ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

by : DR. T.K. JAIN AFTERSCHO☺OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan, india FOR – PGPSE / CSE PARTICIPANTS afterschool@in.com mobile : 91+9414430763
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My words.....
My purpose here is to give an introduction of organisational change and development. I welcome your suggestions. I also request you to help me in spreading social entrepreneurship across the globe – for which I need support of you people – not of any VIP. With your help, I can spread the ideas – for which we stand....

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What are the types of changes?

Evolution revolution Planned change

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Four types of changes as per Ferguson ?
1. Exceptional changes (something different from the routine) 2 Incremental change (gradual but fast change) 3. Pendulum change (change from one extreme to opposite end and back) 4. Paradigm change (change in thinking)
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What are change drivers ?

Change must target at the following : 1. mission 2. vision 3. strategy 4. structure 5 plans and policies 6. procedures 7. technology 8. values 9. culture 10. systems

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What are the strategies for change management ?
Political strategy – if powerful people accept a change, others will accept – so contact influential persons academic approach – people are rational – so give them logic engineering approach – change the environment – people will follow economic approac – money is important fellowship strategy – develop friends, every thing will be easy military strategy – use force applied behavioural science strategy – use behavioural tools
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tk 7 . prepare a strategy for a new system 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is CDS model of change ? Developed by Bechhard and Horns (1987) it has 3 stages : 1. prepare a desired situation 3. study the current situation 2.afterschool.

Here we identify forces in favour of change and forces against change.tk 8 .afterschool.What is force field analysis ? It is a model of change given by Levin. We try to strengthen forces in favour of change and try to reduce forces against the change. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 9 . explore the readiness of people to accept change 4. follow up 5 DECEMBER 09 www. create awareness and create disturbance 2 feel the need for change 3. diagnosis 5.What are the stes in change management ? 1.afterschool. plan out interventions for changing the orgnanisation 6.introduce intervention 7 evaluation 8.

afterschool. Confrontation is the best strategy allow people to contribute to change process.tk 10 . welcome and honour resistance. Confront the situation. fears.What are the principles of change management ? Some people will always oppose change (it may be due to habit. Let people take the initiative and participate in the change management process 5 DECEMBER 09 www. vested interests etc.) dont suppress resistance.

they will understand the change process and will accept it. If people participate in diagnosis process.afterschool.How to reduce resistance to change ? Those who initiate change. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 11 . there will be less resistance. will accept it also Participation in decision making will improve their understanding If we take regular feedback from people.

What are the important aspects in change management ? Communication Planning Evaluation about change management Training and development Fecilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation coercion 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 12 .

they are facilitators 4. they are trainers 3. they enable the organisation to develop the vision and reach it 6. they are catalyst 7. they are researchers 5.What is the role of change agents? 1 they are consultants 2. solution provider 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. they are problem solver.tk 13 .

approach.tk 14 .afterschool.What competencies are required for an effective change agent ? he should be good in interpersonal skills he should be good in communication skills he should be good in functional / technical skills he should be good in personal skills like attitude. he should be good in cognitive skills 5 DECEMBER 09 www. etc.

anticipating obstacles etc.tk 15 . reasoning. setting priorities.afterschool. conceptual understanding. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is cognitive skill? Cognition refers to thinking and reasoning cognitive skill refers to skills in analytical thinking.

afterschool. He must be clear about terms and conditions relating to the assignment. He must clarify the expectations to the organisation. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What are contractual skills ? A change agent is a consultant and he is in contract with the organisation. He must have a clear agreement about his entry and withdrawal.tk 16 .

philosophy. ethos. They must remember that organisations are for people and ultimately people must feel happy. goals. They must understand the context of the organisation. vision. They must give priority to people. and energetic working in the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 17 . constraints.What are consulting skills ? They (change agents) must understand the process of orgnaisational working. values. more satisfied.afterschool.

Who are leading scholars in organisational development ? Warren Bennis. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Richard Beckhard. Wendell L. French.afterschool. Edgar F. etc. Udai Pareek. Huse.tk 18 . Cecil H Bell.

tk 19 .afterschool. systematic. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. coping skills.What is OD ? It is a planned. long term change in organisation with focus on problem solving capabilities. and behavioural science experts. self renewal capabilities and organisational values with the help of change agents.

afterschool. change 3 refreeze. unfreeze 2. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is Levin's model of change management ? There are 3 stages in an organisation change process : 1.tk 20 .

first make people prepared for the change then introduce change then again refreeze people (encourage them to adopt the new situation). then add colour and then refreeze it back to ice. in any organisation.Levin's model ? Suppose you want to add colour to an ice.tk 21 .afterschool. First you have to unfreeze it. if you want to change. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Similarly. can you do it straight way? No.

What is action research model of organisational development ? As per this model. identify problems through people – research. till we are able to develop organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. again assess the organisation – research this cycle will continue repeatedly. plan out the action – involving people 3 introduce change – action. 2. every organisation has to change using these steps : 1.afterschool. 4.tk 22 .

What is organisational planning model ? It has following stages : 1. planning for action 5.tk 23 . diagnosis of the organisational health 4.afterschool. entry into organisation 3. scouting for ideas for change and development by change agents 2. stabilisation 6. termination of Organisational development process 5 DECEMBER 09 www. evaluation of organisation 7.

tk 24 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www. They use their behavioural science expertise in organisational development . They may be outsiders to the organisation. They try to involve people in the change management process. but they are able to introduce change in the organisation though participation of people.Who are change agents ? These persons are experts in behavioural science.afterschool. These experts are experts in introducing change in organisation.

afterschool.What is an intervention ? It is a set of structured activities to develop an organisation or a part of that organisation or a group of an individual. People participate in intervations in a well planned and programmed set of activities 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 25 .

afterschool.tk 26 .What are the various types of interventions ? Dyads : here focus is on 2 persons Triads : here focus is on three persons Team interventions : here focus is on entire group / team Total organisation interventions : here focus is on the total organisation and its development 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

carry out the plan 4. plan and design the interventions 3. diagnose the organisation 2.afterschool.tk 27 . terminate the contract 5 DECEMBER 09 www. evaluate the results 5.What are the steps in OD Interventions ? 1.

Change agents can play a very important role in organisational transformation.Key issues in OD contracts? Change agents must maintain confidentiality of data of the organisation. They must use the interventions which enable the organisation to improve its processes. They must study the organisation and identify key issues. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 28 .afterschool.

How to undertake diagnosis ? Look at aspects like : are people clear about goals are people motivated ? Is there proper communication system ? Do people have mutual trust and support ? Do people believe that they are part of a team? Is there cohesiveness and collaboration in the organisation? 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 29 .afterschool.

How to undertake OD diagnosis ? Use questionnaire to collect data Undertake interviews Use observations to further collect data undertake surveys 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 30 .afterschool.

at the level of the teams 3 at the level of diads etc.What are the levels of diagnosis ? 1. 4. at the level of individuals 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 31 . at the level of the entire organisation 2.

sense of freedom. role clarity.afterschool. understanding of organisational expectations and a well formed relationship across the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 32 . well connected to people in the organisation and is able to have a satisfying relations with his colleagues / team membes for a healthy organisational comfort zone. the individual must have a sense of ownership in the organisation. goal oriented. networked.How to do diagnosis at individual level ? Is the individual motivated. well adjusted.

afterschool.tk 33 . frank and adequate communication? Is there role clarity ? Is there mutual trust and support among exeuctives and subordinates and among peers? Is there clarity about how people can play an important role in development of each person – so people help each other ? 5 DECEMBER 09 www.How to do diagnosis at diad level ? Is there open.

tk 34 . employee participation 4. achievement motivation among employees 3. internal customer orientation and quality focus 5 DECEMBER 09 www. team work 2.afterschool.What are the areas for organisational improvement ? The important areas are : 1.

What are the different strategic interventions ? Open system planning Trans-OD Strategic change management Self designing organisations Cultural change in organisations 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 35 .

What are the different types of OD interventions ? Cultural internventions Relationship interventions Team work development interventions structural interventions Procedural interventions etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 36 .

What are cultural interventions ? They improve culture of the organisation and enable people to understand their work culture and to improve it culture is developed as people evolve a responsible.tk 37 .afterschool. open and collegial culture 5 DECEMBER 09 www. collaborative.

afterschool.What are structural interventions ? Here we change the structure of the organisation Hierarchies are redefined. we try to develop a flat organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. We try to reduce levels and improve interpersonal relations. and organisational communication is smoothened.tk 38 . The organisation becomes more flexible. open and dynamic. From a tall organisation.

tk 39 . Organisational bureaucracy is redefined and organisational work processes are simplified.afterschool. Here we try to improve procedures in the organisations. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What are procedural interventions ? Here we improve working processes in organisations.

role clarity.tk 40 . task interdependence understanding. communication.What are relationship interventions ? In order to improve mutual understanding.afterschool. and overall organisational development. we use these types of interventions 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

Name some important OD interventions ? Grid OD Process consultation Survey Feedback Socio-techical system Confrontation meeting Third party peace making Life goal planning T group Organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 41 .afterschool.

afterschool.Example of Process consultation OD consultant organises 2 day workshop. what is their superior's perception about others 5 DECEMBER 09 www. etc. The executives are then allowed to form group and discuss about some issue and write about these issues : 1. what is their perception about themselves 1. Johari Window. what is their superiors' perception about them 1.tk 42 . what is their perception about their superiors 1. He invites participants to use tools like FIRO-B.

contd. Thus there is greater openness. People clarify the doubts. The perception sharing exercises enables executives and subordinates to openly share and discuss their perceptions.tk 43 . leadership and motivation processes improve 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Perception sharing brings the two groups together. The consultant summarises the perceptions of the subordinates with the superiors and the perceptions of the superiors with the subordinates.afterschool.. Thus orgnanisational processes are surfaced. Thus communication.

tk 44 Example of Team building exercise . 5 DECEMBER 09 www...afterschool. interpersonal skills. Use questionnaires like TORI (gibbs) to identify the awareness about group goals etc. . Group status awareness : where people become aware about each other.Start with Micro Lab : with the objective that people have informal interaction. enthusiasm. and wilingness to relate with others.. and they are aware of their energy level..

contd.tk 45 . Agenda building & group work decision making process & analysis in group setting (use tools like desert survival. perception sharing.. participation and support in the group conflict management training trust building (use FIRO-B and other tools) interpersonal relationship training survey feedback . action planning 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. ) here we try to study the level of openness.. etc..

Example of organisational mirroring . its various departments.. negatives 3.afterschool.. These perceptions are shared by them openly in 3 stages : 1. expectations Afterwards a core group is prepared to identify issues and prepare an action plan for those issues. 2-3 representative of each department are invited for a session people are divided in 5-6 groups where they share their perceptions about the organisation..tk 46 . positives 2. These issues are presented to the management for implementation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. its working..

First discussion take place in smaller groups and later there are detailed discussions in the groups about possible solutions. Frank and open sharing is necessary.afterschool.Example of confrontation meeting It is used when there are intergroup problems in the orgnisation. The group then prioritises the issues and tries to solve them 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 47 . People from different departments come together and discuss important issues which hinder their performance and they also share possible solutions.

innovation. customer relationship.afterschool. teamwork. leadership. team work etc.What is survey feedback ? It is a widely used tool of OD here we prepare a scale / questionnaire / schedule to know about following aspects in the organisation : openness. motivation. We collect feedback about these aspects and provide the feedback to the employees so that they can participate in organisational development processes 5 DECEMBER 09 www. creativity.tk 48 .

.Example of confrontation meeting Convene a meeting of all department representatives Assure people about open and frank communication Divide people in small groups adn ask them to identify problems before their department and the organisation each group makes presentation problems are noted down and prioritised .afterschool..tk 49 . 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

.contd.afterschool.tk 50 . Groups are formed to discuss the problems and to work out solution for the problems they prepare solutions in an open and frank discussions these solutions are forwarded to top management follow up action 5 DECEMBER 09 www...

Example of organisational mirroring 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 51 .afterschool.

.7..3.5. Suci .-9 routine 5 DECEMBER 09 www.. Tanxenbaum (1957) popularised this concept.afterschool..5.3.What is semantic differential scale ? Osgood.7. Here we used two opposite concepts to identify the perception of the respondent example : how do you like the job of manager productive _1_.-9 unproductive challenging1_.tk 52 .

afterschool. The statements are prepared on the basis of a sample of statements.tk 53 . which have ability to differentiate people it is the most popular attitude measurement scale 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is summative scale ? It is also called Likert scale (1932) here we prepare a number of statement and ask the person to give rating for those statements the rating may be from most favourable to most unfavourable.

cpp.How to study organisational culture / climate / job satisfaction? We can use following : questionnaire scale (like litert scale) HRD climate survey FIRO-B http://www.aspx DIAGNOSIS STUDIES 5 DECEMBER 09 www.com/products/firo-b/index.afterschool.tk 54 .

jsevansconsultinginc.psychometrics.com/Pages/firob.html 5 DECEMBER 09 www.com/Firob.ht http://www.discoveryourpersonality.com/en-us/assessments/fi http://www.tk 55 .ADDITIONAL RESOURCES http://www.afterschool.

who fill them up and then we analyse these and try to find the level of job satisfaction / HRD climate etc.How to use these resources ? These resources consist of questionnaire / scales which are given to the employees.tk 56 .afterschool. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

What are the various OD exercises that we can use ? Grid training Role analysis action research TQM BPR MBO T-GROUP Team building intergroup development 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 57 .afterschool.

How should organisations restructure ? Undertake organisational analysis using various perspectives like : 1. sociological analysis / sociometry 5. political analysis 3. culture / climate studies 5 DECEMBER 09 www. behavioural science analysis 4.tk 58 . economic analysis 2.afterschool.

afterschool.tk 59 .What are the key dimensions of a good culture / climate / ethos ? Level of openness level of collaboration level of trust and suppor level of autonomy and freedom level of proaction in the organisation support for creativity and experimentation level of centrality / peripheral status of employee 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

and organisation development here we are using two things : action (change in organisation.afterschool.What is action research ? It was developed by Kurt Levin in 1947.tk 60 . It is a tool for organisational study. collective efforts for organistional development) and research (interaction with people to know about what they like and what they dont and their perspective about how to develop organisation) 5 DECEMBER 09 www. development.

focus on goal / task / organisational purpose 2.What is grid traininig? Blake and Mouton popularised this.tk 61 . focus on people / communication / human relations a person who is good in both these dimensions is a good leader 5 DECEMBER 09 www. We develop people on 2 dimensions : 1. There are 6 different stages for development of the organisation in grid training here we start with individual and group development and then for the entire organisation.afterschool.

afterschool.tk 62 .What is BPR ? Business process reengineering : it denotes radical change in the organisational processes and practices so that we are able to completely alter the way we work here we take help of computerisation / automation / reengineering etc. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

5 DECEMBER 09 www. which tries to deliver what is promised. predictability and awareness across the organisation. There are detailed documentation at every stage so that people work as per systems and processes and there is very high level of precision.tk 63 .What is TQM? Total quality management = it is a philosophy.afterschool. where we install a system. People care for internal and external customers and try to meet the expectations of these.

This technique has been popularised by Prof Udai Pareek and Prof.tk 64 . T.What is role analysis / RAT /RNT ? Role analysis technique / role negotation technique / role contribution technique Role analysis enables organisations to study people processes in an organisation. finds resources / support to execute the role. and how well he is able to integrate the role.afterschool. Rao in India 5 DECEMBER 09 www. feels empowered. Here we look into dimensions like how well the person understands his role.V. likes the role.

where they discuss about organisational quality problems and try to develop solutions for those issues and suggest them to the management.afterschool.What is quality circle ? It is a Japanese management technique. It works at the initiative of people 5 DECEMBER 09 www. where employees voluntarily form a quality circle.tk 65 .

What is survey feedback ? Here we take survey of employees of what they think is important / challenging / problematic / critical issue relating to organisation.afterschool. so that they can plan to change the situation and improve the organisation it enables people to think about the ideal form of their organisation and enables them to play a proactive role in development of their own organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 66 . This data is then given back to people.

(to some extent similar to beauty contests) 5 DECEMBER 09 www. organisation and overall work culture. A number of tools and techniques are used under expert guidance in this method. All the employees gather at a specified location for this exercise for a few days.What is assessment centre ? Here employees gather for some time and many psychometric tests ar eused to assess and develop people.afterschool. It is a tool for developing people.tk 67 .

Traditionally people just inflate the last year's budge and present it back.What is zero base budgeting ? Here we start budgeting from scratch. but zero base bugeting requires them to think afresh.afterschool. It is futuristic not historic. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 68 . We dont look at what we had done earlier. but what we want to do in future.

efficiency. commitment of people so that we can develop the entire organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. Here we look at motivation.What is people analysis ? Here we study people processes in the organisation and we try to study people factors.tk 69 .afterschool. morale.

tk 70 . (read Dabbawala case study) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is benchmarking ? Here we put an external / internal organisation as benchmark for the employees so that they can develop themselves in those lines and try to change the organisation / its processes / culture / techniques citibank tried to benchmark against the work culture and commitment of workers of SEWA in India when it entered in India.afterschool.

afterschool.tk 71 . they go for right sizing. Here they retrench / transfer / relocate / restructure so that they are able to have an appropriate shape of organisation right sizing is a better work for more negative words like retrenchment 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is right sizing? When the organisation has excess manpower.

afterschool. Here employee is given a number of situation and he has to take decision on each of the situations.What is in-basket ? It is a game / tool / technique for developing people / executives in organisation.tk 72 . The executive tries to take decision and thereafter receives feedback about his decision from his seniors / experts / trainers. Executive receives a basket of papers / problems on which decisions must be taken. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 73 . It is the most important tool for organisational change management 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.What is force field analysis ? It is a tool for organisational study / organisational development / organisaitonal diagnosis here we identify forces which are in favour / against the change issue. Later we try to strengthen the forces in favour of change so that we may change the organisation. Here we try to look at the strength of each force.

afterschool. counselling and announcements 5 DECEMBER 09 www.Prepare a schedule for assessment centre ? Day 1 : orientation day 2 : in – basket exercise day 3 : role play day 4 group discussion day 5 : analysis.tk 74 .

afterschool. In diagnostic workshops. we assess the competence of people 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What are diagnostic workshops ? These help us in developing people.tk 75 .

tk 76 .afterschool.What is job designing ? Preparing a job design which is stimulating. task identity. motivating and challenging to the employee and adding aspects like skill variety. 5 DECEMBER 09 www. interesting. etc.task significance.

improve work culture. it is called QWL 5 DECEMBER 09 www.What is QWL ? Quality of work life when we are able to improve the quality of work life.afterschool. work environment.tk 77 .

What is flexibilisation and casualisation Flexibilisation= Creating flexible work culture (employee can choose work as per his convenience) casualisation = here employer may or may not give job in this case.tk 78 . there is a casual job 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

afterschool.tk 79 .What is ZERO HOUR ? Employer may not give job – during zero hour – it is part of casualisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

Thus trained workers can produce in huge quantity. Jobs are systematically structured.tk 80 .afterschool.What is Macdonaldisation? Here the job is broken in small components and each worker is trained in one small component and thus there is a possibility of replication of work on huge scale. Same working conditions and environment is created all over the world (it is similar to Taylorism of Scientific management) 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

afterschool.What is commodification ? Today we find every product is being converted into commodities work is also converted to commodification by converting the work into a repeatitive activity 5 DECEMBER 09 www.tk 81 .

What is compressed workweek?

Instead of 7 days work, just work for 4 day – but work more per day

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Rescheduling work arrangement

People can reschedule their time as per their requirements instead of 10 to 5 work, you may work 7 to 2

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tk 85 .What is telecommuting ? Here a person can work while travelling or at home laptop and remove equipments help 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

tk 86 . Suppose a lady is having home responsibility. she may divide the work with another lady and continue her job and home responsibilities 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.What is job sharing ? Dividing the job between 2 or 3 persons to complete.

5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.tk 87 .What is call centre ? Here there is one organisation which provides BPO services and handles customer queries / grievences etc.

afterschool.tk 88 .What are components of QWL Fair compensation good working condition opportunity for growth social integration human capability development social relevance of work life work and social life space 5 DECEMBER 09 www.

tk 89 .How to measure QWL? JOB INVOLVEMENT JOB SATISFACTION SENSE OF COMPETENCE SENCE OF ACCOMPLISHMENT PRODUCTIVITY REDUCED ABSENTEISM INCREASED MOTIVATION 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

What is role analysis ? To study the role in which an employee works and to study the level of understanding of the employee about his / her role is called role analysis. If people are clear about their role.tk 90 . they will be able to get more satisfaction and organisation will also prosper. 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool. Role may be different from job.

a module of work assigned to an individual Task – basic element of a job work – productive activities position – a place in the formal hierarchy of the organisation 5 DECEMBER 09 www. task etc. and other stakeholders Job : . job. superiors. ? Role = setof expectations of colleagues.tk 91 . subordinates.What is difference between role. customers.afterschool.

tk 92 .What are steps in role analysis ? Identify roles to study prepare a task force / team to study roles identify role sender collect information about expectation from a role identify key performance areas(KPA) (role definition) identify competencies for the KPA identify gaps between capabilities and competencies plan out development activities 5 DECEMBER 09 www.afterschool.

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