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America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters

How Cleaning Up the Dirtiest Power Plants Will Protect Public Health

America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters
How Cleaning Up the Dirtiest Power Plants Will Protect Public Health

Environment America Research & Policy Center

by

Travis Madsen, Frontier Group Lauren Randall, Environment America Research & Policy Center

November 2011

state and federal levels. For more information about Frontier Group. state and national debates over the quality of our environment and our lives.org/center. educate the public and decision makers. Our mission is to inject accurate information and compelling ideas into public policy debates at the local. Environment America Research & Policy Center is grateful to the New York Community Trust for making this report possible. © 2011 Environment America Research & Policy Center Environment America Research & Policy Center is a 501(c)(3) organization.environmentamerica. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of our funders or those who provided review. Tony Dutzik.frontiergroup. For more information about Environment America Research & Policy Center or for additional copies of this report. Cover photo: Kenn Kiser Cover design: To the Point Publications. Frontier Group conducts independent research and policy analysis to support a cleaner.Acknowledgments The authors thank Ann Weeks at Clean Air Task Force and Stephanie Maddin at Earthjustice for providing useful feedback and insightful suggestions on drafts of this report. water and open spaces. craft solutions. please visit www. and Meredith Medoway provided editorial support.com America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 2 . The authors bear responsibility for any factual errors.tothepointpublications. Nathan Willcox at Environment America Research & Policy Center.org. We investigate problems. Benjamin Davis and Jordan Schneider at Frontier Group. and help Americans make their voices heard in local. please visit www. healthier and more democratic society. www. We are dedicated to protecting America’s air.

..19 NOTES...........................................................Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................18 APPENDICES..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 MERCURY CONTAMINATION IS WIDESPREAD ...................................12 NEW POLLUTION STANDARDS ARE NEEDED TO CLEAN UP POWER PLANTS ...........................19 STATES RANKED BY TOTAL POWER PLANT EMISSIONS OF AIRBORNE MERCURY POLLUTION IN 2010 .....................20 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 3 ...10 POWER PLANTS CONTINUE TO EMIT LARGE AMOUNTS OF MERCURY POLLUTION ......................................................................S......................................................................................................................... POWER PLANT AIRBORNE MERCURY EMISSIONS .....................................................................................................................10 MERCURY IS TOXIC TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................................16 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................................... 8 MERCURY POLLUTION THREATENS PUBLIC HEALTH ................................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................19 2010 U.............

the U. (See Table ES-2. damage to attention and motor control. Implementing these standards will protect public health. the most of any industrial facility in the nation.and oil-fired power plants. Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). In other words. led by American Electric Power with 6. Of the top 10 biggest mercury-polluting power plants in the country. In 2011. Distributed over a wide area. This amount is significant because mercury is so potent.S. Louisiana.200 pounds. (See Table ES-3. Texas. * America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 4 . • • The Big Brown Steam Electric Station and Lignite Coal Mine in Fairfield. Missouri and Ohio. with one each in Alabama.Executive Summary Power plants continue to release large amounts of toxic pollutants. In 2010. two-thirds of all airborne mercury pollution in the United States came from the smokestacks of coal-fired power plants. followed by Pennsylvania in third. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of airborne mercury pollution.610 pounds of mercury pollution into our air in 2010. Table ES-1 lists these top 10 biggest mercury polluters.S.* Mercury is a potent neurotoxicant. Ohio ranked second.) Just five companies were responsible for more than one-third of all power plant mercury emissions in 2010. All 50 states currently have advisories warning women and children not to eat local fish due to mercury contamination. and reduced IQ. Mercury exposure during critical periods of brain development can contribute to irreversible deficits in verbal skills. emitted 1. into our air. power plants generate more airborne mercury pollution than all other industrial sources combined. will not be represented in the data. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the first national standards limiting mercury and other toxic air pollution from existing coal. For more detail.) • • • The data presented in this report focus on power plant emissions data reported to the U. Industries that are not required to report to TRI. or facilities with emissions below the reporting threshold. Among all states nationwide. making resident fish unsafe to eat. just fractions of an ounce of mercury can contaminate local and regional water bodies. Texas ranked first in terms of overall airborne mercury pollution produced by power plants in 2010. six are located in Texas. including mercury. see the Methodology section on page 18.

495 2.002 2.287 2. LLC Ameren Corp.025 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 5 .127 4. 5 NRG Energy Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 6.220 4.420 TX 1.585 4. Luminant Generation Co. Parish Electric 10 Generating Station 9 American Electric Power NRG Texas Power Thompsons LLC Table ES-2: Top Ten States Ranked by Total Power Plant Emissions of Airborne Mercury Pollution in 2010 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 State Texas Ohio Pennsylvania Missouri Indiana Alabama West Virginia North Dakota Kentucky Michigan Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 11. 4 Ameren Corp. LLC NRG Energy Inc. Airborne Mercury Rank Company American Electric Power Luminant 2 Generation Co. Freestone Franklin Rusk Fairfield Labadie Tatum Limestone Jewett Harrison Jefferson Titus Pointe Coupee Gallia Fort Bend Hallsville Quinton Mount Pleasant New Roads Cheshire 6 Miller Steam Plant 7 Monticello Steam Electric Station & Lignite Mine 8 Big Cajun 2 American Electric Power Gavin Plant W.363 2.610 TX 1. 1 3 Southern Co.527 MO 1.W.150 TX 1.699 3.175 3. LLC NRG Texas Power LLC American Electric Power Southern Co. Pirkey Power Plant Airborne Mercury State Emissions (pounds) 1.369 3.253 Table ES-3: The Top Five Polluting Power Companies. Luminant Generation Co.835 3.005 TX 850 LA 829 OH 820 TX County City Owner Luminant Generation Co. 2010.Table ES-1: Top 10 Dirtiest Power Plants.964 3.037 AL 1.070 TX 1.A. 2010 Airborne Mercury Pollution National Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Facility Name Big Brown Steam Electric Station & Lignite Mine Ameren Missouri Labadie Energy Center Martin Lake Steam Electric Station & Lignite Mine Limestone Electric Generating Station American Electric Power H.218 3.

mercury exposure can lead to irreversible deficits in attention and motor control. mercury contamination in our environment is widespread. Mercury is a potent neurotoxicant. After leaving the smokestack. 2010 Each circle in this map represents a power plant that reported mercury pollution in 2010. • • Figure ES-1: Power Plant Sources of Airborne Mercury Pollution. During critical windows of brain development that occur in utero and in the first year or two of a child’s life. The area of the circle is directly proportional to the amount of mercury the plant emitted. and reduced IQ.Mercury pollution threatens public health. and accumulates in fish. damage to verbal skills. Eating contaminated fish is the main source of human exposure to mercury. One in 10 women of childbearing age in the United States has enough mercury in her blood to put her child at risk of developmental damage should she become pregnant. mercury falls to the ground in rain or snow. America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 6 . contaminates waterways. • Largely due to emissions from coal-fired power plants.

EPA has developed the first national standard limiting releases of mercury and other toxic air pollutants from existing coal. EPA estimates that for every dollar spent to reduce pollution from power plants. the new emissions standard will improve public health. As proposed in March 2011. the rules could provide as much as $140 billion worth of benefits annually. EPA should finalize the rules as proposed. Congress should support this common-sense action. this standard will require power plant owners to cut overall emissions of mercury by more than 90 percent using widely available.and oil-fired power plants. Similar standards affecting other industries have successfully reduced mercury contamination of fish in local waterways.New EPA standards will limit mercury pollution from power plants and protect public health. proven pollution control technologies. In total. the American public and American businesses will see up to $13 in health and economic benefits. • • • America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 7 . As proposed. • Under the authority of the Clean Air Act.

He said. Owners of coal-fired power plants. in particular.”1 How right he was. By 1990. “I think that the year of 1970 will be known as the year of the beginning. many coal-fired power plants have avoided installing effective emissions controls for decades. air pollution kills tens of thousands of Americans. 1970 was a landmark year for action to protect our health. Grandfathered under provisions of the Clean Air Act that were intended to require power plants to install better pollution controls at the time of Photo: Claudia Meyer any major modifications. Moreover. our increasing understanding of the dangers posed by toxic pollutants only brings the terrible toll that air pollution causes into greater focus. It was also the beginning of a long road – and we still have not yet reached our destination.2 Air pollution costs us hundreds of billions of dollars a year in sickness and lost productivity. when Congress rewrote the Clean Air Act to demand faster cleanup of toxic air pollution. Every year. coal-fired power America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 8 . triggers millions of asthma attacks. Coal-fired power plants are a particularly large source of mercury pollution – a scourge that affects hundreds of thousands of children across the country. have been granted ample time to clean up over the years.Introduction In 1970. Although America has made great strides in cleaning up sources of air pollution from automobiles to factories over the last four decades.3 Industry resistance to common-sense measures that would reduce pollution and protect the health of American families has unnecessarily dragged out the process of cleaning the air. in which we really began to move on the problems of clean air and clean water and open spaces for the future generations of America. President Nixon sat down in the Roosevelt Room of the White House to sign the Clean Air Act into law. our air and our water. air pollution remains a serious and persistent problem. and causes millions of missed work and school days due to pollutionrelated illness.

can be known as the year in which we “really began to move on the problems of clean air and clean water and open spaces for the future generations of America. too. in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Once the new standard becomes final. EPA has proposed to finally require all existing coal.plants produced about as much airborne mercury pollution as municipal waste incinerators and medical waste incinerators. almost half of the nation’s fleet of coal-fired power plants still lacks modern emissions control technology.5 In contrast. perhaps 2011. mercury emissions from incinerators are down by well over 95 percent.6 This year.” America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 9 .4 However.and oil-fired power plants to reduce toxic pollution and safeguard our health. It is long past time for these plants to clean up and to compete on an equal playing field with other power generating facilities under a national emissions standard.

Mercury Pollution Threatens Public Health Mercury is a potent neurotoxicant.12 Even adults are vulnerable to mercury pollution.13 Researchers at Mt. Largely due to emissions from coal-fired power plants. Harvard Medical School. they emit mercury and other toxic pollutants into the air. and reduced IQ. Eating contaminated fish at any age can cause deficits in brain function. Rather. National Academy of Sciences. Scientists at the U. Scientists have found that deficits due to in utero exposure still persist at age 14.000 and 640. America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 10 . After leaving the power plant smokestack. streams and the ocean. Mercury does not decompose in the environment. between 320. all the way to humans.S.14 Mercury Contamination Is Widespread Elemental mercury occurs naturally in our environment and can be found in coal and other underground rock deposits. it can accumulate in fish and throughout the food chain. deficits in verbal skills. leading to delayed language development. damage to attention and motor control. Every state in the country has issued some form of advisory warning about the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish from local waters. children exposed to low-dosage levels of mercury while in the womb can develop brain damage.S.10 Mercury Is Toxic to Human Development As documented by the U.8 Mercury exposure can lead to irreversible deficits in verbal skills.11 The effects appear irreversible. mercury pollution falls to the ground in rain or snow and then washes into lakes.7 billion annually in diminished intelligence of the population and resulting lost productivity. People are primarily exposed to mercury through eating contaminated fish.7 Children are particularly vulnerable to the harmful impacts of mercury during critical windows of development that occur before birth and through the first few years of life. damage to attention and motor control. mercury contaminates waterways across the United States. Boston Children’s Hospital and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine estimate that mercury pollution costs the nation $8. Sinai School of Medicine. When power plants burn coal. from coastal bays to the Great Lakes.000 children born every year are exposed to mercury at levels associated with measurable developmental damage. Environmental Protection Agency have estimated that one in 10 women of childbearing age in the United States has enough mercury in her bloodstream to risk damage to her child’s brain development should she become pregnant.9 In other words. as well as fertility and cardiovascular problems. and reduced IQ.

Mercury does not readily decompose in the environment. People who eat contaminated fish end up with mercury that builds up in their bodies. Environmental Protection Agency have estimated that one in 10 women of childbearing age in the United States has enough mercury in her bloodstream to risk damage to her child’s brain development should she become pregnant. Instead. lakes. reservoirs and ponds. Species that tend to have high levels of mercury include larger freshwater fish and saltwater species such as tuna. along with thousands of smaller water bodies across the country. small organisms can transform it into mercury compounds that do not readily leave the body. and More than 6.000 miles of rivers and streams. swordfish and shark.16 Mercury contamination affects:17 • • • More than 14 million acres of bays.18 Every square inch of the Great Lakes is under a mercury advisory. estuaries. America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 11 . mercury pollution impairs nearly 5. These compounds build up in aquatic organisms and tend to increase in concentration in species at the top of the food chain.S.15 According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency.600 miles of coastal shoreline.000 bodies of water across the country.Xchng Scientists at the U. More than 60.19 Photo: Stock. Every state in the United States has issued an advisory warning against the consumption of species of fish that tend to have dangerous levels of mercury.

21 The most polluting industrial facility in the nation – the Big Brown Steam Electric Station and Lignite Coal Mine in Fairfield. In total. Missouri and Ohio. Very small amounts of mercury can contaminate local and regional water bodies.Power Plants Continue to Emit Large Amounts of Mercury Pollution Coal-fired power plants are the largest source of airborne mercury emissions in America. Table 1: Top 25 Dirtiest Power Plants in Terms of Airborne Mercury Pollution in 2010 National Rank 1 Facility Name Airborne Mercury State Emissions (pounds) 1. This amount is significant.20 In other words.005 TX County City Owner Luminant Generation Co. In 2010.420 TX 1. coal-fired power plants together generate more airborne mercury pollution than all other sources – including incinerators.150 TX 1.050 pounds of mercury pollution into the air in 2010.610 TX 1.527 MO 1. six are located in Texas. twothirds of all airborne mercury pollution came from the smokestacks of these power plants. Pirkey Power Plant 6 Miller Steam Plant 7 Monticello Steam Electric Station & Lignite Mine Freestone Franklin Rusk Limestone Harrison Jefferson Titus Fairfield Labadie Tatum Jewett Hallsville Quinton Mount Pleasant America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters . Luminant Generation Co. making resident fish unsafe to eat.W. Louisiana. power plants emitted 66. LLC Ameren Corp. Table 1 lists the top 25 biggest mercury polluters out of the 457 power facilities that reported mercury emissions to the EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory in 2010.070 TX 1. LLC NRG Texas Power LLC American Electric Power Southern Co. LLC 12 Big Brown Steam Electric Station & Lignite Mine Ameren Missouri Labadie 2 Energy Center Martin Lake Steam Electric 3 Station & Lignite Mine Limestone Electric 4 Generating Station 5 H. steel mills and cement manufacturing plants – combined.610 pounds of mercury pollution in 2010. Of the top 10 biggest mercury-polluting power plants in the country. with one each in Alabama. Texas – emitted 1.037 AL 1. Luminant Generation Co.

Edison International Southern Co. Putnam Indiana Pike Coconino Jefferson Indiana Shelby Oliver Bexar Pottawatomie American Electric Power GenOn Energy Inc. America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 13 . AES Corp. Minnkota Power Cooperative Inc. Young Station 24 Calaveras Power Station 25 Jeffrey Energy Center Underwood Mclean Shawville Chouteau Monroe Newark Winfield New Florence Petersburg Page Redfield Homer City Wilsonville Center San Antonio Saint Marys Clearfield Mayes Monroe Independence Entergy Corp. American Electric Power NRG Texas Power LLC Great River Energy GenOn Energy Inc.A. 11 Coal Creek Station 12 Shawville Station Grand River Dam Authority Coal Fired Complex Detroit Edison Monroe 14 Power Plant Independence Steam 15 Electric Station American Electric Power 16 Amos Plant 13 17 Conemaugh Power Plant 18 IPL Petersburg Salt River Project Navajo Generating Station White Bluff Generating 20 Plant EME Homer City Generation 21 LP 19 22 Gaston Steam Plant 23 Milton R. Salt River Project Entergy Corp. City of San Antonio Westar Energy Inc. Grand River Dam Authority DTE Energy Co.Table 1: Top 25 Dirtiest Power Plants in Terms of Airborne Mercury Pollution in 2010 (Continued) National Rank Facility Name Airborne Mercury State Emissions (pounds) 850 LA 829 OH 820 TX 779 ND 702 PA 670 OK 660 MI 601 AR 585 WV 576 PA 568 IN 566 AZ 559 AR 547 PA 545 AL 544 ND 540 TX 524 KS County Pointe Coupee Gallia Fort Bend City Owner 8 Big Cajun 2 9 Gavin Plant 10 W. Parish Electric Generating Station New Roads Cheshire Thompsons NRG Energy Inc.

218 3. Table 2: Top Ten States Ranked by Total Power Plant Emissions of Airborne Mercury Pollution in 2010 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 State Texas Ohio Pennsylvania Missouri Indiana Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 11. The area of the circle is directly proportional to the amount of mercury the plant emitted.363 2.002 2.253 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 14 .835 3.495 2.175 Rank 6 7 8 9 10 State Alabama West Virginia North Dakota Kentucky Michigan Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 3. 2010 Each circle in this map represents a power plant that reported mercury pollution in 2010.964 3.127 4.287 2.Figure 1: Power Plant Sources of Airborne Mercury Pollution.

Ameren Corporation and NRG Energy were all responsible for more than 3. (See Table 3.025 2. Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 6. FirstEnergy Generation Corp. NRG Energy Berkshire Hathaway GenOn Energy Inc. Mercury22 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Company American Electric Power Luminant Generation Co.220 4.041 1. Southern Co.S.615 1. Progress Energy Inc.Just five companies were responsible for more than one-third of all power plant mercury emissions.056 1. Entergy Corp.413 1. Table 3: The Top 25 Polluting Power Companies.040 1.000 pounds of mercury pollution.355 1.) Luminant.033 1. Alliant Energy Corp.369 3. 2010.220 pounds. Southern Company.585 4. Ameren Corp.444 1. U.699 3. Edison International Basin Electric Salt River Project AES Corp.229 1. Great River Energy Great Plains Energy Westar Energy Inc. led by American Electric Power with 6.659 1. Allegheny Energy Inc.038 1.009 995 842 812 759 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 15 .088 1. Duke Energy Corp. Tennessee Valley Authority Xcel Energy PPL Corporation DTE Energy Co.314 2.559 1. Dominion Resources Inc.836 1.

23 This safeguard has been in development for more than 20 years. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will finalize new standards – officially known as Mercury and Air Toxics Standards for Power Plants – requiring existing coal. EPA drafted a broad emission standard based on the best available toxic pollution control technology. called the Clean Air Mercury Rule. Fourteen states and dozens of public health and environmental organizations – including Environment America – filed suit against this decision. Congress revised the landmark Clean Air Act. seeking a new enforceable deadline for EPA to issue technologybased standards for toxic air pollution Photo: Keith Syvinski from power plants. as it had. In 1990. exempt the utility industry from regulation of toxic air pollution and that EPA must therefore withdraw the Clean Air Mercury Rule. the coalition of public health and environmental groups sued the agency. and instead finalized the weaker cap-and-trade program. In January 2004. to protect America’s children and overall public health. and also a much weaker alternative cap-and-trade system focused on mercury pollution.S. EPA determined that toxic pollution from coal. a federal Circuit Court agreed with public health and environmental advocates. The law gave EPA the tools to require regulated industries to install the best emissions control technology available. in 2005 EPA asserted that pollution from coal. New rules were to be finalized by 2002.24 In 2008. requiring EPA to take greater action to reduce toxic air pollution.New Pollution Standards Are Needed to Clean Up Power Plants In December 2011. In 2000.and oil-fired power plants should be regulated. the U. The power plant industry vigorously opposed the technology-based standards.and oilfired power plants to clean up their emissions of mercury and other toxic air pollution. including emissions of mercury. after many years of study.26 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 16 .25 Late in 2008.and oil-fired power plants did not need strict regulation. In response to this pressure. ruling that EPA could not.

According to EPA.000 premature deaths.35 These figures do not count additional health benefits that will accrue from reduced levels of certain toxic organic air pollutants or the environmental benefits of the rule for ecosystems and wildlife. and 850. the new safeguard could provide as much as $140 billion worth of benefits annually.31 Similar standards affecting incinerators. 11.27 Later. Congress should support this action on behalf of all American citizens. EPA estimates that when the standard is fully implemented – which could be up to four years after it goes into effect – reduced emissions will annually prevent:33 • • • • • 17. all power plants will have to operate on a level playing field across the country.In 2010.30 The remaining coal-fired power plants – the top polluters identified in this report – will have to clean up. advocates and EPA agreed that EPA would propose new standards in March 2011 and finalize them in November 2011. 12. EPA should finalize the standards as proposed. The proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards represent a clear.32 A national standard will reduce mercury pollution and fish contamination nationwide. the new standard will require many power plants to install widely available. despite resistance from the utility industry.34 In total. For the first time. America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 17 . EPA action will reduce public exposure to mercury and other toxic air pollutants. benefiting everyone. If finalized as proposed and implemented as required by the Clean Air Act. Additionally.000 heart attacks.28 If finalized as proposed. such as activated carbon injection.000 fewer days of work missed due to illness. 120. These actions have successfully reduced mercury emissions – resulting in significant declines in mercury contamination of fish in local waterways.000 emergency room visits and hospital admissions. proven pollution control technologies. the rules will reduce overall power plant emissions of mercury by more than 90 percent by mid-2015. every dollar spent to reduce pollution from power plants will deliver up to $13 in health and economic benefits for the American public and American businesses. protecting the health of every American – especially children. the new standard will have broad health benefits by reducing emissions of other toxic metals as well as small particulates and sulfur dioxide.000 cases of childhood asthma symptoms. common-sense step that will significantly improve public health.29 Slightly more than half of all coal-fired power plants already deploy some of the pollution control equipment capable of delivering the performance necessary to meet the new standard. advocates and EPA agreed that the final standard would be issued in December 2011 to allow EPA time to fully consider the public comments it had received. In addition to reducing the insidious damage to brain development caused by mercury. power plants and other industries have been implemented in some states.

2010 TRI Dataset. The analysis does not count any mercury emissions reported to TRI that do not involve atmospheric release. and facilities with emissions exceeding the reporting threshold of 10 pounds per year. including both fugitive emissions and emissions through power plant smokestacks. and is not necessarily a comprehensive listing of all power plants or mercury emitters in each state. We then examined emissions of mercury and mercury compounds to the air.S. 27 October 2011.36 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 18 . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Toxics Release Inventory emissions data are self-reported by regulated facilities. available at www. The data represent only industries that are required to submit data to EPA under the Toxics Release Inventory program.epa. EPA may update this information over time to capture late reporting and revisions.Methodology The emissions data presented in this report are derived from the U. The dataset we used was the first iteration of the 2010 inventory.gov/tri/tridata/preliminarydataset/index. Toxics Release Inventory.html. We first selected any emitter listed in the database involved in electricity generation by choosing facilities with a primary or secondary industry classification code (or NAICS code) beginning with 22111.

” and navigate to “America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters.964 3.210 1.465 1.967 1.253 2. click on “Reports.522 1.590 1.environmentamerica. see www.287 2.495 2.175 3.412 1.500 1.S.249 1.218 3.835 1.Appendices States Ranked by Total Power Plant Emissions of Airborne Mercury Pollution in 201037 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 State Texas Ohio Pennsylvania Missouri Indiana Alabama West Virginia North Dakota Kentucky Michigan Iowa Illinois Arizona Wyoming Florida Kansas Arkansas Oklahoma Wisconsin Tennessee Louisiana Georgia Nebraska Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 11.” The table is posted alongside the electronic copy of this report.002 2.099 Rank 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 State North Carolina Mississippi Minnesota Virginia Colorado South Carolina New Mexico Utah Washington South Dakota New York Oregon New Hampshire Nevada Montana Maryland Delaware New Jersey Massachusetts Connecticut Hawaii Alaska California Airborne Mercury Emissions (pounds) 957 951 876 659 645 566 489 344 331 290 259 206 194 176 174 155 108 88 53 49 42 18 12 2010 U. America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 19 .329 1.363 2. power plants and their 2010 airborne mercury emissions nationwide.S.127 4. Power Plant Airborne Mercury Emissions For a table listing all U.835 3.154 1.060 1.org.

” Environmental Health Perspectives 115: 590-596. 16 March 2011. Woolley. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Protection Agency.2010.C. 353 F. December 1997. because the prior approach to air toxics regulation had been disappointing. The American Presidency Project. Reducing Toxic Pollution from Power Plants: EPA’s Proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (presentation). The Public Health Impact of Air Pollution in New Jersey.1749-6632.S. 6 7 For simplicity’s sake. Mercury Study Report to Congress.” American Economic Review 101(5): 1649–75. 3 Congress rewrote: See Sierra Club v. March 2011.edu/ws/?pid=2874. Environmental Protection Agency. Leonardo Trasande et al.1649. Paul R.5. “Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy. Ibid. “Full Cost Accounting for the Life Cycle of Coal. Nicholas Z. EPA. “Developmental Neurotoxicity of Industrial Chemicals. U.” The Lancet 368: 2167-2178. D.x. “Remarks on Signing the Clean Air Amendments of 1970. May 2005. 2004. the text of this report uses the word “mercury” to represent inorganic mercury (the element alone). 16 December 2006. December 2003. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury. available at www. and Congress wanted faster. Robert Mendelsohn and William Nordhaus. Emissions comparable to incinerators: see note 5.S. available at Gerhard Peters and John T. September 2010.S.Notes Richard Nixon.3d 976. NJPIRG Law & Policy Center. National Research Council. Circuit Court. 2-5 & 2-6. 11 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 20 . Frontier Group and PennEnvironment Research & Policy Center. 979-80. Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020. Mahaffey et al.pdf. deeper reductions than were possible under the prior approach. which describes the introduction of control technology-based air toxics standards in 1990.epa. 10 National Academy of Sciences. Epstein et al.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1219: 73–98. D.. (Washington. vol.gov/airquality/powerplanttoxics/pdfs/presentation.” Environmental Health Perspectives 117: 47-53.: National Academy Press) 2000. August 2011. Environmental Protection Agency. U. 8 9 Kathryn R. DOI: 10.presidency. 2011.” 31 December 1970. Muller. April 2006. Travis Madsen and Nathan Willcox. Philippe Grandjean and Philip Landrigan.S. DOI: 10. Travis Madsen and Dena Mottola. 1. “Public Health and Economic Consequences of Methyl Mercury Toxicity to the Developing Brain.C. pp. 2 1 See for example: U.101.ucsb. as well as methylmercury – a more toxic compound of mercury that results when microorganisms metabolize the chemical. 5 4 U.1111/j.05890. “Adult Women’s Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999-2004). Clean Air Task Force. at www. Air Pollution and Public Health in Pennsylvania. The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from America's Dirtiest Energy Source.1257/aer. 25 August 2008.

Frequently Asked Questions about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish: What is Mercury and Methylmercury?. “Mercury. Department of Environmental Health. 14 13 12 See note 10. Environmental Protection Agency. 28 November 2002.Philippe Grandjean.loc.pdf. see the Methodology section. 15 U. U./temp/~r108Aoc9u1:e122363. 16 U. & Environmental Results: National Summary of State Information. 21 20 Clean Air Network.gov/airquality/powerplanttoxics/. “Intake of Mercury from Fish. Ibid. U.” Circulation 91: 645-655. Environmental Protection Agency. 28 October 2011.” Environmental Research 63: 241-251. Harvard School of Public Health.epa. available at iaspub. 2010 National Listing of Fish Advisories (presentation).S. & Environmental Results.gov/waters10/attains_nation_cy.cfm..epa.S. 25 October 2011. available at water. and Any Death in Eastern Finnish Men. “Profile of Subjective Complaints and Activities of Daily Living Among Current Patients with Minamata Disease After Three Decades. 24 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 21 . available at thomas. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2010 Toxic Release Inventory. Mercury and Air Toxics Standards: Final MATS to Be Issued by December 16. available at water.epa. 18 March 2004.T. 22 Based on the “Parent Company” field in the U. Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). Environmental Protection Agency. Yokoo et al. For more detail..gov/tmdl_waters10/attains_nation_cy.epa. June 2003. 6 October 2011. sponsored by Congressman Thomas Allen. Eliseo Guallar et al. Industries not required to report to TRI. Lipid Peroxidation. Watershed Assessment. and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/fishadvisories/upload/nlfa_slides_2011. Watershed Assessment. 1 February 1995. Y. 8 February 2008. August 1999. available at www. will not be represented in the data.gov/cgi-bin/query/F?r108:1:. U. 8 February 2008. 2(8). 2011. Earthjustice. Cardiovascular. 17 18 19 The data presented in this section focuses on power plant emissions data reported to the the U.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/outreach/advice_index. and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction. Environmental Protection Agency.S.epa. available at iaspub. 14 October 2011. The Problem with Mercury (factsheet).. Kinjo et al.S. Court Says EPA Rule Allowing More Power Plant Mercury is Illegal (press release). House of Representatives. 23 U.S.” Environmental Health. Tracking.control?p_report_type=T#tmdl_by_pollutant. Environment America. Environment America Applauds Federal Court Ruling Vacating Illegal EPA Power Plant Mercury Cap and Trade Rule (press release).S. “Low Level Methylmercury Exposure Affects Neuropsychological Function in Adults.” New England Journal of Medicine 347: 1747-1754. Salonen et al. Environmental Protection Agency. November 1993. Testimony at the Mercury MACT Rule Hearing. Edna M. Tracking.S.S. 28 October 2011.. J. Fish Oils. or facilities with emissions below the reporting threshold.control#prob_source.

37 36 America’s Biggest Mercury Polluters 22 . James E.S.D.C. Tracking Progress in Reducing Mercury Air Emissions. No. 15 April 2010. EPA Regulations: Too Much. 21 March 2011.C. No power plant facilities in the states of Idaho. D. 30 31 Evidence summarized in Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management. v. Rhode Island or Vermont had reported any 2010 mercury emissions to the EPA by the time of publication for this report. 16 March 2011. 34 35 TRI Reporting threshold for mercury and mercury compounds of 10 pounds: U.org/prevention/mercury/NESCAUMMercurySuccessStory. EPA. 1:08-CV-02198. available at www. or On Track?. section 16-17. See note 23. Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act. Too Little. EPA Proposes First National Standard for Mercury Pollution from Power Plants / Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Represent One of Strongest Health Protections from Air Pollution Since Passage of Clean Air Act (press release). 26 27 28 29 U.D.25 Ibid. Maine. List of Lists: Consolidated List of Chemicals Subject to the Emergency Planning and Community Right-ToKnow Act (EPCRA). Order Entering Consent Decree. Environmental Protection Agency. September 2007. 33 32 See note 23. American Nurses Ass’n. et al. Congressional Research Service. See the Methodology section for potential caveats around the EPA Toxic Release Inventory data. Complaint. No. 1:08-CV-02198. May 2010.pdf. Ibid. Environmental Protection Agency. 18 December 2008. et al. See note 29.S.newmoa. Ibid. American Nurses Ass’n. D. McCarthy and Claudia Copeland. p11. Comprehensive Environmental Response. EPA. v.

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