato la famosa Bobina che porta il suo nome per produrre l’alta tensione necessaria al tubo catodico del televisore. l’uomo si dimenticò come tale energia si poteva ricavare e piombò nel buio per secoli. Tesla non capiva niente di mercato e commercio e quindi rifiutò.23 Ricordiamo le pile di Bagdad scoperte da Konig. con elettroni in eccesso. simile a quella dei nostri neon. fornita da un generatore Tesla. Benjamin Franklin denominò i due tipi di elettricità positiva. secondo maschio dei cinque figli del reverendo ortodosso Milutin. se invece avesse accettato quell’offerta .
. ma solo per produrre lampade ad arco destinate all’illuminazione pubblica. ma non premiò Tesla. Per vendere motori a corrente alternata.000 dollari. Duravano solo novanta minuti. Tesla. Il sistema venne adottato per l’illuminazione pubblica e per le fabbriche. che in seguito ad un guasto avevano lasciato l’imbarcazione al buio e si presentò a Edison pronto a perfezionare i progetti dei generatori della sua centrale elettrica. Edison non aveva il controllo dell’industria americana dell’elettricità e trovò altri finanziatori.24 la sua vita e la nostra sarebbero radicalmente cambiate. dato che il giovane inventore prevedeva tutte le conseguenze prima di sperimentare i congegni ideati. L’impianto del croato avrebbe messo in pericolo coloro che avevano investito nel sistema a corrente continua. i suoi proventi erano rappresentati solo dalla vendita di impianti d’illuminazione completi a privati o imprese. Tesla dopo due anni fornì lampade ad avviamento automatico dotate di un meccanismo di alimentazione che permetteva di sostituire le aste di carbone quando si consumavano." Il croato si licenziò. Edison stava per ricevere l’aiuto desiderato per le sue dinamo a vapore che non erano sufficienti ad accendere tutte le lampade dei clienti. capaci di generare maggiore corrente. Tesla compì una nuova impresa. Scrisse a Edison una frase rimasta celebre: "Conosco due grandi uomini. In un anno sfornò ben ventiquattro tipi diversi di dinamo a corrente continua. Quando Tesla giunse a New York. scatole di raccordo. Tesla aveva scoperto che si poteva trasformare il voltaggio dell’elettricità a corrente alternata.000 dollari a lavoro compiuto. ma non conosceva la sincronizzazione degli impulsi elettrici. il tutto assistito da un sistema che assicurava la sincronia negli impulsi di corrente. Fortunatamente per lui. separate da gesso e inserite in tubi di ottone collegati alla corrente. Doveva costruire altre centrali. Inoltre aveva una causa in corso contro Westinghouse che produceva lampade con brevetto Edison senza pagare le royalty. Morgan ne facevano parte. per ridurre i costi ma i finanziatori non volevano rischiare altro denaro. occorreva erogare energia alternata a mezzo di idonei cavi. prima nave con l’illuminazione elettrica. Charles Batchellor. Quando Edison fondò la "Edison Electric Light" ottenne 2500 azioni. le lampade prodotte all’epoca da Paul Joblochkoff erano composte da due aste parallele di carbone. Inutile dire che riuscì nell’impresa ma non ottenne il premio promesso. l’altro è questo giovane…". fu inviato in quella città allo scopo di realizzare un regolatore automatico delle dinamo. semplici da regolare ed accoppiare. nel tempo libero. trasformatori. I suoi soci non disponevano di ingenti capitali per portare avanti un tale progetto ed erano interessati solo alla produzione di lampade ad arco più redditizie. questo perché non essendo esperto nel campo dell’elettricità non metteva in pratica la legge di Ohm. la moglie era gravemente malata. Alva gli promise un compenso di 50. Quando questi si presentò a reclamare il suo compenso l’americano gli disse: "Tesla. Avrebbe dovuto accoppiarle fra loro. ma lei non capisce l’humor americano.P. costruì il primo motore a corrente alternata oltre ad un generatore a due tempi per alimentarlo. Edison brevettò le bobine e le sostituì. In seguito agli incresciosi fatti di Strasburgo. tu sei uno di loro. In quel periodo. contatori per le abitazioni. il banchiere J. non oltre 400. Alva Edison aveva inviato a Parigi un amico consulente di cui si fidava.. Convinse Nikola che a New York avrebbe coronato i suoi sogni e lo spinse a partire. per la nota legge di Ohm. con la promessa di un premio di 25. aumentandolo o diminuendolo a mezzo di un trasformatore. L’arrivo di Tesla fu più che opportuno. Avrebbe trasmesso corrente ad alto voltaggio e bassa corrente attraverso cavi sottili. ai capitalisti che finanziarono l’impresa ne vennero assegnate altre 500: la "Western Union Telegraph". il quale ascoltando le idee di Tesla considerò che era meglio averlo dalla propria parte. Appena sbarcato aggiustò le bobine dell’Oregon. maggiore è la . L’impianto di Edison non avrebbe mai funzionato ai voltaggi di oggi. Edison aveva il problema di inviare la corrente oltre gli ottocento metri della sua centrale. avrebbe evitato il costo di numerosi esperimenti. L’Oregon aveva fatto richiesta di risarcimento in seguito al guasto delle bobine. all’apice un filo di carbone che bruciando produceva luce. quale migliore ingegnere della Continental. Secondo Batchellor. Un filo tende a surriscaldarsi e fondersi se il carico è elevato e. Anche in questo caso fu raggirato e il suo sogno dovette attendere. Ma la società non stava tenendo fede alle promesse di vendita ed Edison non voleva che la cosa si risapesse.
Il processo aveva messo in crisi anche Westinghouse. L’acciaio rende il filo resistente mentre il rame fornisce una bassa resistenza dove scorre la corrente. La "Edison Electric" era stata creata per riscuotere le royalty e i banchieri che la gestivano proposero allo scienziato di comprare le sue fabbriche e formare una nuova società che si chiamò "Edison General Electric Company". ossia la capacità dell’elettricità di correre lungo il filo e portare un numero sufficiente di elettroni che arrivino alla lampadina. ma al suo esterno. eliminando il nome Edison. utilizzando alternatori Westinghouse. parlando dell’invenzione con il suo caposquadra. È il famoso effetto pelle o di Kelvin. servendosi di alcuni animali come cavie. perché incassava solo dopo la consegna. oppure alta corrente e un basso voltaggio. Si poteva modificare il voltaggio e usare fili sottili per portare l’elettricità a lunghe distanze. Al di là del risparmio del rame. i fili venivano recisi e il banchiere tutelato. maggiore deve essere il voltaggio. La comunità scientifica lo invitò a tenere una conferenza. non sapeva come pagare gli stipendi ai suoi duemila dipendenti e come comprare la materia prima per far fronte agli ordini che giungevano numerosi. La cosa forse influenzò anche la sentenza del tribunale.000 dollari più 50. L’elettricità . chiunque poteva avere l’energia elettrica gratuitamente attraverso la collocazione di una semplice antenna. ingegnere elettronico. Westinghouse offrì a Tesla 25. La conferenza tenuta all’"American Institute of Electrical Enginers" suscitò l’interesse di George Westinghouse. per questo vengono utilizzati fili di acciaio rivestiti di rame.000 volt. Fece stampare opuscoli dove sottolineò il pericolo derivante dall’uso dell’alto voltaggio usato nei sistemi ad arco e dimostrò. diminuendolo poi quando la corrente entra nell’abitazione. un trasformatore riduceva e aumentava la corrente. Tesla aveva tenuto conto di tutto questo e scoperto che la corrente ad alta frequenza non viaggia all’interno di un filo. La fusione fra la "US Electric Company" e la "Consolidate Electric Light" diede vita alla "Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company" e i brevetti di Tesla furono svenduti ai banchieri. Charles Coffin che dirigeva la "Thomson Houston" concluse un accordo con la "Edison General Electric" divenendo presidente di una nuova società che. Divenne il padre della moderna elettricità. Quindi si può avere un alto voltaggio e poca corrente. il cui padre possedeva una fabbrica che produceva materiale rotabile per lo stato di New York. Per questo Tesla usava dare spettacolo facendosi passare dalla corrente a 250. coinvolgendo l’amico Alfred Brown sovrintendente della "Western Union Telegraph" a dividere i rischi. Come si poteva disconnettere gli utenti morosi se i fili non esistevano? Le idee del croato andavano contro gli interessi dei banchieri come Morgan. Tesla parlava di una distribuzione senza fili. Nel 1886 presentò un brevetto per un motore elettromagnetico e. La campagna denigratoria produsse l’interessamento dell’Assemblea Legislativa che promulgò l’uso della sedia elettrica al posto dell’impiccagione.50 a CV. George aveva inventato lo scambio di rotaia e il freno ad aria compressa. causa e ricorso furono vinti da Edison nonostante che Westinghouse dimostrasse che Alva non fosse esperto di elettricità. si offrì di fornire un finanziamento. Era inoltre la persona che voleva scalzare il sistema di Edison. Nel frattempo Tesla era stato abbandonato dai suoi finanziatori e costretto a guadagnarsi da vivere scavando fossi. affinché non rappresenti un pericolo mortale. come potevano le compagnie ricavare profitti? L’energia elettrica veniva fornita a mezzo di un filo. Nacque la "Tesla Electric Company". Poteva produrre un campo magnetico rotante iniettando due correnti alternate in una coppia di bobine poste ai lati opposti dello statore. Era in corso la "guerra delle correnti". secondo Brown era la persona giusta per commercializzare il prodotto di Tesla. Peck e Brown decisero di vendere il brevetto a chi avesse offerto di più. Maggiore la lunghezza del filo. si chiamò "General Electric". se l’utente non pagava.000 in azioni e royalty di 2. il quale. ebbe l’occasione di avvicinare l’avvocato Charles Peck. quanto poteva essere pericolosa la corrente alternata.25 corrente che passa attraverso il filo. maggiore sarà la caduta di tensione. Tesla iniziò a lavorare al suo motore a corrente alternata. Westinghouse senza pagare le royalty produceva lampade Edison e questo spinse Edison a intraprendere una campagna denigratoria delle tecnologie utilizzate dal concorrente. Ma Edison era in piena crisi. I fulmini che colpiscono un aereo non mettono in pericolo i passeggeri al suo interno dato che la scarica corre sulla superficie della fusoliera. Fece domanda all’ufficio brevetti e gli furono concessi ben 30 brevetti diversi.
Il primo gennaio del 1893 ben 96. Nel giugno del 1899. inventò una lampadina senza fili. il circuito di sintonia. altra invenzione non compresa. Aveva installato un filo elettrico intorno alle pareti esterne dove faceva passare corrente elettrica ad alta frequenza. cedendo i diritti sui brevetti di Tesla allo scopo di presentare un offerta congiunta e realizzare una centrale elettrica alle cascate del Niagara. infine al capezzale della madre morente. In quel periodo costruì le prime lampade a fluorescenza. il tubo catodico. inoltre un tubo che emetteva raggi "X". La realizzazione del progetto venne affidata ad un ingegnere scozzese tale George Forbes. Westinghouse inoltre aveva stipulato un accordo con la "General Electric".620 lampade a incandescenza. Due anni dopo. un circuito per la sintonizzazione. i neon. l’acqua dopo aver percorso un tunnel riaffluiva nel fiume proprio sotto le cascate. l’avvocato che si era occupato del suo primo brevetto. Ideò un sintonizzatore che divenne la base di tutte le radio e televisori. Nei suoi esperimenti utilizzando correnti di diverse frequenze riuscì a produrre voltaggi altissimi. Due bobine concentriche di filo di rame avvolto con centinaia di spire. un impianto di ricezione. che generavano scintille lunghe fino a 40 metri. che aveva adottato la nuova tecnologia. Costruì un vibratore senza parti mobili e lo collegò ad un condensatore. Leonard Curtis si era ritirato a Colorado Springs divenendo direttore della "Colorado Springs Power Company". Oggi Colorado Springs è noto per la vicinanza del NORAD il sistema di difesa missilistico situato sotto i . un detector dei segnali. Tesla ne dirigeva a voce i movimenti e l’immersione. La bobina altro non è che un trasformatore di risonanza che permette la produzione di corrente alternata usando sistemi polifase che si basano sull’induzione magnetica con il passaggio di corrente in più fasi.000 cavalli vapore. Scoprì che ogni oggetto possiede una naturale frequenza e. la centrale avrebbe utilizzato tre generatori Tesla da 5.26 doveva rimanere in mano alle compagnie. attraverso un alternatore speciale. In quel periodo l’inventore effettuò un giro in Europa. Costruì trasmettitori capaci di amplificare i segnali elettrici per giungere a frequenze e voltaggi mai raggiunti. La marina militare non comprese l’importanza di quella invenzione. i loro effetti e come sfruttare le loro cariche elettriche. che si illuminava quando veniva messo a contatto con un campo elettrico ad alta frequenza. le famose bobine di Tesla. se sollecitato su tale frequenza. Tutto perché aveva scoperto che il passaggio della corrente ad alta frequenza attraverso una bobina e un condensatore generava un effetto di risonanza a distanza senza bisogno di fili. di nuovo a corto di fondi. nel nuovo laboratorio costruito a Colorado Springs. e la famosa "bobina" per generare altissimi voltaggi.000 dollari oltre alla libertà di continuare i suoi esperimenti. non poteva essere distribuita gratuitamente. il microscopio elettronico. Il sistema Tesla aveva salvato l’industria mineraria locale e Curtis offrì al croato un lotto di terreno dove costruire un laboratorio. sarebbe stata la prima torpediniera silurante senza equipaggio. alimentate dai generatori Tesla. tale circuito radio diffondeva la corrente che veniva raccolta in cuscinetti di filo collegati ai terminali posti ad ogni lampada fluorescente che funzionavano in tal modo con corrente senza fili. Ritornò in America giusto in tempo per aiutare Westinghouse che finalmente era riuscito a produrre una lampada senza violare i brevetti della "General Electric". sintonizzati uno sulla risonanza dell’altro. uno di trasmissione. In quel periodo cominciò a studiare la velocità di inversione. Ideò luci fluorescenti senza fili con le quali illuminò il laboratorio. iniziava a vibrare fino a raggiungere il punto di rottura. ossia la frequenza. insieme risuonavano un milione di volte al secondo. illuminarono i locali della Esposizione Universale di Chicago dedicata a Colombo. poi Parigi. togliendo l’aria da un tubo di vetro. Nel 1897 presentò al Madison Square Garden il primo sommergibile radiocomandato. Meccanismo alla base degli alti voltaggi dei tubi catodici delle TV. definita la più importante opera di ingegneria mai realizzata e Nikola Tesla divenne il più eminente scienziato e ricavò 500. trovò un finanziatore in Curtis. In una gigantesca vasca girava una barca lunga un metro e mezzo dotata di luci colorate e una antenna. Rendendosi conto che una valvola rilevava onde radio descrisse le caratteristiche basilari dell’impianto radio prima di Marconi: un’antenna. Forbes costruì un canale a monte per portare l’acqua alla centrale e alle turbine attraverso un tubo di due metri di diametro. era nata la "Niagara Falls Power and Conduit Company". Tesla iniziò a studiare i fulmini. prima Londra. un collegamento a terra. L’apertura avvenne nel 1895. A lui si attribuisce anche l’invenzione del telegrafo pluricanale senza fili. un condensatore e uno spinterometro producono un campo magnetico rotante.
dodici metri misurava la parte inferiore. La Terra è in grado di assorbire elettricità e per questo tutti gli strumenti elettrici scaricano a terra. aumentando la potenza smisuratamente. quella che in gergo si chiama "lunghezza d’onda del segnale". Quindi il nostro corpo ha una data quantità di elettricità misurabile. La corrente che lo scienziato iniettò nel suolo si propagò come un’onda radio alla velocità della luce. Nel corso degli esperimenti si rese conto che diverse velocità di vibrazione producevano onde stazionarie di diverso tipo. Il 20 marzo 1900 depositò il brevetto e nel 1902 tutti gli altri brevetti relativi. La miscela di ioni e elettroni scoperta. sotto il tetto aperto. La struttura del laboratorio di Colorado era alta circa 60 metri. alto due metri e lungo il perimetro scorreva un grosso cavo elettrico. Il trasmettitore riceveva impulsi di corrente alternata a basso voltaggio dalla vicina centrale e generava 10. e che. dalla Terra. Il cellulare che usiamo tutti i giorni è dotato proprio del tipo di antenna di sintonizzazione inventata da Tesla. L’obbiettivo di Tesla era scoprire il limite della risonanza. che inizia a 80 km. Il fulmine produceva un tipo di onda radio capace di produrre voltaggi regolari. anch’essa di rame. ma è anche circondato e penetrato da molti campi elettrici. nota come ionosfera. Quando Tesla produsse con il suo apparato il primo fulmine ottenne un lampo di 60 metri e un violento tuono che venne udito a 42 chilometri di distanza. all’esterno del recinto file di condensatori.8 cicli. oggi viene chiamata "Gas ionizzato" ed è in grado di sprigionare luce e calore. Le 200 lampade degli apparecchi riceventi che s’illuminarono furono la prova che l’impianto senza fili funzionava. sfruttando la zona atmosferica dove risiede la risonanza di Schumann e. La recinzione era percorsa da avvolgimenti di filo elettrico. Per capire l’importanza di quanto scoperto dal Nikola pensiamo alla fusione termonucleare.27 monti Cheyenne. L’unica cosa che permette ai materiali di resistere è l’utilizzo di una bolla di plasma come quella che ideò Tesla per generare il fulmine globulare. Aveva realizzato il suo sogno e trovato il sistema di produrre plasma elettromagnetico prima ancora che si coniasse il termine. sia sotto il mare. il valore usato oggi è di 7.000 watt. il pavimento era di legno circondato da un recinto. poteva ricavare il massimo voltaggio nella sfera di rame. scoperta che si è dimostrata importante per lo studio della quantistica. Lo scopo era studiare le onde radio a bassissima frequenza capaci di raggiungere qualsiasi luogo. sempre di legno. ma il sovraccarico bruciò il generatore della centrale che gli forniva la corrente e mise al buio l’intera città di Colorado. In effetti il nostro pianeta è circondato da una particolare carica elettrica. con un rintocco ogni due ore. tale fusione avviene a temperature talmente elevate che non esiste un materiale resistente alla fusione. magnetici e gravitazionali generati dalla Terra . Fra questa e il suolo esiste una zona con un potenziale costante di 220 volt per metro dentro il quale noi viviamo. Tesla dimostrò quindi che l’energia elettrica può essere diffusa utilizzando la superficie terrestre. al centro del capannone un traliccio e su di esso un’asta di rame che sosteneva una sfera. e il quarto. All’interno della gabbia vari oggetti diversi fra loro. e così fece il terzo. che i temporali appaiono sempre su delle linee a distanze regolari nella parte scura della Terra dimostrando la possibilità della trasmissione dell’energia elettrica senza l’uso dei fili. sia sulla superficie. simile ad un granaio. misurabili allontanandosi dalla fonte. I brevetti di Tesla sono stati menzionati nella costruzione di armi dotate di proiettili al plasma capaci di neutralizzare satelliti spia. La sonda sovietica Mir accertò. Tesla aveva scoperto che poteva far risuonare elettricamente la Terra come una campana. L’asta scendeva sopra ad un’enorme bobina situata al centro. Lanciando simili raggi è stato possibile stilare mappe di Venere e della Luna. il secondo impulso si unì al primo rafforzandolo. Secondo lo scienziato la frequenza della risonanza elettrica terrestre era di dieci cicli al secondo. attraverso la quale otteniamo energia pulita ed economica in seguito alla trasformazione dell’idrogeno in elio. può ottenere corrente gratuitamente. Tesla era anche in grado di produrre la risonanza del campo elettrico terrestre e dominare di conseguenza il tempo meteorologico. che fanno parte del progetto "Scudo stellare". È il funzionamento del Sole. nel 1997. cambiando la lunghezza dell’asta e regolando la sintonizzazione della lunghezza d’onda. chiunque. raggiunse l’altra parte e ritornò indietro. tale effetto dimostrava che la Terra e l’atmosfera erano cariche elettricamente. sintonizzandosi con opportuni apparecchi.
Si potevano già realizzare in quegli anni alcune delle cose in uso oggi come la trasmissione di messaggi segreti di stato. campi generati da emittenti radio. Gli unici che lo hanno considerato seriamente. sono stati Samuel Clemens. Esiste una zona nell’atmosfera carica di elettricità fra la superficie e la ionosfera. In quel tempo Tesla parlò della possibilità di trasmettere calore al Polo Nord. Quando l’inventore ancorò il meccanismo ad una colonna di ferro del suo laboratorio. apparecchi televisivi. inviare fotografie e trasmettere musica in ogni angolo della Terra. . Da quel momento perse notorietà e divenne per l’opinione pubblica uno scrittore di fantascienza. La bobina per produrre correnti ad alto voltaggio e alta frequenza. sincronizzare gli orologi con precisione astronomica. attraverso il "vento solare". e J. di formare il ghiaccio ai tropici. il trasmettitore d’amplificazione. Cosa che Tesla non aveva compreso appieno. anziché procedere da solo. L’unica cosa che ancora oggi non possiamo fare. oggi sicuramente avremmo un mondo notevolmente diverso. Se avesse lavorato come fece Marconi con i militari e il governo. Nessuno avrebbe potuto esaurire l’energia trasmessa in quel momento. Morgan.28 e dagli altri pianeti. per questo rifiutò anche l’offerta di acquisto dei Lloyds di Londra per un impianto senza fili da installare su un panfilo. Rinunciò così a procedere oltre. Nikola però non conosceva i meccanismi del mercato. un sistema per sintonizzare su una determinata lunghezza d’onda un ricevitore. utilizzando il campo elettrico terrestre. videoregistratori. con l’aumento della frequenza raggiunse un livello in grado di far vibrare l’intero edificio con il pericolo di provocare un crollo. campi elettromagnetici dovuti agli ultravioletti. in qualità di amico e appassionato al tema dei suoi esperimenti divenne un assiduo frequentatore del laboratorio di Tesla al 35 di South Fifth Avenue. conosciuto come Mark Twain. Vibrazioni rivelatesi curative di problemi di digestione ed altri disturbi e con le quali Clemens curò la sua stipsi. interferendo con il campo magnetico terrestre. Infatti. anche se è stato dimostrato nell’ultimo decennio che sia possibile. telefonare in ogni luogo e a chiunque. foto. Si racconta che ebbe l’occasione di sperimentare anche l’effetto delle vibrazioni meccaniche prodotte da un meccanismo consistente in una piattaforma montata su cuscinetti elastici azionata da aria compressa. Il primo. folle e fuori dal mondo. telefoni e così via. anzi intraprese una serie di azioni che miravano a denigrarlo davanti all’opinione pubblica in modo che le sue ricerche non fossero finanziate da altri. gli elettroni e l'idrogeno ionizzato si propagano ovunque. Le sue invenzioni lo rendevano un uomo credibile e pericoloso. per trasmettere l’energia elettrica. disegni e documenti. per quello che in effetti era. trasmettere le notizie dei quotidiani di tutto il mondo. l’uomo d’affari vide nello scienziato un pericolo per i suoi affari e gli negò ogni ulteriore finanziamento nell’intento di fermarlo. contribuendo all'esistenza delle due fasce di Van Allen. erano le invenzioni che permettevano la trasmissione della corrente senza fili. manoscritti. Tesla aveva scoperto che la Terra rispondeva a vibrazioni elettriche di una determinata velocità e se venivano prodotte onde stazionarie intorno al globo. Sappiamo che l'attività solare si manifesta nelle macchie solari prodotte dalla differente velocità di rotazione di due campi magnetici: quello polare e quello equatoriale. era possibile trasmettere elettricità senza dispersione di energia. Queste eruzioni sprigionano intensi campi magnetici che riducono il flusso di energia e producono perturbazioni fisiche sulla Terra. la possibilità di scambiare messaggi fra i cittadini in modo rapido e sicuro.P. per questo non viene ricordato neanche oggi per il grande uomo che è stato e per quello che ha fatto. il sistema elettrico senza fili. in pratica un grande condensatore che Tesla riuscì a far vibrare con l’energia elettrica. distribuire elettricità gratuita e illimitata ovunque. creare un sistema monitorato di navigazione per determinare le rotte delle navi. Nel 1900 Westinghouse e la "General Electric" avevano il monopolio assoluto dell’erogazione di corrente alternata e si erano notevolmente arricchite con il suo commercio. ma sappiamo molto bene il perché. Oggi sappiamo che il Sole con la sua energia e la sua attività determina il clima sulla Terra. conosciuta come "cavità Shumann". Quando Tesla comunicò a Westinghouse l’esito delle ricerche effettuate a Colorado Spring e i suoi progetti per il futuro. ove si accumulano le particelle elettriche che modificano gli effetti climatici. ne influenza l'ecosistema e di conseguenza l'esistenza degli esseri viventi su di essa. oltre alla musica. per generare la risonanza dei campi prodotti con i fulmini con la carica della Terra. è trasmettere energia elettrica in qualunque luogo senza l’uso di fili.
un uomo pieno di orgoglio che non si era mai voluto sposare e quindi non aveva avuto modo di provare le gioie di una famiglia. Nella scrittura trovò lo sfogo dei suoi risentimenti definendo il mondo "pusillanime e incredulo. si poteva interagire con l’attività bioelettrica del cervello e con la naturale vibrazione delle molecole del corpo. se la prese con "un’umanità non sufficientemente progredita in un mondo dove un’idea o un’invenzione viene ostacolata e maltrattata dalla volontà del denaro. a mezzo della quale un corpo si mette a vibrare fino alla rottura. dalla stupidità e dall’ignoranza. quella per l’accensione dei motori elettrici. per interesse personale. le cariche vengono catturate in un condensatore che funziona come scarico per il circuito del motore. Difatti se il trasmettitore avesse inviato una forte energia in un solo punto si sarebbe verificata una distruzione totale. Tesla. iniziava a Long Island i lavori per erigere una colossale torre di legno di 60 metri nota col nome di Wardenclyffe. aprendo la possibilità di comunicare e trasmettere potenza attraverso la crosta terrestre. il motore rotante. offrì 150. Intendeva concepire una stazione trasmittente in grado d'inserire energia elettromagnetica nella crosta fino a raggiungere la risonanza elettrica della Terra stessa. utilizzando tali onde. la prima stazione di energia idroelettrica. si mise a scrivere per riuscire a sbarcare il lunario. fra le quali l’illuminazione elettrica. Tesla dichiarò di svolgere esperimenti tesi a imbrigliare l’energia dei raggi cosmici e costruire un dispositivo funzionante attraverso l’utilizzo di tale energia. Aggiunse che i raggi cosmici ionizzano l’aria creando particelle libere come ioni ed elettroni. Inoltre.000 dollari per il 51% dei brevetti sviluppati sulla nuova tecnologia senza fili e rese pubblico il finanziamento iniziale a difesa dei suoi interessi. trasmettendo frequenze estremamente basse. negò allo scienziato altro denaro. era il mezzo per dimostrare che era possibile distribuire l’energia senza utilizzare i fili e continuare quanto iniziato a Colorado Springs. Vengono attribuiti a Tesla 700 invenzioni. il progetto non era affidabile e tutti si tirarono indietro. modificando le naturali frequenze di cui sono dotati tutti i corpi e sfruttando quella che chiamò "frequenza risonante". Il 23 luglio del 1901 Tesla. se Morgan non rischiava i capitali. ma nel frattempo Tesla riuscì ad ottenere 10. Presso Colorado Springs aveva concepito un nuovo sistema di esplorazione geofisica utilizzando oscillatori meccanici inventati in precedenza.P. interessato ai lavori dello scienziato per motivi economici. come il giorno in cui era sbarcato a New York. vedendo nel progetto un pericolo futuro per i suoi interessi. oggi le turbine a gas si basano sui progetti di Tesla. Lo scienziato scoprì. A 50 anni Tesla si ritrovò senza soldi. Morgan. pieno di fiducia infantile verso un mondo che non lo comprendeva e lo disprezzava. la sua fervida mente partorì altri progetti. Morgan.29 J. non interessato ai soldi. la turbina Tesla senza palette. consapevole che il successo della società si basava sui brevetti di Tesla e che il controllo sui brevetti dava anche il diritto di sopprimerli o nasconderli. il tachimetro. l’auto elettrica senza generatore di corrente. la sismologia.000 dollari dal Canada per trasmettere l’energia per quello Stato. la lampada per flash fotografici. convinto di essere stato abbandonato dagli uomini e da Dio. attaccata e repressa. costringendo Morgan a dichiarare apertamente che non intendeva finanziare ulteriormente lo scienziato. in modo da utilizzare il pianeta per intercettare energia. Per il mondo. la cui cecità costa cara a tutti". solo. usufruendo delle stazioni riceventi dislocate opportunamente sul globo. l’uso medico della risonanza magnetica (3). la diffusione radio. Gli esperimenti non furono portati a termine perché si accorse che potevano generare terremoti artificiali di inaudita potenza. Concepita e costruita come sistema per le telecomunicazioni senza fili. dalla pedanteria. Gli esperimenti erano volti ad utilizzare la Terra come conduttore trasformandola in un gigantesco trasmettitore elettrico. manipolando la biofisica umana. . sottoposta ad amari processi nella spietata lotta per affermarsi sul mercato". Negli anni che seguirono. mentre Morgan possedeva tutti i suoi brevetti dell’elettricità senza fili e Westinghouse controllava l’energia a corrente alternata. uomo chiave della creazione della "General Electric". che sosteneva un elettrodo di rame di 35 metri di diametro. profondamente ferito. ignaro delle vere intenzioni di Morgan. dagli interessi egoistici. il contagiri meccanico. idoneo a raccogliere una carica elettrica. Due turbine senza pale da 200 CV che furono collaudate nella centrale di Waterside a New York e che non trovarono consensi all’epoca. che poteva alterare le correnti nell’alta atmosfera e modificare il clima. l’energia elettrica a corrente alternata.
si dedicò allo studio della dinamo e produsse una lampada ad incandescenza. Il dipartimento della guerra la considerò la farneticazione di un pazzo. in un’intervista sul "New York Times". La vicenda Tesla ci spinge ad analizzare più da vicino alcune cose a lui collegate: Nel laboratorio a Menlo Park. La notte dell’8 il nipote ed altri due uomini rovistarono nella sua stanza in cerca di un testamento.. nel 1930 il primo reparto della "GE Plastics" in seguito agli esperimenti condotti da Edison riguardo ai filamenti plastici per le lampadine effettuati nel 1893. "Radio Corporation of America". indipendentemente dalle condizioni atmosferiche. e altri scritti conservati nel Museo a Belgrado. L’FBI che seguiva Sava confiscò tutto quanto rimaneva dello scienziato. Parlò inoltre di una macchina "volante. con il quale comunicare direttamente. Il cadavere venne ritrovato due giorni dopo. Nel 1928 un apparato di trasporto aereo a decollo verticale. Russia. Fra la notte del 5 e quella dell’8 gennaio 1943 Tesla morì nella stanza dell’Hotel New Yorker. in seguito alla messa a punto di un altimetro di alta precisione per le missioni di bombardamento ad alta quota. con il pilota di un aereo che sorvolava la zona. famoso per le dichiarazioni a favore della guerra fredda. senza usare codici criptati. che nel tempo. John di New York. solida e stabile. Faceva parte di una équipe di esperti militari e in lui viene indicata la persona che ordinò il sequestro dei filmati e intimò. ma non è questo il tempo per parlarne. onde radio ad alta frequenza che rimbalzano sugli oggetti tornando indietro alla fonte generatrice. nel 1891. reclamizzato solo venti anni dopo. la "ABC". dalla marina militare e dal vicepresidente. a velocità mai raggiunte. Perfezionò un apparecchio per inviare energia nello spazio interstellare che in pratica era un prototipo del Laser e di un ordigno al plasma che produceva particelle ad alta energia nella ionosfera. Il governo jugoslavo concesse a Tesla una piccola pensione di 7. Si parla della sua presenza durante avvistamenti definiti "non convenzionali" (UFO) avvenuti nel 1946 in Svezia e nel 1966 sopra la base militare di Andros nelle Bahamas. Nel 1892 dalla fusione fra la "Thomson Houston Co. Era considerato un esperto in materia di UFO. Reclutato in seguito nell’esercito. . Il 12 gennaio 1943 si svolsero i funerali nella cattedrale St. dichiarò di poter consegnare al governo il segreto della sua "teleforza" con la quale si poteva distruggere il motore di un aereo: era il famoso "raggio della morte".S. la "NBC". L’unico membro della famiglia che gli fu vicino fino alla fine fu il nipote Sava Kosanovich. Nel 1917 fu costituita la "GE Aircraft Enginers" per la fabbricazione dei motori aeronautici.. che aveva lavorato nella "Marconi Wireless Company". cosa risultata molto utile nella conduzione della RCA. l’iniettore elettrico per auto. Il presidente era il generale David Sarnoff." guidata da Charles Coffin ebbe origine la "General Electric Co. e il network blu. uno studio sulla dispersione di energia in un pulsar stellare dimostrò che le onde gravitazionali esistono e la sua concezione sulla gravità riconsiderata. all’operatore che li aveva eseguiti. non rilevabile dai tedeschi. Nel 1940. dal Titanic nell’Aprile 1912. ma l’albergo rifiutò di consegnarla all’FBI. Sembra fosse il telegrafista che ricevette l’S. Tutto il suo lavoro fu dichiarato Top Secret dall’FBI. l’invenzione delle porte logiche utilizzate oggi nei computer e nella robotica che Tesla adoperò nel battello radio comandato a comando vocale.O.200 dollari l’anno e l’occasione di trovare una dimora stabile per gli ultimi anni. capace di sostare nell’aria anche in presenza di forti venti.". "America Broadcasting Company". a causa della mancanza di un brevetto.30 E ancora. Thomas Alva Edison. mai trovato. Un’invenzione risultò depositata nel 1932 presso la cassaforte dell’hotel Grosvoner Clinton." Navi che potevano volare utilizzando energia elettromagnetica trasmessa da trasmettitori simili a quelli concepiti a Colorado Springs. Quando scoppiò la seconda guerra mondiale l’RCA era divenuta parte integrante della struttura della difesa americana. "National Broadcasting Company". pesante. Nel 1917 i principi relativi ai livelli di frequenza e potenza che permisero nel 1934 le prime apparecchiature Radar. Nel 1919 la GE formò la "RCA". il silenzio. nel New Jersey. a causa della potenza di trasmissione raggiunta si ripartì in altre due società: il network rosso.". nel 1890 nacque la "Edison General Electric Co. Sempre dell’RCA il trasmettitore portatile indossato dagli agenti segreti dislocati in territorio nemico. nato a Minsk. divenne direttore della Divisione della guerra psicologica col grado di generale di brigata. benché sembra che girovagasse da un albergo all’altro. in grado di muoversi a volontà nell’aria in ogni direzione e in perfetta sicurezza. nel 1896 l’altoparlante. negli anni ottanta.
Nel tempo raggiunse un'invidiabile posizione nel panorama economico nazionale e mondiale. anche in centri urbani. presentato dal Pentagono come un innocuo esperimento. una coppia per la banda bassa da 2. ionosfera e/o magnetosfera terrestre". La messa in onda di alcune trasmissioni tipo "Dark Skies". secondo le numerose dichiarazioni rilasciate a riguardo. Da segnalare infine che Guglielmo Marconi credeva negli extraterrestri. Nel 1993 il dipartimento della difesa americano dichiarò di aver iniziato a costruire un centro ricerche nel campo delle alte frequenze applicate alle aurore boreali. e di altre trasmissioni riguardanti gli UFO. afferma che questo tipo di armamento implica conseguenze tecnologiche disastrose e mette in pericolo la democrazia delle Nazioni. un’innocente ricerca sulla ionosfera al fine di migliorare le comunicazioni. ricerche che dovevano servire ad Eastlund per scoprire vasti giacimenti di gas naturali che la compagnia petrolifera ARCO stava cercando in Alaska ed hanno fruttato dodici brevetti fra il 1987 e il 1994. o silos di missili.31 Le apparecchiature della base di Andros erano state fabbricate dall’RCA. I brevetti di Tesla riguardavano il metodo e il dispositivo per alterare uno strato dell’atmosfera terrestre. Il procuratore distrettuale Garrison. Un’arma che agisce sulla ionosfera con conseguenze imprevedibili e indescrivibili. che si serve di immense riserve di gas e petrolio appartenenti alla società ARCO e che. come la famosa "Guerra dei Mondi". per esperimenti riguardo alla risonanza della Terra e dell’atmosfera. per la sua straordinaria potenza e polivalenza. Anche il fisico nucleare Edward Teller. che sosteneva l’ipotesi dell’assassinio di Kennedy da parte dei sostenitori della guerra fredda. la proprietà dei quali è detenuta dalla società APTI-ARCO. e il Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti. per generare oltre 1. Una zona scelta per la sua vicinanza al Polo e alla zona di concentrazione delle linee magnetiche del nostro pianeta. L’area interessata si trova a Gakona. un raggio di energia ad alta frequenza nella ionosfera. emettere onde ELF in grado di influenzare il comportamento umano. di conseguenza il generale Sarnoff viene indicato quale membro di una struttura coperta che si serviva dell’RCA per scopi "occulti" oltre a quelli ufficiali. testimonierebbero che tale uso si è protratto nel tempo e non sia avvenuto per caso. consta di 360 antenne alte oltre 20 metri. La progettazione di radar e di altri strumenti molto sofisticati per le forze armate e la commessa militare di oltre un miliardo di dollari negli anni sessanta aveva conferito all’RCA un posto importante nel meccanismo bellico statunitense. è considerato da molti l’arma ultima degli USA. Doppie antenne a dipoli incrociati. nelle quali si parla liberamente del gruppo "Majestic 12". Magda Haalvoet. Un progetto da 30 milioni di dollari l’anno. per la maggior parte armi offensive che sfruttano il sistema d’irraggiamento a fascio diretto dalla Terra verso lo spazio. nel Golfo del principe Guglielmo di proprietà del Dipartimento della Difesa USA. per la presenza di fonti energetiche naturali situate nel sottosuolo e per la distanza dai centri urbani. impegnato in una intensa campagna d’informazione ostile al procuratore. ionosfera e magnetosfera e creare un ciclotrone artificiale per riscaldare una zona di plasma e produrre uno scudo di particelle relativistiche ad un’altezza superiore della superficie terrestre. i suoi affari non erano più solo radiofonici... La sigla HAARP significa "High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project": "Metodo ed apparecchiatura per l’alterazione di una regione dell’atmosfera. Un sistema tecnologico militare capace di scannerizzare il sottosuolo alla ricerca di basi segrete sotterranee. modificare il tempo atmosferico. un consorzio petrolifero dietro al quale si celano la Marina. che trasmettono. in un terreno situato a Nord Est di Anchorage in Alaska. eurodeputata belga. ovunque. in grado di interrompere tutte le comunicazioni Hertz. che ha preso spunto dai lavori di Nikola Tesla. a 350 chilometri di distanza. un cuscino ad alta densità energetica che è vitale per il pianeta e che protegge i suoi abitanti dagli effetti nocivi del sole. dopo gli esperimenti eseguiti nel 1933 s’incontrò con David Sarnoff quando questi era un personaggio di rilievo dell’Intelligence statunitense. Si può interferire con ampie zone . alimentate da sei turbine di 3600 CV che bruciano qualcosa come 95 tonnellate di diesel al giorno. Collegati al progetto vi sono oltre 400 brevetti. Si può dirigere l’energia ad alta frequenza verso un’antenna ricevente. ha collaborato al progetto.8 a 7 Megahertz e un’altra per la banda alta da 7 a 10 Megahertz. l’Aviazione. provocare terremoti o tsunami e bloccare ogni meccanismo elettronico. come "la lunga mano del Governo Invisibile". La Ionosfera è costituita da particelle ionizzate cariche di energia all’altezza media di 48 chilometri fino a 800 chilometri dalla superficie terrestre.5 miliardi di Watt. noto per essersi dedicato alla costruzione della bomba all’idrogeno ed ha contribuito al sistema "Guerre Stellari". Il sistema HAARP si basa sulle ricerche di Bernard Eastlund. definì il gruppo RCA/NBC.
Sicuramente se ne stanno costruendo altre. Ma si può fermarla rendendo tutti i paesi in grado di difendersi. Da segnalare che Brezinski era anche direttore della sicurezza nazionale del presidente Carter e fondatore della "Federal Emergency Management Agency". L’intensità e la frequenza dei disastri che si sono registrati in questi ultimi anni sarebbero da imputare ai test del progetto HAARP. Jose Delgado. in quanto in tale progetto verrebbero usati metodi in grado di provocare terremoti e modificare le precipitazioni.32 dell’atmosfera per abbattere qualsiasi tipo di oggetto volante. a far esplodere polveri a distanza ed accendere una lampada senza fare uso di corrente elettrica.000 Watt nell’atmosfera. descrive cosa le accadde una mattina del 1936 mentre percorreva con l’auto la Roma-Ostia: "Un giorno. avevo detto a Benito che nel pomeriggio mi sarei recata ad Ostia a controllare alcuni lavori in una proprietà agricola. Le renderà tutte. trasformerà completamente i rapporti tra le nazioni. definendo il progetto HAARP un’arma geofisica con la quale condizionare il clima alterando attraverso l’emissione di microonde la temperatura e l’umidità. conosciuto come il "raggio della morte". ELF. in primo luogo. a Fairbanks in Alaska.000. la temperatura. scoprì che si poteva modificare il comportamento emozionale del pensiero. a tal proposito. La sua tecnologia fu impiegata per proiettare in cielo immagini pubblicitarie. possono influenzare le attività cerebrali. capace di bloccare qualsiasi motore.700. Si è saputo che l’impianto pilota di Gakona è in grado di irradiare 1. A convalidare tale impresa. Mio marito sorrise e mi . affermando: "Questo strumento proietta particelle che possono essere relativamente grandi o microscopiche. riprendendo un vecchio un progetto di Tesla per teletrasportare energia elettrica. E nulla le può resistere. Il Ministero dell’Aviazione inglese non fu convinto dalla prova. anche Guglielmo Marconi. in tale impresa si cimentò. fondatore della commissione trilaterale David Rockfeller’s pubblicò un libro sulla possibilità di controllare il clima per produrre periodi di prolungata siccità o inondazioni. Nel 1952 il Dr. Il Dr. Bisognerà. il livello del mare. se verrà adottata. a pranzo. grandi e piccole che siano. possa alterare le forze della natura sconvolgendo il regime delle piogge. ma quando sarà completata. Così una corrente più sottile di un filo può trasmettere migliaia di cavalli vapore. nello specifico gli Stati Uniti. e sembra con esiti positivi. Ho appena scoperto una nuova arma di difesa che." Le onde a bassa frequenza. Nel 1914 Harry Grindell Matthews dichiarò di aver inventato un raggio invisibile. Nel 1970 Zbignieu Brezinski. a Tromso in Norvegia. Nel 2002 ben 220 deputati della Duma firmarono un appello indirizzato all’ONU per chiedere la messa al bando degli esperimenti elettromagnetici dell’HAARP ritenuti una nuova arma in grado di influenzare gli elementi naturali con le onde ad alta frequenza. che permettono di trasmettere a gran distanza un’energia milioni di volte più forte di quella ottenibile con qualsiasi altro raggio. Durante una dimostrazione sarebbe riuscito a bloccare il motore a scoppio di una moto. Da quel momento lo scienziato venne dimenticato. a Pine Bush in Australia ed a Steeplebush in Inghilterra. Dichiarano di avere forti preoccupazioni per gli esperimenti americani in Alaska. Non vi si può porre fine disarmando i forti. Egli odiava la guerra e. in quanto il suo raggio di azione era attivo entro diciotto metri. la caratteristica della luce solare. professore dell'Università di Yale. Anche la Russia si è dedicata ad una simile ricerca prima della divisione del suo territorio. sarà possibile distruggere uomini e macchine in un raggio di 320 Km. invulnerabili a qualsiasi attacco proveniente da terra. Nel suo libro "Mussolini privato". costruire una grande officina per fabbricare quest’arma. Cinesi e russi denunciano da tempo la possibilità che un paese. depressione. Nel 1925 Grindell si recò in America e al suo ritorno in patria dichiarò di aver venduto il brevetto agli USA. Il progetto è tuttora in opera. Non fu l’unico a costruire un sistema per generare un raggio simile. alla fine di giugno del 1936." Nel 1934 Tesla descrisse in un articolo un’apparecchiatura simile al laser. un testimone di tutto rilievo: Rachele Mussolini. dal mare o dall’aria. pur in modo indiretto. Robert Becker dimostrò che tali onde potevano provocare paura. Il progetto HAARP rappresenta lo sviluppo negativo dell’invenzione di Tesla. morì nel 1941. desideri. dichiarò: "Non si può abolire la guerra mettendola fuori legge. generate dal sistema. Vi sono altre installazioni simili in varie parti del pianeta: ad Arecibo.
camion. non volendo inimicarsi il Papa. Ighina aveva inventato una macchina capace di controllare le nuvole con la quale liberava il cielo dalla loro presenza. La sera a cena narrò l’accaduto a tavola e Mussolini confermò che era stato fatto un esperimento segretissimo in quel punto dell’autostrada. L’anno dopo. Isolando gli atomi della materia dagli atomi magnetici i primi non hanno la possibilità di muoversi e la materia non si trasforma." Secondo quanto riportato nel libro. il 20 Marzo 1945. moto. Era stato sottratto ai fascisti il progetto del raggio della morte? Secondo: il segreto di Marconi lo conosceva un certo Pier Luigi Ighina.33 disse: Trovati sull’autostrada fra le tre e le tre e mezza. causa l’annullamento del matrimonio dalla sacra rota. Una scoperta che poteva risolvere il problema delle siccità e delle alluvioni nel mondo. lasciò libertà di scelta allo studioso. sia quelle che viaggiano verso Ostia. e papa Pio XI. I medici diagnosticarono la morte in seguito ad un attacco di . viene bloccata e riflessa divenendo energia terrestre. ad Acilia Marconi ha fermato i motori delle automobili. nell’ora di punta del traffico. Primo: sembra che nel 1939 nella città di Essen. Durante il Primo Congresso Internazionale di Medicina Ufficiale e Naturale di Milano venne proiettata una videocassetta del filmato inerente al dissolvimento dell’agglomerato nuvoloso sul cielo di Imola. tutto quanto era elettrico e meccanico si bloccò per dieci minuti: auto. saputo della cosa. con tale energia secondo l’inventore si poteva guarire qualsiasi malattia. ma lo studioso morì improvvisamente poco tempo dopo. pur facendogli presente che la scoperta poteva essere fatta da altri e utilizzata contro l’Italia.35 Rachele Mussolini disse all’autista di riprovare a far ripartire l’auto. Purtroppo Marconi era devotissimo alla chiesa. Secondo quanto dichiarato da Ighina il monopolo è il principio positivo o negativo dell’energia solare che giunge sulla Terra. si allarmò e chiese allo scienziato di non proseguire le ricerche. Dividendolo scoprì il "monopolo magnetico". il quale sospese le ricerche ma non distrusse la documentazione e la scoperta stessa. Accadde lo stesso a tutte le auto che si trovarono in zona. L’atomo magnetico è più piccolo degli altri atomi e pulsa più velocemente. Per riuscire a fare questo aveva sepolto quintali di polvere di alluminio sotto il prato del suo giardino trasformandolo in un monopolo magnetico. Se ne accorse quando vide la salma e osservò sotto la pelle alcuni "gnocchetti neri". Marconi morì. produrre energia elettrica. ma dopo aver visto inutili i suoi tentativi di far ripartire il motore. L’uomo chiese perché aspettare tanto. Marconi sta continuando le ricerche. a metà strada l’auto si fermò e nonostante che l’autista facesse di tutto per rimetterla in moto. Ighina costruì un’apparecchiatura per regolare le vibrazioni atomiche magnetiche basata sull’energia dell’atomo magnetico. L’esperimento fu ripetuto sulla strada di Anzio.10. "Un’invenzione di Marconi che può dare all’Italia una potenza superiore a quella di tutti gli altri paesi del mondo. All’autista disse di aspettare fino alle 3. Da Donna Rachele sappiamo che Marconi riferì tutto a Mussolini che. perché come spiegò il radiotecnico i monopoli scompongono la materia sulla stessa materia. I giornali non menzionarono l’accaduto. in una intervista. con la ricomparsa del sereno nella zona interessata e trattata da Ighina con monopoli magnetici. Dall’interazione dell’energia solare con quella terrestre si produce materia. suo collaboratore. la macchina non ne volle sapere. Inutile dirlo l’auto si rimise in moto. il 1937. Rachele guardò l’orologio: erano le 3. dato che lo stesso duce lo confermerà a Ivanoe Fossati. a Orbetello aerei radiocomandati furono incendiati a duemila metri di altezza. aumentare la produzione agricola. orologi. "È vero sulla strada di Ostia.30. sia quelle dirette verso Roma. Disse anche che non si sentì di obbligarlo nella scelta." Mussolini spiegò alla moglie che Marconi utilizzando un raggio misterioso poteva interrompere il circuito elettrico dei motori di qualsiasi tipo. alla fine si arrese." Al giornalista Mussolini disse che Marconi ebbe degli scrupoli e chiese consiglio al Papa che gli disse di nascondere la scoperta. un radiotecnico milanese che per dieci anni fu aiutante dell’inventore. quindi l’atomo magnetico produce anche le variazioni degli atomi della materia. La cosa è più che certa. Vi sono inoltre due fatti da registrare. Qualcosa ti sorprenderà. (Il progetto Haarp?) Da quanto dichiarato da Ighina sembra che Marconi sia rimasto ucciso dal suo stesso esperimento durante il quale aveva provocato l’interruzione della circolazione del sangue. investigare nel sotto suolo alla ricerca di giacimenti petroliferi e falde acquifere. delle moto. fu lui a scoprire l’"atomo magnetico" che si trova in mezzo agli altri atomi e fornisce loro il movimento continuo. fondere metalli a distanza. Alla 3.
Quindi quando l’affidabilità e la velocità delle auto a benzina migliorò le auto elettriche sparirono. quando proprio a quel tempo vi erano poche officine per auto e un normale elettricista poteva eseguire la manutenzione del semplice motore a corrente continua. grandi o microscopiche. la luce elettrica viene a mancare. fenomeni che interessano campi elettromagnetici. ma mantenne il riserbo più assoluto in merito ai progetti che potevano produrre armi ad energia distruttiva. un problema con i paesi islamici e non avremmo alimentato e finanziato di conseguenza il terrorismo. L’apparato costruito da Tesla proiettava particelle.34 angina pectoris. velocità contenuta e meno incidenti mortali. In merito a questo "raggio invisibile". costi ribassati anche a livello produzione. qualcuno lo ha indicato come l’autore involontario dell’esplosione del 30 giugno 1908 nella Tunguska. Richiedevano molto tempo per la ricarica per un’autonomia massima di 160 chilometri. dato che in molti casi di avvistamenti i motori delle auto si bloccano. acqua per un radiatore. "Detroit Electric". localizzata nella linea retta compresa fra il laboratorio e il luogo dell’esplosione. apparecchiature che oggi farebbero parte del progetto HAARP. inoltre risultano testimonianze contraddittorie riguardo alla traiettoria. è stato fatto due più due. ogni meccanismo si ferma. "Baker". negli anni '90 giornali e TV diffusero la notizia che la polizia statunitense sarebbe stata dotata di un meccanismo capace di bloccare il motore dell’auto usata dai malviventi per darsi alla fuga. un personaggio che parlando dello scienziato si riferiva a lui come "zio". stava eseguendo un esperimento con lo scopo di inviare un’onda di immensa energia e stabilire la comunicazione con una spedizione artica. Esiste la strana coincidenza che lo stesso giorno in si manifestò il fenomeno in Russia. Sembra che nei primi del novecento le auto elettriche avessero buone prospettive. Non esistono però prove a conferma. A Tesla è legata una storia riguardo ad un’auto elettrica. Un fascio più sottile di un capello a cui niente resiste. Tutto questo porta a pensare alla tecnologia in possesso degli UFO. pesanti. al piombo. L’unico effetto prodotto alcuni giorni dopo. come lo abbiamo oggi. Le batterie erano però scarse. oltre gli 80 Km/h la batteria si poteva deteriorare. L’auto a benzina necessitava di una valvola a farfalla. fermerebbe anche i pacemakers e interrompe la corrente nelle abitazioni circostanti al luogo di azione. Era guidata da tale Petar Savo indicato come un giovane parente di Tesla. o "della morte". non avremmo avuto. in Siberia. le auto avevano prestazioni limitate. ingombranti. I grandi magazzini impiegavano camion elettrici. in molti avevano anticipato veicoli alimentati da batterie. così i medici e le donne perché tali auto erano più facili da guidare. In virtù di questo. le strade americane venivano percorse da veicoli con motore a combustione interna. Nonostante questo rimangono molti interrogativi: doveva avere una potenza di 30 megatoni e per raggiungerla doveva coinvolgere più centrali. raccontò l’episodio dell’auto elettrica che collaudò per conto di Tesla. in modo da concentrarle in una piccola area e inviarle a grandi distanze utilizzando energie "trilioni di volte" più potenti di quelle attualmente in uso. non ci furono segnalazioni in merito a tali fenomeni. una luce aurorale anomala che potrebbe far pensare all’uso di apparecchiature da parte di Tesla. Atto a produrre un’arma al plasma. Nessun inquinamento. Una tecnologia che può diventare un’arma capace di abbattere migliaia di aerei a 400 chilometri di distanza. Petar Savo era stato nell'esercito austriaco ed era un esperto pilota. Dato che il suo trasmettitore poteva generare una forza distruttiva pari a una bomba all’idrogeno di 10 megatoni. caduta di UFO. un acceleratore di particelle oggi in uso nei laboratori nucleari e nello scudo spaziale. "Rauch & Lang" e "Woods" furono le principali aziende tra quelle che producevano questo tipo di veicoli elettrici. ma questo solo in città. Sembra però che tale progetto sia stato abbandonato perché in virtù del suo ampio raggio d’azione. "La Westinghouse Electric" e la "Pierce- . non ci sarebbe stato bisogno di un accordo di Kyoto che nessuno rispetta. più veloci e con maggiore autonomia. L’unico che poteva far luce sull’evento era proprio Tesla. l’inventore. Noi sappiamo che il nome del nipote controllato dall’FBI era diverso. nonostante che l’esplosione della Tunguska non abbia lasciato crateri prodotti da meteoriti o comete. Fenomeni riscontrati anche nelle vicende riguardanti il famoso Triangolo delle Bermuda. una manovella per far girare il motore. "Columbia". Si racconta che nell’estate del 1931 le strade della cittadina di Buffalo fossero percorse da una Pierce Arrow che non presentava emissione di fumi dal tubo di scarico in quanto avrebbe avuto uno motore elettrico e non combustione interna. intervistato nel 1967. quindi non si poteva nascondere il fatto.
Gli esperimenti durarono una settimana. combustione. o pila a gas. Tesla venne anche reclutato dalla Westinghouse per ricerche non ben specificate sulle trasmissioni senza fili ed egli interruppe le sue dichiarazioni pubbliche sui raggi cosmici. pistoni. Ironia della sorte la cella a combustibile (4). Non più camere di scoppio. Una nuova frontiera già disponibile che viene ostacolata esclusivamente da problemi politici visto che quelli economici potranno essere risolti nel momento in cui si passerà ad una produzione industriale con l’abbattimento dei relativi costi. oggi parliamo di auto con motore a celle di combustibile. Poi eseguì la connessione al motore. cioè l’idrogeno e l’ossigeno si riunivano generando elettricità. scoperta poco tempo dopo da Werner Siemens. nel caso idrogeno e ossigeno. .800 giri al minuto.83 Hz. fu ideata nel 1839 da William Grove. Leggende metropolitane. senza spazzole. raffreddato da una ventola frontale e due terminali di alimentazione sotto il cruscotto. al fine di produrre acqua ed energia elettrica nello spazio. un curioso avvocato del Galles con l'hobby della chimica. L’auto aveva una batteria ricaricata da una antenna che entrava in sintonia con la risonanza di Schumann intorno ai 7. azzerare il tasso d’inquinamento mettendosi in regola con l’accordo di Kyoto e sganciarsi dal petrolio e da tutti i problemi che dal suo uso derivano. o studiati cover p su invenzioni che potevano danneggiare il potere di qualcuno? Su tutta la storia non vi sono molti riscontri. si parlava di un "esperimento programmato per spingere un'automobile utilizzando la trasmissione senza fili di energia elettrica". A detta di Tesla il dispositivo che alimentava l’auto era in grado di alimentarlo per sempre e soddisfare il fabbisogno energetico di un'abitazione. L’auto percorse circa 80 chilometri attorno a Buffalo. Durante un esperimento di elettrolisi. raggiungendo i 145 km/h in perfetto silenzio. sia Shuttle. con emissione di vapore acqueo. Una valigia come quelle dei ricevitori a bassa frequenza rimodulava la corrente alternata del campo magnetico terrestre in corrente continua necessaria alla batteria fornendo una quantità illimitata di energia. si comporta come un generatore di energia elettrica prodotta attraverso la reazione chimica controllata tra idrogeno e ossigeno grazie a un catalizzatore di platino. massimo sette. si accorse che. Aveva un motore elettrico a corrente che poteva raggiungere 1. Nello stesso periodo la "Westinghouse Corporation" pagò per la sistemazione di Tesla al "New Yorker Hotel" di New York . La comunità scientifica pur interessata inizialmente preferì optare per la dinamo. a idrogeno. nel momento in cui le batterie che alimentavano le celle elettrolitiche venivano escluse. si potrebbe riconvertire l’intero parco auto. La cella. in pratica. Nel New York Daily News del 2 aprile 1934 un articolo intitolato "Il sogno di Tesla di un'energia senza fili vicino alla realtà". l’auto percorse vari tipi di strade alla velocità di 150 chilometri orari. Riguardo le auto all’Idrogeno. assorbendo dalla Terra energia elettrica per distribuirla senza l’uso dei fili. procedimento attraverso il quale si può separare idrogeno e ossigeno dall’acqua. Considerando tutto questo non possiamo fare a meno di pensare che la Grande Piramide potesse assumere la funzione di quella valigetta. Si verifica il consumo di un combustibile. il processo riprendeva al contrario. Savo racconta che Tesla sollevò il cofano. a partire dagli anni ’60. le pile a combustibile sono state utilizzate per tutte le missioni spaziali sia Apollo. dove visse per tutto il resto della sua vita. In soli cinque anni.35 Arrow" avevano preparato un’auto sperimentale seguendo le indicazioni di Tesla con finanziamenti della "Studebacker Corporation". fece qualche regolazione. Passarono 120 anni prima che la NASA adottasse le "fuell cells" per il progetto Apollo e invogliasse il loro uso a livello industriale. sfruttando proprio la risonanza di Schumann sulle frequenze di 30 Hz riscontrata nella costruzione. dopodiché venne consegnata in tutta segretezza in una fattoria vicina a Buffalo e Tesla si portò via il suo dispositivo. posizionò 12 valvole termoioniche in un dispositivo all’interno di una scatola di circa sessanta centimetri per trenta e alta quindici. Infatti. Nel 1933 per problemi amministrativi la "Pierce Arrow" venne liquidata e la storia si ferma qui. disponibile in quantità illimitata". l’inventore affermò che sfruttava una "misteriosa radiazione proveniente dall'etere.
tenutasi a Berlino nel settembre del 2005. noto come "Steam Reforming". Completamente priva di alghe e coralli e stranamente ben illuminata senza che ci fosse nessuna luce diretta. vide. vicino alle isole Bari. e con l’inglese "Johnson Matthey". con tale procedimento. società canadese di alta tecnologia. attraverso un sistema che ricorda quelli descritti da Tesla. a quaranta metri di profondità. telefoni cellulari. La descrizione ricorda le torri di vetro girevoli di cui disponevano i Thuata de Danan. rivestite appunto di un materiale isolante a protezione delle radiazioni emanate dalle armi nemiche. sistemi di alimentazione per cellulari. le giunzioni fra i blocchi si distinguevano appena. i campi di applicazione delle "fuel cells" sono la produzione di energia. dalla "General Electric". Alford ipotizza che nelle 27 nicchie allineate nella Grande Galleria e adesso vuote. Dal soffitto pendeva un’asta metallica con incastonata una pietra rossa sfaccettata e affusolata in punta. L’acqua generata dalle "Fuel Cell" è così pura che viene bevuta dagli astronauti sullo Shuttle. apparecchiature per telecomunicazioni. dvd portatili. sarebbe stata il punto dove si doveva trovare la cella energetica idonea a produrre la separazione fra l’ossigeno e l’idrogeno. dalla Toshiba una piccolissima centrale. le più interessanti sono quelle ad acido fosforico e a membrana scambiatrice di protoni detta anche Pem.5%) come combustibile. dicendo che proprio il cattivo uso di tale energia scatenò forze incontrollabili che causarono la distruzione del continente. L'apertura era una specie di pozzo che immetteva in una stanza interna rettangolare. in un tempio in Egitto e nel tempio di Itlar nello Yucatan. comprendente anche "i raggi distruttivi". le seconde nella locomozione dei veicoli. Il metodo più economico per disporre di idrogeno è estrarlo dal gas naturale ma. Uno strumento idoneo e alternativo per ricaricare le batterie di Notebook. Pesa 8.5 mm. Per il suo funzionamento necessita solo di 2 millilitri di combustibile per assicurare 20 ore di autonomia in un riproduttore di MP3 audio. l'energia derivante dalla luce polarizzata. Sotto di essa un basamento in pietra sono sopra una piastra sempre di pietra. I documenti con le descrizioni per costruire tali "pietre" verrebbero custoditi in tre posti diversi: nei templi di Atlantide sommersi a Bimini.5 grammi e produce 100 milliwatt di energia in un compatto che misura appena 22x56x4. il costo del platino in una cella Pem è sceso drasticamente. La scelta vincente è rappresentata dalle celle a combustibile alimentate da idrogeno se ottenuto dall’acqua attraverso l’energia elettrica prodotta da fonti rinnovabili. viene liberata come sottoprodotto anidride carbonica. una vasta città sommersa e una piramide con un'apertura sulla sua sommità. il sarcofago nella camera del Re il recipiente dove avveniva la combustone controllata dell’idrogeno. e grazie alla collaborazione con la "Ballard Power Systems". si trovavano cristalli capaci di risuonare a diverse frequenze e impiegati per comunicare. Le pile Pem sono state sviluppate alla fine degli anni Cinquanta negli Usa. Secondo quanto riportato riguardo alle dichiarazioni del veggente Cayce. ossia il Ded. protagonisti delle saghe irlandesi.36 Fra i cinque tipi di celle a combustibile. Cayce parlò di televisione. Bahamas. la più grande Fiera dell’Elettronica del mondo. Secondo Alan Alford la Camera della Regina nella Grande Piramide di Giza. un secondo sistema è produrlo partendo dall’acqua. la civiltà Atlantidea disponeva di una avanzata tecnologia. audio digitali. costituita da una mini cella a combustibile alimentata da un’alta concentrazione di metanolo (99. Nel 1970 il Dottor Ray Brown durante un’immersione con alcuni suoi amici nelle acque del triangolo delle Bermuda. Questo ci porta a fantasticare ancora un po' e a compiere un viaggio fino ad Atlantide. sulla quale due mani di . dichiarò che quel popolo era capace di alterare la struttura atomica dei cristalli per ricavare enormi quantità di energia. Ecco la sua testimonianza: "La costruzione era in pietra liscia. Le prime usate negli impianti di potenza. personal computer e fabbisogni domestici. le cinque stanze sopra tale camera. In occasione della rassegna IFA. separandolo dall’ossigeno attraverso l’elettrolisi. è stata presentata. I cristalli sarebbero stati isolati in un edificio "foderato di pietra non conduttrice". Le Piramidi potevano essere state immense celle a combustibile per fornire energia al popolo che occupava le terre tredicimila anni fa. quando ancora non esistevano. specializzata in catalizzatori. Vidi qualcosa che riluceva. il dispositivo di raffreddamento. Cayce parlò anche di Faser e Maser. Oltre al settore dell'autotrazione. aeromobili.
la sua capacità di visualizzare nella mente il problema e passare alla soluzione senza dover stilare disegni ed effettuare calcoli. l’enorme serietà. Mentre uscivo da quel luogo mi parve di avvertire una presenza. Qualcosa che potrebbe fornire la spiegazione delle strane sparizioni nel famoso triangolo delle Bermude. senza di lui non saremo giunti a questo grado di sviluppo tecnologico. da Charles Berlitz che intervistò Valentin. nascosti nelle stanze del comando." Pervaso dal timore che la sfera gli fosse confiscata non ne ha rivelata l’esistenza fino al 1975. attraverso l’asta. ma riconosciuto come l’inventore del mondo che noi conosciamo. annerite da evidenti bruciature. l’amore per la natura che lo spingeva a compiere lunghe passeggiate. Si è parlato di casi di guarigione dopo averla toccata. un personaggio scomodo all’epoca e sicuramente lo sarebbe anche ai nostri tempi. Queste le vicende collegate a Tesla. La sua mania di perfezionismo. La nave sparì davanti agli occhi degli osservatori rimasti a bordo della SS Furuseth e della SS Malay. né il punto esatto del suo ritrovamento e cosa ne è stato del cristallo. Non riuscendo a smuovere l’asta e la pietra rossa. lavorava ad un progetto relativo ad una "barriera di luce" in grado di alterare tempo. Un collegamento al teschio di cristallo? Speculazioni? Fatto che non si può negare. Il particolare delle mani metalliche che sorreggono un cristallo. autore di un libro collegato alla storia. tre per l’esattezza e tenendolo in mano si avvertiva una vibrazione. "The case for the Ufo". spazio. pietra solitamente usata nei laser per concentrare e proiettare l’energia. All'interno di questo cristallo rotondo vi era una serie di forme piramidali. La pietra rossa poteva essere un rubino. Dal passato saltiamo al futuro in quanto Tesla non era in accordo con Einstein riguardo alla curvatura dello spazio per lui impossibile: "Se esistesse non si spiegherebbe il moto dei corpi come li osserviamo. all’interno di un campo di forza di forma sferica di circa cento metri d’ampiezza. L’Eldridge fu vista apparire e scomparire a Norfolk in Virginia e l’equipaggio subì conseguenze sconvolgenti devastanti. successivamente. solo dopo il 1900 siamo entrati in possesso di una tecnologia con la quale poter tagliare il quarzo e ricavarne una sfera perfetta. In quanto alla sfera vi sono testimonianze che parlano di fenomeni paranormali. Voci dal sapore di leggenda abbinano il suo nome al "Progetto Filadelfia" riguardante la sparizione di una nave e il suo equipaggio dopo averla esposta ad un forte campo magnetico. La vicenda è stata divulgata da Manson Valentin con il quale Jessup era in contatto e. come lui li definiva. gravità e materia." Consapevole che il mondo è governato da pochi furbi e facoltosi. le doti di eloquenza. rammentano le mani degli isolatori che sostengono le "lampade" rappresentate sulle pareti di Dendera. La storia venne rivelata da un non ben identificato Carl Allen in corrispondenza epistolare con il dottor Morris Jessup. Appare come un uomo che desiderava una società sana e giusta. 150. intenti a raggirare una massa di illusi. sorreggevano una sfera di cristallo." Tesla condivideva la visione della luce intesa come particella e come onda. nel corso di una conferenza a Phoenix. di metalli che in contatto con essa si magnetizzano temporaneamente. Sapeva come cambiare gli equilibri mondiali ponendo a "disposizione di tutti illimitate e smisurate sorgenti di . l’ago della bussola girerebbe prima in senso orario e poi in senso opposto. "non dominata dagli interessi egoistici di oscuri manovratori dell’economia e della politica. lasciando ben visibile la sua impronta nell’acqua. Solo un campo di forza può spiegarlo e la sua assunzione dispensa la curvatura spaziale dell’esistere. Jessup morì in circostanze misteriose e sospette.000 documenti custoditi nel Museo a lui intestato a Belgrado testimoniano la sua grande conoscenza dell’elettromagnetismo. individui privi di coscienza che perseguono i propri interessi non tenendo conto dei danni provocati all’umanità. retta da principi egualitari. quindi la piramide catalizzava una sorta d’energia indirizzandola. Oggetto dell’esperimento il cacciatorpediniere Eldridge D173 che finì avvolto da una strana nebbia luminescente e verdastra appena i generatori magnetici furono messi in funzione.37 bronzo. Uomini che apparivano e sparivano in ogni luogo si trovassero. poveri. afferrai il cristallo e venni via. nella sfera di cristallo. astronomo e ricercatore. Il fatto che siano state viste annerite e bruciate significa che erano state sottoposte ad un fortissimo calore. indifesi ignoranti. Il cristallo della sfera testimonia l’esistenza di civiltà in possesso di una tecnologia avanzatissima perché perfino gli esperti dell’Istituto Smithsoniano di Washington hanno dichiarato che.
2. acustiche e di altro tipo. lo combatteva. I nuclei atomici mostrano la loro presenza assorbendo o emettendo onde radio una volta esposti ad un campo magnetico sufficientemente forte. Julius Rosenwald. La preparazione all’esame è insolita in quanto è necessario lasciare fuori della stanza ogni oggetto metallico smontabile. La cerimonia avvenne il 18 maggio 1917. Tesla. quindi chi gestisce il potere deve bloccarli o rallentarli con ogni mezzo. Tutte le macchine per la risonanza magnetica nucleare sono calibrate con l’unità di Tesla. creato cultura. Note: 1. Per questo vennero tagliati i fondi all’inventore. a riconoscimento del suo enorme e indiscusso talento. Per queste sue idee Tesla fu contrastato. 5.38 energie che avrebbero diffuso il benessere. lo fu quando scoprì le frequenza di risonanza della Terra. Fenomeno possibile in quanto la Terra è una gigantesca calamita. Il corpo umano tende ad immagazzinare tale elettricità naturalmente. non in quel momento. Herbert Hoover. ma cinquanta anni dopo Shumann disse che aveva ragione. La Cella a combustibile è come un piccolo generatore che produce energia da combustibili quali l’idrogeno o l’alcool per generare una reazione chimica senza combustione o uso di parti mobili come le turbine. 3. ed è quello che fa l’ago di una bussola perché è un piccolo magnete i cui poli si orientano parallelamente alle linee dello spettro magnetico terrestre. Il segnale dell’idrogeno nel tessuto canceroso è diverso da quello di un tessuto sano perché i tumori contengono più acqua e quindi più atomi di idrogeno. Lo fecero passare per pazzo. comprese protesi dentarie. uno dei membri della "Enginering Society Building" chiuse il suo discorso. Henry Ford. le sue invenzioni non dovevano modificare lo status quo raggiunto. Nell’occasione. Più forte è il campo magnetico più forte la quantità dei segnali radiofonici tratti dagli atomi del corpo e quindi più alta la qualità delle immagini.000 volt. nel quale elogiava i meriti dell’inventore croato. . Estremamente importante per la diagnosi degli organi interni del corpo umano specie in caso di tumori e processi degenerativi del cervello e della colonna vertebrale. da 2 a 9. ma non fu premiato con il premio Nobel come avrebbe meritato. Nell’elite militare e industriale del tempo figuravano uomini come John Rockefeller Jr. un onore concesso a pochi. ben consapevoli che le invenzioni di Edison non avevano un futuro. L’elettricità statica varia dai 20. ma i tedeschi in guerra fecero lo stesso con i missili ed oggi si fa uso delle "smart bombs" guidate da Laser e GPS. Considerando il principio dell’attrazione dei poli opposti. conoscenza e consapevolezza. portando il mondo ad un autocontrollo. Un Tesla equivale a 1000 Gauss (unita di misura del flusso magnetico). Il genio invece innesca salti quantici nello sviluppo tecnologico che costringono a cambiamenti repentini degli equilibri. il cambiamento richiedeva tempo. il generale Pershing (5). al contrario. 4. qualsiasi magnete libero di ruotare tende a orientare il proprio polo sud verso quello nord terrestre. L’unità di misura del flusso magnetico porta il suo nome.. Pershimg John Joseph generale statunitense (1860-1948) che durante la prima guerra mondiale venne nominato comandante capo delle forze nordamericane in Europa e che sotto la sua direzione costituirono uno dei principali fattori della vittoria alleata. ma Edison era asservito al sistema. Harvey Firestone. gli fu conferita solo la Edison Medal. dicendo: E alla fine Dio disse "Sia Tesla e la luce fu".000 ai 50. Utopia. Lo dotarono di poteri extraterrestri quando pilotò il battello col radiocomando. togliendo ai gruppi di potere l’opportunità di manipolare la massa per conseguire il loro egoistico interesse".
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Nikola Tesla: Mechanical Oscillator
L. Anderson: Tesla's Teleforce & Tele-Geodynamics Proposals D. Pond & W. Baumgartner: Nikola Tesla's Earthquake Machine J. O'Neill: Prodigal Genius: The Life and Times of Nicola Tesla M. Cheney: Tesla: Man Out of Time Miscellanies N. Tesla: US Patent # 514,169 ~ Reciprocating Engine N. Tesla: US Patent # 517,900 ~ Steam Engine
Nikola Tesla's Teleforce & Telegeodynamics Proposals
Leland Anderson ISBN: 0-9636012-8-8 "Two important papers, hidden for more than 60 years, are presented for the first time. The principles behind teleforce -- the particle-beam weapon, and telegeodynamics -- the mechanical earth-resonance concept for seismic exploration, are fully addressed. In addition to copies of the original documents, typed on Tesla's official stationery, this work also includes two Reader's Aid sections that guide the reader through the more technical aspects of each paper. The papers are followed by Commentary sections which provide historical background and functional explanations of the two devices. Significant newspaper articles and headline accounts are provided to document the first mention of these proposals. A large Appendix provides a wealth of related material and background information, followed by a Bibliography section and Index. "This book contains the original texts of two unique proposals that Nikola Tesla offered up during his later years. In both cases, the technologies described trace their roots back to an earlier and tremendously productive decade in Tesla's life beginning in the early 1890s. At the time of the proposals' unveiling, "teleforce," the particle beam concept, and "telegeodynamics," the mechanical earth-resonance concept, received significant press coverage... "On the occasion of his annual birthday celebration interview by the press on July 10, 1935 in his suite at the Hotel New Yorker, Tesla announced a method of transmitting mechanical energy accurately with minimal loss over any terrestrial distance, including a related new means of communication and a method, he claimed, which would facilitate the unerring location of underground mineral deposits. At that time he recalled the earth-trembling "quake" that brought police and ambulances rushing to the scene of his Houston Street laboratory while an experiment was in progress with one of his mechanical oscillators..." Excerpt:
Reactive Forces Obtainable by Tesla's Isochronous Oscillators ~ "These are generated by Tele-Geo-Dynamic transmitters which are reciprocating engines of extreme simplicity adapted to impress isochronous vibrations upon the earth, thereby causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which are, essentially, sound waves like those conveyed through the air and ether. . . . With a machine of this kind it will be practicable, in the differentiation of densities and aggregate states of subterranean strata and tracing their outlines on the earth's surface, to reach a precision approximating that which is secured in the investigation of the internal structure of bodies by penetrative rays. For just as the vacuum tube projects Roentgen shadows on a fluorescent screen, so the transmitter produces on the earth's surface shadows which can be detected by acoustic devices or rendered visible by optical instruments. The receiver can be made so sensitive that prospecting may be accomplished while riding in a car and without limit of distance from the transmitter." Table of Contents Introduction Nikola Tesla's Teleforce Proposal Reader's Aid New Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-Dispersive Energy Through Natural Media. By Nikola Tesla Commentary New York Times, September 22, 1940, "'Death Ray' for Planes" Nikola Tesla's Telegeodynamics Proposal Reader's Aid Relative Merits of the Lucas Method of Prospecting by Detonations of Explosive Compounds and of The Tesla Method of Prospecting by Isochronous Oscillations Theoretically Considered. By Nikola Tesla Tesla correspondence from George Scherff, June 17, 1937 Commentary New York Times, July 11, 1935, "Tesla, 79, Promises to Transmit Force" Appendix Teleforce Proposal Possibilities of Electrostatic Generators. By Nikola Tesla Tesla Correspondence to J. P. Morgan, Jr., November 29, 1934 Telegeodynamics Proposal Tesla correspondence from George Scherff, April 19, 1918 Address Before The New York Electrical Society, "Mechanical and Electrical Oscillators" by Nikola Tesla Electric Generator ~ U.S. Patent No. 511,916 Reciprocating Engine ~ U.S. Patent No. 514,169 Steam Engine ~ U.S. Patent No. 517,900 Mechanical Therapy by Nikola Tesla Detroit Free Press, Jan. 18, 1896, "Tesla's Health Giver" Bibliography Teleforce Telegeodynamics Afterword Bibliography
Nikola Tesla's Earthquake Machine
but this has little or nothing to do with Nikola Tesla's oscillator-generator. plus a comprehensive description of the machine in Tesla's own words. In Tesla's oscillator-generator. yields an oscillation of a constant period. Starting with the cylinder. it can be deduced that there must be a great source of energy available through it. transmissions. a Resonance effect can be observed. etc. The objective of the Tesla oscillator-generator is to provide a mechanism capable of . What Tesla proposed represents a new technology in sonic transmission even today. There is of course much sonic equipment available now for different applications. This type of engine. On the other hand." Excerpt from: Prodigal Genius: The Life and Times of Nicola Tesla John O'Neill Tele-Geo-Dynamics ~ Tele-Geo-Dynamics is the transmission of sonic or acoustic vibrations. Since resonance seems to be an ever increasing effect with this oscillator-generator. These parts all consume work by friction. steam. which can be produced with comparatively simple apparatus. At each point every varying inclination of the crank and pistons work at a disadvantage and result in loss of efficiency.44 Dale Pond & Walter Baumgartner Available from: http://www.tfcbooks. or other gases under pressure. under the influence of an applied force such as the tension of compressed air." Included are mechanical drawings that will guide you through the construction of a working model of the Tele-GeoDynamic Oscillator.com/ "Much of the material presented in this book is related to the construction of a class of machine invented by Tesla and known as the reciprocating Mechanical Oscillator. In Tesla's oscillator-generator. Serious students of Tesla's work may recognize this machine as the basis of his system for producing electrical vibrations of a very constant period. Why can a resonance be created in the oscillator-generator when it cannot in a ordinary reciprocating engine? With the oscillator-generator. consider the car engine. but the greatest loss occurs in the change from reciprocating to rotary motion. drivetrains. gears. In 1898 another variation was used to create a small earthquake in the neighborhood surrounding his Houston Street lab. the piston is entirely free to move as the medium impels it without having to encounter and overcome the inertia of a moving system and in this respect the two types of engines differ radically and essentially. Tesla called this method of transmitting mechanical energy "telegeodynamics. all governing mechanisms are eliminated. cranks. a reciprocating motion is converted into rotary motion by a means of shafts.
"Nikola Tesla. causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which pass through its remotest boundaries without attenuation so that the transmission is affected with an efficiency of one hundred percent. "In a few minutes I could feel the beam trembling. Our objective in building the engine is to provide an oscillator which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of a gas under pressure will yeild an oscillating movement which within very wide limits. did it." Miscellanies Sparling. and finally broke. but at last the great steel link began to tremble. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. frictional losses. will be of constant period. I took off the oscillator. he put the little oscillator in his coat pocket. As far as the period in general is concerned. believing that there had been an earthquake. In other words. irrespective of variation of load. Gradually the trembling increased in intensity and extended throughout the whole great mass of steel. Before anything serious happened. 1935)." Pleased with this beginning. It is a well-known priciple that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia is brought under tension.e. he clamped the oscillator to one of the beams. This is known as Simple Harmonic Motion. and the steelworkers came to the ground panic-stricken. 10 stories high with nothing up but the steelwork. it will perform vibrations which are isochronous. "For a long time nothing happened. put it in my pocket. friction is almost non-existent. no one of which would have harmed a baby. at 79. Y. Uses Earth to . being stretched. increased its trembling until it dilated and contracted like a beating heart.. And with the same oscillator I could drop Brooklyn Bridge in less than an hour. Since the oscillator-generator is denuded of all governing devices. the piston floats freely in air and is capable of converting all pressure into mechanical energy. and other factors which in ordinary engines change in the rate of reciprocating. it will depend on the rigidity of the spring.45 converting the energy of compressed gas or steam into mechanical power. Finding a half-built steel building in the Wall Street district. i. Excerpt from: Tesla: Man Out of Time Margaret Cheney He attached an oscillator no larger than an alarm clock to a steel link 2' long and 2" thick. but a fusillade of taps. and then freed. "crowbars could not have done it. he told a reporter. I could have laid that building flat in the street. Finally the structure began to creak and weave. This simple harmonic motion in the form of isochronous sound vibrations can be impressed upon the earth. World-Telegram (July 11. Earl: N. But if I had kept on 10 minutes more. Sledgehammers could not have done it". and went away.
was the result of a little machine he was experimenting with at the time which "you could put in your overcoat pocket. "With this principle one could split the earth in half like an apple"." New York Sun (July 10. That's all they ever knew about it.000 Within Two Years" ~ Here Tesla tells the story of the earthquake generated by the mechanical oscillator in his NYC laboratory in 1898.000.At Birthday Luncheon He Announces Machine for 1-Way Communication" . There was a peculiar cracking sound. There was a louder cracking sound. "Nikola Tesla. That's why soldiers break step crossing a bridge. Benson: World Today (Feb. 1935). New York. "Tesla's Controlled Earth Quakes Power Through the Earth." In another interview. Century Magazine. Expects to have $100. Y. Section 2.Tesla Announces Method of Remote Control. We told the police it must have been an earthquake." The bewildered newspapermen pounced upon this as at least one thing they could understand and "the father of modern electricity" told what had happened as follows: "I was experimenting with vibrations. which brought the police there to stop him. constant. They entered the lab just in time to see Tesla swing a slegehammer and smash the tiny device. Dreamer" ~ An illustration for the article shows an artist's conception of the planet splitting in two. I put the machine up a few more notches. The caption reads: "Tesla claims that in a few weeks he could set the earth's crust into such a state of vibration that it would rise and fall hundreds of feet and practically destroy civilization. I grabbed a hammer and broke the machine. A Startling Discovery". at 79. "The police and ambulances arrived. Discovers New Message Wave . "New Apparatus Transmits Energy . eventually split the earth in two. They did not know. which was mounted on a girder: Nikola Tesla revealed that an earthquake which drew police and ambulances to the region of his laboratory at 48 E. "Suddenly all the heavy machinery in the place was flying around. in 1898." . Tesla at this point what he would need to destroy the Empire State Building and the doctor replied: "Vibration will do anything. Outside in the street there was pandemonium. I knew I was approaching the vibration of the steel building. "Tesla. Houston St. Figure 2 (April 1895) ~ In 1893 Tesla constructed a preferred embodiment of the mechanical oscillator which he described as a "double compound mechanical and electrical oscillator for generating current of perfect. p. The building would have been about our ears in another few minutes. 1. 1912).46 Transmit Signals." Some shrewd reporter asked Dr. A continuation of this process would. "I asked my assistants where did the sound come from. 1935). I pushed the machine a little higher. American (July 11. 8." Allan L. pp. It would only be necessary to step up the vibrations of the machine to fit the natural vibration of the building and the building would come crashing down. N. he boasted that. 1935). dynamo frequency of 10 horsepower. I told my assistants to say nothing. New York Herald Tribune (July 11. I put it up notch after notch. 921. he says. I had one of my machines going and I wanted to see if I could get it in tune with the vibration of the building..
"Tesla. col. 1935). 79." US Patent # 514. 8. p. 1935). "Nikola Tesla Describes New Invention .47 New York Sun (July 11. 23. Promises to Transmit Force Transmission of Energy Over World.169 Reciprocating Engine Nikola Tesla To all whom it may concern: .Art of TeleGeodynamics" New York Times (July 11.
48 Be it known that I. or cause to act upon it. as the mechanical difficulties in the use of metallic springs are serious. is better adapted for use at higher temperatures and pressures. will be of constant period. to the tendency to break. or generally speaking a confined body or cushion of elastic fluid. taking advantage of the law above stated. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement. a citizen of the United States. within very wide limits. a spring. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. and is attended by disadvantages which by my invention are entirely obviated. as by being stretched. has been made to secure conditions which would necessarily yield such results as I have reached. no attempt. and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Reciprocating Engines. in certain cases. Heretofore. I prefer to use an air spring. capable of converting the energy of steam or gas under pressure into mechanical power more economically than the forms of engine heretofore used. owing mainly. and the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. of which the following is a specification. instead of permitting the piston to impinge directly upon such cushions within its own cylinder. in the practice of the invention I may employ any kind of spring or elastic body of which the law or principle of operation above defined holds true. It is a well known principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia be brought under tension. where the pressure of steam or any gas has been utilized and applied for the production of mechanical motion it has been customary to connect with the reciprocating or moving parts of the engine a fly-wheel or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. and. which also. In the invention which forms the subject of my present application. chiefly by overcoming the losses which result in these by the combination with rotating parts possessing great inertia of a reciprocating system. irrespective of variations of load. and which is capable of useful and practical application to general industrial purposes. my object has been. In carrying out my invention and for securing the objects in general terms stated above. upon which dependence was mainly placed for the maintenance of constant speed. so far as I know. where reciprocating engines or tools have been used without a rotating system of great inertia. I connect with said piston. Moreover. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston. frictional losses and other factors which in all ordinary engines produce change in the rate of reciprocation. On the other hand. while securing in a measure this object. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. in order to avoid the influence of the varying pressure of the steam or . to maintain in oscillation a piston. renders impossible the attainment of the result at which I have arrived. The invention is based upon certain well known mechanical principles a statement of which will assist in a better understanding of the nature and purposes of the objects sought and results obtained. as to period. residing at New York. particularly in small units. in the county and State of New York. I prefer. This. While. which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of steam or gas under pressure will yield an oscillatory movement which. Nikola Tesla. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. acting through proper mechanism. primarily to provide an engine. The further objects of the invention are to provide a mechanism.
and also to better utilize the heat generated by the compression. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air will tend to retard of affect the return of the piston in either direction. The bearings V in the cylinder I. and a chamber or cylinder therefore. the piston and the ports for controlling it. The main supply line L for steam or compressed air leads into this chamber. Inlet ports CC pass through the sides of the cylinder. The bearings V in the cylinder I. To explain now the operation of the device above described. containing air which is normally. Exhaust ports DD extend through the wall of the cylinder and are formed with branches that open into the interior of the cylinder on each side of the inlet ports and on opposite sides of the cylinder. The piston B is formed with two circumferential grooves EF. which experience has shown need not be fitted with any very considerable accuracy. for thus a spring of practically constant rigidity is obtained. oil cups M being conveniently arranged to deliver oil into the said pipes for lubricating the piston. or when the piston is at the middle point of its stroke. which communicate through openings G in the piston with the cylinder on opposite sides of said piston respectively. opening at the middle portion thereof and on opposite sides. I refer now to the accompanying drawing which represents in central cross-section an engine embodying my improvements. extend through the jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. In the position of the parts shown. at the same pressure as the external atmosphere. the plunger J is at the center of the cylinder I and the air on both sides of the same is at the normal pressure of the outside atmosphere. In order to describe the best manner of which I am aware in which the invention is or may be carried into effect. I do not consider as of special importance the particular construction and arrangement of the cylinder. A small channel O is thus formed which has air vents P in its sides and drip pipes Q leading out from it through which the oil which collects in it is carried off. the latter is caused to reciprocate in a manner well understood. In the particular form of engine shown the jacket K which contains the cylinder I is provided with a flange N by which it is screwed to the end of cylinder A.49 gas that acts upon the piston and which might disturb the relations necessary for the maintenance of isochronous vibration. A is the main cylinder in which works a piston B. This rod is prolonged on one side and extends through bearings V in a cylinder I suitably mounted or supported in line with the first. which works in suitable stuffing boxes in the heads of the cylinder A. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except as a small leakage my occur through the bearings V. The cylinder I is surrounded by a jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. extend through the jacket K to the outside air and the chamber between the cylinder and jacket is made steam or air tight as by suitable packing. and the two pipes that lead to the cylinder A run from the said chamber. The piston B is secured to a piston rod H. the exhaust ports should be made very much larger than is usually the case. except that it is desirable that all the ports. but the air or gas within the cylinder may be maintained at any pressure. to employ an independent plunder connected with the main piston. If a source of steam or compressed air be then connected to the inlet ports CC of the cylinder A and a movement be imparted to the piston as by a sudden blow. The movement of the piston in either direction ceases when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired . and within which is a disk or plunger J carried by the rod H. and more especially.
A forward stroke compresses the air ahead of the plunger J and tends to drive it forward. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately. and this action is continued as long as the requisite pressure is applied. are not materially exceeded. Consequently the two chambers may be considered as a single spring. The rate or period of reciprocation of the piston. so that the pressure of the air on opposite sides of the plunger will always tend to remain at that of the outside atmosphere. The pawl R is pivoted at R’ and its bifurcated end engages with the teeth of the ratchet wheel alternately on opposite sides of the same. The pressure of the air confined in the cylinder when the plunger J is in its central position will always be practically that of the surrounding atmosphere. provided the limits within which the forces tending to bring the moving system to a given position are proportionate to the displacements. In any given engine of this kind the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which is equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. one end of the pawl at each half oscillation acting to propel the wheel forward through the space of one tooth when it is engaged and locked by the other end on the last half of the oscillation which brings the first end of the oscillation into position to engage with another tooth. for while the cylinder is so constructed as not to permit such sudden escape of air as to sensibly impair or modify the action of the air spring there will be a slow leakage of air into or out of it around the piston rod according to the pressure therein.50 are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam or compressed air in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. These may constitute the train of a clock or of any other mechanism. These conditions are all readily determinable. The greater the pressure upon the piston. and it may be successfully used as a prime mover wherever a constant rate of oscillation or speed is required. give rise to a very considerable amount of heat. and this will be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. This action of the plunger upon the air contained in the opposite ends of the cylinder is exactly the same in principle as though a piston rod were connected to the middle point of a coiled spring. . and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly portioning these factors. upon the force which periodically impels it. is no more dependent upon the pressure applied to drive it. and the consequent counteracting force upon the plunger. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. The compressions of the air in the cylinder I and the consequent loss of energy due mainly to the imperfect elasticity of the air. the ends of which are connected to fixed supports. This heat I utilize by conducting the steam or compressed air to the engine cylinder through the chamber formed by the jacket surrounding the air-spring cylinder. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. and an engine constructed as herein described my be made to follow the principle of operation above stated and maintain a perfectly uniform period through very much wider limits of pressure than in ordinary use it is ever likely to be subjected to. The heat thus taken up and used to raise the temperature of the steam or air acting upon the piston is availed of to increase the efficiency of the engine. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system. As an instance of the uses to which this engine may be applied I have shown its piston rod connected with a pawl R the oscillation of which drives a train of wheels. In constructing the apparatus I allow for a variation in the length of stroke by giving to the confining cylinder I of the air spring properly determined dimensions. however. the higher will be the degree of compression of the air-spring. the effect of variations in such force being merely to produce corresponding variations in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. than would be the period of oscillation of a pendulum permanently maintained in vibration.
Having now described my invention. what I claim is: [ Claims not included here ] .51 Another application of the invention is to move a conductor in a magnetic field for generating electric currents. and in these and similar uses it is obvious that the characteristics of the engine render it especially adapted for use in small sizes or units.
900 Steam Engine Nikola Tesla .52 US Patent # 517.
53 To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I. In utilizing this principle for the purpose of producing reciprocating movement of a constant period. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement. to maintain in oscillation a piston. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. A description of the principle of the construction and mode of operation of this device is necessary to an understanding of my present invention. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. residing at New York. under very wide variations of pressure. have been provided with a flywheel. or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia.169 ]. load. When a spring which possess a sensible inertia is brought under tension as by being stretched and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. In such an apparatus it being essential that the inertia of the moving system and the rigidity of the spring should bear certain definite relations. I have produced. it is obvious that the . an engine which without such appurtenances produces. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston and the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. of which the following is a specification. and have shown and described the same in [ US Patent # 514. acting through proper mechanism. as to period. and other disturbing causes. preferably an air spring. engines. operated by the application of a force such as the elastic tension of steam or a gas under pressure. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Steam Engines. Heretofore. however. which was relied upon for maintaining a uniform speed. in the county and State of New York. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. Nikola Tesla. a citizen of the United States. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. and connect with it or cause to act upon such piston a spring. an oscillating movement of constant period.
it is then impelled in the opposite direction. may be maintained in reciprocation. the exhaust ports be made larger than is usually done. But since a variation of the temperature of the air in the chamber would affect the rigidity of the air spring. and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except that leakage may occur around the piston rod which does not require to be very close fitting. . I therefore propose. and constitutes an ordinary form of air spring. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. The piston b is ecured to a rod h which extends through the cylinder heads. the latter. in the sense that its movement in either direction ceases only when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving. A designates a cylinder containing a reciprocating piston B secured to a rod C extending through on or both cylinder heads. in order to secure all the advantages of such performances as this engine is capable of. the piston b is provided with two circumferential grooves e. The special construction of this device may be varied considerably. I maintain the temperature uniform as by surrounding the cylinder I with a jacket a’ which is open to the air and filled with water. and more particularly. An inlet pipe c passes through the side of the cylinder at the middle portion of the same. and Figure 2 a similar view of a modification of the same. DD. as will be understood. to utilize it as the means of controlling the admission and exhaust of steam or gas under pressure in other engines generally. Referring to Figure 1. If steam or a gas under pressure be admitted through the port c to either side of the piston b. from the pipe G’ through the ducts DD’ to the ends of the cylinder. the lower end carrying the slide valve above described and the upper end having secured to it a plunger j in a cylinder I fixed to the cylinder a and in line with it. The cylinder exhausts through ports dd into a chamber d’ provided with an opening d". piston and slide valve with the proper ports controlled thereby. but it is desirable that all the ports. G designates a slide valve which when reciprocated admits the steam or the gas by which the engine is driven. and this action is continued as long as the requisite pressure is applied. are steam ducts communicating with the cylinder at or near its ends and E is the exhaust chamber or passage located between the steam ports. or in other words.54 practicable amount of work performed by the engine. The drawings hereto annexed illustrate devices by means of which the invention may be carried out. and this results in the heqating of the cylinder. in which works the piston b. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air in the chambers will tend to retard or accelerate the movement of the piston in either direction.f which communicate through openings g in the same with the cylinder chambers on opposite sides of the piston. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately. and it is free to move. The parts thus described may be considered as exemplifying any cylinder. constructed substantially as follows: a is the cylinder. when this involves the overcoming of inertia is a limitation to the applicability of the engine. is not connected with a flywheel or other like device for regulating or controlling its speed. Figure 1 being a central vertical section of an engine embodying my invention. but the slide valve instead of being dependent for its movement upon the piston B is connected in any manner so as to be reciprocated by the piston rod of a small engine of constant period. The piston B is provided with the usual passages FF’ which by the movements of the piston are brought alternately into communication with the exhaust port. but more especially those forms of engine in which the piston is free to reciprocate.
The exhaust ports dd. and it is moreover an engine of defined character which has the capability of an oscillating movement of constant period.m which are controlled by the pistons B and B’ respectively. What I claim is: [ Claims not included here ] Top ~ Home ~ Catalog ~ Links rexresearch. its load is substantially uniform and its period by reason of its construction will be constant. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which may be equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. so that the latter may be considered as operated by the exhaust of the former. In the present case. the controlling engine is not designed nor adapted to perform other work than the regulation of the period of the other. while the engine is simple and its weights for a given capacity is very greatly reduced.55 In such an engine as that just described the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. The reciprocating movement of the piston may be converted into rotary motion or it may be utilized and applied in any other manner desired. either directly or indirectly. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts.of which Figure 2 will serve as an illustration. In the figure I have shown two cylinders AA’ placed end to end with a piston B and B’ in each. Whatever may be the load on the main engine therefore the steam is admitted to the cylinder at defined intervals. and thus any tendency to a change of the period of vibration in the main engine is overcome. however. In this case the piston of the controlling engine constitutes the slide valve of the main engine. however. In [ US Patent # 514. The control of the main engine by the engine of constant period may be effected in other ways --. A much more perfect regulation and uniformity of action is secured. Since the only work which the small engine has to perform is the reciprocation of the valve attached to the piston rod. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly adjusting these factors. The cylinder of the controlling engine is formed by or in the casing intermediate to the two main cylinders but in all other essential respects the construction and mode of operation of the controlling engine remains as described in connection with Figure 1. This latter is readily accomplished by making provision for the attachment to the piston rod of one or more weights h’. An engine of the kind described possess many and important advantages. which may be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal and due allowance is made in constructing the engine for a variation in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. The inlet port for the admission of the steam to the controlling engine is similar to that in Figure 1 and is indicated by the dotted circle at the center of the piston b. constitute the inlet ports of the cylinders AA’ and the exhaust of the latter is effected through the ports m.com .169 ] I have shown and described two reciprocating engines combined in such manner that the movement or operation of one is dependent upon and controlled by the other.
1894) titled "Reciprocating Engine".56 Nikola Tesla's Inventions The Earthquake Machine Apart from his work on electricity Tesla also experimented with mechanical oscillations and invented devices that could produce mechanical oscillations of desired frequency. There are two related patents registered by Tesla: Patent No. Each construction has an oscillation frequency (also called resonant frequency). A bridge that collapsed in 1940 probably due to resonance with a light breeze. Resonance. he destroyed the device with a hammer. Later on. 511. 514. either electrical or mechanical.169 (Feb. because of their ability to resonate with a building or a large construction and produce earthquakelike effects. Tesla claimed that with such a device he could split the planet. . or on the other hand relieve the stress is tectonic plates and thus avoid earthquakes. 1894) titled "Electric Generator" and Patent No. An external vibration produces driven oscillations. and that the police was on the way. As he changed the frequency the sound became more intense until everything in his laboratory started "flying around" and people nearby were terrified. is a fundamental principle in Tesla's work.916 (Jan. and when the external source frequency equals the resonant frequency the oscillation amplitude becomes maximum. Mechanical resonance is a well known physical phenomenon. Tesla himself described an incident of experimenting with one such device in 1887. When he realized what was happening. Related interesting web sites • The Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge by Rachel Martin. 6. usually resulting to a collapse. 2. which is the frequency the construction freely vibrates and depends on physical parameters. when he tuned to the building's frequency and a cracking sound was heard. These devices became famous as "earthquake machines".
Tesla. Photos | Biography | US patents | Tesla's Ele. A Tesla force field generator the flying stove .57 Flying Machine | Part 2. the flying machine." responded Dr. Car (FEVj) Tesla's Flying Machine "Not the airplane.
peculiarly assembled. if necessary enter and depart through a window.com Tesla Memorial Society of N.58 "I am now planning aerial machines devoid of sustaining planes.Tesla's autobiography "To a Westinghouse manager.. copper and aluminum comprising a stationary and rotating part.TESLA: Man Out of Time. and other external attachments. . This information.198 Tesla intended the world to have a free. however.Y.'" . has not been made available to western scholars. pg.. if some day you see me fly from New York to Colorado Springs in a contrivance which will resemble a gas stove and weigh as much. source of power "My power generator will be of the simplest kind -." pg. "he left sketches of interplanetary ships. Tesla wrote 'You should not be at all surprised. 203 Nikola Tesla www. which will be capable of immense speeds" .just a big mass of steel." According to museum officials at The Nikola Tesla museum in Belgrade. a short biography page Tesla's Autobography on-line How Tesla intended to power his flying machine .TeslaSociety. propellers. wireless. ailerons. and could.
and by vigorous use of my gray matter for a number of years I grasped the possibilities of the principle of the viscosity and adhesion of fluids and conceived the mechanism of my engine. with power supplied from stations on the earth. regardless of weather and oblivious of 'holes in the air' or downward currents. I began to study the problem from other angles." he said.000 horse power could be developed. You might see it on the ground and you would never guess that it was a flying machine. higher speeds than have yet been reached. In the space now occupied by the engines of the Lusitania twenty-five times her 80." he replied. It will ascend in such currents if desired." There is the "rub". to regard it as a mechanical rather than an electrical problem. you know.germano. wings nor propellers. that I was on the track of accomplishing what no one else was anywhere near reaching. What I was working on twenty years ago was the wireless transmission of electric power." Through gyroscopic action of my engine. by men working in a different field.will be heavier than air. It can remain absolutely stationary in the air even in a wind for great length of time. imagine the possibilities in automobiles. But whatever my airship may be. It was in seeking the means of making the perfect flying machine that I developed this engine. solid. and that is something tangible. Yet it will be able to move at will through the air in any direction with perfect safety. It will be substantial. but it will not be an airplane." "With a thousand horse power engine. but am confident that I will in time. Its lifting power will not depend upon any such delicate devices as the bird has to employ. assisted by some devices I am not yet prepared to talk about.59 "Not the airplane. the product of years of intense and painful toil and research. You cannot have a stable airplane. "It is the child of my dreams. the flying machine. weighing only one hundred pounds. I felt certain there must be some means of obtaining power that was better than any now in use. here at least is an engine that will do things that no other engine ever has done.my flying machine -. I am not going to talk about it any further. My flying machine will have neither wings nor propellers. I have not accomplished this as yet.com/teslaturbine. "All I have to say on that point is that my airship will have neither gas bag. There is nothing new about the airplane but its engine. Tesla. just as the unprotected airplane on the ground is torn to pieces by a high wind. for it would give a stability that would result in the machine being torn to pieces by the wind. The gyroscope can never be successfully applied to the airplane." "You will get stability through gyroscopes?" I asked.frank." from the book Tesla's Engine -.A New Dimension For Power and from "PART I" of the Tesla Turbine And Pump at http://www. "The flying machine of the future -. Dr. locomotives and steamships.htm . [However] When I found that I had been anticipated as to the flying machine. but upon positive mechanical action. It will have no wings. My idea was a flying machine propelled by an electric motor." Now you have struck the point in which I am most deeply interested--the object toward which I have been devoting my energies for more than twenty years--the dream of my life. stable. were it possible to provide boiler capacity sufficient to furnish the necessary steam. Tesla smiled an inscrutable smile." responded Dr. I was working entirely in electricity then and did not realize that the gasoline engine was approaching a perfection that was going to make the airplane feasible. some source of power needed to drive it." "Twenty years ago I believed that I would be the first man to fly.
It may be the heart of what Tesla said would look like flying on "a gas stove" and is "peculiarly assembled. (And. Tesla replid confidently that it was superior to anything in the competition in terms of extreme lightness and high performance.frank. the centrifugal force was so great that it stretched the metal. there is one diagram and enough information about it. "When the manager of Westinghouse's railway and lighting division wrote asking for details on the turbine.com/flying_machine. in the US military -.in Belgrade. averaging 35. there is a wealth of it locked up where no one can get to it . Indeed. in the FBI.000 rpm. on Tesla and a few fables.60 see http://www. They are all very secretive about it. There are many books written by people claiming to have some of this. he was planning to use it in a boxlike flivver airplane.germano. information.." (above) So.Margaret Cheney "At the tremendously high speeds at which the turbine operated. he said.Aerial Machine page 31 . and or other. for us to duplicate the device. He spoke of even more which he intended to do but never got around to. 198 We know that Tesla invented many things which no one else has been able to duplicate since. They call it the "Tesla space Drive". here it is: The Tesla Space Drive The Flying Stove .htm chapter 20: "Flying Stove" .. Man of Mystery is one of those books.it is hard to know. Along with general info.) Tesla." pg.
61 Diagram from page 31 of Tesla. Man of Mystery © 1992 Chapter 4: "The Tesla Space Drive" .
Like electrons in orbit in a stationary coil .if you can get the spinning weights.000 hp. going fast enough. just guessing at the rotational speed needed for the weights ("eccentrics") did't work for me and. it looks like he intended to use a turbine... if I am lucky. the same motors will be able to increase in speed enough to reach the new required speed which will now be higher.32 "The reaction to this angular acceleration is a linear acceleration along the system axis (X) and directed outward from the page. I will have to find stronger motors. .It is so simple (easy & cheap!) to build. to drive it. there is a common point about which the center of mass of the eccentrics and the center of mass of the device as a whole gyrate. in some way. No one seriously interested in a new. I have heard of 2 people working on this. . and yet. now it is by the right hand rule. I found the machine easy to build but. on my most recent frame. What they may not know is the weight and speed needed to achieve success . the center of orbit of the four "eccentrics" defines a circle for which the center point is the center of mass for the frame the eccentrics are built on. just build it and see if you can get it to rise up . and the other in Australia (Melbourne)." pg. one in Calif. of course ) I tried 3 or 4 before I finally got to the current air motors and I am not sure about them) From the information we can put together on Tesla.. however. Even that makes sense. this system functions in accordance with the right-hand rule." pg. The . as the thrust is increased. This effect fades out. guessing is not very helpful. (San Jose). eccentrics. ". A turbine that might weigh 100 lbs and produce 1..an area in which Tesla is already famous. I put 1/2 hp air motors and that may be just barely enough. the mass of the object is in orbit. Collectively. Instead of acceleration by the left hand rule. cheap. Otherwise. ( motors A and B above. I hope that if I reduce the weights.see below. it does something Phenomenal! The object is not spinning nor do any one of the spinning weights match the orbit of the object (frame) and yet. Well. just applying whatever motors are handy hasn't worked for me yet either. Like I say. [ It will ] wobble noticeably at low thrust levels.. Interesting! . source of propulsion need question or dispute anything.34-35 My first observation is that it is a set of 4 spinning weights arranged on a frame "peculiarly assembled" as Tesla said..62 "The first step in developing this system is to cause a counter-clockwise (sense chosen arbitrarily) acceleration of the center of mass of the four eccentrics (refer to diagram) in a circular orbit about the X axis.
. I believe whoever wrote this chapter in this book. to a 1/2hp 22. ." pg. I believe.. I now live in Florida. can actually be constructed. He was the one of two who worked with Tesla daily during the few weeks before his death. a that time. carrying them home to study every night and took them back the next day. just for demonstration purposes.over 50 years ago." which won't exist unless the unit is symetrical. Surely he did not want his name given out because he is an old man and wants to be left alone. . did not have a clear picture of Tesla's intentions. The 4 eccentrics must be able to spin. The speed needed makes things difficult.63 direct approach is to build the device symmetrically about the center point: with a top as well as a bottom. then.depending on the amount of weight I put on the eccentrics (see below).. up. motion.000rpm air motor. he told us.000 rpm ele... ele. He studied Tesla's papers. one of which. who but Tesla would think of this novel. A significant motor (always a pair) will be required. and all my experimenting came to a halt. Bloyce must now be 70+ (or more) years old and among the few surviving to have studied under Tesla . Fitzgerald is virtually the only person that this could refer to.000 rpm. It was not till the 2nd set of motors that I figured out the required speed and only with the last motors that I realized just how far short I was from producing enough power to get there. I started looking at some hydraulic motors.not angled to catch or create any air or wind . upon existing files he secretly obtained shortly before Tesla's death.30 * Bloyce D. I may not have been too far short. The air motors were light-weight enough and powerful enough to see a reaction occurring (more than "normal" vibrations) at only 300 to 400 rpm) but. and before these could be seized by the authorities. It needs a top plate to keep it as rigid and as light weight as possible as well as symetrical.there is a common point. directions.000 to 10. motor. I started out using a 1. for the building of this devicemotor and. Then as now. I believe Tesla knew that turbine blades would be needed .but parallel and flat so as to pass through the air with the least resistance possible. "He bases his plans. my job situation changed.000 rpm . An issue not mentioned is the speed requirement (of the eccentrics). I moved from Phoenix to Omaha. He and Tesla had been very close friends and had worked together on a number of projects. assembly.. upgraded to a 1/4th hp 10. See TESLA: Man Out of Time by Margaret Cheney. and am getting restarted. motor. lastly. However. Nothing is mounted on the base. only weighed 2 or 3 pounds and developed 25 hp. Because the motors did not have the power to handle the inertia and weight of the eccentrics. "We recently received a set of plans from a former pupil * of Nikola Tesla who believes that a space ship. pages 270-277. Everything is mounted between the top and base plates: ". They are mounted above the base. phenomenal. no forward. near Fort Lauderdale. None of the motors would get the system "up to speed" which I thought was in the neighborhood of 2. He had never met Tesla before and he was the one who called the authorities upon Tesla's death and then tried to view the sealed papers two years later. That I believe will be more than enough to demonstrate the system but.
TESLA's INVENTION Explanation of . this (protonian) motor is the result of protons. what is not mentioned. The rotation (rpm) necessary to generate acceleration depends upon: 1. and. gravity 1.5 rpm. (4 masses). then. I overlooked it for a time) (only 2 of 4 weights going left to right and only 2 of 4 going front to back) 2. (28+ rpm) . anything that has been dormant for 50 years is not likely to change now. the mass of the 4 rotating inertial loads. An electric motor is the result of electrons in orbit. This is just geometry but. 3. then the radius of rotation of the center of mass of the system (the entire device) is 1/20th that of the radius of any one of the rotating loads. It is the rotation of the entire system (device) that must get up enough centrifugal acceleration to defeat gravity. Here. The principal is the same for the way that the centrifugal acceleration of electrons. in a coil.. in orbit. the mass of the entire device 2. the acceleration is exerted on the frame. If he no longer felt any reason to hide anything. how it WORKS: By Greg Smith FORCE FIELD GENERATOR / MOTOR The Tesla Drive This device converts inertial energy into centrifugal acceleration which. unless it changes hands. which he has just done. 4 masses) 4. 3. (not 1/10th. the entire device. according to the right-hand rule. Examples of that acceleration are: On a 50 inch radius. what it DOES.64 In any case. exert linear acceleration on a metal rod placed in the center of the coil. If the mass of the 4 inertial loads totals 1/10th the total mass of the entire device.. entire atoms. the radius of those 4 loads (aka 4 eccentrics. generates linear acceleration. something greater than 26. what it IS. It is likely that he realizes it will go with him to his grave if he does not "give it to the public" before it is too late. is not known.
Since there is no energy being applied to the pendulum and it will eventually come to a rest. Florida. though only very slightly.979 = 3. gives the same rate of oscillation with very little.000 rpm minimum at .5 rpm.5 x 26. which we had trouble with. the total mass of the entire device about 10 lbs. So.65 This can be observed with a weight on a string.000 ) Example system: If the mass of the 4 inertial loads totals about 20 oz.Greg . A friend said "Something is happening here" when it started shaking more than we thought it should have . to keep it spinning around . If the same 1/2 hp motors can get up over 625rpm (.000 ) and about a 625 rpm minimum at .about 26.44 rpm (1402) or. about 28 rpm ( & 28 x 28 = 784 ) ( 784 x 2 = 1568 ) and about a 40 rpm minimum at 25" (40= 39. at sea level.12 -> .800 ) and about a 900 rpm minimum at .living near the beach (Atlantic ocean) in Pompano Beach.5 rpm ( & 26.005" ( 2800 X 2800 = 7. in my (50") experimenting.800 rpm minimum at .6 x 39.as it got up as much speed as we could give it. then the net radius for the system is 1/20" and the needed speed is about 900+ rpm.920. Arizona and most recently at sea level . then maybe we could get it off the ground with the equipment we have now.5 cycles per minute (cpm). Keeping in mind that these results will vary.1" ( 626 X 626 = 392. (if you are enough closer to the poles or at a high altitude (Colorado?) do this same experiment and compare) if a 50" radius requires more than 26. it will. just swinging the weight back and forth like a pendulum. or if we can get more air pressure into the 2 air motors. of the Force Field Motor .000 ) and about a 2. Another example system: If the mass of the 4 inertial loads totals about 8 oz. With a 50" string.01" ( 1. I found it took about 28 rpm actually. Note: the force exerted by each mass on each shaft (in pounds) is: the rotating mass (in pounds) times the radius in inches times the RPM's squared ( rpm x rpm ) times 0.840. the total mass of the entire device (including the moving weights) about 10 lbs.7 x 39. arc as it does with significantly more . I will say that I first performed this test in Phoenix.1) by cutting the arms down from 4" to 2".25" This example is about what I have had with my most recent frame and 1/2 hp air motors. "blueprint". in this example.5 = 702 (700) ) then a 25" radius requires more than 1400^½ rpm = more than 37.979 X 1. (10/16)/10 x 4" = 5/80 x 4 = 5/20 = . in my continued experimenting. not just back and forth. be spinning at a rate greater than 26.05" ( 900= 885 X 885 = 784. I thought we were close to 400 and maybe we were. then the net radius for the system is 1/4" and the needed speed is about 400+ rpm. and the center of mass of each of the 4 masses is out about 2" from its shaft. it is intuitive that if there is any (constant) energy entered into the system to maintain spin. with altitude and latitude. almost no. my best drawing.25" ( 400 x 400 = 1600 ) ( 396 x 396 = 156.7 = 1576 ) ( 39. and the center of mass of each of the 4 masses is out about 4" from its shaft. to get more power out of them.6 = 1568 ) and about a 400 rpm minimum at .0000284 = "X" pounds of force exerted on each shaft. in south Florida (where I was).000 ) and about a 2. I only needed about 400+ rpm In any case.
66 Fig.1 .
aluminum alloy. now. 4th. Some information here is temporarily suspended while being enhanced. 1993 The shafts and pillow blocks are also.67 I admit. The only requirement is that they be able to get your weights up to your needed speed. I left out the motors in this diagram (see 1st diagram above). since there is no design specificiation for them. They can be anything you can get ahold of. Please check back in few weeks. the frame was just a little flimsy ( the top was removed for the purpose of the photo ) Watch 2 that are opposite each other. then the other two. motors: Sept. This model was fine but.000 rpm ele. . with 10. Third model.
March 24th. 2006 the frame is rigid and the motors are very light weight ..68 photographed on Fri.
There is an increased strength and reduced stress benefit to the double arms. . that was not necessary.69 I made the frame taller to accomodate longer arms and. slower speed requirements but.
8 m/s^2. The acceleration of gravity can be found by using a pendulum or. The result is about 9. perhaps. It varies with latitude and elevation (and. more precisely. with . by laser timing of an object falling freely in a vacuum.70 The radius of the earth varies from about 6357 (polar) to 6378 (equatorial) km.
g' becomes equal to g when r = re. m the mass and r the distance between two objects.300 miles would require exactly 24 hours to orbit the Earth . the period of the pendulum is proportional to the square root of the length (radius) and is inversely proportional to the square root of the acceleration of gravity. Using this we can express the acceleration due to gravity (g') at a radius (r) outside the earth in terms of the Earth's radius (re) and the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (g) g' = (re2 / r2) g Acceleration due to gravity inside the Earth Here let r represent the radius of the point inside the earth. G the Universal Gravitational Constant (6. The formula for finding out the acceleration due to gravity at this point becomes: g' = ( r / re )g In both the above formulas. g the acceleration due to gravity. a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 22.m2/kg2). Isaac Newton showed that every particle in the Universe attracts every other with a force which is proportional to the products of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation. as expected. Newton's law of universal gravitation About fifty years after Kepler announced the laws now named after him. Then F = G m 1 m 2 / r2 Acceleration due to gravity outside the Earth It can be shown that the acceleration due to gravity outside of a spherical shell of uniform density is the same as it would be if the entire mass of the shell were to be concentrated at its center. Florida).71 density of local rocks ex: Colorado vs. For small amplitude oscillations.67x10-11 N. Hence: If F is the force due to gravity.
distance. . Or about 9.72 Earth's Equatorial radius = 3963 miles so the difference in gravity at 22.300 mi.745. geostationary. The ring being those at the 22.369 / 689.300 + 3963 (r) miles is 39632 / 26.000 mi above the surface to get to 1/10th our gravity.3% of our gravity = 1/44 of our gravity here at the surface One must get up at least about 4000 mi. just to get to where the gravity is 1/4th of our surface gravity.2632 = 15.705.0227692 = 2. Here is a July 14th 2003 depiction of many of our satelites in orbit.000 = .
names of those among you who are recognized as the leaders in this enchanting science. except with the view of completing. why this brand of science is being so rapidly developed is to be found in the interest which is attached to its experimental study. perhaps the most interesting and immediately the most promising is that dealing with alternating currents. would embarrass me to answer. most surprising of all. and we see the mass of iron and wires behave as though it were endowed with life. mechanical energy. And now that I have made a feeble effort to express my homage and acknowledge my indebtedness to him and others among you.not so much in the wire as in the surrounding space -. and so many able scientific men. in the induction apparatus employed. and brought me to them.. which in their turn are necessary to the demonstration of most of the experiments here contemplated. We observe how the energy of an alternating current traversing the wire manifests itself -. Even at this hour possibilities not dreamed of before are. the description of his experiments on radiant matter.E. even with my present experience. even chemical affinity. Each day we go to our work in the hope of discovering -. and my remarks on the subject of this evening's lecture consistent. at least. through invisible connections. and. I read it only once in my life -. so it seems that in all branches of industry alternating currents -. engineers and electricians. then. London. taking the forms of heat. and.E. One reason. since they are so appreciated by you -. There are among you not a few who can lay better claim than myself on any feature of merit which this work may contain. A short time ago I had the honor to bring before our American Institute of Electrical Engineers some results then arrived at by me in a novel line of work. All these observations fascinate us. light. let me say. which can make such an impression upon the mind of a student. to entertain you. but very high frequencies are desirable. The results which I have the honor to present before such a gathering I cannot call my own.electric wave motion -. that which started me to work in this direction. but also as a convenient means of obtaining. when I trace back the mental process which led me to these advances -. which I hope you will not find so feeble as the first. was that fascinating little book which I read many years ago. it is because I have more than one reason to do so.a name which could not bc omitted in a demonstration of this kind. I will make a second effort. 1892. February. I must mention -. Just in how much a very high frequency is essential for the production of the results presented is a question which. deals with alternating currents. We arrange the circuits properly. when novel experiences are met with and new avenues of research are opened. after a long period of constant thought. with great speed and power with the energy possibly conveyed from a great distance.in the hope that some . But if. As In nature all is ebb and tide. For what I have to tell you and to show you this evening concerns. but one. on the present occasion. not only on account of the many effects secured by their use. I read. by the use of these currents.that time -. It is a name associated with the most beautiful invention ever made: it is Crookes! When I was at college. it goes without saying.will have the sway. Few are the books. Hardly have we become familiar with one fact. Of the various branches of electrical investigation. that same vague world which Professor Crookes has so ably explored. This investigation. I need not assure you that the many evidences which I have received that English scientific men and engineers were interested in this work have been for me a great reward and encouragement. spinning a heavy armature. I mention this name as one of many your institution can boast of. I will not dwell upon the experiments already described. in a translation (for then I was not familiar with you magnificent language). perhaps.I believe that their real origin.73 — Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency — Lecture delivered before the I. more than this.in the most surprising manner. I cannot find words to express how deeply I feel the honor of addressing some of the foremost thinkers of the present time. some ideas advanced by me before.which even by myself cannot be considered trifling. which allow us to transform. the high potentials. to be more precise. and fill us with an intense desire to know more about the nature of these phenomena. in a large measure. with alternating currents of high potential and high frequency. Give me leave to introduce the subject in a few words. we establish the connections to the generator. partly realized. Some of the experiments may be performed with low frequencies. to transmit and direct energy at will. or more clearly expressing. We wind a simple ring of iron with coils. all is wave motion. of the country greatest in scientific achievements. and. The progress in this branch of applied science has been so great in recent years that it justifies the most sanguine hopes. and also with the view of rendering the study here presented self-contained. I need not mention many names which are world-known -.yet every detail about that charming work I can remember this day. a good time ago. and with wonder and delight we note the effects of strange forces which we bring into play.
Here is a coil which is operated by currents vibrating with extreme rapidity. Earlier English investigators. I dare say.ever since the greatest experimenter who lectured in this hall discovered its principle -. very interesting. take for instance the most obvious phenomena. they are all equally interesting. I bring my body in contact with one of the terminals of the secondary of this induction coil -. Gordon. insulated as I stand on this platform. which by my fingers' touch casts a shadow-. and instead of rendering altogether impossible. and we have directed our energies to the benefit of mankind. our work has not been in vain. I set them a distance apart. We have watched its play. the phenomena are presented in n different aspect. Some of the results we find as expected. and in using either of these means we enter a field as yet unexplored. for many years past -. by disruptively discharging a condenser through the primary. to your lecturer. I take hold of it. as I touch its metallic socket. From the ablest among you. form the subject of this evening's demonstration. as I insert the plate. to mention only Spottiswoode and J. Our knowledge and experience of to-day enables us to see clearly why these coils under the conditions of the tests did not disclose any remarkable phenomena. but all captivate our attention.74 one. others surprise us. a plaything once. its soft. may find a solution of one of the pending great problems. as far as I can reach. a few of which only. and thought and pondered over the beautiful phenomena which it disclosed to our ravished eyes. or by the use of an alternator. only the apparatus is operated somewhat differently. It would not surprise a student were the lecturer to say that the secondary of this coil consists of a small length of comparatively stout wire. it would not surprise him were the lecturer to state that. those of the discharge of the induction coil. of the stem inside of it. equally inciting to thought. -.we have had a steady companion. a more interesting study than that of alternating currents? In all these investigations. we set up a vibration in the secondary circuit of a frequency of many hundred thousand or millions per second. and here are the same phenomena.the induction coil. and a platinum button mounted in it is brought to vivid incandescence. which. and by no means the mast striking. for in these strivings. again. I insert a thick plate of one of the best dielectrics between them. and the tube in my hand is brilliantly lighted. E.any of the many experiments which may be performed with alternating currents. each novel fact learned may lead to important developments. so familiar are these phenomena to every one. We may take -. an appliance familiar to every one.and you see streams of light break forth from its distant end. I ask. that my courage nearly fails me when I think that I have ventured to address so able an audience. but although he . have used a rapid break in connection with the coil. is filled with magnificent colors of phosphorescent light. It is impossible to pursue an investigation in any novel line without finally making some interesting observation or learning some useful fact. if you choose -.and each succeeding day we return to our task with renewed ardor. H. attached to a leading wire is another bulb. Standing on an insulated support. Here. the coil is capable of giving any potential which the best insulation of the turns is able to withstand. no matter who. in these efforts. I grasp it. once more. and I set the coil to work. either by means of an interrupter or break. and even if we are unsuccessful. That this statement is applicable to the subject of this lecture the many curious and unexpected phenomena which we observe afford a convincing proof. in all these experiments. Usually in operating an induction foil we have set up a vibration of moderate frequency in the primary. So well known is this apparatus. can there be. In the experiments such as performed this evening. merely changes in appearance and assumes the form of luminous streams.at random. wherever I may move it in space. There is no dearer appliance to the electrician. which ate so very. Here. I bring my body in contact with a wire conveying alternating currents of high potential.the Crookes shadow. or. in spite of this.with the end of s wire many miles long -. pleasing light persists with undiminished brightness. Is there. a thing of momentous importance now -. attach these two plates of wire gauze to the terminals of the coil. we operate the coil either from a specially constructed alternator capable of giving many thousands of reversals of current per second. and why able experimenters failed to perceive many of the curious effects which have since been observed. Here. we all have passed many delightful hours in experimenting with the induction coil. obtained by disruptively discharging a Leyden jar. that I have ventured to entertain you with that same old subject. Here still another. which. Here in reality is the same apparatus. for in scientific investigation each novel result achieved may be the centre of a new departure. In whatever position I may put it. as we are used to expect. down to the inexperienced student. Here is a simple glass tube from which the air has been partially exhausted. if we so desire. Here is an exhausted bulb suspended from a single wire. You may see a small spark pass between the plates. By way of illustration. I aid the passage of the discharge. we have hours of untold pleasure. which is set in violent vibration.
and close to it. which produce in the secondary circuit sparks occurring at comparatively long intervals. even with the means at hand this evening. which possess the same brilliancy. A long arc is established between the terminals A B of the first induction coil. The discharge of this coil appears in the form of powerful brushes and luminous streams issuing from all points of the two straight wires attached to the terminals of the secondary (Fig. which is necessary to produce a sudden rush of current through the primary. The secondary s of this coil is provided with knobs or spheres K K of the proper size and set at a distance suitable for the experiment. had I made the necessary arrangements -. the primary current of which is vibrating several hundred thousand times per second. Each time the arc is broken between A and B the jars are quickly charged and . by operating the induction coil which charges the condenser from an alternating-current machine of very low frequency. 2. which is periodically interrupted by the upward current of air produced by it. had I the coil hidden from your view and only two knobs exposed. even the keenest observer among you would find it difficult. This primary p p has a small air gap a b. and preferably adjusting the discharge circuit so that there are no oscillations set up in it. I may succeed in imitating the spark of a Holtz machine. 1. Another way is to pass through two primary circuits. two currents of a slightly different period. But. G is an ordinarily constructed alternator. yet the aspect of the discharge of the coil will surprise and interest him.75 may be prepared. For this purpose I establish between the terminals of the coil which charges the condenser a long. supplying the primary P of an induction coil. so dear to the experimenter. having a common secondary. were it not that they would interfere with other experiments -. and even be indifferent as to the anticipated result.that other interesting appliance.) Now compare this phenomenon which you have just witnessed with the discharge of a Holtz or Wimshurst machine -. the outer coatings being connected to the ends of the primary p p of a second induction coil.I could have produced with this coil sparks which. if the knobs are of the required size and properly set. unsteady arc. here is a form of discharge of a coil. and are accompanied by the same sharp crackling sound. We then obtain in the secondary circuit. to distinguish from those of an influence or friction machine. a more or less rapid succession of sparks of great intensity and small quantity. But. by way of contrast. This may be done in many ways -. M M are the mica plates. it need not be reproduced here.which could have been made easily. The condenser charged from this coil discharge into the primary circuit of a second coil through a small air gap. a large plate of mica. The discharge of an ordinary coil appears as a simple line or band of light. if not impossible. To increase the current of air I place on each side of the arc. as those obtained from a friction or influence machine. The terminals of the secondary are connected to the inside coatings of the jars. the secondary S of which charges the condensers or jars C C. Every one is familiar with the discharge of an ordinary coil. The scheme of connections in the present experiment is indicated in Fig.for instance. What a difference there is between these phenomena! And yet.
1891. In such case. we find that the brush is hot. are produced in the primary P P. and the jars cannot be charged to such high potential as to break through the air gap a b until the arc is again broken by the draught. and only a little thought leads us to the conclusion that. producing a snapping spark between the knobs K K. or something else besides. the tendency to spark is not very great. yet. no shock would be felt -. and with the much higher frequencies obtainable by the disruptive discharge of a condenser. which I have described in my former paper on the subject* before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.76 discharged through the Primary p p. sparking would not occur even at very small distances. and we anticipate that some heat must be developed by the impact of the molecules against the terminal or against each other. perhaps. In this manner sudden impulses. So. which are comparatively few in number. and which would resemble in every particular an ordinary flame. Upon the arc forming between A and B the potential falls. and provided that electric impulses of such high frequencies could be transmitted through a conductor.save. if I hold a metallic sphere at some distance above the terminal you may see the whole space between the terminal and sphere illuminated by the streams without the spark passing. which to the eye appear so very different. instead of operating the induction coil as in the last two experiments. as in the next experiment. which in the secondary s give n corresponding number of impulses of great intensity. In my first paper before referred to I have pointed out the curious properties of the . and.yet we would still have to deal with an electric phenomenon. But these two effects. we might. were it not for the sudden impulses. we operate it from a high frequency alternator. a systematic study of the phenomena is rendered mud•1 more easy. When. and it would lead us too far from the subject presented this evening. and again we make other observations of interest. the sparks show much resemblance to those of a Holtz machine. that both phenomena might not be due to the same agent -. which we may yet find means to produce efficiently. at long intervals. save. If I approach a conducting object to the brush. May 20. perhaps. Viewed from a near position it resembles much a jet of gas escaping under great pressure. for instance. It would take too much time. But with such low frequencies we would have to deal always with something of the nature of an electric current. even with the frequencies used this evening. but in the broad. Indeed. we could produce a brush which would give intense light and heat. are only two of the many discharge phenomena. with incomparably higher frequencies. However. a thin little spark passes. We know that the phenomenon is due to the agitation of the molecules near the terminal. or atoms of air. that chemical affinity might not be electrical in its nature. as we can augment the energy simply by raising the potential. even with frequencies obtained from a dynamo machine. but it seems to me desirable to show you one of them. intensify the action to such a degree as to bring the terminal to melting heat. to reproduce all these forms. which is interesting in more than one respect. we may observe five distinct forms of discharge. It is a brush discharge. As the production of heat and light is here due to the impact of the molecules. modern interpretation of the word. We only need to change the conditions of the test. If the secondary knobs or spheres K K are of the proper size. could we but reach sufficiently high frequencies.no spark would pass. in varying the strength and frequency of the currents through the primary. the electrical characteristics of the brush discharge would completely vanish -.
principally on account of its complex action upon the coil. often better with one than with two. It might be advisable. which is carefully soldered all around. But of all the discharge phenomena observed. When a coil is operated with currents of very high frequency. such as boiled-out oil. 1891. * See The Electrical World. as a condenser of very small capacity and as an electrostatic and electromagnetic screen. with only a few minutes at disposal for the performance of each experiment. It is contained in a box B (Fig. seem to dart in every possible direction as though the terminals were perfectly independent of each other. when the conditions are patiently adjusted. give a short description of the coil and other apparatus used in the experiments with the disruptive discharge this evening. With even a very small coil. as to produce each phenomenon at its best a very careful adjustment is required. The power of the brushes. but I have thought it worth while to endeavor to express myself more clearly in regard to this phenomenon. the most pleasing to the eye. out of the question. in an experimental lecture. As the sparks would soon destroy the insulation it is necessary to prevent them. and described the best manner of producing it. when accuracy is of great importance.in fact. they are sufficiently striking to interest an intelligent audience. coveted on the outside with zinc sheet Z. . in a strictly scientific investigation. as they are likely to be this evening. Immersion in a liquid may be considered almost an absolute necessity for the continued and successful working of such a coil. as it might introduce many errors. even if the coil be of comparatively small dimensions. beautiful brush effects may be produced. What adds to their interest is that they may be produced with one single terminal as well as with two -. and. July 11. if it were nothing else. to show these discharge phenomena to advantage. are those observed with a coil which is operated by means of the disruptive discharge of a condenser. The experimenter may vary them in many ways. It is. if it be so well insulated as to stand a difference of potential of several thousand volts per turn. the sparks may be so abundant that the whole coil may appear a complete mass of fire. when the terminals of the coil are set at a considerable distance. the abundance of the sparks. because of its absorbing interest. and the most instructive. is often amazing. but these are not of sufficient importance to be dwelt upon. But even if imperfectly produced. of course. Curiously enough the sparks. 3) of thick boards of hard wood. This is best done by immersing the coil in a good liquid insulator. the employment of the metal cover offers some practical advantages. they afford a pleasing sight. for the sake of completeness. ~o do away with the metal covet.77 brush. Before showing some of these curious effects I must. When the coil is used for such experiments as are here contemplated.
by spring pressure. 4). this gives a ratio of conversion of about 1:2. likewise of hard rubber. it is only in the hope that some experimenter may find them of use. To avoid this. this giving a total of 96 turns. J J. the connection between both being made over the primary. 10 turns in each. bearing some proportion to the difference of potential between the turns of the different layers. The pole pieces of the magnet are movable and properly formed so as to protrude between the brass knobs.M. The ends of the secondary T1 T1 are also led out of the oil through rubber tubes tl tl of great thickness. the thickness of the insulation. The primary and secondary layers are insulated by cotton cloth. in order to make the field . and so doing away with the tedious process or frequent polishing up.that is. should be sufficiently remote from the latter. If they are mentioned.there is not much danger of breaking through to the primary. not the best on general principles. and for this purpose principally the wooden box B surrounding the whole is used. when the capacity of the terminals is not equal. of course. 24 centimetres square. and 3 millimetres thick. In connection with the coil I use either the ordinary form of discharger or a modified form. and the insulation between the primary and the secondary need not be thick. five centimeters. The other change consists in the employment of a strong electromagnet N S. and oppositely. but much more if possible. One of the changes is that the adjustable knobs A and B (Fig. the space is filled with pieces of wood. as otherwise they might impair its action and be a source of loss. has 26 layers. certainly not less than. say. sparks will be apt to pass to the primary. The two halves are wound oppositely and connected in series. has the advantage that when the coil is well balanced -. upon which are screwed two flanges F F. In the former I have introduced two changes which secure some advantages. Where the oil is not specially needed. upon a wooden spool W. and which are obvious.78 The coil should be placed symmetrically to the metal cover. Each half of the primary has four layers. the middle point of the secondary may be connected to the primary. 1:5. of the best gutta percha-covered wire. The coil is held in position in the oil on wooden supports. and the four ends are led out of the oil through hard rubber tubes t t. Each spool comprises a tube T of approximately 8 centimetres inside diameter. when both of its terminals T1 T1 are connected to bodies or devices of equal capacity -. which are at right angles to the axis of the coil. and with the primaries in multiple.Fs. which is placed with its axis at right angles to the line joining the knobs A and B. S S. and produces a strong magnetic field between them. of course. The construction here shown is. giving for each half a total of 260 turns. the space between the flanges being about 3 centimetres. The secondary. 24 turns in each.7. When both the parts are connected in series. but I believe it is a good and convenient one for the production of effects in which are excessive potential and a very small current are needed. this allowing of turning them successively into different positions. and the space between should. In using the coil it is advisable to attach to both terminals devices of nearly equal capacity. The coil consists of two spools of hard rubber R R held apart at a distance of 10 centimetres by bolts c and nuts n. but this is not always practicable. of course. not be too small. This disposition besides being convenient. especially the two sides of the zinc box. as. there being about 5 centimetres thickness of oil all round.4 but in operating with very rapidly alternating currents this ratio does not convey even an approximate idea of the ratio of the E. in the primary and secondary circuits. of the discharger are held in jaws of brass. The primary P P is wound in two parts.
the Polished surfaces are made to last much longer. and that means smaller loss and less deterioration of the metal. By taking any number of spaces the experimenter has a rough idea of the electromotive force. with planed grooves g g (Fig. by means of which a wire is fastened to the column. in Fig. which support the knobs. First. With this kind of discharger I have been able to maintain an oscillating motion without any spark being visible with the naked eye . but to prevent the discharge from jumping to thc magnet the pole pieces are protected by a layer of mica. and he finds it easier to repeat an experiment. of the arc being replaced by a vacuum tube. however. or entirely done away with). and. which permits of working with a smaller length of air gap. thirdly. 7) to fit the middle portion of the pieces c c. but I have encountered great difficulties in working with an exhausted tube. The intense magnetic field than serves to blow out the arc between the knobs as soon as it is formed. a draught or blast of air may be employed with some advantage. as in this disposition the arc is long and unsteady. L L are screws for fixing in position the rods R R. It consists of a number of brass pieces c c (Fig. which in such case are insulated and preferably provided with polished brass caps. serve to clamp the latter and hold them firmly in position by means of two bolts C C (of which only one is shown) passing through the ends of the strips. In another arrangement with the magnet I take the discharge between the rounded pole pieces themselves. 2 (the knobs a b being generally joined. of sufficient thickness. and is easily affected by the draught. and the magnetic field exercises a greater influence. it is better to choose the connection indicated diagrammatically in Fig 5. the apparatus affords some gauge in the experiments. and also for turning it in any position when it becomes necessary to present a fresh discharging surface. as he has not the trouble of setting the knobs again and again. sl sl and s2 s2 are screws for fastening the wires. I usually set the pieces by putting between them sheets of uniform thickness at a certain very small distance which is known from the experiments of Sir William Thomson to require a certain electromotive force to be bridged by the spark. Two stout strips of hard rubber R R. The employment of an intense magnetic field is of advantage principally when the induction coil or transformer which charges the condenser is operated by currents of very low frequency. be remembered that the sparking distance is much diminished as the frequency is increased. 6 and 7. In the use of this kind of discharger I have found three principal advantages over the ordinary form. of course. as in this case the currents forming the arc are much more powerful. The other form of discharger used in these and similar experiments is indicated in Figs.which is merely used to fasten the piece in a lathe when polishing up the discharging surface -. When a magnet is employed to break the arc.79 as intense as possible. It should. which consists of a knurled flange f surmounted by a threaded stem I carrying a nut n. On each side one of the screws is for large and the other for small wires. M M.and a column above. The use of the magnet permits. 6). the dielectric strength of a given total width of air space is greater when a great many small air gaps are used instead of one. The flange f conveniently serves for holding the brass piece when fastening the wire. In such a case the number of the fundamental discharges between the knobs may be so small as to render the currents produced in the secondary unsuitable for many experiments. each of which comprises a spherical middle portion m with an extension e below -. Instead of the magnet. secondly by reason of splitting the arc up into smaller arcs. In this case the arc is preferably established between the knobs A B. and the fundamental discharges occur in quicker succession.
but merely a transfer of energy. necessary to adjust carefully the capacity of the jars. and then smaller and smaller ones as he approaches the right length. A convenient way is to use an oil condenser of very small capacity. however. I have used it preferably in a disposition similar to that indicated in Fig. in connection with this and similar experiments. We would then be simply using burners or flames. the light from the wires is sufficiently intense to allow distinguishing the objects in a room. when the currents forming the arcs are small. The conducting cover should not be too near the terminals. and they would not show a very appreciable rise in temperature. under otherwise equal conditions of test. consisting of two small adjustable metal plates. In such case I take wires rather short and set at the beginning the condenser plates at maximum distance. at any rate. as the dielectric losses are very small. To avoid the difficulties with frictional contacts.80 between the knobs. gained by this method. however. except in cases where the currents from the condenser were large and the keeping cool of the surfaces was necessary. to the product of frequency and square of potential. unless the self-induction. produces an effect worth noticing. It is understood. To produce the best result it is. When the experiment is performed under good conditions. My experience is that calculation of the length of the wires leads. of course. and in cases when. As to the size of the vessel containing the oil and the site of the plates. Upon turning the lights off in the room you see the wires strongly illuminated by the streams issuing abundantly from their whole surface in spite of the cotton covering. and that is. or ends. air current. thus starting the vibration at intervals in rapid succession. I will now endeavor to show you some of the most noteworthy of these discharge phenomena. in which the discharge surfaces were rotated with great speed. the arc as soon as established was broken by the air current. When a condenser is used in connection with experiments with such a coil. I may here mention that I have also used dischargers with single or multiple air gaps. I have stretched across the room two ordinary cotton covered wires. I have also used mechanical interrupters in many ways. the experimenter gains at once an idea from a rough trial. One thing is certain. the length of the wires is about right. or other interrupter. 2. as a spark would be apt to jump from the wire to it. This form of discharge also lends itself to many arrangements of condensers and circuits which are often very convenient and timesaving. They are supported on insulating cords at a distance of about 30 centimetres. the discharge not being oscillating of itself. would be exceedingly difficult. and then adjust by cutting off first long pieces. it is surely not altogether hopeless to expect that we may succeed in producing a practical illuminant on these lines. The experimenter will do best to take the wires at the start very long. of the wire. in which there would be no chemical process. each about 7 metres in length. of course.this preferably extending under the surface of the oil. The wires leading to the plates in the oil should be very thin. calculable. which may even be very thick. as in using an air condenser considerable energy might be wasted. that in augmenting the potential and frequency we rapidly intensify the streams. in such case. capacity and resistance are so related that there are oscillations set up upon each interruption. heavily coated with some insulating compound. no consumption of material. it should be an oil condenser by all means. No particular advantage was. whatever it may be. but the experimental verification of the law. in virtue of its action as an electrostatic screen. the Preferred plan adopted was to establish the arc and rotate through it at great speed a rim of mica provided with many holes and fastened to a steel plate. to no result whatever. the arc between the knobs and the length of the wires. and which . and provided with n conducting covering -. and. I attach now to each of the terminals of the coil one of the wires and set the coil in action. though it may be very sanguine. that the employment of a magnet. My opinion is that the heat as well as light effects produced should be proportionate. The size of the plates in oil is. The conducting coating is used to diminish the air losses. In the preceding experiment it is of considerable interest to know what relation the quantity of the light emitted bears to the frequency and potential of the electric impulses. If the streams for the wires increase by approach of the plates. if they diminish the wires are too long for that frequency and potential.
if anything. Here. Well-insulated wires. may be performed with low frequencies. while. The two tinfoil coatings I have joined by a conductor C. in all probability emit more light and less heat than ordinary flames. are preferable. owing to the harmonic rise and fall. and the wires become so strongly luminous that. so as to form a name. I have two plates R R. the wires should be very thin and short. It is now easy. as then. This experiment.it is immaterial for the success of the experiment. by varying the strength and frequency of the currents through the primary. By some artifice or other. 9). to find a point at which the capacity of the system is best suited to the conditions. and in the dark one-half of the brass sphere is strongly illuminated. of hard rubber (Fig. but much less satisfactorily. is a tinfoil coating t t. though they are less abundant than when produced with such a coil as the present. The wires may be bare or covered with the best insulation -. of course. for such a one as the present -. when the light in the room is turned off the name formed by them appears in brilliant letters. Two thin wires may thus be rendered intensely luminous. and to the other terminal I fasten a small brass sphere s. bent in a circle of about 30 centimetres in diameter. the streams are very uniform. it is easy to concentrate the streams upon small surfaces and to produce very strong light effects. . al the same time. and the two wires I presently connect to the terminals of the coil. The plates are placed in line at a sufficient distance to prevent a spark passing from one to the other wire. The luminous intensity of the streams is. a luminous hollow cone is formed. the surface of the wire being preferably equal to the surface of the sphere. for instance. indicated by the shaded portion. considerably increased when they are focused upon a small surface. It is perhaps preferable to perform this experiment with a coil operated from an alternator of high frequency. This may be shown by the following experiment: I attach to one of the terminals of the coil a wire w (Fig. the surface of the wires remains very small.81 would.it is necessary to augment the capacity to the required value. 8). upon which I have glued two very thin wires w w. and the centre of the latter being in a line at right angles to the plane of the wire circle and passing through its centre. On the back of each plate. In order to intensify the streams. however.at least. but as in this case their capacity would be generally too small for the coil . as shown in the cut. When the discharge is established under proper conditions. This may be done in many ways.
82 When two wires. are set at the proper distance. To reach this result very small coils and jars of small capacity should be used. Such discharges of very high frequency. the air gives way in more or less the same manner. a very high frequency is essential. a luminous sheet is produced between the wires. but that the gas may be at ordinary or even greater pressure. the dense air would break down as in a lightning discharge. but the discharge traverses. about 5 centimetres in diameter and 20 centimetres long. which is perfectly smooth and textureless. at a distance of l0 to 15 centimetres from each other. To accomplish this. the primaries preferably in multiple arc. also the dense . I take two tubes of thick Bohemian glass. which could be seen from a considerable distance. in endeavoring to discover novel methods of producing light by the agitation of atoms. one being about 80 centimetres and the other 30 centimetres in diameter. if the charge were not at all vibrating. and the vessel is filled with boiled out oil. When the light in the room is turned off and the coil set to work. such as eruptions at the sun's surface. which probably correspond to the successive discharges occurring between the knobs. affect to a marked degree the appearance of the streams. I have no doubt that if. we need not limit our research to the vacuum tube. by reason of its very high frequency. and the streams consist of distinct threads. covering an area of more than one square metre. but may look forward quite seriously to the possibility of obtaining the light effects without the use of any vessel whatever. If the frequency were very low or even more so. you see the whole space between the wires uniformly filled with streams. a high potential is likewise required.then the luminous streams formed are perfectly uniform. The free ends of the secondary are lifted out of the oil and placed parallel to each other at a distance of about 10 centimetres. of rather stout wire. But when the frequency is extremely high. in fact. In each of the tubes I slip a primary of very thick copper wire. Indications of such breaking down of the lower dense strata of the air have been repeatedly observed at the occurrence of this marvelous . and the area is how about 0. When the necessary adjustments in the length and distance of the wires above the oil and in the arc of discharge are made. When the frequency is very low. which is a remarkable effect with this very small coil. with air at ordinary pressure. which render luminous the air at ordinary pressures. To show this phenomenon I have here two circles. to pass ordinary luminous discharges through gases. The outer circle could have been much larger than the present one. I have purposely dwelt upon this apparently insignificant experiment.43 square metre. like the ordinary discharge through a moderately exhausted tube. 10). the streams between them may be so intense as to produce a continuous luminous sheet. as many believe. of a gas.atmosphere in the form of a glow. as by a steady difference of potential. On the top of each tube I wind a secondary of much thinner gutta-percha covered wire. The frequency of the vibration. with this coil I have used much larger circles. The tubes are then placed in a large glass vessel. on insulating supports. The two secondaries I connect in series. Two four-pint jars joined in series may be used to discharge through the primary. and the quickness of succession of the sparks between the knobs. The supporting wires are so bent that the circles may be placed in the same plane. the oil reaching about an inch above the tubes. no particular degree of exhaustion is needed. or molecules. the aurora borealis is produced by sudden cosmic disturbances. such as we ordinarily produce in a slightly exhausted tube. To avoid uncertainty. such is the intensity of the streams. the circle has been taken smaller. In trials of this kind the experimenter arrives at the startling conclusion that. but this is a merely incidental necessity. forming a luminous disc. To each of the terminals of the coil I attach one of the circles. The ends which are scraped should be dipped in the oil. These experiments teach us that. C and c (Fig. which set the electrostatic charge of the earth in an extremely rapid vibration the red glow observed is not confined to the upper rarefied strata of the air. coinciding as nearly as possible. we have probably often occasion to witness in Nature. generally mingled with thin sparks. and I have been able to produce a strongly luminous sheet. and the arc of the discharge produces a very loud but smooth sound -showing both that oscillation takes place and that the sparks succeed each other with great rapidity -. attached to the terminals of the coil.
The potential may be raised by increasing. but if the secondary should have a much greater number of turns the primaries should preferably be used in series. since there are no large plates or other bodies of capacity attached to the terminals. If by some means or other we increase the intensity of the molecular. To perform the experiment. We may accomplish this in various ways. 11) of no mote than a few centimetres in diameter -. If the molecules of the air around a wire are moderately agitated. and a spark. better still.83 phenomenon. in the experiment with the thin wires glued on the rubber plate I have concentrated the action upon a very small surface -. vibration. which are few in number. and the ends of the secondary reaching out of the oil are covered with an airtight cover of hard rubber of great thickness. the rate of change of the primary current. and now the hand or other conducting object may be brought in still greater proximity to the terminal without a spark being caused to jump. The coil here used immersed in oil. the coil is capable of an extremely rapid vibration. With this coil. the brush formed is reddish or violet. When an ordinary low frequency discharge is passed through moderately rarefied air. When the hand is held against them no sensation is produced. when fairly well produced. In this case. the gas changes to a white color. should be carefully stopped up. I have endeavored to secure the result by pushing to a high value both the frequency and potential. it is best to connect the two primaries in multiple arc. for the vibration produced by them would be far too rapid to allow a disruptive break. All cracks. Fig. two sharp-edged metal discs (d d. it can only be attributed to thc fundamental disturbances. the streams become white. I have worked with a great electric density. but if it does occur. they are about 25 to 30 centimetres long.in other words. A most curious form of discharge is observed with such a coil when the frequency and potential are pushed to the extreme limit. as otherwise the vibration might be too fast for the secondary. . A similar change occurs at ordinary pressures with electric impulses of very high frequency. the air assumes a purplish hue. as far as the experimenter judges proper. so that the brush discharge cannot form anywhere except on the small spheres or plates which are exposed to the air. and only two small spheres -. if there are any. or atomic. If the oscillation of the primary current is rendered intermittent by some means or other. It occurs under these conditions that misty white streams break forth from the edges of the discs and spread out phantom-like into space. there is a corresponding throbbing of the streams. causing a shock. every part of the coil should be heavily insulated. the superimposed vibrations probably pass unnoticed.or. With a coil not widely differing from the present. In the experiment before shown with the two wires across the room.should be exposed to the air. if the vibration is rendered sufficiently intense. It is the original and irregular impulses which affect the instruments. jumps from the terminal only upon the hand being brought much nearer.
even the largest. The advantage of such a coil is that it can be easily handled. No doubt large coils. or a mass of loud brilliant sparks. or a fine network of thin silvery threads. It is easy in observing the effect of the capacity to produce a sheet of uniform streams. equal the magnificent display of streams and sparks obtained from such a disruptive discharge coil when properly adjusted. by means of it. even if operated with currents of low frequencies. To give an idea. so as to keep the coil well balanced. One will not find it at all difficult to produce in the laboratory. Considering its probable uses for many practical purposes. Early experimenters describe the display of sparks produced by an ordinary large induction coil upon an insulating plate separating the terminals. are capable of producing beautiful effects.it enables us to convert currents of any frequency into currents of any other lower or higher frequency. Quite recently Siemens performed some experiments in which fine effects were obtained. and -. it seems that the presence of a large body of wax affects the coil disadvantageously. the centre of the latter coinciding with that of the ring. It is. . Perhaps it is because the dielectric losses in the liquid are smaller. would utterly fail. Since I have advanced the idea of the conversion by means of the disruptive discharge. and the surfaces of both being preferably equal. boiling the coil a long time in pure wax. many other phenomena which appeal to the eye even more than these here shown. a coil such as the present one will cover easily a plate of 1 metre in diameter completely with the streams. Besides. But the largest coil ever made could not. The best way to perform such experiments is to take a very thin rubber or a glass plate and glue on one side of it a narrow ring of tinfoil of very large diameter. whereas this does not seem to be the case with oil. which a disruptive discharge coil is capable of exciting in innumerable cases where ordinary coils. but it cannot probably give as satisfactory results as a coil immersed in pure oil. but present no particular feature of novelty. The washer and ring should be connected to the terminals by heavily insulated thin wires. But its chief value will perhaps be found in the help which it will afford us in the investigations of the phenomena of phosphorescence. a few additional remarks as to the construction of such a coil will perhaps not be found superfluous. It affords us a means for producing any potentials by the aid of inexpensive coils operated from ordinary systems of distribution. of course. which were seen by many with interest. absolutely necessary to employ in such a coil wires provided with the best insulation.84 Among the many beautiful phenomena which may be produced with such a coil I have here selected only those which appear to possess some features of novelty. and lead us to some conclusions of interest. and on the other a circular washer. Good coils may be produced by employing wires covered with several layers of cotton. and its possible introduction into laboratories for scientific research.what is perhaps more appreciated-. and cooling under moderate pressure. in my paper before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at the beginning of the past year. the interest excited in it has been considerable. by far. which completely cover the plate.
just as sure as a weight will fall if let go. else the gutta-percha will crack up and the coil will not be worth half as much as before. the more so as a blowhole is apt to contain gas at low pressure. The cost is a great drawback. When the coil is set to work one may see. Gutta-percha insulation adds. the stopcock is opened and the oil slowly fed in. On the top two small holes are drilled. by its impact against the oil. Once the coil has been immersed. when gutta-percha coated wires are used. but they are not to be had. The coil being placed and fastened in position within the box. The occluded air. beats it. so easy that they could be hardly called engineering feats. Between the layers I use cloth boiled out thoroughly in oil. the condenser would safely withstand a much higher difference of potential. I wind the coil within an oil tank so that all interstices are filled up with the oil. in the other it does not. is to disperse any gaseous bubbles whid•1 may be present. I have dwelt at some length upon the various forms of brush discharge because.air bubbles which are caught by inserting the primary. Strands of very thin insulated wires properly interlaced would. plugging up the end of the tube upon which the secondary is wound. The latter tube has a very small hole at the bottom. gutta-percha will withstand much more than an equal thickness of oil. One of the tubes is connected to a vacuum pump and the other with a vessel containing a sufficient quantity of boiled-out oil. For the primaries I use ordinary line wire with thick cotton coating. is not practicable. which proved most satisfactory. and liquid insulation in general. In the coil here used the primary is No. passing through the metal sheet and the wood. but if we employ an oil as an insulator the distribution of electrical energy with something like 100. I am led to believe that in our future distribution of electrical energy by currents of very high tension liquid insulation will be used. 24 Brown & Sharpe gauge wire. on the other hand. This feature may be easily observed with an ordinary induction coil by taking the primary out. we not only observe phenomena which please our eye. the results aimed at would not be materially affected. To exclude more perfectly the air. and even more. should remain between the turns. and this. but. is the following: Construct a box of hard wood of very thick boards which have been for a long time boiled in oil. A main conveying alternating currents of very high tension may be injured merely by a blowhole or small crack in the insulation. many luminous points -. and easily practicable with small coils. and this advantage should be secured at any price.000 volts. it is much safer to use the first kind. an excellent way to proceed. it is impossible that any big bubbles. but I have been gradually led to use guttapercha covered wires. Unless a special method is followed to expel all air. Proceeding in this manner. but after an immersion of eight to nine months I have found no ill effects. In this manner. and which ate rendered luminous in consequence of the violent bombardment. be the best to employ for the primaries. whereas. probably better than by boiling out. Guttapercha is probably slowly attacked by the oil. A peculiar property of oils. In an experimental coil the size of the wires is not of great importance. which are the principal danger. and if the potentials are high. were used. In the use of alternating currents of very high tension. A primary of s diameter something like six millimetres smaller than the inside of the tube may be inserted in the oil. but the sections maybe varied considerably. the joints of which are soldered very carefully. but also afford us food for thought. in an induction coil or transformer. There seems not to be a very great difference whatever kind of oil is used. too much precaution cannot be taken to prevent the brush discharge. to the capacity of the coil. I have obtained in commerce two kinds of gutta-percha wire: in one the insulation sticks tightly to the metal. and fining it with some fairly transparent insulator. the oil begins to circulate. In a main conveying such currents. 12 and the secondary No. a breaking through and injury of the apparatus would be inevitable. and lead us to conclusions of practical importance. so the insulation will give way if a single gaseous bubble of some site be present. when subjected to rapidly changing electric stresses. is a great disadvantage when extreme frequencies are desired. I use paraffin or linseed oil. calculating the thickness according to the difference of potential between the turns. The boards should be so joined as to safely withstand the external air pressure. and as it appears almost impossible to completely obviate such little imperfections. if all gaseous matter were carefully excluded. unless large bubbles are occluded in such way that circulation is rendered impossible. I would only imply different adjustments. and is provided with a stopcock. looking from the top through the oil. or in a condenser. such as paraffin oil. until the bubbles are dispersed and the luminous points disappear. With oil insulation and alternate current motors transmissions of power can be effected with safety and upon an industrial basis at distances of as much as a thousand miles. which. The exclusion of gaseous matter from any apparatus in which the dielectric is subjected to more or less rapidly . no matter how thick. of course. the only effect being a moderate warming up of the oil. of course. and covered with closely fitting metal sheets. generally long before any injurious break can occur. the latter is closed with a strong lid. for in it the charged surfaces are near each other. at least with higher frequencies. and in these holes two small glass tubes are inserted and the joints made air-tight. a damaging break is averted. it should never be taken out of the oil for more than a few hours. the brush discharge is a source of great danger to the insulation. and diffuse them through its mass. especially if the coil be large. carrying some of the air along with it. instead of the liquid. If. a solid insulation.85 I have tried at first silk and cotton covered wires with oil immersion. In a condenser especially the gaseous matter must be most carefully expelled. in studying them. When a fairly good vacuum has been obtained. however. The air is most completely excluded. become.
the brush has but an ephemeral existence. If the gas be strongly compressed. as the machine might be injured. would be disadvantageous. and a stronger current is made to flow through the secondary. this allowing the use of a much bigger primary. in operating the induction coil is to combine capacity with the secondary to overcome the selfinduction. and to wind.000 to 15. A more detailed description. the coil performed more work. They are immersed in boiled-out linseed oil. I think it best at this juncture to bring before you a phenomenon. to which I have already referred. and may be so even when the terminals ate joined by a conductor of small resistance. as long as only a solid or only a liquid dielectric is used. it is a brush. If the frequencies and potentials are very high gaseous matter should be carefully kept away from the charged surfaces.000 per second. and cannot. but in a gas the displacement. The secondary of the coil possesses usually such a high self-induction that the current through the wire is inappreciable. even in a bulb devoid of any conducting electrode. In studying one phenomenon. which. and many times convenient for the purposes of adjustment. observed by me some time ago. When the primary is made movable. they should be immersed in oil. In a condenser. The induction coils operated from the machine are rather small. This feature was illustrated in the experiment performed at the beginning with the top plates of wire gauze attached to the terminals and the rubber plate. reduces the danger of overheating and increases the output of the coil. This machine has been illustrated and briefly described in my first paper before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The first thing. It has 384 pole projections. If capacity is added to the terminals. but also on account of economy. When the plates of wire gauze were close together. because it did away with the capacity on the terminals. In most of the succeeding experiments I prefer. this product is considerable. I have found it best to use bulbs constructed as indicated in Figs. and this. the molecules are free to move. I make the primary on each side at least one centimetre shorter than the secondary. which to the purely scientific investigator may perhaps appear more interesting than any of the results which I have the privilege to present to you this evening. which would surely occur unless the insulation on the top of the secondary be very thick. and turn it off in a lathe to a diameter slightly smaller than the inside of the primary coil. in these coils. unless the force be very great. Whatever the nature of the force acting in the dielectric may be. sufficient to enable any engineer to build a similar machine. If Leyden jars are used. for instance. which is necessary in some experiments. then. the capacity of the condenser formed counteracted the self-induction of the secondary. be indefinitely preserved in its most sensitive state. 12 and 13. The latter I provide with a handle reaching out of the oil. which serves to shift it in any position along the secondary. I cover the secondary with wax. In bulbs provided with a conducting terminal. they reach high speeds. to prevent the breaking through on the ends. and are even now often overlooked. 1831. and a small arc passed between them. unfortunately. and the discharge was by far more powerful. but the latter is not to be recommended. When high frequencies are used. the displacement due to the force is made smaller. therefore. and is capable of giving currents of a frequency of about 10. and the losses are reduced. a stronger current passed now. of course. of course. and for a finer adjustment a small oil condenser with movable plates may be used conveniently. the arc prevented a strong current from passing through the secondary. This is one of the several machines constructed by me for the purposes of these investigations. to employ the alternator before referred to. . will be found in several electrical journals of that period. chiefly on account of the regular and positive action. though it be of aluminium. formed at.000 turns in the secondary. I will now venture to make. not only desirable in order to avoid a possible injury of the apparatus. The best way is undoubtedly to use the condenser in series with the primary and with the alternator. or near. the loss is small. when the rubber plate was inserted between. a few observations bearing upon points which have not been fully appreciated in earlier experiments with such coils. contained in wooden boxes covered with zinc sheet. It may be quite properly ranked among the brush phenomena -. containing from 5. it seems that in a solid or liquid the molecular displacement produced by the force is small: hence the product of force and displacement is insignificant. a single terminal in high vacuum. in regard to the general manipulation of induction coils. as otherwise considerable dissipation may occur if the jars are greatly strained. and to adjust its capacity so as to annul the self-induction of both the latter. One may use a condenser connected to the ends of the primary or to the terminals of the alternator. May 20. The condenser should be adjustable by very small steps. and. but if a gas under ordinary or small pressure be present the loss may be very great.86 changing electric forces is. though its terminals are insulated from each other.in fact. I have found it advantageous to reverse the usual position of the wires. it is of equal importance to combine a condenser with the primary. by all means a bulb having no leading-in wire should be used. however. the self-induction is counteracted. and the energy of their impact is lost in heat or otherwise. To one entirely unacquainted with the properties of alternating currents nothing will look more puzzling. the primaries on the top.
14 shows the brush as it first appears in a bulb provided with a conducting terminal: but. and to blow the sphere s very thin. to act by induction upon the gas contained in the globe L. 15 and 16 indicate different forms. of aluminium sheet. 13) to the terminal of the induction coil.often after a few minutes -. the hole through it very small. 13 was chosen in order to remove from the brush any conducting body which might possibly affect it. The bulb consists in this case of a lamp globe L. Fig. 12 the bulb comprises an incandescent lamp globe L. To excite it. It is of the greatest importance that the sphere J be placed in the centre of the globe L. of the brush. may be slipped in the barometer tube. in the neck of which is sealed a barometer tube 6. Before sealing. as in such a bulb it very soon disappears -. so that two entirely independent compartments are formed.I will confine myself to the description of the phenomenon as seen in a bulb without conducting electrode. which is connected to the generator and acts inductively upon the moderately rarefied and highly conducting gas enclosed in the neck. the end of which is blown out to form a small sphere s. It is observed under the following conditions: When the globe L (Figs. 12) or the tinfoil coating of the bulb (Fig. provided with a tube b and small sphere s. but it is not important to employ it. This sphere should be sealed as closely as possible in the centre of the large globe.87 In Fig. An intense phosphorescence then spreads at . The small hollow sphere s is filled with some conducting powder. generally the bulb is not excited upon connecting the wire w (Fig. a thin tube t. The construction shown in Fig. From there the current passes through the tube b into the small sphere s. as indicated in the drawing. which has a neck n. 14. and a wire w is cemented in the neck for the purpose of connecting the conducting powder with the generator. or stages. sealed to it. the neck n is provided with a tinfoil coating. When the bulb is in use. it is usually sufficient to grasp the globe L with the hand. It is of advantage to make the tube t very thick. 12 and 13) is exhausted to a very high degree. Figs.
15. when at its maximum speed. 16. on the other hand. that the electrostatic attraction between the brush and the glass of the bulb. I think it is due to thc electrostatic action of the globe and the dissymmetry of the parts. and if he walks around the bulb it will always keep on the opposite side. From this stage the phenomenon will gradually pass to that indicated in Fig. 16. the rotation is always clockwise. The sensitiveness is likewise affected by the variations of temperature. As to the causes of the formation of the brush or stream. with its poles at a distance of no more than two centimetres. in any position. When the bulb hangs with the globe L down. but it cannot be reversed by putting the bulb in any position. Shortly afterward one may notice that the luminosity is unevenly distributed in the globe. Changing either of these but little will generally stop the rotation. influence. as the tendency to pass would be equal on all sides. The sphere s should be small and of uniform thickness. any dissymmetry of course has the effect to diminish the sensitiveness. days or weeks. when it is at right angles to the lines of force of the earth. But. When in an extremely sensitive state it rests in one position. it is not most sensitive to electrostatic. The bulb hanging straight down from a wire. without necessarily one impulse being stronger than the other. as in a series motor. it is affected by a magnet and at a certain stage it is susceptible to magnetic influence to an astonishing degree. My explanation is. The brush rotates best. That the formation of the stream is due to an irregularity is apparent from the fact that it has the tendency to remain in one position. but that one always preponderates over the other. and one must assume the preponderance of impulses of one kind. it may be brought to a state of extreme sensitiveness to electrostatic and magnetic influence. and the glass throughout of the same thickness and quality. or to the action of the field produced by one of the elements upon the other. after some minutes. most curious . and all objects being remote from it. When it is in the state of the highest sensitiveness and the potential or frequency be varied the sensitiveness is rapidly diminished. it is then hard to explain why a permanent magnet should reverse the rotation. grows much quicker than the magnetic influence when the intensity of the stream is increased. the approach of the observer at a few paces from the bulb will cause the brush to fly to the opposite side. and after passing the current for some time the bulb appears as in Fig. In such case it would turn at any point of the earth's surface. It very likely rotates. Of course. slowing down or accelerating the rotation according to how it is held relatively to the brush. Warming the bulb or increasing the potential hastens the transit. would speak for this view. When it begins to turn around principally. To attain great sensitiveness it is necessary to have the small sphere s in the centre of the globe L. will affect it visibly at a distance of two metres.000 times a second. but also before. and rotation occurs most generally only when it is brought out of this position by electrostatic or magnetic influence. I think I have observed that at the stage when it is most sensitive to magnetic. in synchronism with the alternations. this rotation in one direction may be due to the action of two elements of the same current upon each other. according as the bulb is worked. The fact that the brush turns. When the brush assumes the form indicated in Fig. The rotation can be slowed down or accelerated by the approach or receding of the observer or any conducting body. seemingly. as far as I could observe. The fact that the brush rotates in a definite direction in a permanent magnetic field seems to show that in alternating currents of very high frequency the positive and negative impulses are not equal. as otherwise the electrostatic action of the glass of the globe will tend to stop the rotation. In the southern hemisphere it would occur in the opposite direction and on the equator the brush should not turn at all. I think the brush would not form.88 first over the globe. If the small bulb s and the globe L were perfect concentric spheres. hours. but soon gives place to a white. which retards the rotation. A small permanent magnet. It may begin to spin around the terminal long before it reaches that sensitive stage. say 10. misty light. The rotation may be reversed by a magnet kept at some distance.
it is impossible to make even the slightest motion without producing a visible effect upon the brush. Instead of using the fan in this experiment. much better than with coils operated from an alternator. never quite satisfactory. frictionless. although I tried the experiment repeatedly. or attach to one or both terminals insulated bodies of very small bulk. The experimenter may bring his body in contact with the terminals of the secondary of the coil. in this case. I have here a little light fan of aluminium sheet. and would produce no effect. I am firmly convinced that such a brush. fastened to a needle and arranged to rotate freely in a metal piece screwed to one of the terminals of the coil. there remains the repulsion exerted upon the other. and he may cause the brush to pass off by merely stiffening the muscles of the arm. by fastening on one side. or whether there is simply a stress traveling around in the bulb. and the fan is set in rotation. it results that there is repulsion exerted on the surfaces of the fan. approach the hand at a certain considerable distance to the bulb. In operating an induction coil with rapidly alternating currents. I could produce no distinct rotation of the fan. smaller bombardment. I think that it may find practical applications in telegraphy. in fact. the great importance of the relation of capacity.many. we may use the "electric" radiometer with similar effect. and greatly affect the flow of the current through the primary. The screening is best effected by fastening upon one of the opposing sides of the fan insulated conducting coatings. With such a brush it would be possible to send dispatches across the Atlantic. The effects of capacity are the most striking. When the coil is set to work. of course. and need be but slightly varied to produce a very considerable change. or even by a steady potential. I have been unable to produce the phenomenon with the disruptive discharge coil. the sudden rise of potential was made evident. for in these experiments. I may show you the behavior of the coil in another manner which possesses a feature of some interest. try selecting a proper position. the molecules of the air are rhythmicallv attracted and repelled. of . consequently. it is very easy to adjust the conditions so that the potential is normally not sufficient to turn the fan. so to speak. But in this case it will be found that the vanes will rotate only at high exhaustion or at ordinary pressures. The static screen may however. and the hands are held at a proper distance. It is. they will not rotate at moderate pressures. devoid of inertia. and he may produce a considerable rise or fall of potential. and the apparent rotation of the latter was. For this purpose I mounted a light mica fan so that its vanes were in the path of the brush. the molecules of which then do not act as independent carriers of electric charges. for instance. but in the latter case it might turn if the potential were excessive. But if one of the opposite surfaces is screened. but as the fan exerted a noticeable influence on the stream. and close to it. such a brush ought to reveal it. generally speaking. be omitted and simply a thickness of insulating material fastened to one of the sides of the fan. it would not turn. It may be possible to produce the brush by impulses of one direction. it rotates best with a steady potential.89 experiments may be performed with it. the bombardment on this side is weakened in some wag or other. quite the opposite rule holds good. I have been interested to find whether there is a rotation of the stream itself. a beam of light. when we learn how to produce it properly. its deflections could be easily photographed. since the self-induction and frequency both are high. or. When it begins to rotate slowly. since its sensitiveness may be so great that the slightest changes will affect it. an insulated metal plate. with any speed. the experimenter may. If the fan were made simply of a metal sheet. If it were possible to make the stream more intense and very narrow. so as to rotate the fan. for the first time. and the wire is vibrated when the experimenter brings his insulated body in contact with the other terminal of the coil. if the fan is made in the shape of an ordinary propeller screw. and the effort is the smaller the higher the frequency. self-induction and frequency as regards the general result. This curious observation was made conjointly by Professor Crookes and myself. but that by connecting the other terminal of the coil with an insulated body it rises to a much greater value. With a steady potential. With a pin wheel. but act all together as a single conducting body. In such case. I attribute the result to the high conductivity of the air. If there is any motion which is measurable going on in the space. the fan may be placed upon the terminal and it will readily rotate when the coil is operated by currents of very high frequency. in which a brush appears at a wire attached to one terminal. or if. when the air is highly conducting. such as bulbs. In the experiment before shown. If the stream itself was rotating the fan would be spun around. To show the behavior of the coil. will prove a valuable aid in the investigation' of the nature of the forces acting in 2n electrostatic or magnetic field. because of the very slow exchange of air and. and it is likewise possible to stop the rotation by connecting to the terminal a body of different size. the repulsion would be equal on the opposite sides. we realize with astonishment. the experiment did not appear to be conclusive. thereby diminishing the potential. in which case it would be still more sensitive to magnetic influence. slowing down the rotation often to one turn a second. the critical capacity is very small. A metal plate connected to the other terminal of the coil affects it at a great distance. For instance. As the force with which they are repelled is greater than that with which they are attracted. Now. although every other of these phenomena can be tell produced by it -. and even with alternating currents of very low frequency.
the proper difference of phase is obtained between the primary and secondary currents by a condenser. Again to improve. In a type of alternate current motor invented by me some years ago I produced rotation by inducing. which. To produce rotation it is generally (but not absolutely) necessary to connect the free end of the motor coil to an insulated body of some size. A most curious feature of alternate currents of high frequencies and potentials is that they enable us to perform many experiments by the use of one wire only. that the result is in part due to the fact that the greater part of the discharge passes from the leading-in wire through the highly conducting gas. so that it cannot free itself from a strong inductive action of thc latter. instead of passing off from the conducting vanes. it must be very small. If he touches the free terminal with an object held in the . I had discovered. joining the ends of the latter and placing a freely movable metal disc within the influence of the field produced by both. to mention that in lag or phase motors I have produced rotation in the opposite direction to the moving field. in the writings of Professor Ayrton. But it is not this experiment. jointly with the primary or inducing current. then. repel its lines as it may. that is to say. by means of a single alternating current passed through a motor circuit. A simple but crude form of such a motor is obtained by winding upon an iron core a primary. When the ends of the coil are connected to the terminals of an alternator the disc is set in rotation. Here. The iron core is employed for obvious reasons. capable of setting an armature: in rotation. being that there must be a true time lag in the magnetization of the core. Once more to improve. must remain an open question. if there is any repulsion at all of the molecules from the vanes. for a reason which I will explain. now well known.It is of some interest. whether the retardation is due to eddy currents circulating in minute paths. but it is not essential to the operation. comprising a coil and iron core. which came later to my hand. is a motor (diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. or may even rotate in the opposite direction to the moving disc. The experimenter's body is more than sufficient. In many respects this feature is of great interest. one terminal of the motor is connected to one terminal of the generator -. as then the electrostatic attraction between the vanes and the glass of the bulb may be so great as to stop the rotation. In trying the preceding experiment with the electric radiometer the potential should not exceed a certain limit. It is possible. self-induction.the other terminals of motor and generator being insulated in space. the secondary coil is made to overlap partly the primary. and leading thought in trying the experiment. which means that in that experiment the magnet may not rotate.90 course. created n moving field of force. selected this type of motor. in the mass or other circuits of the motor. that rotation is produced by means of a single coil and cote. the iron core is made to encircle the armature. however. I found the idea of the time lag advocated. and a freely movable copper disc in proximity to the latter. however. and close to it a secondary coil. I remember the pleasure I had when. but the fact is that a coil wound upon an iron core and traversed by an alternating current creates a moving field of force. To demonstrate a novel and interesting feature. in conjunction with the historical Arago experiment.in this case the secondary of a high-tension induction coil -. 17). I have. Whether there is a true time lag. which I desire to perform. resistance or equivalent windings. What I wish to show you is that this motor rotates with one single connection between it and the generator. secondary currents. my explanation of the phenomenon. To improve the motor.
it would tend to diminish the self-induction. if kinetic -. It counteracts the self-induction of the latter and allows a strong current to pass. showing the passage of a strong current. through the ground. the higher the frequency -. the more. except. by thus directing the energy of many hundreds or thousands of horse-power. of course. The upper strata of the air are rarefied.and this we know it is. a current passes through the coil and the copper disc is set in rotation. it is not at all easy to obtain rotation with excessive frequencies. and in many places. living . we find it among the subtile speculations of one of your splendid mathematicians and in many hints and statements of thinkers of the present time. It is quite possible. It should be remarked that when such a motor with a closed secondary is used. to make the primary and secondary coils overlap each other more or less. for not only is an insulated plate capable of giving off energy into space. or eventually a lower potential. for certain . and a higher frequency would result in a materially diminished torque. the greater the self-induction of the coil the smaller need be the plate. Neither would be advisable. In such a combination. however. Instead of the experimenter's body. perhaps. Ere many generations pass. There is no doubt that with the enormous potentials obtainable by the Use of high frequencies and oil insulation luminous discharges might be passed through many miles of rarefied air.and this. as the secondary cuts off almost completely the lines of the primary -. unless the secondary is closed through a condenser. and then it would be necessary to employ a much higher frequency and potential. But such schemes are mentioned merely as possibilities. But there is an additional feature of interest about this motor. our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point of the universe. To reach a number of miles out into space requires the overcoming of difficulties of a merely mechanical nature. In such a case. a small metal sheet suspended on a cord may be used with the same result.then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature. motors or lamps might be operated at considerable distances from stationary sources. Of all. for a higher potential would endanger the insulation of the small primary coil. as they might be called. and the other terminal preferably to the ground. it is almost essential. especially of high frequencies. who derives power from the earth. it has been expressed in many ways. in order to produce rotation. Alternate currents. Throughout space there is energy. in the history of old and new. Men have been led to it long ago by instinct or reason. but it likewise capable of deriving it from an alternating electrostatic field. A single coil wound upon a core has a high self-induction. is required to operate the motor. In this instance one of the motor terminals is connected to the insulated plate or body located within the alternating electrostatic field. We shall have no need to transmit power at all. Is this energy static or kinetic! If static our hopes are in vain. and this means that a lower frequency. We find it in the delightful myth of Antheus.and allows the passage of but a minute current. this type of motor was chosen to perform the experiment. for this reason principally.91 hand. that such "no-wire" motors. though in the latter case the available energy is much smaller. namely. Were a secondary closed coil wound upon the core. and that. If an exhausted tube is put in series with the coil. could be operated by conduction through the rarefied air at considerable distances. it is not necessary to have even a single connection between the motor and generator. In this case the plate acts as a condenser in series with the coil. pass with astonishing freedom through even slightly rarefied gases. This idea is not novel. the tube lights brilliantly.
an exhausted tube. may have been slightly brighter. to say the least. of which one. beyond a certain and rather small size of vessel. When all the three bulbs were connected in multiple arc to the coil. The function of this aluminium tube will be explained subsequently. bodies of equal bulk --. to make everything as nearly alike as possible. An interesting observation was made in this experiment. and connected to a source of rapidly alternating electric impulses. this surface in each case representing one of the coatings of a condenser. which cannot be reached except by the employment of special means. while it goes down to posterity as the most interesting. light up an incandescent lamp. because of the better confinement of heat in this case. and heat is everywhere. However impracticable this plan of working may appear in many cases. showing the effect of the size of the bulb at a high degree of exhaustion may be described and shown here. and it was found that the filaments came to about the same brightness. which was placed midway between the two larger ones. and. This result was expected. Finally. It is. when the matter in the bulb becomes "radiant". This observation led me to exchange . and if wires were used at all we ought to be able to supply that energy without a return wire. The three bulbs were sealed to a glass tube. and I will dwell on them briefly. at excessively high degrees of exhaustion. whether the bulb be small or large. over the small bulb. and that in this manner a quantity of light sufficient to afford a practical illuminant may be produced. and on any point of the same we are able to obtain a heavy current. Accordingly. the body is rendered more intensely incandescent in a large bulb. His radiometer will turn in the light of day and in the darkness of the night. therefore. worth while to attempt to determine the best conditions and to invent the best appliances for attaining this object. and in the centre of each was mounted an equal length of an ordinary incandescent lamp filament of uniform thickness. there seems to be. for when either of the bulbs was connected to the coil the luminosity spread through the other two. In each bulb the piece of filament was fastened to the leading-in wire of platinum. by the help of some artifice. Three spherical bulbs of 2 inches. at some distance from it the smallest bulb. In each bulb an equal length of filament protruded above the metal tube. which was connected to a Sprengel pump. It is sufficient to say now that under these conditions equal lengths of filament of the same thickness -.92 or dead. in the largest of them the filament glowed brightest. I have lately found that at ordinary or only slightly differing atmospheric pressures. the smallest bulb. obviously because. Or we may. and even recommendable. and an equal distance from the latter the middle-sized one. it will turn everywhere where there is heat. The brightness of the filaments was now such as mould have been expected on the supposition that the energy given off was proportionate to the surface of the bulb. as it presents a feature of interest. On each glass stem in the inside of the bulb was slipped a highly polished tube made of aluminiun sheet. capable of fusing a thick copper wire. a large bulb has still an advantage. The bulbs were then sealed off and separately tried.in other words. Crookes came nearest to doing it. The heating of a conducting body inclosed in a bulb. care being taken. As regards the size of the vessel. or if the air be sufficiently warmed as to become conducting. when air is a good insulator. hence the three bulbs constituted really one vessel. this beautiful little machine. At lower pressures.were brought to incandescence. in the hope that they might prove useful. A perfected lamp would require but little energy. when air becomes more or less conducting. we may pass an inappreciable current over the line. These observations were the result of a number of experiments. under otherwise equal conditions of test. no perceptible difference in the heating. is dependent on so many things of a different nature. contained in a glass stem sealed in the bulb. or only bringing into its vicinity. it certainly seems practicable. It is now a fact that a body may be rendered incandescent or phosphorescent b) bringing it either in single contact or merely in the vicinity of a source of electric impulses of the proper character. but a comparatively slight one. The carbons glowed then to both the larger bulbs about as expected. A current was then turned on successively on each bulb. The three bulbs were suspended from a straight bare wire connected to a terminal of the coil. must likewise be put on record as the most inefficient machine ever invented! The preceding experiment is only one of many equally interesting experiments which may be performed by the use of only one wire with alternate currents of high potential and frequency. more energy may be given off from the body when the bulb is large. in the production of light. At very high degrees of exhaustion. But. by attaching to the line. the body is brought to a higher temperature if inclosed in a small bulb. decompose a solutic4n in any electrolytic cell by connecting only one pole of the cell to the line or source of energy. that it would be difficult to give a generally applicable rule under which this maximum heating occurs. 3 inches and 4 inches diameter were taken. We may connect an insulated line to a source of such currents. or ~ phosphorescent bulb. if anything. When a high vacuum had been reached. there was less difference between the largest and the middle sited than between the latter and the smallest bulb. unfortunately. of course. the largest bulb being placed at the end of the wire. and in the smallest it only came to redness. Some experiences have already been gained in this direction. but the smallest did not get its share by far. the glass tube carrying the bulbs was sealed off. and hence practically the same amount of energy by a certain potential and frequency is given off from the body. which fitted the stem and was held on it by spring pressure. in the next smaller it was a little less bright. Or we may.
To obviate this loss. it seems that a spherical globe with the refractory body mounted in its centre is the best to employ. of course. the stem with a tube or coating of conducting material. Usually. it is also of some importance.one inch or so -.that is. that portion of the filament which is in the centre of the bulb glows far more intensely than the rest. a filament mounted in the globe is brought to the same degree of incandescence in all parts. When connected to the coil. the wire. in which case. on account of its many remarkable properties. for self-evident reasons. I noted in experiments with such bulbs that the filaments would give way usually at a certain point. most of the energy will be lost in heating the former. as it often happens that. only one is exhausted to a low and the other to a very high degree. Of all the possible constructions. But when that phenomenon occurred many times in succession I recognized its real cause. in consequence of the intense heat. A curious point is that the phenomenon occurs even if two filament: are mounted in a bulb. It seems beyond doubt that the best among metals to employ for this purpose is aluminium. The preceding remarks are only made to aid the experimenter in the first trials. it should be radiated. if the glass be too close to the incandescing body. and the bulb is rendered useless for the purpose. provided the vacuum be very high. No matter what shape the vessel may have. on account of economy.may be lost for the purpose contemplated. where the atoms rebounding from the glass collide.especially when exceedingly high frequencies are used -. and a highly polished tube of one or three layers of the sheet is obtained. supporting the refractory body. and in the first trials I attributed it to a defect in the carbon. I preferably wrap. The sheet is wound tightly around the rod. or filament. and also with the view of preventing an electrical connection between the metal tube and the electrode. in which case they would probably follow the general law of reflection. and the advantage of using it. or in contact with. establish a good electrical connection between the metal tube and the leadinq-in wire. In any case the body should be mounted in the centre. the lower edge of the sheet may be turned inside. and possibly also in parabolical or spherical bulbs with the refractory body or bodies placed in the focus or foci of the same. that all the energy supplied to the bulb from the source should reach without lass the body to be heated. and I then observed that whichever of the bulbs was in the middle it was by far less bright than it was in any other position.93 thc position of the bulbs. it may be strongly heated and become more or less conducting. out of the question to reach this theoretical result. the pressure is generally sufficient to prevent it from slipping off. or may. a thin tube. The tube is conveniently prepared by wrapping around a rod fastened in a lathe a piece of aluminium sheet of the proper size. therefore. if the exhaustion be low. but it is also attained in a cylindrical vessel with one or two straight filaments coinciding with its axis. To illustrate the effect. unless the speed were excessive. whereas in the latter. as usual. especially at high degrees of exhaustion. the refractory body is placed in the centre of the bulb and it is usually supported on a glass stem containing the leading-in wire. or when they were attached to the corners of an equilateral triangle of copper wire. and the glass stem is violently bombarded and heated. the stem with several layers of thin mica which extends at least as far as the metal tube. found to be due to the electrostatic action between the bulbs. from there. I usually screen the rarefied gas surrounding the stem from the inductive action of the leading-in wire by providing. This object is best attained in the spherical bulb. its distance from the incandescing: body should be properly estimated. In experience it has been demonstrated that in such a globe a refractory body of a given bulk is more easily brought to incandescence than when otherwise shaped bulbs are used. of a diameter somewhat smaller than that of the glass stem. and. but it is possible by a proper construction of the illuminating device to approximate it more or less. For many reasons. Perhaps the best way is to make the top of the glass tube for about an inch. The greater part of the energy supplied to the bulb is then used up in heating the metal tube. The aluminium sheet should project above the glass stem more or less -. but if the exhaustion be high and the bulb be spherical or pear-shaped.should be cut out diagonally. There is also an advantage in giving to the incandescent body the shape of a sphere. if they be very near together. for the difficulties which he encounters he may soon find means to overcome in his own way. This mystifying result was. To still further reduce the danger arising from the heating of the glass stem. In some bulbs I have also used an outside insulating cover. with . each being connected to one terminal of the coil. When they were placed at a considerable distance. Its only fault is that it is easily fusible and. this corner turns toward the inside and comes very near to. the rarefied gas surrounding the stem is acted upon inductively.or else. again. what is still more curious. as the electrified atoms should in all cases rebound normally from the surface they strike. of a much smaller diameter. and spinning the rod very fast. focal points form and the filament is heated to a higher degree at or near such points. for safety. it is desirable. grasping the sheet firmly with clean chamois leather or blotting paper. In order to bring a refractory body inclosed in a bulb to incandescence. or at least to reduce it to a minimum. of course. I have here two bulbs of the same size. but. It is. though the latter is not probable. the one which is nearest to the refractory incandescent body -. and from nowhere else. As the potential of this wire is alternated. The upper inside corner of the sheet -. they glowed about in the order determined by their surfaces. whereupon it may be ruptured. To illustrate the effect of the screen. is made of the finest aluminium sheet. by its conductivity. As to the shape of the vessel. I have here two small bulbs which are alike. In this manner by far the greater portion of the energy supplied to the bulb -. When slipped on the stem. and slipped on the stem. the filament in the former glows uniformly throughout all its length.
Of all the supports used I have found an ordinary incandescent lamp filament to be the best. When they are both connected together to the terminal. and most of the bombardment is directed upon the tube. Originally the two bulbs were joined by a tube which was connected to a Sprengel pump. its usefulness is therefore limited to very high degrees of exhaustion when it is insulated from the electrode . the electrification instantly spreading over its surface. when the gas is well conducting. to cause a visible discharge to pass through the bulb. were sealed off.which are reached by using great care and special means in connection with the Sprengel pump -. first the connecting tube. In this case. Crookes. In my opinion. the metal tube not only does not act as an electrostatic screen. This repulsion may perhaps be sufficient to prevent a large portion of the atoms from striking the tube. when the gas as a whole is nonconducting. and the atoms are rebelled with less energy than they would be if they would strike against a good insulator. especially if they are knobs or spheres of some site. be present. namely. The metal tube placed in the stem containing the leading-in wire performs really two distinct functions: First. strike the tube sooner than others. To be explicit. of low frequency. and hence the electric density at any point is small. the carbon filament in the bulb provided with the aluminium screen in rendered highly incandescent. namely. In such case the discharge may pass with great freedom through the rarefied gas through which a low-frequency discharge may not pass.94 their stems. But this must diminish. second. by reason of its conductivity. the metal tube is in good electrical connection with -the leading-in wire. I say slender support. or currents. the repulsion which the electrified tube must exert upon the similarly electrified atoms. Finally. showing the importance of the screening. so when the coil is operated by currents of very high frequency. In elucidation of the preceding remark it is necessary to state that what is a "non-striking" vacuum for a coil operated.when the matter in the globe is in the ultra-radiant state. not even come to redness. secondly. and the tube is electrified. the less the spark discharge is able to jump between the terminals. This. The shadow of the upper edge of the tube is then sharply defined upon the bulb. The effectiveness of the metal tube as an electrostatic screen depends largely on the degree of exhaustion. neither of the above effects can occur. the more telling will be both the effects: What I have just said may afford an explanation of the phenomenon observed by Prof. When they are separately connected to the coil giving a certain potential. principally because among conductors it can withstand the highest degrees of heat. up to a limit. At excessively high degrees of exhaustion -. the difference is even more apparent. as a sort of equalizer or dampener of the bombardment against the stem. in other words. at very low degrees of exhaustion. At a somewhat lower degree of exhaustion. In addition to acting as a more or less effective screen. or of the glass stem containing the leading-in wire. but even is a drawback. and. the conducting tube or coating may also act. the progress of the following atoms against the tube is more or less checked by. but at any rate it must diminish the energy of their impact. which is about the ordinary "nonstriking" vacuum. When a high vacuum had been reached. and consequently intense heating and possible deterioration of the slender support of the refractory incandescent body. the conductor acts as a dampener of the motion of the atoms in the two ways pointed out. as nearly alike as possible. to whatever extent it may fail to act electrostatically. or atoms. and the molecules. At ordinary atmospheric pressures just the reverse rule holds good: the higher the frequency. is not. it acts mechanically. leading-in wires and incandescent lamp filaments tied to the latter. the energy lost in the bombardment for two reasons: first. is to be expected. the charge given up by the atoms spreads over a great area. by impulses. while the filament in the other bulb may. and then the bulbs. Those which come first in contact with it give up their superfluous charge. the stem of the other has none. as ordinarily. with the greater freedom they move. or atoms. hence. . aiding to a considerable extent the dissipation of the energy laterally from the leading-in wire. and is a means for concentrating more energy upon the same. it certainly must happen that some molecules. the higher the degree of exhaustion. still it protects the support of the refractory button. preventing the bombardment. the conducting tube is always of some advantage for although it may not greatly economize energy. As long as the electrical connection is not good.that is. on the other hand. they are therefore of the same degree of exhaustion. so as to carry away the smallest possible amount of heat by conduction. thus economizing the energy supplied to the bulb. a much higher potential is needed if a conductor. for it is evident that in order to confine the heat more completely to the incandescing body its support should be very thin. of course. and. I assume the action as follows: Suppose a rhythmical bombardment to occur against the conducting tube by reason of its imperfect action as a screen. To whatever extent the aluminium tube performs the function of a screen. the fewer the atoms. especially of many surfaces. The stem of one bulb is provided with an aluminium tube. even though the potential be much higher. although in reality the latter bulb takes generally more energy than the former. with the same potential. that a discharge through a bulb is established with much greater facility when an insulator than when a conductor is present in the same. as the tube is electrified by the atoms which first come in contact with it. it acts more or less as an electrostatic screen. the screen still does well. by far. in the true meaning of the word. and the rarefied gas well conducting. act as independent carriers of electric charges. it acts most perfectly. and generally as long as the matter moves predominantly in straight lines. It is clear that when the exhaustion is very low.
in the centre of which is fastened a metallic terminal t. as mica powder. M is a sheet of thin mica wound in several layers around the stem s. which protrudes . with the glass stem s.the space between the plug P and the neck of the bulb should be filled with some good insulating material. if the cement used is conducting and most generally it is sufficiently so -. This terminal must be well insulated from the metal tube S. Since the bombardment against the stem containing the leading-in wire is due to the inductive action of the latter upon the rarefied gas. 19. l9 illustrates such a bulb in a somewhat more advanced stage of perfection. which serves to investigate the effect of the tube under various conditions. and 20. In this bulb the aluminium tube is provided with an external connection. It is referred to chiefly to suggest a line of experiment followed. it is of advantage to reduce this action as far as practicable by employing a very thin wire. which illustrate various arrangements with a type of bulb most generally used. for the connection to the lead-in wire w. Fig. serving to support the refractory button m in the centre. and by making the wire passing through the rarefied gas as short as practicable. l8 is a section though a spherical bulb L. of insulating material. containing the leading-in wire w. A metallic tube S is fastened by means of some cement to the neck of the tube. 20 shows a bulb made for experimental purposes. Fig. In the tube is screwed a plug P. surrounded by a very thick insulation of glass or other material. 21). therefore. and a is the aluminium tube. Fig. which has a lamp filament 1 fastened to it. I must now refer to Figs.95 For the sake of clearness of some of the remarks before made. To combine these features I employ a large tube T (Fig. 18.
or generally sufficiently hot to conduct. and then the discharge may break through the glass somewhere in the middle of the stem. For this purpose it is sufficient to surround a conducting electrode with a non-conducting material. such as a piece of carbon. The wire w. the role of the conductor may become quite insignificant. when it is desired to produce the incandescence of a body inclosed in a bulb by means of these currents. but when the frequency becomes excessive. preferably a large one. with a large tube T protruding into the part of the bulb containing the refractory button m. In this case the wire leading from the outside into the bulb is omitted. in spite of the fact that the platinum wire is in good electrical connection with the rarefied gas through the piece of carbon or metal at the top. it is in reality what we might expect to occur. if small. which warms it up and impairs its insulating power. protruding into the bulb. and I protect the top of the glass stem against the heat by a small. the energy required being supplied through condenser coatings C C. The bulb may be exhausted to a fairly high degree. recalling those drawn from a clear surface of mercury. A bulb.96 into the bulb to some distance. When observed for the first time the phenomenon must appear very curious. the piece of carbon. will surely be cracked in consequence o~ the heating by the brushes which are apt to form in the upper part of the tube. When the bulb is connected with the coil. . but its brightness immediately diminishes. and shows in a striking manner how radically different alternate currents. aluminium tube a and a layer of mica underneath the same. or impulses. and a good conducting body. of course. notwithstanding the fact that the terminals are joined by a conductor of low resistance. If this precaution is not taken. The energy supplied to the wire leading into the bulb is given off partly by direct action through the carbon button. that the body should be a conductor. not necessary. and party by inductive action through the glass surrounding the wire. may become highly incandescent at first. the latter -. Although this appears most singular at first. should be well insulated -. Fig. 22 illustrates a similar arrangement. lose their brightness. and therefore the potential necessary to operate the lamp very high. for even a perfect non-conductor may be quite as readily heated. The case is thus analogous to that in which a condenser shunted by a conductor of low resistance is connected to a source of alternating currents.namely. But. as they heat the glass rapidly. they. or currents of low frequency. and carries on the top a very short glass stem s. in the form of bright sparks. for instance -. the conductor gets the most. the tube T. and the condenser is perfectly safe. and cease when the glass at the ruptured place becomes incandescent. of high frequency behave. as usual. I have found that mica powder is the best to employ. With such currents . as compared with steady currents. The insulating packing P should in this construction be tightly fitting to the glass. In the latter case the difference of potential at the terminals of the condenser may become so great as to rupture the dielectric. As long as the frequencies are low. and rather wide. nearly to the point when phosphorescence begins to appear. or otherwise the discharge might avoid passing through the wire w. especially if the vacuum be excellent. When frequencies such as are obtained by mechanical means are used. may be taken. but with frequencies obtainable with condensers I have no doubt that the glass may give way without previous heating. The first sparks are singularly bright. which connects the inside condenser coating to the incandescent button m. of course. Among many insulating powders I have tried. passing through the large tube to the outside of the bulb. into which is sealed the leading-in wire w.the phenomenon would of course not occur. The molecular bombardment against the glass stem in the bulb is a source of great trouble. may be mounted in it upon a platinum wire sealed in thc glass stem. As illustration I will cite a phenomenon only too frequently and unwillingly observed.with a glass tube. near the exhausted globe.and the space between ought to be filled out with some excellent insulator. I think that the rupture of the glass is more or less the consequence of the bombardment. It is.
supported on a wire w. which serves to hold it firmly in a socket S of insulating material into which it is cemented. the body to be rendered incandescent. being most exposed to the same. as far as the socket S reaches. for increasing the action in some cases by the application of an external conducting coating. In many experiments in which bodies of a different kind were mounted in the bulb as. 23. As soon. passes through the centre of filament is rendered incandescent In the middle portion. 24 illustrates one of the bulbs used. but it was convenient when the object was to excite phosphorescence. or focused upon. then the bombardment continues in the ordinary way. The globe L is blown out on the bottom into a very small bulb b. The arrangement diagrammatically indicated in Fig. for instance. in which a thin incandescent lamp filament is coated with a non-conductor. 23. It is so arranged that it reaches very nearly as high as the carbon and only the non-conductor m projects a little above it. on the top. In this instance a nonconductor m is mounted in a piece of common arc light carbon so as to project some small distance above the latter. the lower parts being protected by the aluminium tube. I have also constructed during these experiments many such single-wire bulbs with or without internal electrode. until the same is sufficiently heated to become conducting. which is wrapped with several layers of mica. 24 was found to be an inferior one when it was desired to render incandescent a filament or button supported in the centre of the globe. and supports a button of the same material on the top. and the external electrode is connected to a terminal of the coil. It consists of a spherical globe L. A different arrangement used in some of the bulbs constructed is illustrated in Fig. in which the radiant matter was projected against. . A fine lamp filament f. where the bombardment proceeding from the lower inside surface of the globe is most intense. indicated in Fig. some observations of interest were made. however. The bombardment goes at first against the upper surface of carbon. in the bulb described before in Fig. provided with a long neck n. The lower portion of the globe. Fig.97 as. is rendered conducting. for instance. as the non-conductor m is heated it is rendered good conducting. The carbon piece is connected to the leading-in wire passing through a glass stem. either by g tinfoil coating or otherwise. and then it becomes the centre of the bombardment. An aluminium tube a is employed as usual for screening. 21. At the start the bombardment goes on by inductive action through the non-conductor.
and if one of these is more easily disintegrated than the others. of a temperature far above the mean. by high speeds and collisions. But a great difficulty when proceeding in this way is encountered. is impossible with most of the refractory bodies employed as electrodes. At first one may see a narrow funnel of white light projected against the top of the globe. When the point of the ruby fuses the phosphorescence becomes very powerful. but likewise of larger lumps. then. where upon the same process occurs on another place. but a better way would be to fuse. as in an arc. higher speeds were reached. or that a counter force is created. I endeavored repeatedly to fuse zirconia. How can such high temperatures be arrived at! How are the highest degrees of heat reached in nature! By the impact of stars. or half a dozen phosphorescent spots mill appear on the globe. they fall. necessitated. would be the means which. Such a small sphere could be manufactured from a diamond or some other crystal. in most cases the body is carried off before it can fuse and form a drop. but in an exhausted bulb we can concentrate any amount of energy upon a minute button. not a luminous one.I presume because in such cases. would enable us to reach the highest temperature. When oxygen and hydrogen combine. For instance. generally speaking. three. and I think it to be the principal cause of the disintegration. 23 is intended to illustrate the effect observed with a ruby drop. for a weak invisible discharge occurs always. more matter was projected -. as the heating of the glass by the projected particles of the oxide was so rapid that in the first trial the bulb was cracked almost in an instant when the current was turned on. of course. 13ut the luminous patches are constantly changing in position. These places of the glass are evidently mote violently bombarded than others. and then keep it in the bulb at a temperature somewhat below its point of fusion. at any rate. The observation made was in accordance with generally accepted notions. that in such cases. instantly most of the discharge passes through that point. The carbon cup containing the zirconia had to be mounted very low in the neck of a large bulb. the local tearing off meets with the limitations incident to the experiment. but there are upon it points constantly shifting and wandering around. Fig. two. placing it in a cup or arc light carbon as indicated in Fig. nor by confining heat in a furnace. metaphorically speaking. We cannot go very far with a blast. this. To the eye the electrode appears uniformly brilliant. sufficient experimental evidence can be obtained in the following manner: Exhaust a bulb to a very high degree. 23. which.as. At a certain point. at least when the electrode is at a lower temperature. and the stream of the particles projected out of the carbon cup was of a vivid white. which is then brought to a higher temperature than the others. In a collision any rate of heat generation may be attained. this being due to the unevenly distributed electric density. or molecules. and this materially hastens the process of deterioration.into a small drop. That some such thing occurs. in all probability. it melted very readily into a drop. with the same potential. it was carried off before it could be fused. and on the facility with which the body was evaporated. some oxide . by sharp projections. or lumps thrown off from the electrode. and a minute patch is probably fused and evaporated. The before mentioned difficulty did not exist. for instance. of the residual atmosphere. when the body mounted in the carbon cup offered great resistance to deterioration. the other. most of the electricity supplied is carried off from that body. In a chemical process we are limited. even if the surface is highly polished. Interesting and useful results can no doubt be reached in the direction of extreme degrees of heat. just as soon as a high temperature was reached there was generally one of the bodies which seemed to take most of the bombardment upon itself. because it cannot be compressed in so hard a cake that it would not be carried off quickly. the refractory button in the bulb should be in the form of a sphere with a highly polished surface.meaning by the latter term not only the throwing off of atoms. The heating of the glass by the projected particles was found to be always greater when the carbon cup contained a body which was rapidly carried off -. molecules. of course. but as the atoms are projected with much greater speed from the surface of the drop. From experiences of this kind I am led to infer that. disintegrated-. per unit of time. however. but whether it was compressed in a cake o~ made into a paste with carbon. among other things. Leaving practicability out of consideration. of which it would be difficult to give an adequate idea. so that with a fairly high potential the discharge cannot pass -.that is. being thereby relieved. which is especially well observable if one manages to produce very few. In a highly exhausted bulb electricity is carried off from the electrode by independent carriers. generally speaking. This difficulty exists principally with an oxide such as zirconia. leaving the primary current on no mote than for an instant. and partly the atoms. and . It is now possible that in consequence of the violent disintegration the spot attacked sinks in temperature. or.that is. Now raise slowly and carefully the potential. This quality appeared to depend principally on the point of fusion. namely. Assume that a point of the electrode gets hotter. in my opinion.98 It was found. in order to be most durable. irregularities of the electrode. where it produces an irregularly outlined phosphorescent patch. It seems to me quite probable that a similar process takes place in the bulb even with a homogenous electrode. and this indicates that the configuration of the electrode is rapidly changing. and also because. or others. There is bound to be some irregularity. which are partly the atoms. no matter where the bombardment began. and this the more. soon the glass gets hot and "tired". more particles would strike the glass. If the electrode is composed of bodies of different character. It glowed with a most intense light. zirconia -. or. as upon an increase of the temperature the body is still more easily disintegrated. when an oxide was first fused in an oxygen blast and then mounted in the bulb. Generally during the process of fusion magnificent light effects were noted. from a definite height. by the employment of extreme degrees of temperature.
It has been recently produced by Mr. S. This means that for rapidly alternating currents the filament should be shorter and thicker. When the potential is very high. judging from the quantity of the light emitted. the current was turned on slowly so as to prevent the cracking of the button. suppose we diminish to any degree we choose the energy steadily supplied. assuming that it be worked at the same luminous intensity. The button was heated to the point of fusion. As it is more than likely that this body is not yet generally known. Leaving out of consideration the observer's possible. and when it melted it did not. sharply defined line. The platinum wire had to be taken of sufficient thickness to prevent its melting in the fire. that a ruby is melted into a drop by a steady application of energy. G. One of the experiments performed may be mentioned here by way of illustration.say 20. A small piece of pumice stone was stuck on a platinum wire. These two showed up about equally. and to the eye the drop will appear to be of a certain brilliancy. apparently. In this manner an intensely phosphorescent. can a body under these conditions be brought from a solid to a liquid state with evolution of less light! When the potential of a body is rapidly alternated it is certain that the structure is jarred. The wire with the button was then mounted in a bulb. and this would indicate a lower temperature. it is necessary to employ very small buttons.the effect upon the structure may be considerable.99 now only the outer edge of the patch glows. From experience I may say that just the opposite holds good: the button withstands the bombardment better with currents of very high frequency. at least. then the ruby drop will emit relatively less visible and more invisible waves than before. I do not know why the name "carborundum" has been given to it. Through the kindness of the inventor. instead. or when held in a burner to get a better idea of the degree of heat. In the course of these experiments a great many trials were made with all kinds of carbon buttons. The latter would not exist by a steady supply of the energy. to cite another example. It is intended to replace ordinary diamond powder for polishing precious stones. Nevertheless there can be no doubt that all kinds of carbon are fused under the molecular bombardment.diamond and carborundum. When it forms a drop it will emit visible and invisible waves. as the mass possesses considerable viscosity. corresponding to the outline of the drop. I may mention here another feature of some interest. the greater the departure from the steady flow -. for many reasons. still they help to jar and loosen the structure. a steady or low frequency current is better. but as soon as the action of the gas is desired and important. is fused by currents alternating with extreme rapidity.that is. supply energy which rises and falls according to a certain law. high frequencies are preferable. From many experiencies I conclude that lamp filaments obtained in this manner can be advantageously used only with low potentials and low frequency currents.. While in the charcoal fire.the worse it would be for the filament. and two kinds of invisible waves: that is. etc. though the observations do not amount to a certitude. they blackened the globe very quickly. But this is due to the fact that a high frequency discharge passes through a rarefied gas with much greater freedom than a steady or low frequency discharge. small bubbles and cavities are formed. The higher the frequency -.the ordinary visible. which cause dark colored spots to sweep across the globe. As long. The wire was next placed between two pieces of charcoal and a burner applied so as to produce an intense heat. which spreads slowly: over the globe as the drop gets larger. Electrodes made of ordinary carbon buttons were decidedly more durable when the buttons were obtained by the application of enormous pressure. Electrodes prepared by depositing carbon in well known ways did not show up well. I obtained a short while ago some samples which I desired to test in regard to their qualities of phosphorescence and capability of withstanding high degrees of heat. and. sufficient to melt down the pumice stone into a small glass-like button. for example. in addition. When the mass begins to boil. a lamp filament is not capable of withstanding as long with currents of extreme frequency as it does with steady currents. unless there is something in the process of its manufacture which justifies this selection. but the liquid state must be one of great instability. and this will say that with the former we can work with a lower potential or with a less violent impact. error. the button glowed with great brilliancy. it would be erroneous to conclude that such a refractory button as used in these bulbs would be deteriorated quicker by currents of extremely high frequency than by steady or low frequency currents. glow with the same brilliancy as before. Next.000 per second -. The bulb may be turned downward without fear of the drop falling off. Pa. and even probable. the ordinary dark waves of all lengths. and. waves of a well-defined character. as the gas is of no consequence. Thus it would seem that when a platinum wire.. and upon exhausting the same to a high degree. U. E. then. Of all the bodies tried there were two which withstood best -. is produced. for instance. In this case the observation is rendered very difficult on account of the intense heat produced. It appeared that under the molecular impact caused by the rapidly alternating potential the body was fused and maintained in that state at a lower temperature in a highly exhausted bulb than was the case at normal pressure and application of heat in the ordinary way -. it emits at the point of fusion less light and more invisible radiation than it does when melted by a steady current. although the vibrations may be few -. the question is. Acheson. though the total energy used up in the process of fusion is the same in both cases. Now. A.that is. which I believe to have noted in the course of these experiments. which will be in a definite ratio. But if the truth of this remark were demonstrated. Suppose. and first melted to it in a gas burner. . there will be emitted from it three different kinds of vibrations -. of Monongahela City. in order to bring them to the point of fusion. Or. and I have been informed that it accomplishes this object quite successfully. Some kinds of carbon withstand so well that. If this really be the case. but the latter was preferable. I will venture to call your attention to it. when the drop is formed.
which. finally. I then once more dip the button in tar and hold it again over a plate until the tar is evaporated.in the form of "crystals" and of powder. a metal of any other conductor might exhibit the quality of phosphorescence. or burning. even such as diamond or ruby. first a weak and then a strong discharge is passed through the bulb to carbonize the tar and expel all gases. It withstands excessively high degrees of heat. can a conductor phosphoresce? What is there in such a body as a metal. When a larger button is required I repeat the process several times. unless it is that property which characterizes it as a conductor? For it is a fact that most of the phosphorescent bodies lose that quality when they are sufficiently heated to become more or less conducting. but rather resembled pieces of broken up egg coal of fine quality. and later it is brought to a very intense incandescence. Therefore it is quite possible that at some extremely high frequency. The powder. and withstand for a long time even an oxygen blast. I repeat this process as many times as it is necessary to obtain a certain thickness of coating. is far more quickly destroyed. of course. I attributed to the site and irregularity of the grains of the diamond. prepared to encounter two difficulties: first. It was of interest to find whether carborundum possesses the quality of phosphorescence. a small quantity of a glass-like residue is left. occurs.100 Carborundum can be obtained in two forms . When compressed strongly they conduct very well. since we know that when crystals. To make such a button of carborundum crystals I proceed in the following manner: I take an ordinary lamp filament and dip its point in tar. When the blast is directed against them they at first form a cake of some compactness. that would deprive it of the quality of phosphorescence. or some other thick substance or paint which may be readily carbonized. The former appear to the naked eye dark colored. Then. It affords a magnificent polishing material for stones. Taking then most of the paint off by rubbing the filament against a piece of chamois leather. The difficulty is that the binding material gives way. I next pass the point of the filament through the crystals. it should be capable of phosphorescence. especially of powder of the best quality. I prepared buttons of diamond dust in the same manner as of carborundum. or perhaps entirely deprived of that property. The majority were opaque. The time has been too short to make a satisfactory study of the properties of this product. and these came in durability nearest to those prepared of carborundum. another possible way how a conductor might at least appear to phosphoresce. When the powder is used I have found it best to proceed as follows: I make a thick paint of carborundum and tar. I hold it over a hot plate until the tar evaporates and the coating becomes firm. would not be apt to exhibit very prominently this quality. By regulating the distance from the plate the tar is slowly dried out and the button becomes solid. even though it be entirely incapable of phosphorescing under the impact of a low-frequency discharge. and then hold it vertically over a hot plate. as regards the rough product. for instance. The only difficulty which I have found in its use in connection with these experiments was to find some binding material which would resist the heat and the effect of the bombardment as successfully as carborundum itself does. The mass withstands for a very long time the blast without further fusion. and as to whether the various phenomena . second. probably in consequence of the fusion of impurities they contain. but also because it seems to unite with the carbon better than any other material I have tried.properly prepared under great pressure -. and. The crystals are a kind of carbon containing some impurities. for instance. are finely powdered. There is no doubt that such a button -. I suppose. is practically non-conducting. One is. and it does not blacken the globe as ordinary carbon does. but very much finer. and it is a fact that conductors do not phosphoresce. when behaving practically as a non-conductor. and I think that it is even possible to produce thin threads or sticks of carborundum which will replace the ordinary filaments in an incandescent lamp. but not as well as ordinary carbon. As it does not seem to blacken the globe in the least. the latter is of neatly the same color as ordinary diamond powder. when a good vacuum has been reached. The button being mounted in a bulb. the powder. Considerable doubt still exists as to what really is phosphorescence. but are very brilliant. will withstand the effect of the bombardment fully as well as anything we know. The question presents itself here. There is. I have here a number of bulbs which I have provided with buttons of carborundum. but there were some which were transparent and colored. A carborundum coating seems to be more durable than other coatings. leaving only a hard mass which firmly binds the crystals. the crystals adhering to the surface of the drop. A coating of zirconia or any other oxide. which is obtained from the crystals in some way. the "crystals". they lose the property of phosphorescence to a considerable degree. but a slow carrying off. however. and the carborundum is slowly thrown off after some time. is melted alumina. being exceedingly fine. it is little deteriorated by molecular bombardment. if a metal be in a large measure. they are good conducting. it might be found useful for coating the filaments of ordinary Incandescent lamps.of carborundum. On the point of the coated filament I form a button in the same manner. but the binding paste gave way much more quickly in the diamond buttons: this. not only because the carborundum can withstand high degrees of heat. The tar softens and forms a drop on the point of the filament. and I generally also cover the filament a certain distance below the button with crystals. but enough experience has been gained in a few weeks I have experimented upon it to say that it does possess some remarkable properties in many respects. and pass a lamp filament through the paint. however. When viewed under a microscope the samples of crystals given to me did not appear to have any definite form. they are extremely hard.
The production of a small electrode capable of withstanding enormous temperatures I regard as of the greatest importance in the manufacture of light. the quantity of light which is obtained in the present incandescent lamp by the same expenditure of energy. because powdered carborundum probably does not behave like a phosphorescent sulphide. I made a number of experiments with the samples of crystals obtained. the surface of a piece of metal or other conductor is rendered strongly luminous. for when an aluminium electrode was highly polished it exhibited more or less the same phenomenon. and therefore it would be necessary. It all depends on how we supply the energy. in the other less. which could be finely powdered without impairing the phosphorescence. but at the same time it is found that it remains comparatively cool. under the molecular impact. Some effects. or other electrodes capable of withstanding extremely high degrees of heat. How could the observer call the luminosity thus produced! Even if the analysis of the light would teach him something definite. until the energy continuously radiated would equal that intermittently supplied. As this statement might be misunderstood I think it necessary to expose clearly the problem with which in this line of work we are confronted. I could not produce phosphorescence distinctly. if not more. and the manner in which. for it is a mere question of potential of speed. still he would probably rank it under the phenomena of phosphorescence. theoretically at least. the tests with the powder are not conducive. and what kind of vibrations we set up: in one case the vibrations are more. again. but if the impact were repeated with sufficient rapidity they would produce a continuous impression upon his retina. and yet be at a comparatively very low mean temperature. the surface of the metal piece against which the atoms are projected would be rendered highly incandescent. but I must remark that a decisive opinion cannot be formed until other experimenters have gone over the same ground. the film is far more intense. its chief value will be found in the production of coatings. buttons. It would enable us to obtain. and cause it to emit less light than when fused by the application of energy in ordinary ways. The metal piece would rise in temperature until equilibrium was attained -. Its dead color brightens considerably under the molecular impact. But the supplied energy might under such conditions not be sufficient to bring the body to any more than a very moderate mean temperature. by means of currents of very high frequencies. The crystals possess a noteworthy feature. In the eye of the observer a single impact of the atoms would cause an instantaneous flash. since the process of heat generation would be incompatibly faster than that of radiating or conducting away from the surface of the collision. which I had not observed before. while at a certain mean temperature. at a certain degree of exhaustion the electrode is covered with a milky film. than it would emit if brought to that temperature by a steady supply. certainly 20 times. The powder behaved in some experiments as though it contained alumina. If the carborundum proves useful in connection with these and similar experiments. Still. . especially if the frequency of the atomic impacts be very low -just enough that the fluctuation of the intensity of the light emitted could not be detected by the eye. and snow-white. for example. for instance. in my opinion. This estimate may appeal. on account of their being conducting.that is. To him then the surface of the metal would appear continuously incandescent and of constant luminous intensity. By their help we may cause a body to emit more light. to obtain it in a large lump and polish up the surface. owing to the manner in which the energy is supplied. and. emit a strong light. we may bring a body to the point of fusion. adapted to affect our sense of vision. thin conductors. but I am now convinced it does not phosphoresce. to be sufficiently high. It is conceivable that in such a way both conducting and nonconducting bodies may be maintained at a certain-luminous intensity. obtained with carborundum in the first trials. but the energy required would very greatly vary with the nature and properties of the bodies. The body would now. Suppose that in an exhausted bulb. These and some foregoing remarks of a speculative nature were made merely to bring out curious features of alternate currents or electric impulses. a solution will be arrived at. Assume the potential of the electrode. but in subsequent experiments it appeared that it was devoid of that quality. would not this luminosity be called phosphorescence! Now such a result. but in reality I think it is far from being so. which is separated by a dark space from the glow filling the bulb. and consequently the speed of the projected atoms. This I found later to be merely an effect of the bright surface of the crystals. In a bulb provided with a single electrode in the shape of a small circular metal disc.to many exaggerated.101 comprised under this head are due to the same causes. but it did not exhibit with sufficient distinctness the red of the latter. in order to make a decisive test. while in reality the light would be either intermittent or at least changing periodically in intensity. When the metal disc is covered with carborundum crystals. I attributed to phosphorescence. but rather like powdered ruby or diamond. principally because it would have been of special interest to find that they are capable of phosphorescence. is possible.
It did not emit much perceptible heat. however. and in this fact -. Under the violent impact of the molecules of the gas surrounding it. In order to bring such a lamp with one or two electrodes to a great perfection. In order to reduce the deterioration of the electrode to the minimum. the formation of a large photosphere is facilitated. a flame photosphere. much smaller in site. Still. secondly. Were there means at hand for producing electric impulses of a sufficiently high frequency. is performed on the gas. In one of the experiments this evening a brush was produced at the end of a wire. But as such means are not at disposal. it should not occur. which rise and fall more or less harmonically. when the bombardment begins. by producing a highly .so far that the brush emits a powerful light. In an incandescent lamp quite different considerations apply. But to maintain a mass of gas at a high degree of incandescence in a glass vessel. but around it is a mass of highly incandescent gas. most of the work is performed on the surface of the button. than by impulses obtained from a disruptive discharge coil. secondly. the potential needed to perform a given amount of work is much smaller. As the potential is very high. first. the quicker the mean vibration. Given. the solid and the gas form one conducting body. it becomes necessary to place The terminal in a bulb and rarefy the air in the same. the greater is the economy of the light production. and the life of the lamp diminishes so rapidly with the increase of the degree of incandescence the economical reasons compel us to work it at a low incandescence. The higher the incandescence. and usually excite a strong phosphorescence. but is it the less a flame because it does not scorch my hand! Is it the less a flame because it does not hurt my eye by its brilliancy! The problem is precisely to produce in the bulb such a flame. and it should not be thought that by pushing the incandescence higher the electrode is actually less deteriorated. But if an incandescent lamp is operated with currents of very high frequency. The effect produced is very pretty but for economical reasons it would be perhaps preferable to prevent. to confine it as much as possible to the central portion of the globe. and the rules for the most economical working must be considerably modified. a source of heat and light.which. this result must be reached. and the I•3s on the electrode. for. two chief advantages. it is necessary to employ impulses of very high frequency. Without much reflecting one would think that in pushing so far the incandescence of the electrode it would be instantly volatilized. In the latter case there is no doubt that most of the damage is done by the fundamental sudden discharges. This is done merely to enable the apparatus to perform the work which it is not capable of performing at ordinary air pressure. The intensity of the light emitted depends principally on the frequency and potential of the impulses. But after a careful consideration he would find that. of course. First. as in such case it is. that is. The higher the incandescence of the photosphere the more it approaches in conductivity to that of the electrode.lies principally the future value of such a lamp. not the object to excite phosphorescence. the bulb could be done away with. This brush was a flame. or impulses. This loss in the bulb is principally dependent on the potential of the impulses and on the electric density on the surface of the electrode. theoretically. An electrode lasts much longer when kept at incandescence by currents. in order to push the density very far. One of the elements of loss in such a lamp is the bombardment of the globe. they strike the glass. as a result. or to economize the energy by confining the heat. with extreme frequencies.102 Any one who begins a study of the problem will be apt to think that what is wanted in a lamp with an electrode is a very high degree of incandescence of the electrode. In other words. The formation of a powerful photosphere is consequently the very means for protecting the electrode. but probably at a temperature too high for most of the refractory bodies known. The high incandescence of the button is a necessary evil. and for transmitting them. It is of the greatest importance to employ the smallest possible button. which have a most important bearing upon the economy of the light production. With a diamond. then. which shatter quickly the structure. among others. nor did it glow with an intense light. theoretically. and as some loss of energy results from the bombardment. There the gas is not at all concerned: the whole of the work is performed on the filament. the molecules are projected with great speed. This protectic4n. the deterioration of the electrode is reduced by reason of the fact that we employ a great many small impacts. it will always be necessary to keep the incandescent mass away from the glass. the action of the gas cannot be neglected. it would be safe no matter how much it is forced beyond that limit. the bombardment against the globe. The high frequency secures. many hundred times the volume of the electrode. and the more. the small electrode is of course brought to an extremely high temperature. At first. but incomparably more powerful. unless it were used to protect the electrode. comparatively. for any suddenness hastens the process of destruction. and. it is desirable that the vibration be harmonic. is experimentally demonstrated -. but when a highly conducting photosphere is formed the button is comparatively relieved. the problem in such a lamp is to bring a mass of gas to the highest possible incandescence. carborundum or zircon button the photosphere can be as much as one thousand times the volume of the button. is a relative one. an electrode which can withstand to a very high limit the effect of the bombardment and outward strain. obtained from a high-frequency alternator. In employing very high frequencies the loss of energy by the bombardment is greatly reduced. but what is really wanted is the high incandescence of the gas surrounding thee button. instead of a few violent ones. The consequence is that the further is forced the incandescence the more work. therefore. There he will be mistaken. or at least reduce to the minimum. In the bulb we are able to intensify the action to any degree -. and on the electric density on the surface of the electrode.
and with these high frequencies the losses are very small. 22. the body of the experimenter merely served to intensify the action. Such illuminating deices will necessarily involve the use of very high potentials. the shock from it producing no inconvenience. It is sufficient for this purpose to bring in contact with the bulb. unaffected by any possible combination of circumstances which might render even a low-potential appliance dangerous to life and property. it will have no leading-in wire. and this. It should be said a barely audible note. in spite of the high potential. the same result is obtained as though the electrode were much larger. the button was taken so large that a perceptible time had to elapse before. great limitations. for instance. and get nearer to the object sought by the expenditure of mud•1 less energy. the higher the frequency and potential used. there is some difficulty in fitting the parts. say 50. unless some judgement is used. high potentials are not objectionable -. not sufficient to bring the button to incandescence when the bulb was hanging from the wire. it is perfectly safe. I am convinced that the illuminating device of the near future will not require for its operation more than one lead.103 conducting photosphere around the electrode. . and all the appliances are simplified. however. Yet. of course. to use as high frequencies as can be obtained. since the energy required can be as well transmitted through the glass. One is to use low potentials. might be an objectionable feature. and necessarily. There are two ways of rendering an electric appliance safe. and. or we may keep up the note by delivering frequent gentle taps.that is. to construct a transformer capable of giving. so that. when the incandescence of a button was produced by grasping the bulb with the hand. The problem of producing light has been likened to that of maintaining a certain high-pitch note by means of a bell. for instance. By the use of obvious means the same result is obtained as though the return wire were used. This plan of working has been resorted to on several occasions this evening. or else. In experimental bulbs the leading-in wire is most generally used on account of convenience. such a transformer would be expensive. if it is preferable to use only one wire. The surface need. a shade on the lamp. be the smaller. the gain is effected in the same manner. or merely in the vicinity of the same. also. by avoiding violent shocks. In the latter case. Once it is decided to use very high frequencies. and incidentally. but the means for the production and conveyance of impulses of such character impose. there can be only one rule -. for example. the other is to determine the dimensions of the apparatus so that it is safe no matter how high a potential is used. besides. the loss due to the imperfect elasticity of the glass would be entirely ne6ligible. otherwise the energy can be conveyed through the glass as well as through a wire. 13. and the coil was excited to a small potential. be reduced by using two electrodes instead of one. and even these words would not express it. as. The loss due to bombardment of the globe may. which miqht be required to light a highly exhausted phosphorescent tube. and. the higher the economy of the lamp or other device. what energy was obtained from it would not be economically used for the production of light. at present at least. as far as the illuminating device is concerned. so wonderful is the sensitiveness of the eye. Still. one of the electrodes might glow more intensely than the other. Of the two the latter seems to me the better way.000 volts. at any rate. which strain the glass much beyond its limit of elasticity. The economy demands the employment of energy in the form of extremely rapid vibrations. But be it by the diminution of the maximum potential or of the density. for then the safety is absolute. The bulb used was similar to that illustrated in Fig. But the practical conditions require not only the judicious determination of the dimensions of the apparatus. an insulated body of some surface. one electrode may be connected to one terminal and the other to the ground or to an insulated body of some surface. If the frequency could be brought high enough. and still not get what we want.certainly not in the least as far as the safety of the devices is concerned. as in employing condenser coatings in the manner indicated in Fig. the return wire becomes unnecessary. in the eyes of practical men. waste a good deal of energy. for instance. when operated from an ordinary alternate current machine of low tension. It is easy. but these difficulties would not exist if a great many bulbs were manufactured. they likewise necessitate the employment of energy of the proper kind. We may deliver powerful blows at long intervals. in order to perform the experiment in a more suitable manner. namely. In the production of light. So. in reality. In such case each of the electrodes may be connected to one of the terminals. But on the whole I find it preferable when using such high frequencies to employ only one electrode and one connecting wire. which is equivalent to a smaller electric density. and in itself inefficient.
but when it is desired. it is not necessary to resort to such means. In this case the construction of the bulb is as shown and described before. A more perfected arrangement used in some of these bulbs is illustrated in Fig. and the leading-in wire w to an insulated plate. the touch of the finger producing thc same result as the application of an external negative electrode under ordinary circumstances.104 upon grasping the bulb. a shade of conducting material may be slipped in the neck n. 25 may also be lighted by connecting the tinfoil coating on the neck n to the terminal. it could be rendered incandescent. or tube. with a tubular . when phosphorescence was excited. 13. and thereby spoil the effect produced by phosphorescence. by using a rather large bulb with an exceedingly small electrode. originally. Again. quite unnecessary. 24. where reference was made to Fig. Sum a lamp as illustrated in Fig. to adjust the conditions so that the latter is brought to bright incandescence by the mere approach of the experimenter within a few feet of the bulb. one or two shadows of the stem inside were projected against the glass. for example. in another of the early experiments. to present a different feature. which is provided with a neck n on the top for the application of an external tinfoil coating. by touching the bulb with one or two fingers. a similar bulb was used. A zinc sheet Z. If the bu15 stands in a socket upright. The contact with the bulb was. of course. an experimental bulb L is shown. and the action thus magnified. as shown in the cut. In another experiment. the bulb. and that the incandescence subsides upon his receding. 26. In this instance. In all these experiments the action was intensified by augmenting the capacity at the end of the lead connected to the terminal.in this case. In Fig. 12. by touching the socket with a metallic object held in the hand. a bulb was used as illustrated in Fig. can be easily adapted to the purpose. which may be connected to a body of larger surface. It is easy. and would be quite unnecessary with still higher frequencies. As a rule. the potential was not sufficient to excite phosphorescence until the action was intensified -. The electrode in the bulb was a carbon button so large that it could not be brought to incandescence. however. Here again.
any amount of energy may be dissipated into space. it is better to employ one wire than two. A similar disposition with a phosphorescent tube is illustrated in Fig. but generally it is small and of no consequence as long as the frequencies are not very great. necessarily in such case. on the assumption before made. lamps. or. one must come to such a conclusion. or it can be a mere sink of energy. propagated to considerable distance. performing the double office of intensifier and reflector. it follows that. as in experiment Fig.is an important factor to be considered. capable of being advantageously operated by currents of extremely high frequency. is alternating. But since. the absorption -or. On the outside of the upper end of the tube T is another conducting coating C1. As many important results are dependent upon the correctness of the estimation of the vibration period. but this law needs experimental confirmation. or the frequency and the energy lost-in each impact. if the charge is not lost. especially if the distances are great. if not with all. is slipped over the metallic socket S. The bulb hang3 downward from the terminal t. Most of that energy then. Otherwise. no matter whether the molecules after coming in contact with the sphere lose the imparted charge or not. The wire has a hook on the upper end for suspension. as the energy absorbed it the air condenser may be any fraction of the supplied energy. It is now clear that. Still if the frequency of the impulses be very small. To reduce the dissipation it is necessary to work with a small electric density the smaller the higher the frequency. I conclude from this that the total energy lost must be proportionate to the product of the frequency and the square of the electric density. as is thought most generally.in impact and collisional losses -. Suppose a small helix with many well insulated turns. When the nearest molecules strike the sphere they are repelled. I believe. for the molecules which are nearest to the sphere. fortunately. are not Attracted until they have parted. and since currents of very high frequencies involve considerable waste when transmitted through conductors. The economical use of such a reflector or intensifier would require that all energy supplied to an air condenser should be recoverable. also high potentials. In this case a rhythmical bombardment occurs. which can be accomplished only after a great many collisions. what is here meant more particularly by this term. heat vibrations -. having had an additional charge imparted to them by contact. The total energy lost per unit of time is proportionate to the product of the number of impacts per second. The tube T is prepared from two short tubes of a different diameter. On the lower end is placed an outside conducting coating C. or devices of any kind are perfected. Therefore. When energy is absorbed in a condenser the same behaves as though its capacity were increased. the loss is diminished with the square of the density. if the potential be steady. The sphere being charged to a high potential. is not dissipated in the form of long ether waves. To reduce the probable error as much as possible in experiments of the kind alluded to.that is. and the conditions of the experiment determine whether it is more one or the other. so as to make the density exceedingly small. and the other to a metal plate. in order to make the experiences gathered in the course of these investigations perfectly clear. it is advisable to use spheres or plates of large surface. by rapidly alternating the potential of a body immersed in an insulating gaseous medium. which should be separated by a thick insulation from the end of wire w. This would seem to make it very difficult to tell from the measured or computed capacity of an air condenser its actual capacity or vibration period. especially if the condenser is of very small surface and is charged to a very high potential. the zinc sheet Z. what is more. When the potential of the sphere.on the surface and in the vicinity of the sphere. but. instead of being steady. economical reasons will make it advisable to use only one wire.in the case of an insulated sphere. on the whole. indicating the passage of a strong current through the helix how does the insulated sphere act in this case! It can be a condenser. that there should not be any losses. But when extremely high frequencies and more or less high potentials are used. But the energy of an impact must be proportionate to the square of the electric density of the sphere. upon which is slipped a metallic reflector Z. had one of its ends connected to one of the terminals of the induction coil. the conditions are entirely different. the impacts are only the more violent. insulated in space. The molecules. an oil condenser . since the charge imparted to the molecule is proportionate to that density. the loss may be very great. 17. neither in the gaseous medium nor through its action elsewhere. or atoms. If an iron can be held within the small helix it is quickly brought to a high temperature. Assuming the preceding considerations to be true. but little loss of energy can be caused in this way. and passes through the centre of the inside tube. this subject demands the most careful scrutiny of other investigators. In using extremely high frequencies. if motors. a sphere. 27. in other words. This is far from being so. or whatever gaseous medium there might be. the loss caused hg the impacts and collisions would not be serious unless the potential were excessive. when it is practicable. A few remarks are necessary on this subject. and the small helix now behaves as though its free end were connected to the other terminal of the induction coil. Absorption always exists more or less. at least with most of the additional charge. or. When the coil is set to work. and. the potential of the sphere is alternated. From the fact that with a steady potential there is but little loss in dry air. storing and returning the energy supplied to it. which are near the sphere are of course more attracted. for the sake of simplicity. which are sealed on the ends. The reflector is separated from the terminal t by an extension of the insulating plug P. for example -. but is consumed -. the losses may be reduced to anything desired. which connects to the wire w. then. it acts inductively upon the surrounding air. which is filled with some good and tightly packed insulator.105 extension T. the loss of energy due to the presence of a gaseous medium -. and collisions occur at all distances within the inductive action of the sphere. and move through a greater distance than the farther ones.
and the loss will be inappreciable. would spend itself in molecular impacts and collisions. This is the case only when the air is at something like ordinary or greater. streams can he seen to issue from the electrode and the air in the bulb is heated. the loss may be more or less considerable at. or on account of the condition of the atmosphere in various places. principally to meteorologists. and may produce rain and storms. where the air is principally acted upon. From the remarks before made one may see what an important factor of loss the air in the neighborhood of a charged surface becomes when the electric density is great and the frequency of the impulses excessive. for instance.a mere sink of energy! There can be little doubt that to such small disturbance as might be caused in an experiment the earth behaves as an almost perfect condenser. but is it a perfect: or a very imperfect one -. or near. if the apparatus were judiciously designed. If a small electrode. and pass off into space in the form of short heat. the displacements.that is. the energy converted into heat may be considerable. exhausting the bulb is only necessary because we cannot produce (and possibly not convey) currents of the required frequency. close together. as. instead of a small electrode. a very active carrying away of heat by independent carriers going on. If the jar be immersed in boiled-out oil. the effect produced would accordingly vary from place to place. which. Considerable variations in the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere may in this manner be caused at any point of the surface of the earth. It should not be thought that the loss in heat in an air condenser is necessarily associated with the formation of visible streams or brushes. But with appartus on a larger scale. a large sphere is inclosed in the bulb. but most of the energy. But the action as explained implies that the air is insulating -. then true conduction losses occur also. are very small. if. they can then be strained to the utmost and will remain cool. But if in such case the frequency could be sufficiently increased. and I think that skilled physicians might make observations of utility in such experiments. of course. A question of some interest. even a body of considerable bulk would be heated. such condensers should be immersed in oil. I think. still the air is heated. or with impulses of low frequency. It being impossible to exclude entirely the gas in condensers with solid dielectrics. waves. inclosed in an unexhausted bulb. as before stated. Since the density must be unevenly distributed. Owing to this. probably only little of the energy of the vibrations set up would be lost into space in the form of long ether radiations. and consequently the speeds. no streams are observed. if the density is very great. If the gas around the electrode is strongly compressed. or at extremely small. as the tinfoil coatings are large. would not present the slightest danger. considerable energy may be dissipated into space even with a steady potential. In oil or other liquid dielectrics there are seemingly no such losses as in gaseous media. the upper edge of the foil. in addition to the ordinary radiation. and since not only the apparatus. and the heating is insignificant. In such case. but the air at some distance from it is heated in consequence of the collisions which must occur.106 should be used in preference. according to the nature of the general disturbance. But it might be different when its charge is set in vibration by some sudden disturbance occurring in the heavens. How does the earth behave! The earth is an air condenser. . or locally modify the weather in any way. the body of a person. a rise of temperature can be distinctly observed only when the body connected to the coil is very small. Nor should it be thought that the temperature of an air condenser would give even an approximate idea of the loss in heat incurred. either in consequence of the irregularity of the earth's surface. in fact. but when the potentials are very high. In Leyden jars the loss due to air is comparatively small. and the charged surfaces not directly exposed. pressure. When the air is slightly rarefied and conducting. the electrode would be brought to a high temperature as well as if the gas were at very low pressure. as in such case heat must be given off much more quickly. in experiments with such a coil. since there is. In such case. is connected to one of the terminals of the coil. and possibly light. it will be capable of performing four times the amount of work which it can for any length of time when used in the ordinary way. an electrode is heated more because higher speeds can be reached. When the gas is at very low pressure. The variations may be gradual or very sudden. for economical reasons if nothing else. that it is composed of independent carriers immersed in an insulating medium. As both the frequency of the vibrations of the charge and the potential are in all probability excessive. presents itself here.
29 very small bulb -. and the leading-in wire w thin. The inside bulb should be as small as possible when it is desired to obtain light only by incandescence of the electrode. In some cases. that it was well to make the stem J near the seal at e very thick. is always present when the refractory button is mounted in a Fig. a tinfoil coating which was connected to an insulated body. else it would be apt to get too hot. In this case the bombardment is weakened by reason of the smaller electric density. but to place a small bulb. carrying the refractory button m. This arrangement is illustrated in Fig. however. Instead of making the inside bulb large.107 Returning to the subject of electrode lamps. The small bulb is conveniently supported upon the stem s. it is obviously of advantage in such a lamp to confine as much as possible the heat to the electrode by preventing the circulation of the gas in the bulb. 29. . In tube a by several layers of mica M. to place. it would confine the heat better than a large one. 18. and beautiful effects were obtained. namely. as it occurred sometimes that the stem at e was heated and the bulb was cracked. over the refractory button contained in the globe. In this arrangement usually only the small bulb shows phosphorescence. producing a curious effect. Another difficulty -which. the glass might get too hot. and the space between the bulbs appeared crimson. the vacuum in the bulb b would be impaired in a comparatively short time. which was then moderately exhausted and sealed off. 29. in order to avoid undue heating. it was found necessary. Many bulbs were constructed on the plan illustrated in Fig. It was found. for example. when the exhaustion in globe L was very low. but it might not be of sufficient capacity to be operated from the coil. if so. in the course of experiences with bulbs such as illustrated in Fig. In some of these bulbs constructed as illustrated in Fig.existed in the construction illustrated in Fig. the bulb should be larger. Otherwise the construction is the same as shown in Fig. probably by being acted upon inductively from the wire w. it answers the purpose to make the electrode m larger. in order to bring the button m to high incandescence. where it entered the bulb at e. in order to prevent the cracking of the neck by the rapid heating of the aluminium tube upon a sudden turning on of the current. The principal advantage of this construction was that it allowed of reaching extremely high vacua. allowing the small bulb b to slip through. as there is practically no bombardment against the outer globe. preferably on the upper part of the neck of the globe. and. 29. and the phosphorescence would cease. and the air good conducting. If it is desired to produce phosphorescence. containing the refractory button m. Often the outer globe L was exhausted only just enough to allow the discharge to pass through. If a very small bulb be taken. The globe L has in this case a large neck n. A simple way to improve in this direction is to employ a globe of the required site. 28. or. 28 the small tube was coated with phosphorescent paint. Here a small bulb 6. the diameter of which is properly estimated. as the highly conducting air weakened the effect somewhat. at the same time use a large bulb. to the ground. or to the other terminal of the coil. upon being exhausted to a very high degree was sealed in a large globe L.
but owing to the heating of the inside bulb and slow evaporation of the glass the vacuum is hard to maintain. We may cause the molecules of the gas to collide by the use of alternate electric impulses of high frequency. that in the case of an electrode immersed in a fluid insulating medium.the ideal way -. they would then turn toward the electrode their side of the greatest electric density. and because of a slowing down of the process of carrying off. the potential energy of each would diminish. Although with such low frequencies as. The general opinion. or flame.108 The chief idea in the two last described constructions was to confine the heat to the central portion of the globe by preventing the exchange of air. In a flame we set up light vibrations by causing molecules. for. it appeared to me of great interest to demonstrate the rigidity of a vibrating gaseous column. would come into play. and renewal being necessary to maintain the burner. This may be so. But by far the better way -. but with air moderately rarefied I obtain what I think to be an unmistakable experimental evidence of the property sought for. would gain rigidity in virtue of the inertia of the particles. the exchange of the latter would be prevented. say 10. which can be acted upon inductively. in which both bulbs communicate. As the brush. so that finally only atomic vibrations could be set up. to collide. the task looked discouraging at first. the number ~f the impulses being augmented. 28 be chosen. but in the course of these investigations. The trials with air at ordinary pressure led to no result. and this would be a position in which the fluid resistance to approach would be smaller than that offered to the receding. and from experiments with frequencies which we are now able to obtain. assuming they could be transmitted to and impressed upon the flame. and I think that a frequency may be reached at which there would be no exchange whatever of the air molecules around the terminal. of atoms. and this for two reasons -. and a queer flame it would be. We would then produce a flame in which there would be no carrying away of material. I think. I do not doubt. But what is the ratio of the frequency of the collisions and that of the vibrations set up! Certainly it must be incomparably smaller than that of the knocks of the bell and the sound vibrations. meaning by this term only the cessation of the chemical process. for it would be rigid! With sud•1 high frequencies the inertia of the particles. from the observation of many phenomena I have gained the conviction that these frequencies would be much lower than one is apt to estimate at first. would result in the "extinction" of the latter. Thus an ordinary gas burner connected to a source of rapidly alternating potential might have its efficiency augmented to a certain limit. and the motion of translation through measurable space would cease. however. As a result of this kind might lead able investigators to conclusions of importance I will describe one of the experiments performed.because of the additional vibration imparted. I made a series of experiments. or that of the discharges and the oscillations of the condenser. and so we may imitate the process in a flame. The higher the frequency the slower would be the exchange of the air. In connection with thoughts of a similar nature. But the renewal being rendered difficult. An advantage is secured. For this it would be only necessary to assume that the independent bodies are irregularly shaped. is that it is out of the question to reach any such frequencies as might -assuming some of the views before expressed to be true produce any of the results which I have pointed out as mere possibilities. This would necessarily occur. and surrounded by independent carriers of electric charges. a continued increase of the frequency of the impulses. I think that the result is producible with impulses which are transmissible through a conductor.would be to reach sufficiently high frequencies. . a sufficiently high frequency of the impulses would probably result in a gravitation of the gas all around toward the electrode.000 per second. which I was able to obtain without difficulty from a specially constructed alternator. even if the construction illustrated in Fig.
the observation in sud•1 a case is rendered extremely difficult on account of the fundamental vibration. and in both cases the inertia resistance offered to displacement is practically nil. The speed of the vibration often varied perceptibly. either increasing the frequency or passing a stronger discharge of the same frequency corresponded to a tightening of the cord. But probably the amount of vibrating matter is so small that in spite of the extreme speed the inertia cannot prominently assert itself. If it possessed rigidity it resembled. and the field of our investigations is greatly extended. When the thread was formed it extended through the upper part of the tube and lost itself in the lower end. we must secure the best results we can with mechanical appliances. The vibration.109 It is well known that when a tube is slightly exhausted the discharge may be passed through it in the form of a thin luminous thread. In doing this the luminous thread was set in vibration. devoid of rigidity. It must be remarked here that the general aspect of the tube. As long as ordinary coils. a much higher vacuum than obtained at present would not secure a very great advantage. ether might be a true fluid. For the present. There is a subject which I must mention in connection with these experiments: it is that of high vacua. and a third indistinct one. But presently we are able to obtain from a small disruptive discharge coil potentials much higher than even the largest coil was capable of giving. the improvement. but useful. Then. continued for fully eight minutes. But to reach extreme vacua the appliances must be much mote improved. the tube prepared was suspended from the end of a wire connected to the terminal. but as a whole it would be rigid. therefore. it should be more or less rigid. with outside coating at each end. the vibration was quickened. and ultimate perfection will not be attained until we shall have discarded the mechanical and perfected an electrical vacuum pump. The tube was exhausted to a point at which. Accordingly I prepared a tube about 1 inch in diameter and 1 metre long. as far as I could see. in a liquid the speed would be likely to be small.that a vibrating gaseous column possesses rigidity. In this respect. the action of the gas becomes all important. and which may alternate with inconceivable rapidity! The existence of such an electrostatic. I did not obtain any experimental evidence with condenser discharges. also. would be but trifling. as though a suspended cord would be displaced and quickly released near the point of suspension. according to the direction of the lines of force of the magnet. In a gas the speed may be considerable. A luminous band excited in a bulb by repeated discharges of a Leyden jar must possess rigidity. of all the possible directions to develop a practical illuminant. and could always be set in vibration by passing the finger quickly near the upper part of the tube. and as it was visible it could be easily studied. In such a case the work is performed on the filament and the gas is little concerned. producing excessively high degrees of exhaustion of which I have availed myself in the course . But place a gaseous (or liquid) column in an intense. and if deformed and suddenly released should vibrate. by raising the potential of frequency. Think we as we may. are quite different than when ordinary low frequency currents are used. and it could be observed that the electrostatic attraction of the glass affected the vibrating thread. This is a subject the study of which is not only interesting. the study of the subject was limited. not exactly an elastic cord stretched tight between two supports. how must a gaseous medium behave under the influence of enormous electrostatic stresses which may be active in the interstellar space. Thus. and at rest. it might not be out of the way to say a few words about the method of. for it may lead to results of great practical importance. When the finger or a magnet was approached to the upper end of the luminous thread. because just at a point when it became most interesting it had to be interrupted on account of the "non-striking" vacuum being reached.would show B possible way how solids might have formed from the ultra-gaseous uterus. When with low frequencies and insignificant potentials indications of that property may be noted. though the density may be considerable. What determines the rigidity of a body! It must be the speed and the amount of moving matter. operated from ordinary systems of distribution. were formed. Both of these results enable us now ~o pass a luminous discharge through almost any vacua obtainable. but a cord suspended from a height with a small weight attached at the end. But when we begin to use very high frequencies and potentials. the line of high vacua seems to be the most promising at present. then the inertia resistance asserts itself. by a little working the thread discharge could be obtained. As it was found preferable to work with one terminal. obtained from a coil operated as usual. even very large ones. With a magnet the thread could be split in two and both parts vibrated. and appatatus for. and to the lower coating sometimes a small insulated plate was attached.which still needs better experimental confirmation -. once set up. If a magnet be approached to it. rhythmically throbbing force -. It occurred to me that if such a thread would be produced with currents of very high frequency. or insulated plate if attached. When produced with currents of low frequency. the tinfoil coating being connected to the wire. rapidly alternating electrostatic field. In commercial apparatus such as incandescent lamps. and how transverse and all kinds of vibrations may be transmitted through a gaseous medium filling all space. and two very sharply marked nodes. were used. but the density is exceedingly small. The demonstration of the fact -. the part near the same is attracted or repelled. Besides. and when the disturbing object was very quickly removed. an analogous result was produced. and the degree of exhaustion materially modifies the results.of a vibrating electrostatic field -. it could be brought locally out of position by electrostatic or magnetic action. dying gradually out. for the thread was most generally stationary. and. what is more. A body might move with more or less freedom through the vibrating mass. By approaching the hand to the lower coating of the tube. it being merely necessary as a connecting link to enable interaction. but it was clear that the electrostatic action was not the cause of the vibration. set the particles vibrating with enormous speeds. we can make the potential alternate with great rapidity. might greatly modify the views of thinkers. and the degree of exhaustion. Molecules and atoms can be thrown out of a bulb under the action of an enormous potential: this will be the principle of the vacuum pump of the future. this thread is inert.
110 of these investigations. It is very probable that other experimenters have used similar arrangements; but as it is possible that there may be an item of interest in their description, a few remarks, which will render this investigation more complete, might be permitted.
The apparatus is illustrated in a drawing shown in Fig. 30. S represents a Sprengel pump, which has been specially constructed to better suit the work required. The stopcock which is usually employed has been omitted, and instead of it a hollow stopper has been fitted in the neck of the reservoir R. This stopper has a small hole h, through which the mercury descends; the size of the outlet o being properly determined with respect to the section of the fall tube t, which is sealed to the reservoir instead of being connected to it in the usual manner. This arrangement overcomes the imperfections and troubles, which often arise from the use of the stopcock on the reservoir and the connection of the latter with the fall tube. The pump is connected through a U-shaped tube t to a very large reservoir R1. Especial care was taken in fitting the grinding surfaces of the stoppers p and P,, and both of these and the mercury caps above them were made exceptionally long. After the U-shaped tube was fitted and put in place, it was heated, so as to soften and take off the strain resulting from imperfect fitting. The U-shaped tube was provided with a stopcock C, and two ground connections g and gl -- one for a small bulb b, usually containing caustic potash, and the other for the receiver r, to be exhausted. The reservoir R1 was connected by means of a rubber tube to a slightly larger reservoir R2, each of the two reservoirs being provided with a stopcock C1 and C2 respectively. The reservoir R2 could be raised and lowered by a wheel and rack, and the range of its motion was so determined that when it was filled with mercury and the stopcock C, closed, so as to form a Torricellian vacuum in it when raised, it could be lifted so high that the mercury in reservoir R1 would stand a little above stopcock C1: and when this stopcock was dosed and the reservoir R2 descended, so as to form a Torricellian vacuum in reservoir R1, it could be lowered so far as to completely empty the latter, the mercury filling the reservoir R2 up to a little above stopcock C2. The capacity of the pump and of the connections was taken as small as possible relatively to the volume of reservoir, R1, since, of course, the degree of exhaustion depended upon the ratio of these quantities. With this apparatus I combined the usual means indicated by former experiments for the production of very high vacua. In most of the experiments it was convenient to use caustic potash. I may venture to say, in regard to its use, that much time is saved and a more perfect action of the pump insured by fusing and boiling the potash w soon as, or even before, the pump settles down. If this course is not followed the sticks, as ordinarily employed, may give moisture off at a certain very slow rate, and the pump may work for many hours without reaching a very high vacuum. The potash was heated either by a spirit lamp or by passing a discharge through it, or by passing a current through a wire contained in it. The advantage in the latter case was that the heating could be more rapidly
111 repeated. Generally the process of exhaustion was the following: -- at the start, the stopcocks C and C1 being open, and all other connections closed, the reservoir R32 was raised so far that the mercury filled the reservoir R1 and a part: of the narrow connecting U-shaped tube. When the pump was set to work, the mercury would, of course, quickly rise in the tube, and reservoir R2 was lowered, the experimenter keeping the mercury at about the same level. The reservoir R2 was balanced by a long spring which facilitated the operation, and the friction of the parts was generally sufficient to keep it almost in any position. When the Sprengel pump had done its work, the reservoir R2 was further lowered and the mercury descended in R1 and filled R2, whereupon stopcock C2 was closed. The air adhering to the walls of R, and that absorbed by the mercury was carried off, and to free the mercury of all air the reservoir R2 was for a long time worked up and down. During this process some air, which would gather below stopcock C2, was expelled from R2 by lowering it far enough and opening the stopcock, closing the latter again before raising the reservoir. When all the air had been expelled from the mercury, and no air would gather in R2 when it was lowered, the caustic potash was resorted to. The reservoir R2 was now again raised until the mercury in R1 stood above stopcock C1. The caustic potash was fused and boiled, and the moisture partly carried off by the pump and partly re-absorbed; and this process of heating and cooling was repeated many times, and each time, upon the moisture being absorbed or carried off, the reservoir R2 was for a long time raised and lowered. In this manner all thc moisture was carried off from the mercury, and both the reservoirs were in proper condition to be used. The reservoir R2 was then again raised to the top, and the pump was kept working for a long time. When the highest vacuum obtainable with the Dump had been reached the potash bulb was usually wrapped with cotton which was sprinkled with ether so as to keep the potash at a very low temperature, then the reservoir R2 was lowered, and again reservoir R1 being emptied the receiver r was quickly sealed up. When a new bulb was put on, the mercury was always raised above stopcock C1, which was closed, so as to always keep the mercury and both the reservoirs in fine condition, and the mercury was never withdrawn from R1 except when the pump had reached the highest degree of exhaustion. It is necessary to observe this rule if it is desired to use the appartus to advantage. By means of this arrangement I was able to proceed very quickly, and when the apparatus was in perfect order it was possible to reach the phosphorescent stage in a small bulb in less than 1S minutes, which is certainly very quick work for a small laboratory arrangement requiring all in all about 100 pounds of mercury. With ordinary small bulbs the ratio of the capacity of the pump, receiver, and connections, and that of reservoir R was about 1--20, and the degrees of exhaustion reached were necessarily very high, though I am unable to make a precise and reliable statement how far the exhaustion was carried. What impresses the investigator most in the course of these experiences is the behavior of gases when subjected to great rapidly alternating electrostatic stresses. But he must remain in doubt as to whether the effects observed are due wholly to the molecules, or atoms, of the gas which chemical analysis discloses to us, or whether there enters into play another medium of a gaseous nature, comprising atoms, or molecules, immersed in a fluid pervading the space. Such a medium, surely must exist, and I am convinced that, for instance, even if air were absent, the surface and neighborhood of a body in space would be heated by rapidly alternating the potential of the body; but no such heating of the surface or neighborhood could occur if all free atoms were removed and only a homogeneous, incompressible, and elastic fluid -- such as ether is supposed to be -- would remain, for then there would be no impacts, no collisions. In such a case, as far as the body itself is concerned, only frictional losses in the inside could occur. It is a striking fact that the discharge through a gas is established with ever increasing freedom as the frequency of the impulses is augmented. It behaves in this respect quite contrarily to a metallic conductor. In the latter the impedance enters prominently into play as the frequency is increased, but the gas acts much as a series of condensers would: the facility with which the discharge passes through seems to depend on the rate of change of potential. If it act so, then in a vacuum tube even of great length, and no matter how strong the current, selfinduction could not assert itself: to any appreciable degree. We have, then, as far as we can now see, in the gas a conductor which is capable of transmitting electric impulses of any frequency which we may be able to produce. Could the frequency be brought high enough, then a queer system of electric distribution, which would be likely to interest gas companies, might be realized: metal pipes filled with gas -- the metal being the insulator, the gas the conductor -- supplying phosphorescent bulbs, or perhaps devices as yet uninvented. It is certainly possible to take a hollow core of copper, rarefy the gas in the same, and by passing impulses of sufficiently high frequency through a circuit around it, bring the gas inside to a high degree of incandescence; but as to the nature of the forces there would be considerable uncertainty, for it would be doubtful whether with such impulses the copper core would act as a static screen. Such paradoxes and apparent impossibilities we encounter at every step in this line of work, and therein lies, to a great extent, the charm of the study. I have here a short and wide tube which is exhausted to a high degree and covered with a substantial coating of bronze, the coating allowing barely the light to shine through. A metallic clasp, with a hook for suspending the tube, is fastened around the middle portion of the latter, the clasp being in contact with the bronze coating. I now want to light the gas inside by suspending the tube on a wire connected to the coil. Any one who would try the
112 experiment for the first time, not having any previous experience, would probably take care to be quite alone when making the trial, for fear that he might become the joke of his assistants. Still, the bulb lights in spite of the metal coating, and the light can be distinctly perceived through the latter. A long tube covered with aluminium bronze lights when held in one hand -- the other touching the terminal of the coil -- quite powerfully. It might be objected that the coatings arc not sufficiently conducting; still, even if they were highly resistant, they ought to screen the gas. They certainly screen it perfectly in a condition of rest, but not by far perfectly when the charge is surging in the coating. But the loss of energy which occurs within the tube, notwithstanding the screen, is occasioned principally by the presence of the gas. Were we to take a large hollow metallic sphere and fill it with a perfect incompressible fluid dielectric, there would be no loss inside of the sphere, and consequently the inside might be considered as perfectly screened, though the potential be very rapidly alternating. Even were the sphere filled with oil, the loss would be incomparably smaller than when the fluid is replaced by a gas, for in the latter case the force produces displacements; that means impact and collisions in the inside. No matter what the pressure of the gas may be, it becomes an important factor in the bearing of a conductor when the electric density is great and the frequency very high. That in the heating of conductors by lightning discharges air is an element of great importance, is almost as certain as an experimental fact. I may illustrate the action of the air by the following experiment: I take a short tube which is exhausted to a moderate degree and has a platinum wire running through the middle from one end to the other. I pass a steady or low frequency current through the wire, and it is heated uniformly in all parts. The heating here is due to conduction, or frictional losses, and the gas around the wire has - as far as we can see - no function to perform. But now let me pass sudden discharges, or a high frequency current, through the wire. Again the wire is heated, this time principally on the ends and least in the middle portion; and if the frequency of the impulses, or the rate of change, is high enough, the wire might as well be cut in the middle as not, for practically all the heating is due to the rarefied gas: Here the gas might only act as a conductor of no impedance diverting the current from the wire as the impedance of the latter is enormously increased, and merely heating the ends of the wire by reason of their resistance to the passage of the discharge. But it is not at all necessary that the gas in the tube should be conducting; it might be at an extremely low pressure, still the ends of the wire would be heated -- as, however, is ascertained by experience -only the two ends would in such case not be electrically connected through the gaseous medium. Now what with these frequencies and potentials occurs in an exhausted tube occurs in the lightning discharges at ordinary pressure. We only need to remember one of the facts arrived at in the course of these investigations, namely, that to impulses of very high frequency the gas at ordinary pressure behaves much in the same manner as though it were at moderately low pressure. I think that in lightning discharges frequently wires or conducting objects are volatilized merely because air is present, and that, were the conductor immersed in an insulating liquid, it would be safe, for then the energy would have to spend itself somewhere else. From the behavior of gases to sudden impulses of high potential I am led to conclude that there can be no surer way of diverting a lightning discharge than by affording it a passage through a volume of gas, if such a thing can be done in a practical manner. There are two more features upon which I think it necessary to dwell in connection with these experiments -- the "radiant state" and the non-striking vacuum". Any one who has studied Crookes work must have received the impression that the ''radiant state'' is a property of the gas inseparably connected with an extremely high degree of exhaustion. But it should be remembered that the phenomena observed in an exhausted vessel are limited to the character and capacity of the apparatus which is made use of. I think that in a bulb a molecule, or atom, does not precisely move in a straight line because it meets no obstacle, but because the velocity imparted to it is sufficient to propel it in a sensibly straight line. The mean free path is one thing, but the velocity -- the energy associated with the moving body -- is another, and under ordinary circumstances I believe that it is mere question of potential or speed. A disruptive discharge coil, when the potential is pushed very far, excites phosphorescence and projects shadows, at comparatively low degrees of exhaustion. In a lightning discharge, matter moves in straight lines at ordinary pressure when the mean free path is exceedingly small, and frequently images of wires or other metallic objects have been produced by the particles thrown off in straight lines.
The lamp filament is connected with a wire which leads into the bulb. But the particles move in straight lines because the velocity imparted to them is great. the lime piece l and the projecting parts of the filament f are bombarded. that imperfection at least should be done away with. but disappears as soon as the vacuum is impaired. The degree of exhaustion is just such that with the potential the coil is capable of giving phosphorescence of the glass is produced. the point to be noted is that it can occur only with low frequency impulses. and moisture being given off as soon as heating occurs. With frequencies such as we are able to obtain. of phosphorescent glass. I have carried on experiments in various directions. and a white stream of lime particles (Fig. is to make use of their powerful electro-dynamic inductive action to product: light effects in a sealed glass globe. and reached into the U tube. and the results is that finally practically all the discharge passes through that point which is intensely heated. 31). The lime containing moisture. and not enough work can be performed to render the effect perceptible to the eye. When the lime has been sufficiently heated. I have mounted upon a lamp filaments of a piece of lime l. yet the degree of exhaustion is low. provided the frequency is high enough. 32 and Fig. Following this thought. enough moisture has been given off to impair materially the vacuum of the bulb. and the latter being set to work. This stream is composed of "radiant" matter. In Fig. before described. each of these being connected to one of the terminals of the coil. 32 a wide tube r was sealed to a smaller Wshaped tube U. The tube T was slipped into a socket containing a primary coil through which usually the discharges of Leyden jars were directed. and it is necessitated by the impossibility of carrying off enough energy with such impulses in high vacuum since the few atoms which are around the terminal upon coming in contact with the same are repelled and kept at a distance for a comparatively long period of time. the ends of which were provided with small spheres t and tl of aluminium. since any amount of work can be performed by continually agitating the atoms in the exhausted vessel. In a globe L (Fig. Many bulbs were constructed as shown in Fig. 33. If the difference of potential between thc terminals is raised. and the general construction of the latter is as indicated in Fig. the particles are bodily thrown off and projected to a considerable distance. the phosphorescence lasts only for a few moments. In the tube T was placed a coil C of aluminium wire. I may here mention one or two more lines of experiment which have been followed up. even with a disruptive discharge coil. As to the "non-striking vacuum". But with very high frequency impulses there is no necessity for such breaking down. one point of the lime piece is more heated than other points.113 I have prepared a bulb to illustrate by an experiment the correctness of these assertions. the high temperature of the small point. The bulb being suspended from a wire connected to the terminal of the coil.to the great electric density. the speed must be quite insignificant.a stage at which the discharge does not pass between two electrodes in a narrow tube. but I believe that such a thing is impossible. 31) then breaks forth from that point. As the bombardment goes on. and the rarefied gas in the small U tube was excited to strong luminosity by the high-tension currents induced in the . A thought which naturally presents itself in connection with high frequency currents. the dielectric breaks down. but with sufficiently high frequencies no such thing would occur: in such case only a stress would spread or a vibration would be propagated through the bulb.even with frequencies obtained from an alternator as here used -. of which some were indicated in my former paper. With potentials which we are able to obtain. It is easy to reach -. It would be out of the question to reach any such frequency on the assumption that the atoms move with the speed of light. and if no other improvement were made. and the fact that the particles of the lime are easily torn and thrown off -far more easily than those of carbon. 19. but it is difficult to reach a point at which a luminous discharge would not occur around each electrode. The leading-in wire is one of the defects of the present incandescent lamp. for this an enormous potential would be required. and this is due to three causes -.
and finally the end of the tube was closed. since experiences in this line have gradually led me to the present views and results.114 coil C. in order to protect that end against the heat. Such a tube might be placed around a hall or on a ceiling. the site of the vessel -. 33 an aluminium tube a was fastened to the upper end s of each of the tubes t and tl. Generally in bulbs made on this plan the globe I. as a discharge would occur frequently between the turns of the coil. It has occurred. This matter has received such able treatment at the hands of Prof. from theoretical and practical considerations. jamming the latter as tight as possible up to very nearly the end. When he works with condenser charges -. But this would be an appliance hard to manufacture and extremely unmanageable.he gets tr. electromotive forces of several thousands of volts per turn of the primary.and they are the only means up to the present known for reaching these extreme frequencies -. necessary to pass a luminous discharge through the latter. The tube was then packed with insulating powder. and at once a simple appliance capable of giving considerable light would be obtained. large. with low frequencies the light conversion itself would be inefficient. the ends of which pass through two small glass tubes t and tl. Still. In using extremely high frequencies the length of the secondary -. and the efficiency of the light conversion is increased. even with low frequencies a luminous discharge could be induced in such a tube closed upon itself. Another line of experiment. with the small tubes.can be reduced as far as desired. it would be better to supply the current directly to the tube by connecting the coatings to a transformer. especially when the primary was thick and the air gap. and then sealed to globe L. and no little trouble was experienced in this way.in other words. 33 is illustrated another form of the bulb constructed. to many that as a vacuum tube is made longer the electromotive force per unit length of the tube. gets continually smaller. The tube contains a coil C. In such bulbs with two buttons a very curious effect is produced by the formation of the shadows of each of the two buttons. because there would be with ordinary frequencies considerable loss in the coatings. no doubt. and this means high electromotive forces and small currents in the primary. J. The buttons m and ml could be brought to any degree of incandescence by passing the discharges of Leyden jars around the coil C. The tube T. but not to interfere with the communication. It would not do to make the tube up of small lengths. and besides. which are sealed to the tube T. was to induce by electro-dynamic induction a current or luminous discharge in an exhausted tube or bulb. if coatings were used. even had I made it the special subject of this lecture. In this case a tube T is sealed to a globe L. through which the jars discharged. whereupon the coil C was slipped in and the connections made to its ends. still. a few words must be devoted here to this subject. For this purpose the ends of the small tubes t and t1 were just a trifle heated in the burner. therefore. Thus one is led. But even if all objections of such nature were removed. as I have before stated. then it was closed and only a small hole left through which the remainder of the powder was introduced. which has been assiduously followed. it was found necessary to pack the tube T tightly with insulating powder. He cannot multiply the electro-dynamic inductive effect by taking more turns in the primary. wires through the same. When Leyden jar discharges were used to induce currents in the coil C. if the exhausted tube be made long enough. In Fig. to the use of high frequencies. J. provided that means are invented for efficiently obtaining such high frequencies. Usually in bulbs constructed as shown in Fig. and the refractory buttons m and m1 was first prepared. merely to hold the wires. for he arrives . Two refractory buttons m and ml are mounted on lamp filaments which are fastened to the ends of the wires passing through the glass tubes t and tl. communicated with the tube T. Thomson that I could add but little to what he has made known.
I think that this departure is the right one. to produce the effect desired either by direct connection of the body of the experimenter or of another body to the wire w. except electrostatic forces. . I excite it by means of a disruptive discharge coil. In Fig. I take a tube in the hand and move it about. still it retains the faculty of being excited. Even with such stifling frequencies the energy would be practically all potential. Since I have exhibited these phenomena for the first time. or electric impulses. it is to increase the frequency. if anything is desirable in this case. These coatings are merely used to enable me to perform two experiments with the tube -. from the observation of the phenomena which manifest themselves as the frequency is increased. 34 and Fig. But before he has long experimented with the extreme frequencies required to set up in a small bulb an electromotive force of several thousands of volts he realizes the great importance of electrostatic effects. in reducing the current to the smallest value and increasing the potential. sealed to another long tube T. and now it will light in the electrostatic field. The stem s is provided with an aluminium tube a for purposes before explained. and that I could. but I wish to say that I share with all lovers of science and progress the one and only desire -. lighting up a tube no matter where it was held in space. 35. and the mica vanes are rotated very fast. on the point of which is arranged to rotate very freely a very light fan of mica v. and these effects grow relatively to the electro-dynamic in significance as the frequency is increased. it is difficult to perceive how it can persist so long without being arrested by frictional losses. It should also be remembered that. A more interesting piece of apparatus is illustrated in Fig. and connection to the outside is made through a thin copper wire w. it is easy to exalt the electrostatic action as far as one likes by taking more turns on the secondary. These and similar thoughts determined me to devote more attention to the electrostatic phenomena. and is filled as far as the coatings reach with conducting. but the experiences gathered permitted me to teach the result easily. In Fig. is provided with a stem s. it is easy to see how it may persist indefinitely but very difficult to understand why such a condition should aid the excitation when we have to deal with potentials which are rapidly alternating. for I cannot see. I have obtained some other interesting effects. only instead of the lamp filament a small platinum wire P. with a platinum wire sealed in the latter. I may put it away for a few weeks or months. I have produced the incandescence of a button. for instance. To prevent the fan from falling out. filament. establish electrostatic alternating fields which acted through the whole extent of a room. To get to this result it was necessary to economize the energy which is obtained from the field and direct most of it on the small body to be rendered incandescent. and bent above it in a circle. C and C1 respectively. and this would make it still worse for the electro-dynamic effects. or combining self-induction and capacity to raise the potential. or wire enclosed in a tube. Of all these phenomena observed with currents. which is joined to an inside coating C. is connected to the copper wire w. it is produced by tremendous electrostatic stresses vibrating with extreme rapidity. the most fascinating for an audience are certainly those which are noted in an electrostatic field acting through considerable distance. The tube is provided with outside and inside coatings. The construction is the same as before. such as a simple electrification would produce. impulses of several hundred millions per second. sealed in a stem s. the vacuum being very high. to whatever kind of motion light may be due. the electric impulses of high frequency can be more easily transmitted through a conductor. A small stem sl is provided with a needle. a thin stem of glass g is bent properly and fastened to the aluminium tube. and to endeavor to produce potentials as high as possible. By holding the tube T1 anywhere in the electrostatic field the filament is rendered incandescent.115 at the conclusion that the best way is to work with one single turn -. What change have I produced in the tube in the ad of exciting it! If a motion imparted to the atoms.-and he must get along with whatever inductive effect he can obtain with one turn. 34 a short tube T1.to reach a result of utility to men in any direction to which thought or experiment may lead me. But I may take another tube and it might not light. I then found that I could excite vacuum tubes at considerable distance from a conductor connected to a properly constructed coil.though he must sometimes depart from this rule -. and the space above with insulating powder. On the other hand. and the best an unskilled lecturer can do is to begin and finish with the exhibition of these singular effects. For instance. and alternating as fast as they could be made to alternate. At the beginning the task appeared difficult.namely. Now. of high frequency. and it is lighted wherever I may hold it. A very thin lamp filament I is fastened to this wire. throughout space the invisible forces act. by converting the oscillatory current of a condenser to a higher potential. and if a strain exerted in the dielectric. and my conviction has grown strong that. what there would remain to act between two circuits conveying. 35 two such tubes are illustrated which are prepared for the occasion. and only a small part of the filament reaches out of this tube. I thought I recognized that I had made a step in advance. or by acting inductively through the glass. and I have perserved in this line. When the glass tube is held anywhere in the electrostatic field the platinum wire becomes incandescent.
Would it not seem that it is better to employ a small button than a frail filament! From many considerations it certainly must be concluded that a button is capable of a higher economy. A small phosphorescent bulb. The effects produced are magnificent.116 Intense phosphorescence may be excited in a bulb by merely connecting it to a plate within the field. or something like a burner. that means more light from the same material. their chief interest lies for the present in the possibilities they offer for the production of an efficient illuminating device. For how is a flame produced unless by a fall of lifted weights! Such process cannot be maintained without renewal. . These thoughts occurred to me a long time ago. In this direction some improvements have been made. and he has had the kindness to lend me z few for the occasion. when considering the barbarous methods employed. What is likely to be the light of the future! Is it to be an incandescent solid. One way only seems to be open to improve a burner. must have asked himself. as in the present lamp.though this argument is not devoid of force -. but the progress is hampered by many limitations. or by phosphorescence. In no branch of electric industry is an advance more desired than in the manufacture of light. and that. a coil. the deplorable losses incurred in our best systems of light production. emits sufficient light to allow reading ordinary print at a distance of five to six paces. Such considerations apply even more to the production of light by the incandescence of a gas. when attached to a wire connected tl. not. then. To whatever results investigations of this kind may lead. and the plate need not be any larger than an ordinary lamp shade. From the disruptive discharge coil they glow intensely merely by holding them in the hand and connecting the body to the terminal of the coil. of course. which are essentially electrical. the burner. or a phosphorescent body. or an incandescent gas. means more economy. and renewal is repeated passing from low to high vibrations. perhaps. Discarding. but incomparably more efficient! There is little chance to perfect a gas burner. Suppose the light of the immediate future to be a solid rendered incandescent by electricity.but because in a burner the higher vibrations can never be reached except by passing through all the low ones. because human ingenuity has been bent upon that problem for centuries without a radical departure having been made -. The phosphorescence excited with these currents is incomparably more powerful than with ordinary apparatus. It was of interest to see how some of the phosphorescent bulbs of Professor Crookes would behave with these currents. But to light such a lamp we require a high potential. assuming. and that is by trying to reach higher degrees of incandescence. and to get this economically we must use high frequencies. Every thinker. Higher incandescence is equivalent to a quicker vibration. the difficulties connected with the operation of such a lamp to be effectively overcome. especially by the sulphide of calcium and sulphide of zinc. there remain the three ways first mentioned. In all cases we require high frequencies and high potentials. again.
and the remote end would receive but a trifling part of the energy supplied.variations merely of pressure. the gutta-percha covered wire should be provided with a third conducting coating subdivided in sections. of course. The first thought is. but it is ten thousand times better than none. let me thank you most heartily for your kindness and attention. Such an arrangement does not still afford a perfect screen. and let the flow correspondingly diminish. such as a higher economy in the light production. Assume the means for the production of impulses of very great frequency brought to the utmost perfection. In conclusion. and it will be more or less the same as though the coating were directly connected to earth. however. how far can we go with frequencies! Ordinary conductors rapidly lose the facility of transmitting electric impulses when the frequency is greatly increased. But this would not do. The prime necessity. even if thc wire were provided with a thick and excellent insulation for most of the energy would be lost in molecular bombardment and consequent heating. but I believe that with a screen such as I have just described telephony could be rendered practicable across the Atlantic. does not do away with other difficulties.can no doubt be transmitted through a wire even if their frequency be many hundreds of millions per second. many advantages. employ the thinnest possible wire surrounded by the thickest practicable insulation. I think it preferable to cut up the conducting coating in small sections. It has been my chief desire this evening to entertain you with some novel experiments. .I shall never forget. which would be very small. if such electric impulses are to be used. the possibility of working with one lead. by the use of very high frequencies. and to advance ideas which I am hopeful will serve as starting points of new departures. It would.117 Incidentally we gain. The next thought is to employ electrostatic screens. then. so frequently and generously accorded has told me that I have succeeded. The capacity would then be reduced to the capacity of the wire itself. It is therefore necessary to cut up the coating in sections much shorter than the wave length. every one will naturally ask how to transmit them when the necessity arises. Your applause. as then all the energy would pass through the conducting coating to the ground and nothing would get to the end of the wire. in the ordinary interpretation of these terms. if nothing else. the pleasure I have had in presenting these results to a gathering of so many able men and among them also some of those in whose work for many years past I have found enlightenment and constant pleasure -. is to find means to reduce as much as possible the dissipation. The insulation of the wire may be covered with a thin conducting coating and the latter connected to the ground. etc. The question is. be out of question to transmit such impulses through a wire immersed in a gaseous medium. the possibility of doing away with the leading-in wire. with the present state of knowledge and the experiences gained. then such impulses -. as it were -. If the wave length of the impulses is much smaller than the length of the wire. for ere long intelligence -. then corresponding short waves will be sent up in the conducting coating. and on the top of the whole the armor. or through a condenser of extremely small capacity. intelligence. This. The end of the wire connected to the source would be heated. and assure you that the honor I have had in addressing such a distinguished audience. It has been my chief aim in presenting these results to point out phenomena or features of novelty. it would be the same as though all objects were removed from it at infinite distance. It would then be possible to send over the wire current vibrations of very high frequencies at enormous distance without affecting greatly the character of the vibrations. Let the pressure increase to an enormous value. and transmit. According to my ideas. The wonder is that. even if the current waves be much longer than the coating. If a wire were provided with a perfect electrostatic screen. A perfect screen is of course out of the question.transmitted without wires will throb through the earth like a pulse through a living organism. no attempt is being made to disturb the electrostatic or magnetic condition of the earth. But such cables will not be constructed. If a ground connection is made it can only be made through a conductor offering an enormous impedance. In transmitting such impulses through conductors we must remember that we have to deal with pressure and flow. On the top of this should be again placed a layer of gutta-percha and other insulation.
Tesla era un’ingegnere elettrico al quale sia la scienza ufficiale, sia quella non ufficiale, devono molto. Questo è un dispositivo di risonanza, utile per tramettere onde attraverso la terra. Ma, una volta costruito, va maneggiato con estrema cautela.
L’Oscillatore di Tesla
A Nikola Tesla si pensa principalmente come ad un genio dell’elettricità, ma fu pure autore di un mucchio di dispositivi meccanici. Uno dei più famosi di questi fu la sua "Macchina per Terremoti" anche conosciuta come l’Oscillatore di Tesla. La macchina che Tesla ha provato fu piccola, circa 7 pollici di lunghezza, e pesante solo uno o due pounds; del tipo "potresti metterlo nella tasca del tuo cappotto". Nel 1898, il laboratorio di Tesla a New York fu vicino cadere a pezzi con questo piccolo dispositivo, azionato solo da solo cinque pounds di pressione dell’aria che agiscono contro uno speciale pistone pneumatico. L’intero sistema fu progettato per essere alimentato dalla pressione del vapore. Tesla stava sperimentando modi per trasmettere forza motrice attraverso la Terra! Versioni più grandi di questi oscillatori, forse pesanti 200 pounds, e essendo circa alta tre piedi poteva trasmettere forza motrice utilizzabile ovunque nell’intero pianeta. Se vi sembra fantastico, questo dispositivo poteva anche trovare navi, sottomarini e palazzi ovunque e su scala globale. Il dispositivo di Tesla era del tutto meccanico, ed è mostrato qui di seguito:
Il vapore potrebbe essere forzato nell’oscillatore, e uscire attraverso una serie di portelli, il cui effetto era
di portare l'armatura a vibrare ad alta velocità. Il rivestimento era per necessità molto forte, in quanto le temperature dovute alla pressione di riscaldamento nella camera superiore superavano i 200 gradi, e la pressione portata a 400psi. Furono create altre versioni di questa macchina, progettate per produrre energia elettrica sia alternata che continua (senza il bisogno di aggiustamenti).
Con questo in mente, ho iniziato a pensare al modo in cui poter costruire uno di questi oscillatori più facilente che con un recipiente a pressione in acciaio. Poichè il pistone ad aria fa affidamento sull'aria compressa per realizzare il movimento d’oscillazione, mi sembra che dovrebbe essere utile un altro modo di forzare pistone a muoversi. Ho battuto sull'idea di usare un campo magnetico per creare parte del movimento. Il disporre di una corrente alternata a frequenza variabile potrebbe essere la soluzione perfetta a questo problema, permettendo una perfetta modulazione delle frequenze d’oscillazione con la sistemazione di una semplice bobina, senza il bisogno di aria o di vapore. Eventualmente, la soluzione che meglio sembra essere adatta al lavoro può essere la seguente:
Il sistema lavora come segue. L’aria compressa entrando nel vano d'ingresso forza la testa pistone verso l'alto. Comunque, l'asta del pistone è impedita a muoversi verso l'alto dall’azione di campi magnetici opposti tra le due bobine. La corrente nelle bobine può essere variata per creare un campo di una forza specifica, e quindi l'ammontare di forza richiesta per il pistone da dover aumentare. Il campo preme giù e
l’aria preme su. Quando la spinta dell'aria supera la spinta del campo, il pistone verrà sparato verso l'alto, ma appena la testa del pistone supera l'apertura dell'aria, la cavità verrà depressurizzata. Quando accade, il campo sbatterà il pistone verso il basso, e la testa del martello colpirà la lamiera d'acciao alla base. Al variare della pressione dell’aria e della forza del campo magnetico, si può creare qualsiasi intervallo di frequenza si desideri.
Buttiamo Giù la Casa!
Ogni cosa in natura vibra ad una certa frequenza. Quando un oggetto è vibrato alla sua risonanza naturale, inizia a subire un pesante shock, appena prova a scuotere se stesso a distanza. Potrebbe sembrare ridicolo immaginare che un minuscolo oscillatore possa da solo buttare giù un palazzo, se non per il principio di risonanza. Come un bambino sull’altalena, solo una piccolissima forza è richiesta per mantenere un movimento reciproco e abbastanza ampio. Una maggiore vibrazione potrebbe essere stabilita in una casa facendo coincidere ciascun colpo del pistone col ritorno delle singole vibrazioni attraverso il palazzo dove si trova l’oscillatore. Ogni volta che il pistone batte,ingrandisce la forza un po’ di più. Alla frequenza di 1000Hz, la forza accumulata può essere molto apprezzabile! La frequenza di risonanza è collegata al tempo che prende per le vibrazioni per espandersi attraverso l'edificio, riverberare, ed “echeggiare” per ritornare ancora all’oscillatore. Trovando la corretta frequenza, può essere distrutta OGNI struttura. Infatti, più grande è la struttura, più è bassa la frequenza di risonanza, più è facile da distruggere. Tesla una volta scherzava quando diceva che poteva spaccare la Terra con una di queste macchine, e nessuno sa veramente se stava scherzando...
Sto attualmente considerando di costruire un oscillatore per prova, basato sul progetto di questa pagina. Il dispositivo è alquanto pericoloso così avrò bisogno di lavorarci con cautela. Se qualcuno ha un suggerimento su ulteriori miglioramenti che possono essere fatti, è pregato di (EclipseG@Angelfire.com). scrivermi
"Suddenly all the heavy machinery in the place was flying around. I asked my assistants where did the sound come from. It would only be necessary to step up the vibrations of the machine to fit the natural vibration of the building and the building would come crashing down. increased its trembling until it dilated and contracted like a beating heart. That's why soldiers break step crossing a bridge. and the steelworkers came to the ground panic-stricken. "crowbars could not have done it. I knew I was approaching the vibration of the steel building. July 11. but a fusillade of taps. Sledgehammers could not have done it". did it. I had one of my machines going and I wanted to see if I could get it in tune with the vibration of the building. but at last the great steel link began to tremble. That's all they ever knew about it. I put it up notch after notch.138 the Complete Nikola Tesla Tesla Quotes Tesla's Lost Inventions the Amazing Nikola Tesla Tesla's Flying Machine Tesla's Wonderworld the Tesla Turbine Tesla's Black Box Tesla time-line Chronography Tesla's Earthquake Machine Greatest Hacker? Machine To End War Radiant Energy Receiver Magnifying Transmitter Viktor's Patents Viktor Schauberger The Bio-Sphere Airship Power From The Oceans Dynamic Hydropower Vortex Science Sympathetic Vibratory Physics Walter Russell Water Power WhirlPower Joe Fuel Cell Help Frank Germano Global Energy Technologies Applications The Bookstore Products I Endorse Excerpt from the New York World Telegram. New York. I grabbed a hammer and broke the machine. They did not know.. I could have laid that building flat in the street. "I was experimenting with vibrations. "For a long time nothing happened. Before anything serious happened. There was a louder cracking sound." Excerpt from: "Tesla: Man Out of Time" by Margaret Cheney He attached an oscillator no larger than an alarm clock to a steel link 2' long and 2" thick." The bewildered newspapermen pounced upon this as at least one thing they could understand and Nikola Tesla. no one of which would have harmed a baby. including a related new means of communication and a method.. 1935 - Tesla's Earthquake Machine Nikola Tesla revealed that an earthquake which drew police and ambulances to the region of his laboratory at 48 E. Outside in the street there was pandemonium. was the result of a little machine he was experimenting with at the time which "you could put in your overcoat pocket. The building would have been about our ears in another few minutes." Pleased with this beginning. 1935 in his suite at the Hotel New Yorker. And with the same oscillator I could drop Brooklyn Bridge in less than an hour. "the father of modern electricity" told what had happened as follows: Tesla stated. in 1898. Tesla at this point what he would need to destroy the Empire State Building and the doctor replied: "Vibration will do anything. Finding a half-built steel building in the Wall Street district." "On the occasion of his annual birthday celebration interview by the press on July 10. I pushed the machine a little higher. he clamped the oscillator to one of the beams. The police and ambulances arrived. and finally broke. At that time he recalled the earth-trembling "quake" that brought police and ambulances rushing to the scene of his Houston Street laboratory while an experiment was in progress with one of his mechanical oscillators. Finally the structure began to creak and weave. and went away. I put the machine up a few more notches. I took off the oscillator. There was a peculiar cracking sound. believing that there had been an earthquake. 10 stories high with nothing up but the steelwork. put it in my pocket. But if I had kept on 10 minutes more.. We told the police it must have been an earthquake." . I told my assistants to say nothing. which would facilitate the unerring location of underground mineral deposits. he claimed. Tesla announced a method of transmitting mechanical energy accurately with minimal loss over any terrestrial distance. he told a reporter. Gradually the trembling increased in intensity and extended throughout the whole great mass of steel. Houston St." Some shrewd reporter asked Dr. he put the little oscillator in his coat pocket. "In a few minutes I could feel the beam trembling.
The police and ambulances arrived. That's why soldiers break step crossing a bridge. A Startling Discovery". 1912). he (Tesla) boasted that. 8. I had one of my machines going and I wanted to see if I could get it in tune with the vibration of the building. I grabbed a hammer and broke the machine. New York. Tesla at this point what he would need to destroy the Empire State Building and the doctor replied: "Vibration will do anything." The bewildered newspapermen pounced upon this as at least one thing they could understand and "the father of modern electricity" told what had happened as follows: "I was experimenting with vibrations.Art of TeleGeodynamics" New York Times (July 11. The caption reads: "Tesla claims that in a few weeks he could set the earth's crust into such a state of vibration that it would rise and fall hundreds of feet and practically destroy civilization. Earl: N. They did not know. World-Telegram (July 11.. 1. eventually split the earth in two. Houston St. "Nikola Tesla Describes New Invention . 1935). American (July 11. 8..Tesla Announces Method of Remote Control" N.000. Section 2. at 79. which was mounted on a girder: Nikola Tesla revealed that an earthquake which drew police and ambulances to the region of his laboratory at 48 E. constant. New York Herald Tribune (July 11." Allan L. in 1898." "I asked my assistants where did the sound come from. The building would have been about our ears in another few minutes. 79. It would only be necessary to step up the vibrations of the machine to fit the natural vibration of the building and the building would come crashing down. Dreamer" ~ An illustration for the article shows an artist's conception of the planet splitting in two. "Nikola Tesla. A continuation of this process would. Outside in the street there was pandemonium. We told the police it must have been an earthquake. "Tesla. pp. he says. Benson: World Today (Feb. I told my assistants to say nothing. "Suddenly all the heavy machinery in the place was flying around. Y. Figure 2 (April 1895) ~ In 1893 Tesla constructed a preferred embodiment of the mechanical oscillator which he described as a "double compound mechanical and electrical oscillator for generating current of perfect. "Nikola Tesla. I put the machine up a few more notches. "Promises to Transmit Force Transmission of Energy Over World" Excerpt from: Prodigal Genius: The Life and Times of Nicola Tesla by John O'Neill Tele-Geo-Dynamics: . 23.139 More Information: Sparling. 1935). "With this principle one could split the earth in half like an apple". col. Uses Earth to Transmit Signals. I put it up notch after notch.. "New Apparatus Transmits Energy . There was a louder cracking sound. p. Y. • • • • • • • Century Magazine. "Tesla's Controlled Earth Quakes Power Through the Earth. 1935)." In another interview.000 Within Two Years" ~ Here Tesla tells the story of the earthquake generated by the mechanical oscillator in his NYC laboratory in 1898. was the result of a little machine he was experimenting with at the time which "you could put in your overcoat pocket. There was a peculiar cracking sound. 1935). Expects to have $100. I pushed the machine a little higher. That's all they ever knew about it." Some shrewd reporter asked Dr. I knew I was approaching the vibration of the steel building. dynamo frequency of 10 horsepower. "Tesla.At Birthday Luncheon He Announces Machine for 1-Way Communication" New York Sun (July 11. 921. 1935). They entered the lab just in time to see Tesla swing a sledge hammer and smash the tiny device. at 79." New York Sun (July 10. Discovers New Message Wave . 1935). which brought the police there to stop him. p.
cranks. particularly in small units. What Tesla proposed represents a new technology in sonic transmission even today. Why can a resonance be created in the oscillator-generator when it cannot in a ordinary reciprocating engine? With the oscillator-generator. It is a wellknown principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia is brought under tension. all governing mechanisms are eliminated. under the influence of an applied force such as the tension of compressed air. frictional losses and other factors which in all ordinary engines produce change in the rate of reciprocation. and which is capable of useful and practical application to general industrial purposes. Our objective in building the engine is to provide an oscillator which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of a gas under pressure will yield an oscillating movement which within very wide limits.. residing at New York. Since the oscillator-generator is denuded of all governing devices.Nikola Tesla To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I. and then freed. The further objects of the invention are to provide a mechanism. where the pressure of steam or any gas has been utilized and applied for the . irrespective of variation of load. At each point every varying inclination of the crank and pistons work at a disadvantage and result in loss of efficiency. but the greatest loss occurs in the change from reciprocating to rotary motion.169 . transmissions. In other words. On the other hand. This is known as Simple Harmonic Motion. causing the propagation of corresponding rhythmical disturbances through the same which pass through its remotest boundaries without attenuation so that the transmission is affected with an efficiency of one hundred percent. irrespective of variations of load. a reciprocating motion is converted into rotary motion by a means of shafts. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. i. gears. In Tesla's oscillator-generator. This type of engine. etc. the piston is entirely free to move as the medium impels it without having to encounter and overcome the inertia of a moving system and in this respect the two types of engines differ radically and essentially. it will depend on the rigidity of the spring.140 Tele-Geo-Dynamics is the transmission of sonic or acoustic vibrations. There is of course much sonic equipment available now for different applications. will be of constant period. Starting with the cylinder. Since resonance seems to be an ever increasing effect with this oscillator-generator. In Tesla's oscillator-generator. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. This simple harmonic motion in the form of isochronous sound vibrations can be impressed upon the earth. being stretched. will be of constant period. These parts all consume work by friction. within very wide limits. which under the influence of an applied force such as the elastic tension of steam or gas under pressure will yield an oscillatory movement which. Nikola Tesla. a Resonance effect can be observed. it will perform vibrations which are isochronous. primarily to provide an engine. or other gases under pressure. yields an oscillation of a constant period. The Patent. is better adapted for use at higher temperatures and pressures. the piston floats freely in air and is capable of converting all pressure into mechanical energy. capable of converting the energy of steam or gas under pressure into mechanical power more economically than the forms of engine heretofore used. a citizen of the United States. and other factors which in ordinary engines change in the rate of reciprocating.Reciprocating Engine . have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Reciprocating Engines. in the county and State of New York. Tesla's Mechanical Oscillator: US Patent # 514. chiefly by overcoming the losses which result in these by the combination with rotating parts possessing great inertia of a reciprocating system. of which the following is a specification. friction is almost nonexistent. In the invention which forms the subject of my present application. it can be deduced that there must be a great source of energy available through it. drivetrains.e. frictional losses. steam. but this has little or nothing to do with Nikola Tesla's oscillator-generator. which also. consider the car engine. As far as the period in general is concerned. The invention is based upon certain well known mechanical principles a statement of which will assist in a better understanding of the nature and purposes of the objects sought and results obtained. The objective of the Tesla oscillator-generator is to provide a mechanism capable of converting the energy of compressed gas or steam into mechanical power. Heretofore. which can be produced with comparatively simple apparatus. my object has been.
the piston and the ports for controlling it. which communicate through openings G in the piston with the cylinder on opposite sides of said piston respectively. and is attended by disadvantages which by my invention are entirely obviated. to maintain in oscillation a piston. and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. in order to avoid the influence of the varying pressure of the steam or gas that acts upon the piston and which might disturb the relations necessary for the maintenance of isochronous vibration. opening at the middle portion thereof and on opposite sides. A is the main cylinder in which works a piston B. This. and a chamber or cylinder therefore. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. Moreover. In order to describe the best manner of which I am aware in which the invention is or may be carried into effect. a spring. The piston . and the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. I prefer. so far as I know. upon which dependence was mainly placed for the maintenance of constant speed. and also to better utilize the heat generated by the compression. owing mainly. In carrying out my invention and for securing the objects in general terms stated above. the exhaust ports should be made very much larger than is usually the case. to the tendency to break. I connect with said piston. or generally speaking a confined body or cushion of elastic fluid. as by being stretched. I do not consider as of special importance the particular construction and arrangement of the cylinder. except that it is desirable that all the ports. or cause to act upon it. to employ an independent plunder connected with the main piston. and. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air will tend to retard of affect the return of the piston in either direction. where reciprocating engines or tools have been used without a rotating system of great inertia. containing air which is normally. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. at the same pressure as the external atmosphere. I refer now to the accompanying drawing which represents in central cross-section an engine embodying my improvements. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement. I prefer to use an air spring. The piston B is formed with two circumferential grooves EF. Exhaust ports DD extend through the wall of the cylinder and are formed with branches that open into the interior of the cylinder on each side of the inlet ports and on opposite sides of the cylinder. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration. as the mechanical difficulties in the use of metallic springs are serious. While. in certain cases. Inlet ports CC pass through the sides of the cylinder. It is a well known principle that if a spring possessing a sensible inertia be brought under tension. and more especially. as to period. but the air or gas within the cylinder may be maintained at any pressure. instead of permitting the piston to impinge directly upon such cushions within its own cylinder. for thus a spring of practically constant rigidity is obtained. taking advantage of the law above stated. has been made to secure conditions which would necessarily yield such results as I have reached.141 production of mechanical motion it has been customary to connect with the reciprocating or moving parts of the engine a fly-wheel or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. On the other hand. no attempt. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston. in the practice of the invention I may employ any kind of spring or elastic body of which the law or principle of operation above defined holds true. and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. renders impossible the attainment of the result at which I have arrived. while securing in a measure this object. acting through proper mechanism.
and this action is continued as long as the requisite pressure is applied. The cylinder I is surrounded by a jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. oil cups M being conveniently arranged to deliver oil into the said pipes for lubricating the piston. and within which is a disk or plunger J carried by the rod H. This action of the plunger upon the air contained in the opposite ends of the cylinder is exactly the same in principle as though a piston rod were connected to the middle point of a coiled spring. The movement of the piston in either direction ceases when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam or compressed air in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. In constructing the apparatus I allow for a variation in the length of stroke by giving to the confining cylinder I of the air spring properly determined dimensions. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately.142 B is secured to a piston rod H. In the position of the parts shown. These conditions are all readily determinable. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. the higher will be the degree of compression of the air-spring. is no more dependent upon the pressure applied to drive it. and the consequent counteracting force upon the plunger. The heat thus taken up and used to raise the temperature of the steam or air acting upon the piston is availed of to increase the efficiency of the engine. If a source of steam or compressed air be then connected to the inlet ports CC of the cylinder A and a movement be imparted to the piston as by a sudden blow. A forward stroke compresses the air ahead of the plunger J and tends to drive it forward. or when the piston is at the middle point of its stroke. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. are not materially exceeded. provided the limits within which the forces tending to bring the moving system to a given position are proportionate to the displacements. give rise to a very considerable amount of heat. which experience has shown need not be fitted with any very considerable accuracy. the ends of which are connected to fixed supports. This rod is prolonged on one side and extends through bearings V in a cylinder I suitably mounted or supported in line with the first. which works in suitable stuffing boxes in the heads of the cylinder A. for while the cylinder is so constructed as . The main supply line L for steam or compressed air leads into this chamber. upon the force which periodically impels it. The greater the pressure upon the piston. extend through the jacket K to the outside air and the chamber between the cylinder and jacket is made steam or air tight as by suitable packing. This heat I utilize by conducting the steam or compressed air to the engine cylinder through the chamber formed by the jacket surrounding the air-spring cylinder. The rate or period of reciprocation of the piston. and it may be successfully used as a prime mover wherever a constant rate of oscillation or speed is required. and the two pipes that lead to the cylinder A run from the said chamber. The compressions of the air in the cylinder I and the consequent loss of energy due mainly to the imperfect elasticity of the air. the latter is caused to reciprocate in a manner well understood. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system. and an engine constructed as herein described my be made to follow the principle of operation above stated and maintain a perfectly uniform period through very much wider limits of pressure than in ordinary use it is ever likely to be subjected to. The bearings V in the cylinder I. the effect of variations in such force being merely to produce corresponding variations in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except as a small leakage my occur through the bearings V. extend through the jacket K which leaves an open space or chamber around it. Consequently the two chambers may be considered as a single spring. than would be the period of oscillation of a pendulum permanently maintained in vibration. The bearings V in the cylinder I. however. In the particular form of engine shown the jacket K which contains the cylinder I is provided with a flange N by which it is screwed to the end of cylinder A. and this will be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal. In any given engine of this kind the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. The pressure of the air confined in the cylinder when the plunger J is in its central position will always be practically that of the surrounding atmosphere. To explain now the operation of the device above described. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which is equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly portioning these factors. A small channel O is thus formed which has air vents P in its sides and drip pipes Q leading out from it through which the oil which collects in it is carried off. the plunger J is at the center of the cylinder I and the air on both sides of the same is at the normal pressure of the outside atmosphere.
so that the pressure of the air on opposite sides of the plunger will always tend to remain at that of the outside atmosphere. acting through proper mechanism. in the main dependent upon the rigidity of the spring. Having now described my invention. Heretofore.Nikola Tesla To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I."Tesla's Earthquake Machine. Pick one up from Amazon. an oscillating movement of constant period." Much of the material presented in this book is related to the construction of a class of machine invented by Tesla and known as the reciprocating Mechanical Oscillator. residing at New York. Nikola Tesla. Another application of the invention is to move a conductor in a magnetic field for generating electric currents. as to period. These may constitute the train of a clock or of any other mechanism. and have shown and described the same in [ US Patent # 514. It Truly Is A Musical Universe!" Tesla's Steam Engine Patent: US Patent # 517. under very wide variations of pressure. to maintain in oscillation a piston. and other disturbing causes. and in these and similar uses it is obvious that the characteristics of the engine render it especially adapted for use in small sizes or units. As an instance of the uses to which this engine may be applied I have shown its piston rod connected with a pawl R the oscillation of which drives a train of wheels. In utilizing this principle for the purpose of producing reciprocating movement of a constant period. or some rotary system equivalent in its effect and possessing relatively great mechanical inertia. in the county and State of New York. which was relied upon for maintaining a uniform speed. The pawl R is pivoted at R’ and its bifurcated end engages with the teeth of the ratchet wheel alternately on opposite sides of the same. please check out a fantastic book. a citizen of the United States. END.900 . however. and connect with it or cause to act upon such piston a spring."Sympathetic Vibratory Physics. so that the alternate impulses of the power impelled piston and . of which the following is a specification. I employ the energy of steam or gas under pressure. load. In 1898 another variation was used to create a small earthquake in the neighborhood surrounding his Houston Street lab. Serious students of Tesla's work may recognize this machine as the basis of his system for producing electrical vibrations of a very constant period. one end of the pawl at each half oscillation acting to propel the wheel forward through the space of one tooth when it is engaged and locked by the other end on the last half of the oscillation which brings the first end of the oscillation into position to engage with another tooth.143 not to permit such sudden escape of air as to sensibly impair or modify the action of the air spring there will be a slow leakage of air into or out of it around the piston rod according to the pressure therein. A description of the principle of the construction and mode of operation of this device is necessary to an understanding of my present invention. he explained. operated by the application of a force such as the elastic tension of steam or a gas under pressure. Notes: His early experiments in vibration. This is known to be true in all cases where the force which tends to bring the spring or movable system into a given position is proportionate to the displacement.com (below). preferably an air spring. When a spring which possess a sensible inertia is brought under tension as by being stretched and then freed it will perform vibrations which are isochronous and. engines. under such conditions as to automatically regulate the period of the vibration.169 ]. plus a comprehensive description of the machine in Tesla's own words. written by Dale Pond and used by permission . and its own inertia or that of the system of which it may form an immediate part. I have produced. have been provided with a flywheel. "led to his invention of his "earth vibrating" machine." Included are mechanical drawings that will guide you through the construction of a working model of the Tele-Geo-Dynamic Oscillator. have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Steam Engines. what I claim is: (Claims not included here). by Dale Pond . Also: see the newest article on this site. reference being had to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of the same. Tesla called this method of transmitting mechanical energy "telegeodynamics. an engine which without such appurtenances produces.Steam Engine ." (For more detailed information on this device.
The drawings hereto annexed illustrate devices by means of which the invention may be carried out. in order to secure all the advantages of such performances as this engine is capable of. from the pipe G’ through the ducts DD’ to the ends of the cylinder. or in other words. but it is desirable that all the ports. The piston b is secured to a rod h which extends through the cylinder heads. in the sense that its movement in either direction ceases only when the force tending to impel it and the momentum which it has acquired are counterbalanced by the increasing pressure of the steam in that end of the cylinder toward which it is moving. constructed substantially as follows: a is the cylinder. when this involves the overcoming of inertia is a limitation to the applicability of the engine. A designates a cylinder containing a reciprocating piston B secured to a rod C extending through on or both cylinder heads. f which communicate through openings g in the same with the cylinder chambers on opposite sides of the piston. it is then impelled in the opposite direction. it is obvious that the practicable amount of work performed by the engine. An inlet pipe c passes through the side of the cylinder at the middle portion of the same. are steam ducts communicating with the cylinder at or near its ends and E is the exhaust chamber or passage located between the steam ports. but more especially those forms of engine in which the piston is free to reciprocate. to utilize it as the means of controlling the admission and exhaust of steam or gas under pressure in other engines generally. the piston b is provided with two circumferential grooves e. DD. but the slide valve instead of being dependent for its movement upon the piston B is connected in any manner so as to be reciprocated by the piston rod of a small engine of constant period. If steam or a gas under pressure be admitted through the port c to either side of the piston b. Figure 1 being a central vertical section of an engine embodying my invention. The cylinder I is without ports of any kind and is air-tight except that leakage may occur around the piston rod which does not require to be very close fitting. and Figure 2 a similar view of a modification of the same. and more particularly. G designates a slide valve which when reciprocated admits the steam or the gas by which the engine is driven. is not connected with a flywheel or other like device for regulating or controlling its speed. and this action is continued as long as the requisite . In such an apparatus it being essential that the inertia of the moving system and the rigidity of the spring should bear certain definite relations. so that no force due to the action of the steam or compressed air in the chambers will tend to retard or accelerate the movement of the piston in either direction. the latter. may be maintained in reciprocation. The cylinder exhausts through ports dd into a chamber d’ provided with an opening d. Referring to Figure 1. The parts thus described may be considered as exemplifying any cylinder. the pressure that impelled it and established the pressure that tends to return it. the exhaust ports be made larger than is usually done. the lower end carrying the slide valve above described and the upper end having secured to it a plunger j in a cylinder I fixed to the cylinder a and in line with it. The piston B is provided with the usual passages FF’ which by the movements of the piston are brought alternately into communication with the exhaust port. piston and slide valve with the proper ports controlled thereby. and as in its movement the piston has shut off at a given point. as will be understood. in which works the piston b.144 the natural vibrations of the spring shall always correspond in direction and coincide in time. and it is free to move. I therefore propose. and constitutes an ordinary form of air spring. The special construction of this device may be varied considerably.
constitute the inlet ports of the cylinders AA’ and the exhaust of the latter is effected through the ports m. and it is moreover an engine of defined character which has the capability of an oscillating movement of constant period. What I claim is: (Claims not included here) END. In US Patent # 514. which may be increased or diminished according to the increase of pressure above or the reduction of pressure below the normal and due allowance is made in constructing the engine for a variation in the length of stroke or amplitude of vibration respectively. or by adjusting the weight of the moving parts. and this results in the heating of the cylinder.Tesla's inventions. The control of the main engine by the engine of constant period may be effected in other ways of which Figure 2 will serve as an illustration. A much more perfect regulation and uniformity of action is secured.. Whatever may be the load on the main engine therefore the steam is admitted to the cylinder at defined intervals. they have a way of working. as by varying the dimensions of the air chamber which may be equivalent to varying the rigidity of the spring. But since a variation of the temperature of the air in the chamber would affect the rigidity of the air spring. In such an engine as that just described the normal pressure will produce a stroke of determined length. I have shown and described two reciprocating engines combined in such manner that the movement or operation of one is dependent upon and controlled by the other. its load is substantially uniform and its period by reason of its construction will be constant. however. either directly or indirectly. In the present case. I hope this got some of you thinking. and thus any tendency to a change of the period of vibration in the main engine is overcome. The exhaust ports dd. Since the only work which the small engine has to perform is the reciprocation of the valve attached to the piston rod. however. while the engine is simple and its weights for a given capacity is very greatly reduced. so that the latter may be considered as operated by the exhaust of the former. The reciprocating movement of the piston may be converted into rotary motion or it may be utilized and applied in any other manner desired. The inlet port for the admission of the steam to the controlling engine is similar to that in Figure 1 and is indicated by the dotted circle at the center of the piston b. Nikola Tesla. I maintain the temperature uniform as by surrounding the cylinder I with a jacket a’ which is open to the air and filled with water. In this case the piston of the controlling engine constitutes the slide valve of the main engine.m which are controlled by the pistons B and B’ respectively.. The movements of the piston compress and rarify the air in the cylinder I at opposite ends of the same alternately.145 pressure is applied.169 . This latter is readily accomplished by making provision for the attachment to the piston rod of one or more weights h’. The period is mainly determined by the rigidity of the air spring and the inertia of the moving system and I may therefore secure any period of oscillation within very wide limits by properly adjusting these factors. An engine of the kind described possess many and important advantages. Frank Germano . In the figure I have shown two cylinders AA’ placed end to end with a piston B and B’ in each. the controlling engine is not designed nor adapted to perform other work than the regulation of the period of the other. The cylinder of the controlling engine is formed by or in the casing intermediate to the two main cylinders but in all other essential respects the construction and mode of operation of the controlling engine remains as described in connection with Figure 1.
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