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the order in which operations are performed in an expression. Students will write open number sentences to model stories that require more than one mathematical operation.
Standards Addressed: Math Standards: Solve real-world and mathematical problems requiring addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of multi-digit whole numbers. Use various strategies, including the inverse relationship between operations, the use of technology, and the context of the problem to assess the reasonableness of results.
INET NETS Standards: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
Purpose: The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the concept of Order of Operations. Students will get a variety of experiences with the concept, along with real-life applications. Learning Environment: From the beginning of the year, my students are always working
together. I start by putting them into teams, where they rely on each other throughout the year. Even though they work with many different students throughout the year, they have the same four students to turn to when they have questions or concerns. In addition, we do a lot of group discussions. Students are asked to reflect on lessons and new concepts with each other and raise questions. I try to incorporate many different questioning techniques. By modeling these procedures, my students are able to feel more comfortable with completing tasks independently.
Description of Learners: In my class this year, I have 25 students. There are 12 boys and 13 girls. They are an energetic class and have a variety of learning styles. During an inventory taken in the beginning of the year, most students said they learn best through hands-on activities. However, a couple students said they learn best through visual representation and three said they are auditory learners. According to our tests, four of them qualify for Gifted and Talented Services. In addition, I have six students who are in the Title 1 program and two in ESL. I also have two students who qualify for Special Education
Services in math and three who receive services in Reading. I also have one student who is identified as having Autism. One student is identified as having Developmental Delay and suffers from other physical ailments, such as Early Childhood Arthritis. Finally, one student was born with only one arm and requires adaptations through and existing IEP.
Anticipatory Set: Ask students to write down the order in which they get ready for school in the morning. Students who need modification, may type this on the computer using Microsoft Word or Notepad. Have students compare their routines with one another. Discuss the word chronologically and how it matters the order in which we do things, especially in math. Have students demonstrate simple tasks that are important to do in chronological order. The teacher should also include pictures for the students to have a more concrete definition of chronological order. An example of a pictures to demonstrate this is below:
Then, give them the following situation: o Robin asked her friends to solve 4 + 5 * 8 o Some of her friends solved (4 + 5) * 8 and got 72. o The other friends solved 4 + (5 * 8) and got 44. o When Robin explained what she wanted, her friends knew that the number model 4 + (5 * 8) = 44 was right because it fit the situation. o The expression 4 + 5 * 8 caused confusion because it is ambiguous. Point out to students that they need to follow the Order of Operations in order to solve problems correctly and all get the same answer (relate it to the idea that students all need to get to school).
Introduce and Model New Knowledge (Whole Group): Show students the Prezi prenstation on the Order of Operation. This video helps auditory and visual learners. o Presentation without narration
Presentation with narration (used as a pre-teaching tool and can be viewed before lesson begins at home) Review the order in which you must simplify and solve math equations. Make sure to stress that multiplication and division are one step, along with addition and subtraction. Have the steps posted in the room for future reference. Give students a couple simple expressions to solve on their white boards. To check for understanding (formative assessment), ask students to hold up their boards when they solve each expression. For the students that struggle with writing, a speech to text software program will be available to create technology-rich presentations.
Guided Practice (Small Group): Have students work in groups of four to five. Each group should have different expressions. Ask that students solve these expressions. To expand on the Order of Operations, and to create a summative assessment, ask students to create a visual representation (this includes creating a “play”) of the process. Student may choose to create this by using paper, while others may use prefer to use software programs to do this (PowerPoint, Prezi, Glogster, Blabberize, etc.). After completing this task, they will be asked to present it to their peers.
Independent Practice: Ask that students complete their math workbook pages that deal with the Order of Operations. Then, students should create their own word problems that involve more than one operation to share with their peers. Display these around the room for students to solve. Students will create an entry in their journal about why it is important to follow the Order of Operations when solving expressions. This allows for students to reflect on their own personal learning. Ask that they draw a picture and create a working definition for the order of operations.
UDL Principles: Multiple Means of Representation– This lesson is teacher and student – led. In addition, students watch a video and create their own visual representations of the concept. Multiple Means of Expression – Students are able to choose which way they want to visually represent their understanding. They also are asked to write about math, simply expressions, and have group discussions about the Order of Operations. Multiple Means of Engagement - Most students are able to relate to a chronological sequence of getting ready in the morning. The short music – enriched video appeals to the group of students I have this year. In addition, students are given choices during this activity to allow for the different learning styles.
Assistive Technology: Two of my students struggle with writing (specifically the student with early arthritis and the other who is missing his right arm). To allow them to be more successful, a text to speech program will allow them to actively participate in their small group activity. Last year, my district purchased wordQ and speakQ. WordQ allows students to highlight text and have it read aloud, including within browsers. SpeakQ is a program that works with wordQ. It recognizes speech and by dictating it into a microphone. In addition, students can switch between typing and speaking at any point. This program also is “trainable.” Students go through a variety of texts to “learn” a student’s speech pattern. While this program is pretty expensive, it is a great resource for students who have a hard time writing or typing. In addition to wordQ + speakQ, we use Notability. While I don’t have a classroom iPad, I am able to check one out through our Special Ed program when working on projects. We purchased Notability and its uses are endless. You can type, use your own handwriting, import PDF documents, record sound, create flow charts by adding figures, and categorize notes. My student with Autism especially enjoys this app because he has a hard time keeping up with taking notes and lectures. He records our lessons and plays them back at home to assist him in finishing homework. During this assignment, he would be able record conversations and organize his thinking so that he can actively participate in the group projects.
Evaluation Assessment: Before learning, students are asked to create a chronological list of their morning routine. After discussion these with groups and as a class, the teacher is able to alter teaching strategies based on the students’ needs. During learning, several formative assessments are going on. This includes slate assessments during the introduction to a new skill. The teacher should circulate and assist as students work in small groups. After learning, the students are assessed based on their visual representation and presentation of the Order of Operations. The journal entry can be used for further clarification of the students’ level of understanding. Below is the rubric that can be used with the small group activity:
4 3 Presentation is Presentation is organized, sequential, organized and and easy to logical. follow. Very logical and interesting 4 Students speak clearly, make eye contact with their audience, and use precise pronunciation 3 Most group members speak clearly and maintain eye contact 3 Students seem to understand the topic and answer questions but do not elaborate.
2 Presentation is hard to follow because it is either disorganized or the student jumps around 2 Some students mumble and spend time looking through notes or reading off the screen, instead of presenting. 2 Students seem to be uncomfortable with the information and are unable to answer questions be students or teachers. 2 One or two students do most of the presenting.
1 Information is disorganized and out of order, very hard to follow. 1 Most of the students mumble, speak too softly, or mispronounce words. No eye contact is not engaging. 1 Students leave out key concepts, are not able to answer questions, and/or report misleading information.
4 All group members have a full depth of knowledge and are able to answer questions with elaboration and examples. 4 All group members participate equally and help each other through the presentation
3 Most of the students present equally.
1 One student presents the information.
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