by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO☺OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS mobile : 91+9414430763

My words.....
My purpose here is to give an introduction of organisational change and development. I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....



What are the types of changes?

Evolution revolution Planned change



Four types of changes as per Ferguson ?
1. Exceptional changes (something different from the routine) 2 Incremental change (gradual but fast change) 3. Pendulum change (change from one extreme to opposite end and back) 4. Paradigm change (change in thinking)

What are change drivers ?

Change must target at the following : 1. mission 2. vision 3. strategy 4. structure 5 plans and policies 6. procedures 7. technology 8. values 9. culture 10. systems



What are the strategies for change management ?
Political strategy – if powerful people accept a change, others will accept – so contact influential persons academic approach – people are rational – so give them logic engineering approach – change the environment – people will follow economic approac – money is important fellowship strategy – develop friends, every thing will be easy military strategy – use force applied behavioural science strategy – use behavioural tools

tk 7 . prepare a desired situation 3. prepare a strategy for a new system 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. study the current situation 2.What is CDS model of change ? Developed by Bechhard and Horns (1987) it has 3 stages : 1.

Here we identify forces in favour of change and forces against 8 . We try to strengthen forces in favour of change and try to reduce forces against the change. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is force field analysis ? It is a model of change given by Levin.

introduce intervention 7 evaluation 8.afterschool. follow up 5 DECEMBER 09 www. plan out interventions for changing the orgnanisation 6.What are the stes in change management ? 1. diagnosis 5. create awareness and create disturbance 2 feel the need for change 3. explore the readiness of people to accept change 9 . 10 . Confrontation is the best strategy allow people to contribute to change process.) dont suppress resistance. vested interests etc. fears. welcome and honour resistance.What are the principles of change management ? Some people will always oppose change (it may be due to habit. Let people take the initiative and participate in the change management process 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Confront the situation.

afterschool.How to reduce resistance to change ? Those who initiate change. will accept it also Participation in decision making will improve their understanding If we take regular feedback from 11 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. there will be less resistance. If people participate in diagnosis process. they will understand the change process and will accept it.

tk 12 .afterschool.What are the important aspects in change management ? Communication Planning Evaluation about change management Training and development Fecilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation coercion 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

they are researchers 5. they enable the organisation to develop the vision and reach it 6. they are catalyst 7. they are problem solver. solution provider 5 DECEMBER 09 13 .afterschool. they are facilitators 4. they are trainers 3.What is the role of change agents? 1 they are consultants 2.

afterschool. approach. etc. he should be good in cognitive skills 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What competencies are required for an effective change agent ? he should be good in interpersonal skills he should be good in communication skills he should be good in functional / technical skills he should be good in personal skills like 14 .

afterschool. setting 15 . conceptual understanding.What is cognitive skill? Cognition refers to thinking and reasoning cognitive skill refers to skills in analytical thinking. anticipating obstacles etc. reasoning. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

He must clarify the expectations to the organisation. He must have a clear agreement about his entry and withdrawal.afterschool. He must be clear about terms and conditions relating to the 16 .What are contractual skills ? A change agent is a consultant and he is in contract with the organisation. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

They must give priority to people. and energetic working in the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. They must remember that organisations are for people and ultimately people must feel happy. ethos.afterschool. constraints. philosophy. They must understand the context of the organisation.What are consulting skills ? They (change agents) must understand the process of orgnaisational working. more satisfied. values. goals. 17 .

Who are leading scholars in organisational development ? Warren Bennis.afterschool. French. Huse. Cecil H Bell. 5 DECEMBER 09 18 . Udai Pareek. etc. Wendell L. Richard Beckhard. Edgar F.

self renewal capabilities and organisational values with the help of change agents. and behavioural science experts. coping skills. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is OD ? It is a planned. 19 . long term change in organisation with focus on problem solving capabilities.

change 3 refreeze.afterschool. unfreeze 2. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is Levin's model of change management ? There are 3 stages in an organisation change process : 20 .

Levin's model ? Suppose you want to add colour to an ice. in any organisation. if you want to change.afterschool. Similarly. can you do it straight way? No. first make people prepared for the change then introduce change then again refreeze people (encourage them to adopt the new situation). First you have to unfreeze it. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. then add colour and then refreeze it back to 21 .

identify problems through people – research. 22 . till we are able to develop organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. again assess the organisation – research this cycle will continue repeatedly. plan out the action – involving people 3 introduce change – action.afterschool. every organisation has to change using these steps : 1. 2.What is action research model of organisational development ? As per this model.

tk 23 . planning for action 5. diagnosis of the organisational health 4. scouting for ideas for change and development by change agents 2. termination of Organisational development process 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. entry into organisation 3.What is organisational planning model ? It has following stages : 1. stabilisation 6. evaluation of organisation 7.

They may be outsiders to the 24 .afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. They use their behavioural science expertise in organisational development . but they are able to introduce change in the organisation though participation of people.Who are change agents ? These persons are experts in behavioural science. They try to involve people in the change management process. These experts are experts in introducing change in organisation.

People participate in intervations in a well planned and programmed set of activities 5 DECEMBER 09 25 .afterschool.What is an intervention ? It is a set of structured activities to develop an organisation or a part of that organisation or a group of an individual. 26 .What are the various types of interventions ? Dyads : here focus is on 2 persons Triads : here focus is on three persons Team interventions : here focus is on entire group / team Total organisation interventions : here focus is on the total organisation and its development 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

plan and design the interventions 3. diagnose the organisation 2.What are the steps in OD Interventions ? 27 . terminate the contract 5 DECEMBER 09 www. carry out the plan 4. evaluate the results 5.afterschool.

Key issues in OD contracts? Change agents must maintain confidentiality of data of the organisation.afterschool. They must study the organisation and identify key issues. They must use the interventions which enable the organisation to improve its processes. 5 DECEMBER 09 28 . Change agents can play a very important role in organisational transformation.

tk 29 .afterschool.How to undertake diagnosis ? Look at aspects like : are people clear about goals are people motivated ? Is there proper communication system ? Do people have mutual trust and support ? Do people believe that they are part of a team? Is there cohesiveness and collaboration in the organisation? 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 30 .afterschool.How to undertake OD diagnosis ? Use questionnaire to collect data Undertake interviews Use observations to further collect data undertake surveys 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What are the levels of diagnosis ? 1. 31 . at the level of individuals 5 DECEMBER 09 www. at the level of the teams 3 at the level of diads etc.afterschool. at the level of the entire organisation 2.

tk 32 . sense of freedom. well connected to people in the organisation and is able to have a satisfying relations with his colleagues / team membes for a healthy organisational comfort zone.How to do diagnosis at individual level ? Is the individual motivated. role clarity. understanding of organisational expectations and a well formed relationship across the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. goal oriented. well adjusted. networked. the individual must have a sense of ownership in the organisation.afterschool. 33 .How to do diagnosis at diad level ? Is there open. frank and adequate communication? Is there role clarity ? Is there mutual trust and support among exeuctives and subordinates and among peers? Is there clarity about how people can play an important role in development of each person – so people help each other ? 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 34 .What are the areas for organisational improvement ? The important areas are : 1. team work 2. employee participation 4. achievement motivation among employees 3.afterschool. internal customer orientation and quality focus 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 35 .What are the different strategic interventions ? Open system planning Trans-OD Strategic change management Self designing organisations Cultural change in organisations 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 36 .What are the different types of OD interventions ? Cultural internventions Relationship interventions Team work development interventions structural interventions Procedural interventions etc.afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What are cultural interventions ? They improve culture of the organisation and enable people to understand their work culture and to improve it culture is developed as people evolve a 37 .afterschool. open and collegial culture 5 DECEMBER 09 www. collaborative.

tk 38 .afterschool. open and dynamic. we try to develop a flat organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. and organisational communication is smoothened. From a tall organisation. We try to reduce levels and improve interpersonal relations. The organisation becomes more flexible.What are structural interventions ? Here we change the structure of the organisation Hierarchies are redefined.

afterschool.What are procedural interventions ? Here we improve working processes in organisations. Organisational bureaucracy is redefined and organisational work processes are simplified. 5 DECEMBER 09 39 . Here we try to improve procedures in the organisations.

task interdependence understanding. role clarity.What are relationship interventions ? In order to improve mutual understanding. and overall organisational development. 40 . we use these types of interventions 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

tk 41 .afterschool.Name some important OD interventions ? Grid OD Process consultation Survey Feedback Socio-techical system Confrontation meeting Third party peace making Life goal planning T group Organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

Johari Window. what is their superior's perception about others 5 DECEMBER 09 42 . what is their perception about themselves 1. The executives are then allowed to form group and discuss about some issue and write about these issues : 1.Example of Process consultation OD consultant organises 2 day workshop. what is their superiors' perception about them 1. what is their perception about their superiors 1. etc. He invites participants to use tools like FIRO-B.afterschool.

contd.afterschool. leadership and motivation processes improve 5 DECEMBER 09 www. People clarify the 43 . Perception sharing brings the two groups together. The consultant summarises the perceptions of the subordinates with the superiors and the perceptions of the superiors with the subordinates.. The perception sharing exercises enables executives and subordinates to openly share and discuss their perceptions. Thus there is greater openness. Thus communication. Thus orgnanisational processes are surfaced.

.Start with Micro Lab : with the objective that people have informal interaction. . and wilingness to relate with 44 Example of Team building exercise . Group status awareness : where people become aware about each other. and they are aware of their energy level. Use questionnaires like TORI (gibbs) to identify the awareness about group goals etc.afterschool.. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. interpersonal skills. enthusiasm.

.contd.afterschool. etc. participation and support in the group conflict management training trust building (use FIRO-B and other tools) interpersonal relationship training survey feedback .. perception sharing. ) here we try to study the level of openness. Agenda building & group work decision making process & analysis in group setting (use tools like desert survival. action planning 5 DECEMBER 09 45 .

tk 46 . These perceptions are shared by them openly in 3 stages : 1. These issues are presented to the management for implementation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.. positives 2. its working..afterschool.Example of organisational mirroring ... 2-3 representative of each department are invited for a session people are divided in 5-6 groups where they share their perceptions about the organisation. expectations Afterwards a core group is prepared to identify issues and prepare an action plan for those issues. negatives 3. its various departments.

Frank and open sharing is necessary. People from different departments come together and discuss important issues which hinder their performance and they also share possible 47 .Example of confrontation meeting It is used when there are intergroup problems in the orgnisation. First discussion take place in smaller groups and later there are detailed discussions in the groups about possible solutions. The group then prioritises the issues and tries to solve them 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

afterschool. innovation. leadership.What is survey feedback ? It is a widely used tool of OD here we prepare a scale / questionnaire / schedule to know about following aspects in the organisation : openness. creativity. teamwork. team work etc. We collect feedback about these aspects and provide the feedback to the employees so that they can participate in organisational development processes 5 DECEMBER 09 48 . customer relationship. motivation.

. 5 DECEMBER 09 49 .Example of confrontation meeting Convene a meeting of all department representatives Assure people about open and frank communication Divide people in small groups adn ask them to identify problems before their department and the organisation each group makes presentation problems are noted down and prioritised .afterschool.

tk 50 ...contd. Groups are formed to discuss the problems and to work out solution for the problems they prepare solutions in an open and frank discussions these solutions are forwarded to top management follow up action 5 DECEMBER 09 www..afterschool.

tk 51 .Example of organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. Tanxenbaum (1957) popularised this concept.-9 unproductive challenging1_.What is semantic differential scale ? 52 .. Here we used two opposite concepts to identify the perception of the respondent example : how do you like the job of manager productive _1_. Suci .afterschool.5.7.-9 routine 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

which have ability to differentiate people it is the most popular attitude measurement scale 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. The statements are prepared on the basis of a sample of 53 .What is summative scale ? It is also called Likert scale (1932) here we prepare a number of statement and ask the person to give rating for those statements the rating may be from most favourable to most unfavourable. 54 .afterschool.How to study organisational culture / climate / job satisfaction? We can use following : questionnaire scale (like litert scale) HRD climate survey FIRO-B http://www.aspx DIAGNOSIS STUDIES 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 5 DECEMBER 09 55 .ht http://www.discoveryourpersonality.ADDITIONAL RESOURCES http://www. 56 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. who fill them up and then we analyse these and try to find the level of job satisfaction / HRD climate etc.How to use these resources ? These resources consist of questionnaire / scales which are given to the employees.

tk 57 .What are the various OD exercises that we can use ? Grid training Role analysis action research TQM BPR MBO T-GROUP Team building intergroup development 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

tk 58 . behavioural science analysis 4.How should organisations restructure ? Undertake organisational analysis using various perspectives like : 1. culture / climate studies 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. political analysis 3. sociological analysis / sociometry 5. economic analysis 2.

What are the key dimensions of a good culture / climate / ethos ? Level of openness level of collaboration level of trust and suppor level of autonomy and freedom level of proaction in the organisation support for creativity and experimentation level of centrality / peripheral status of employee 5 DECEMBER 09 59 .afterschool.

development. collective efforts for organistional development) and research (interaction with people to know about what they like and what they dont and their perspective about how to develop organisation) 5 DECEMBER 09 60 .afterschool. It is a tool for organisational study.What is action research ? It was developed by Kurt Levin in 1947. and organisation development here we are using two things : action (change in organisation.

We develop people on 2 dimensions : 1. focus on goal / task / organisational purpose 61 . There are 6 different stages for development of the organisation in grid training here we start with individual and group development and then for the entire organisation.What is grid traininig? Blake and Mouton popularised this.afterschool. focus on people / communication / human relations a person who is good in both these dimensions is a good leader 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

5 DECEMBER 09 62 .afterschool.What is BPR ? Business process reengineering : it denotes radical change in the organisational processes and practices so that we are able to completely alter the way we work here we take help of computerisation / automation / reengineering etc.

tk 63 .What is TQM? Total quality management = it is a philosophy. predictability and awareness across the organisation.afterschool. People care for internal and external customers and try to meet the expectations of these. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. There are detailed documentation at every stage so that people work as per systems and processes and there is very high level of precision. where we install a system. which tries to deliver what is promised.

afterschool. likes the role.V. Rao in India 5 DECEMBER 09 www. finds resources / support to execute the role.What is role analysis / RAT /RNT ? Role analysis technique / role negotation technique / role contribution technique Role analysis enables organisations to study people processes in an organisation. and how well he is able to integrate the role. This technique has been popularised by Prof Udai Pareek and Prof. Here we look into dimensions like how well the person understands his role. 64 . feels empowered.

where they discuss about organisational quality problems and try to develop solutions for those issues and suggest them to the 65 . where employees voluntarily form a quality circle. It works at the initiative of people 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is quality circle ? It is a Japanese management technique.afterschool.

This data is then given back to 66 .What is survey feedback ? Here we take survey of employees of what they think is important / challenging / problematic / critical issue relating to organisation. so that they can plan to change the situation and improve the organisation it enables people to think about the ideal form of their organisation and enables them to play a proactive role in development of their own organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

All the employees gather at a specified location for this exercise for a few days.What is assessment centre ? Here employees gather for some time and many psychometric tests ar eused to assess and develop people. (to some extent similar to beauty contests) 5 DECEMBER 09 www. It is a tool for developing people. A number of tools and techniques are used under expert guidance in this method. organisation and overall work 67 .afterschool.

What is zero base budgeting ? Here we start budgeting from scratch. We dont look at what we had done 68 .afterschool. but what we want to do in future. Traditionally people just inflate the last year's budge and present it back. It is futuristic not historic. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. but zero base bugeting requires them to think afresh.

What is people analysis ? Here we study people processes in the organisation and we try to study people factors. commitment of people so that we can develop the entire organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. efficiency.afterschool. morale. Here we look at 69 .

afterschool.What is benchmarking ? Here we put an external / internal organisation as benchmark for the employees so that they can develop themselves in those lines and try to change the organisation / its processes / culture / techniques citibank tried to benchmark against the work culture and commitment of workers of SEWA in India when it entered in 70 . (read Dabbawala case study) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

afterschool. Here they retrench / transfer / relocate / restructure so that they are able to have an appropriate shape of organisation right sizing is a better work for more negative words like retrenchment 5 DECEMBER 09 71 . they go for right sizing.What is right sizing? When the organisation has excess manpower.

The executive tries to take decision and thereafter receives feedback about his decision from his seniors / experts / trainers. Executive receives a basket of papers / problems on which decisions must be taken. 5 DECEMBER 09 72 .What is in-basket ? It is a game / tool / technique for developing people / executives in organisation. Here employee is given a number of situation and he has to take decision on each of the situations.afterschool.

It is the most important tool for organisational change management 5 DECEMBER 09 73 .afterschool. Here we try to look at the strength of each force.What is force field analysis ? It is a tool for organisational study / organisational development / organisaitonal diagnosis here we identify forces which are in favour / against the change issue. Later we try to strengthen the forces in favour of change so that we may change the organisation.

Prepare a schedule for assessment centre ? Day 1 : orientation day 2 : in – basket exercise day 3 : role play day 4 group discussion day 5 : 74 . counselling and announcements 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

we assess the competence of people 5 DECEMBER 09 75 .afterschool. In diagnostic workshops.What are diagnostic workshops ? These help us in developing people.

task significance.afterschool. interesting.What is job designing ? Preparing a job design which is stimulating. task 76 . etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. motivating and challenging to the employee and adding aspects like skill variety.

improve work culture.What is QWL ? Quality of work life when we are able to improve the quality of work 77 . work environment.afterschool. it is called QWL 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What is flexibilisation and casualisation Flexibilisation= Creating flexible work culture (employee can choose work as per his convenience) casualisation = here employer may or may not give job in this 78 . there is a casual job 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. 79 .What is ZERO HOUR ? Employer may not give job – during zero hour – it is part of casualisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

Jobs are systematically structured. Same working conditions and environment is created all over the world (it is similar to Taylorism of Scientific management) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is Macdonaldisation? Here the job is broken in small components and each worker is trained in one small component and thus there is a possibility of replication of work on huge scale. Thus trained workers can produce in huge 80 .

afterschool.What is commodification ? Today we find every product is being converted into commodities work is also converted to commodification by converting the work into a repeatitive activity 5 DECEMBER 09 81 .

What is compressed workweek?

Instead of 7 days work, just work for 4 day – but work more per day





Rescheduling work arrangement

People can reschedule their time as per their requirements instead of 10 to 5 work, you may work 7 to 2



afterschool.What is telecommuting ? Here a person can work while travelling or at home laptop and remove equipments help 5 DECEMBER 09 85 .

What is job sharing ? Dividing the job between 2 or 3 persons to complete.afterschool. she may divide the work with another lady and continue her job and home responsibilities 5 DECEMBER 09 86 . Suppose a lady is having home responsibility.

What is call centre ? Here there is one organisation which provides BPO services and handles customer queries / grievences etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 87 .

What are components of QWL Fair compensation good working condition opportunity for growth social integration human capability development social relevance of work life work and social life space 5 DECEMBER 09 88 .afterschool.


they will be able to get more satisfaction and organisation will also 90 . Role may be different from job. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.What is role analysis ? To study the role in which an employee works and to study the level of understanding of the employee about his / her role is called role analysis. If people are clear about their role.

customers. superiors. and other stakeholders Job : . task etc. ? Role = setof expectations of colleagues.a module of work assigned to an individual Task – basic element of a job work – productive activities position – a place in the formal hierarchy of the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 91 . job.What is difference between role.afterschool. subordinates. 92 .What are steps in role analysis ? Identify roles to study prepare a task force / team to study roles identify role sender collect information about expectation from a role identify key performance areas(KPA) (role definition) identify competencies for the KPA identify gaps between capabilities and competencies plan out development activities 5 DECEMBER 09 www. 93 .com/doc/23393680/REASONING http://www.scribd.Download 5 DECEMBER 09 http://www..scribd. http://www.scribd..

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