This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Flows
I . Differential Balance Equations and Uniform Flow
We consider twodimensional flows governed by the Euler equations written below in
conservative form.
F G
0
x y
c c
+ =
c c
(1.1)
2
2
u v
u P uv
F G uv v P
v v v v
u e Pu v e Pv
2 2
µ µ
µ µ
µ µ
µ µ
¦ ¹ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦
+
¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦
= = +
´ ` ´
¦ ¦ ¦
· ·    
¦ ¦ ¦
+ + + +
 
¦ ¦ ¦
\ . \ .
¹ ) ¹
¹
¦
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¦
)
(1.2)
We will study uniform flows that encounter shocks or expansion waves and remain
uniform after the encounter. The direction of the uniform flow is such that the flow is
tangent to a physical boundary. This is a special situation in which gradients of the flow
variables are zero and the Euler equations are trivially satisfied. Discussion of more
general flows will require computational methods and will be discussed later. The
uniform flow assumption will enable the study of fundamental flow situations that appear
in gas dynamics and will provide insight for more advanced approaches requiring
computational or experimental approaches.
I I . Disturbances and the Mach Angle
Mechanisms for the creation of shocks have previously been discussed and this chapter
highlights another interesting possibility. Figure 4.5 in the text illustrates the concept of a
Mach wave and the Mach angle. The Mach wave is an extremely weak oblique shock
with angle
1
1
sin
M
µ
÷
= (2.1)
Figure 4.5 is a striking photograph showing a bow shock in front of a supersonic
projectile traveling under a perforated plate. The fluid above the perforated plate feels the
disturbance moving at a supersonic speed and a Mach wave forms as the disturbances
coelesce.
I I I . I ntegral Balance Equations for Oblique Shocks
The figure below shows an oblique shock caused by a boundary creating a flow “turning
into itself”. We seek to find conditions that hold across the shock similar to the
conditions developed across a normal shock.
2 n
u ,M
2
1 t
w ,M
We begin with the control volume equations which we have shown hold when a shock is
within the control volume.
Continuity:
CV CS
dV v ndS 0
t
µ µ
c
+ · =
c
} }
(3.1)
Momentum:
( )
CV CS CS
vdV v v n dS PndS
t
µ µ
c
+ · = ÷
c
} } }
(3.2)
Energy:
CV CS CS
1 1
(e v v)dV (e v v)v ndS Pv ndS
t 2 2
µ µ
c
+ · + + · · = ÷ ·
c
} } }
(3.3)
1 1
V ,M
u
u
n
2 t2
w ,M
1
1 n
u ,M
1
2 2
V ,M
2

1
We consider steady flows, uniform on either side of the shock. The text chooses a control
volume parallel to the velocity and tangent to the shock. If the flow is not uniform or
steady on either side of the stationary shock the same result would be obtained by
collapsing the control volume to the shock thus these results are valid for transient, non
uniform flows with stationary oblique shocks.
The resulting conditions across the shock are:
Continuity:
1 1 2 2
u u µ µ = (3.4)
Normal Momentum:
(3.5)
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
u P u P µ µ + = +
Tangential Momentum:
1
w w
2
= (3.6)
Energy:
2
1 1 2 2
1
(h u ) (h u )
2 2
+ = +
2
1
(3.7)
These conditions indicate that the conditions for an oblique shock are identical to the
conditions for a normal shock using the normal components of velocity. The new
condition is that the tangential component of velocity does not change across an oblique
shock.
The Mach number may be decomposed into normal and tangential components and the
normal component may be calculated from the earlier figure as
n1 1
M M sin = (3.8)
For calorically perfect gases the same myriad of algebraic manipulations that were
applied in chapter three may be undertaken to arrive at the expressions
( )
( )
2
n1
2
n2
2
n1
1
1 M
2
M
1
M
2
¸
¸
¸
÷
+
=
÷
÷
(3.9)
( )
( )
2
n1 2 1
2
1 2 n
1 M u
u 2 1 M
¸ µ
µ ¸
+
= =
+ ÷
1
(3.10)
( )
(
2 2
n1
1
P 2
1 M
P 1
¸
¸
)
1 = +
+
÷ (3.11)
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
n1 2 2 2 1 2
n1 2
1 1 2 1 n1
2 1 M T h P 2
1 M 1
T h P 1 1 M
¸ µ ¸
µ ¸ ¸
( ( + ÷
= = = + ÷
( (
+ +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(3.12)
The normal shock tables therefore apply to the normal direction for an oblique shock.
From the figure it is easy to see that
( )
n2
2
M
M
sin  u
=
÷
(3.13)
Given equations (3.8) through (3.13) it is clear that changes across an oblique shock are
functions of both and
1
M  which contrasts to the case of a normal shock in which
changes are only a function of . All that remains is to define a relationship between
the angle of the oblique shock
1
M
 and the turning (deflection) angle u (usually the
turning angle is known as it is given by the geometry and the shock angle must be
determined). The geometry of the figure as well as the jump conditions may be used to
find such a relationship.
( )
2 2
1
2
1
M sin 1
tan 2cot
M cos2 2

u 
¸ 
(
÷
=
(
+ +
¸ ¸
(3.14)
This relationship is graphed in figure 4.8 in the text may be used to arrive at the
following conclusions:
1. For any given
1
M there is a maximum turning angleu . If the geometry is such
that the turning angle is greater that the turning angle predicted by equation (3.14)
then no oblique shock solution is possible. There will instead be a curved and
detached shock.
2. Given a turning angle there are two possible shock angles. The larger shock angle
is termed the strong shock solution and the smaller shock angle is termed the
weak shock solution. Generally the weak shock solution is favored. The weak
solution results in
2
M being supersonic. The strong shock solution almost always
results in
2
M being subsonic.
3. 0 u = corresponds to
2
t
 = which is a normal shock or to µ = which is a
Mach wave.
4. For a fixed u as
1
M ranges from high to low supersonic values, for weak
shocks increases. There is a
1
M below which no solutions are possible. At this
point u is maximum and lower values of
1
M result in detached, curved shocks as
in figure 4.9 of the text.
Equation (3.14) may be used to calculate u given  and is implemented in the
MATLAB file theta_calc.m.
f unct i on t het a = t het a_cal c( M1, bet a )
t op = ( M1*si n( bet a) ) ^2  1;
bot = M1^2*( 1. 4 + cos( 2*bet a) ) + 2;
t er m= 2*t op/ ( bot *t an( bet a) ) ;
t het a = at an( t er m) ;
theta_calc.m
Equation (3.14) may also be iterated to calculate givenu and this calculation is
implemented in the MATLAB file beta_calc.m.
f unct i on bet a = bet a_cal c( M1, t het a, bguess )
%secant met hod t o get mach # gi ven ar ea r at i o
bo = bguess;
db = 1/ 1000. ;
del b = 1. 0;
whi l e abs( del b) > . 0001,
br = bo+db;
bl = bo db;
df db = ( t het a_cal c( M1, br )  t het a_cal c( M1, bl ) ) / ( 2*db) ;
del b =  ( t het a_cal c( M1, bo)  t het a) / df db;
bo = bo + del b;
end
bet a = bo;
beta_calc.m
Examples 4.1 through 4.3 are similar and may be examined using the following
MATLAB file. The conclusions of these examples are summarized in the paragraph in
the text following example 4.3 and we will read this in class.
%exampl e 4. 1
M1 = 3. 0;
p1 = 1;
T1 = 288;
t het a = 20*pi / 180;
bet a_guess = 10*pi / 180;
bet a = bet a_cal c( M1, t het a, bet a_guess) ;
spr i nt f ( ' bet a = %0. 5g' , bet a*180/ pi )
Mn1 = M1*si n( bet a)
[ pr esr 1, densr 1, t empr 1, por 1 , po21, Mn2 ] = shock( Mn1) ;
p2 = pr esr 1*p1
T2 = t empr 1*T1
M2 = Mn2/ si n( bet a  t het a )
[ pr esr 2, densr 2, t empr 2, ar ear 2] = i sent r op( M2) ;
To2 = t empr 2*T2
po2 = pr esr 2*p2
ex_4_1.m
I V. Regular Reflection of a Shock from a Solid Boundary
We consider next a case where a flow is first turned into itself and directed towards a
second boundary that must turn the flow again. In this case a solution may be found by
adding second shock reflected from the second boundary as shown below.
1 t
w ,M
2
u
2 2
V ,M
1
2

1
u
1 1
V ,M
1
u
1
2
1

3 3
V ,M
3
In this figure the turning angles
1
u and
2
u are the same but this is not generally true. The
method of calculation here is the same as for the single oblique shock case marching
from region 1 to region 3. Below is example 4.10 from the text
%exampl e 4. 10  i n t hi s case t het a1 = t het a2
M1 = 2. 8;
p1 = 1; T1 = 519;
t het a1 = 16*pi / 180;
bet a1 = bet a_cal c( M1, t het a1, 10*pi / 180) ;
spr i nt f ( ' bet a1 = %0. 5g' , bet a1*180/ pi )
Mn1 = M1*si n( bet a1) ;
spr i nt f ( ' Mn1 = %0. 5g' , Mn1)
[ pr esr 1, densr 1, t empr 1, por 1 , po21, Mn2 ] = shock( Mn1) ;
M2 = Mn2/ si n( bet a1  t het a1 ) ;
spr i nt f ( ' M2 = %0. 5g' , M2)
bet a2 = bet a_cal c( M2, t het a1, 10*pi / 180) ;
spr i nt f ( ' bet a2 = %0. 5g' , bet a2*180/ pi )
Mn2 = M2*si n( bet a2) ;
spr i nt f ( ' Mn2 = %0. 5g' , Mn2)
[ pr esr 2, densr 2, t empr 2, por 2 , po32, Mn3 ] = shock( Mn2) ;
M3 = Mn3/ si n( bet a2  t het a1 ) ;
spr i nt f ( ' M3 = %0. 5g' , M3)
p3 = p1*pr esr 1*pr esr 2
T3 = T1*t empr 1*t empr 2
phi = 180*( bet a2  t het a1) / pi
ex_4_10.m
Note that in the case of a reflected shock we know the final flow direction but we do not
know the second shock direction. Note also that this solution is just a two steps of the
standard oblique shock calculation.
Example 4.11 is similar but in this case the second deflection angle is no the same as the
first. However, the calculation procedure is the same as in example 4.10.
%exampl e 4. 11  i n t hi s case t het a1 i s not equal t o t het a2
%not e t hat t he second def l ect i on i s t het a1 + t het a2
M1 = 3. 0;
p1 = 1; T1 = 300;
t het a1 = 14*pi / 180;
t het a2 = 10*pi / 180;
bet a1 = bet a_cal c( M1, t het a1, 10*pi / 180) ;
spr i nt f ( ' bet a1 = %0. 5g' , bet a1*180/ pi )
Mn1 = M1*si n( bet a1) ;
spr i nt f ( ' Mn1 = %0. 5g' , Mn1)
[ pr esr 1, densr 1, t empr 1, por 1 , po21, Mn2 ] = shock( Mn1) ;
M2 = Mn2/ si n( bet a1  t het a1 ) ;
spr i nt f ( ' M2 = %0. 5g' , M2)
bet a2 = bet a_cal c( M2, t het a1 + t het a2, 10*pi / 180) ;
spr i nt f ( ' bet a2 = %0. 5g' , bet a2*180/ pi )
Mn2 = M2*si n( bet a2) ;
spr i nt f ( ' Mn2 = %0. 5g' , Mn2)
[ pr esr 2, densr 2, t empr 2, por 2 , po32, Mn3 ] = shock( Mn2) ;
spr i nt f ( ' Mn3 = %0. 5g' , Mn3)
phi = bet a2  t het a1  t het a2;
M3 = Mn3/ si n( phi ) ;
spr i nt f ( ' M3 = %0. 5g' , M3)
p3 = p1*pr esr 1*pr esr 2
T3 = T1*t empr 1*t empr 2
ex_4_11.m
We will discuss example 4.12 in class. The Section on flow through multiple shock
systems relates to this example. The key point is that multiple shocks are a more efficient
way to decelerate a flow to a given Mach number. This means that the total pressure is
higher after multiple weak shocks than after one stronger shock. Following is example
4.12 and the text section 4.7 is important as a practical design consideration for the
engineer dealing with high speed gas dynamics.
%exampl e 4. 12 cal cul at e t het a i n degr ees t o get M3 = 1. 4578
%t o compar e ef f i ci ency of one obl i que shock wi t h t wo shock sol ut i on
%f r omexampl e 4. 10  want same M3 = 1. 4578
% i t er at e
M2_gi ven = 1. 4578;
M1 = 2. 8;
p1 = 1;
%guess t het a = 20;
t het a = 20*pi / 180;
f unc = 1;
whi l e abs( f unc) > 1. 0e 6 %Newt on l oop
%f i r st get cur r ent M2
bet a_guess = 10*pi / 180;
bet a = bet a_cal c( M1, t het a, bet a_guess) ;
Mn1 = M1*si n( bet a) ;
[ pr esr 1, densr 1, t empr 1, por 1 , po21, Mn2 ] = shock( Mn1) ;
M2 = Mn2/ si n( bet a  t het a ) ;
% get der i vat i ve f or Newt on met hod
dt = 1. 0d 4*t het a;
t het ar = t het a + dt ;
bet a_guess = 10*pi / 180;
bet a = bet a_cal c( M1, t het ar , bet a_guess) ;
Mn1 = M1*si n( bet a) ;
[ pr esr 1, densr 1, t empr 1, por 1 , po21, Mn2 ] = shock( Mn1) ;
Mr 2 = Mn2/ si n( bet a  t het a ) ;
f pr i me = ( Mr 2  M2) / dt ;
f unc = M2  M2_gi ven;
t het a = t het a  f unc/ f pr i me;
end
spr i nt f ( ' t het a = %0. 5g' , t het a*180/ pi )
p2 = pr esr 1*p1;
T2 = t empr 1*T1;
[ pr esr 2, densr 2, t empr 2, ar ear 2] = i sent r op( M2) ;
To2 = t empr 2*T2;
po2 = pr esr 2*p2;
spr i nt f ( ' po2 = %0. 5g' , po2)
ex_4_12.m
We will skip the section on pressuredeflection diagrams as they provide a graphical
solution and interpretation for oblique shock problems. As should have been mentioned
previously, some of the solutions in these notes differ from the text as the text uses charts
and interpolation to get data whereas the notes use the formulas directly in MATLAB.
V. I ntersection of Shocks of Opposite Families
We consider next a case where a flow is first turned into itself and directed towards a
second boundary that also turns the flow towards itself. In this case a solution may be
found by adding second shock reflected from the second boundary as shown in the figure
from the text below.
In this section of the notes we seek to develop a method by which we can
compute solutions of this type without recourse to the pressuredeflection diagrams ( see
figure 4.22 ).
Consider the figure above from the text. This situation corresponds to a regular
reflection from a solid boundary on both the top and bottom walls. The added condition
is that the flow in regions 4 and 4’ must be parallel and thus the pressure must be
continuous across the slip line. By a slip line we mean that there is a possibility that the
velocity tangential to the slip line is discontinuous. The condition that the pressure is the
same across a slip line means that there is no velocity component normal to the slip line.
We set up an iterative method by constructing the function:
(4.1)
This function is zero when the downstream deflection angle has the correct value. We
use Newton’s (secant) method and the regular reflection problem discussed earlier to
write a simple program to implement this iteration. First we write a function to calculate
the regular reflection with pressure and Mach number as output. Essentially we write a
function to do the calculations of problems 4.10 through 4.12 but we are only interested
in the final pressure and Mach number. The function is shown below
f unct i on [ pr ess3, M3] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a1, t het a2 )
bet a1 = bet a_cal c( M1, t het a1, 10*pi / 180) ;
Mn1 = M1*si n( bet a1) ;
[ pr esr 1, densr 1, t empr 1, por 1 , po21, Mn2 ] = shock( Mn1) ;
M2 = Mn2/ si n( bet a1  t het a1 ) ;
bet a2 = bet a_cal c( M2, t het a2, 10*pi / 180) ;
Mn2p = M2*si n( bet a2) ;
[ pr esr 2, densr 2, t empr 2, por 2 , po22, Mn3 ] = shock( Mn2p) ;
M3 = Mn3/ si n( bet a2  t het a2 ) ;
pr ess3 = p1*pr esr 1*pr esr 2;
reg_ref.m
In order to solve example 4.10 with this function we would issue the MATLAB
command
[press3,M3] =reg_ref(2.8, 1, 16*pi/180, 16*pi/180 )
In order to solve example 4.11 with this function we would issue the MATLAB
command
[press3,M3] =reg_ref(3.0, 1, 14*pi/180, 24*pi/180 )
We use this function to solve the regular reflections from the top and bottom boundaries
as part of an iteration. Consider the following example:
Example
A twodimensional oblique shock diffuser ( ) operates in a
supersonic stream of air with and . Determine the pressures,
the deflection angle and the Mach numbers for the downstream regions 4 and 4’.
The resulting solution is: (the initial guess was , positive guesses resulted in
divergence)
Following is the program opp_shock.m to solve this
%i nput par amet er s  user pr ovi des a guess f or phi
M1 = 2. 3;
p1 = 101. 3;
t het a2 = 5*pi / 180;
t het a3 = 15*pi / 180;
phi =  5
phi = phi *pi / 180;
dphi = 0. 01;
del p = 1. 0;
whi l e abs( del p) > 1. 0e 12,
phi r = phi + dphi ;
t het a4 = phi r + t het a3;
t het a4p = t het a2  phi r ;
[ p4p, M4p] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a2, t het a4p ) ;
[ p4 , M4 ] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a3, t het a4 ) ;
f uncr = p4 p4p;
phi l = phi  dphi ;
t het a4 = phi l + t het a3;
t het a4p = t het a2  phi l ;
[ p4p , M4p] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a2, t het a4p ) ;
[ p4 , M4 ] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a3, t het a4 ) ;
f uncl = p4 p4p;
df dphi = ( f uncr  f uncl ) / ( 2. 0*dphi ) ;
t het a4 = phi + t het a3;
t het a4p = t het a2  phi ;
[ p4p , M4p] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a2, t het a4p ) ;
[ p4 , M4 ] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a3, t het a4 ) ;
f unc = p4 p4p;
del p =  f unc/ df dphi ;
phi = phi + del p;
end
t het a4 = phi + t het a3;
t het a4p = t het a2  phi ;
[ p4p , M4p] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a2, t het a4p ) ;
[ p4 , M4 ] = r eg_r ef ( M1, p1, t het a3, t het a4 ) ;
spr i nt f ( ' p4 = %0. 5g' , p4)
spr i nt f ( ' p4p = %0. 5g' , p4p)
spr i nt f ( ' M4 = %0. 5g' , M4)
spr i nt f ( ' M4p = %0. 5g' , M4p)
spr i nt f ( ' phi = %0. 5g' , phi *180/ pi )
opp_shock.m
VI . I ntersection of Shocks of the Same Family
Consider the situation shown below. In this case we have two changes in geometry
that turn the flow into itself.
It is possible to find solutions for this geometry by enforcing the conditions
4 5
P P = and
4 5
u u = . The solution procedure would be similar to that used in the previous section.
VI I . PrandtlMeyer Expansion Waves
Consider the situation shown below where the geometry causes the flow to ‘turn away
from itself’.
Such a situation is termed an expansion wave and the behavior of expansion waves is
antithetical to the behavior of shock waves in the following ways:
1. Expansion waves are continuous
2.
2 1
M M >
3.
2 1 2 1 2 1
P P T T µ µ < < <
4. Streamlines through an expansion wave are smooth curves
5. Expansion waves are isentropic
Consider the following figure depicting the expansion through the angle du and
assuming the tangential component of velocity is continuous through the expansion:
From the law of sines we have
sin
V dV 2
V
sin d
2
t
µ
t
µ u
 
+

+
\ .
=
 
÷ ÷

\ .
(5.1)
But
( ) sin cos
2
t
µ µ
 
+ =

\ .
(5.2)
And
sin d cos cosd sin sind
2
t
µ u µ u µ
 
÷ ÷ = ÷

\ .
u (5.3)
Equation (5.1) becomes
V dV dV cos 1
1
V V cos d sin 1 d ta
µ
n µ u µ u
+
= + = =
÷ ÷ µ
(5.4)
Recall that for small x
2 3
1
1 x x x ... 1 x
1 x
= + + + + ~ +
÷
(5.5)
thus
dV
1 1 d ta
V
n u µ + = + (5.6)
Recall that the Mach angle is defined as
1
1
sin
M
µ
÷
= (5.7)
or
2
1
tan
M 1
µ =
÷
(5.8)
This leads to
2
dV
d M 1
V
u = ÷ (5.9)
This expression is approximate for finite du and exact asd 0 u ÷ . For a calorically
perfect gas this may be integrated to obtain (note that there will be a change in sign
convention in later chapters – reminder to me).
(5.10) ( ) (
2
1
2 2
d M
u
u
u u v v = = ÷
}
)
1
M
Where is the PrandtlMeyer function given by ( ) M v
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
1 1
M tan M 1 tan M
1 1
¸ ¸
v
¸ ¸
÷ ÷
+ ÷
= ÷ ÷
÷ +
1 ÷ (5.11)
Given and
1
M
2
u the calculation steps are
1. Calculate ( )
1
M v
2. ( ) ( )
2 1
M M
2
v v u = +
3. Calculate
2
M by iterating equation (5.11)
4. Use the isentropic relationships to find
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1 M
T 2
1 T
1 M
2
¸
¸
÷  
+

\ .
=
÷  
+

\ .
(5.12)
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1 M
P 2
1 P
1 M
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
÷
( ÷  
+
 (
\ .
( =
÷  
(
+

(
\ . ¸ ¸
(5.13)
The PrandtlMeyer function is tabulated in table A.5 and a MATLAB function called
p_m.m is provided below
f unct i on pr andt l = p_m( M )
gamm= 1. 4;
t er m1 = sqr t ( ( gamm+1. 0) / ( gamm 1. 0) ) ;
t er m2 = sqr t ( ( M^2  1. 0) *( gamm 1. 0) / ( gamm+1. 0) ) ;
r esul t = t er m1*at an( t er m2)  at an( sqr t ( M^2  1. 0) ) ;
pr andt l = r esul t ;
p_m.m
For the case where the PrandtlMeyer function is known then equation (5.11) must be
iterated to calculate the Mach number. The Matlab function Inv_p_m.m does this
f unct i on mach = i nv_p_m( pr andt l , mguess)
%secant met hod t o get mach # gi ven ar ea r at i o
mo = mguess;
dm= mo/ 1000. ;
del m= 1. 0;
whi l e abs( del m) > . 0001,
mr = mo+dm;
ml = mo dm;
dadm= ( p_m( mr )  p_m( ml ) ) / ( 2*dm) ;
del m=  ( p_m( mo)  pr andt l ) / dadm;
mo = mo + del m;
end
mach = mo;
inv_p_m.m
Finally, the first part of example 4.13 is given in the MATLAB file ex_4_13.m
%exampl e 4. 13
M1 = 1. 5;
mu1 = asi n( 1/ M1) ;
spr i nt f ( ' mu1 = %0. 5g' , mu1*180/ pi )
t het a2 = 20*pi / 180;
nu1 = p_m( M1 ) ;
spr i nt f ( ' nu1 = %0. 5g' , nu1*180/ pi )
nu2 = nu1 + t het a2;
M2 = i nv_p_m( nu2, 2. 0) ;
spr i nt f ( ' M2 = %0. 5g' , M2)
mu2 = asi n( 1/ M2) ;
spr i nt f ( ' mu2 = %0. 5g' , mu2*180/ pi )
ex_4_13.m
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.