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The Survey of Cornwall, By Richard Carew

The Survey of Cornwall, By Richard Carew

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The Survey of Cornwall, by Richard Carew
The Survey of Cornwall, by Richard Carew

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Survey of Cornwall, by Richard Carew Copyright laws are changing all over

the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook. This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission. Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved. **Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!***** Title: The Survey of Cornwall Author: Richard Carew Release Date: February, 2006 [EBook #9878] [This file was first posted on October 26, 2003] Edition: 10 Language: English *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK, THE SURVEY OF CORNWALL ***

This E-text was prepared by Steve Gilbert using an Armari PC, a Hewlett Packard Scanjet 5400c scanner, ABBYY FineReader Pro 6.0 OCR software, and Microsoft Notepad. August-October 2003. Contact: Steve Gilbert 8 Cheyne Avenue, London E18 2DR, UK. Transcribers notes: i) This transcript retains the original spelling, except s.j.gilbert@darkviolet.co.uk s.j.gilbert@mensada.com s.j.gilbert@physics.org s.j.gilbert@qmw.ac.uk mythical@dircon.co.uk

for the obsolete "long ess" character which has been replaced by 's' throughout. Spellings of proper names tend to be phonetic and haphazard. Eg Pensanz, Pensans, Pensants, Pensance, and Penzance are all the same place. ii) The Latin is worse than the English. I am 99.9% certain that I have transcribed it correctly, the doubt being where the printer has randomly mixed the "long ess" and "f" characters & neither form is in my Collin's Little Gem Latin Dictionary. iii) This transcript omits the original page numbering from the introduction and appendix, but retains it in the main text to support cross-referencing and the index. Each double-page spread was given a single page number. I have given these in []s at the beginning of the lefthand page. iv) Marginalia have been inserted into the text surrounded by []s v) Footnotes have been placed beneath the sections to which they refer.

vi) Italics, which Carew uses heavily, have been mostly removed, but sometimes replaced with quotes. vii) The original capitalisation & over-punctuation is retained.

T H E S V R V E Y O F C O R N W A L L. A N D An EPISTLE concerning the EXCELLENCIES of the ENGLISH TONGUE. -------------------------------------By RICHARD CAREW, of Antonie, Esq; -------------------------------------WITH The LIFE of the AUTHOR, By H**** C***** Esq. -------------------------------------A NEW EDITION. ======================================

'LONDON, Printed for E. LAW, in Ave-Mary-Lane; and J.HEWETT, at Penzance. MDCCLXIX.

LIST of the SUBSCRIBERS, A. SIR. John St. Aubyn, of Clowance, Baronet Rev. Mr. Jerveys Allen, of Helston Thomas Saunders Allen of St. Just, Attorney at Law Alexander Allen, Purser of the Wolf Sloop of War John Antony, of St. Ives John Antony, junior, of St. Ives B. Joseph Beard, of Penzance John Batten, jun. of ditto, Merchant Joseph Batten, of ditto John Blewett, Esq. of Marazion George Borlase, Attorney at Law, of Penzance William Bastard, of Exon Joseph Batten John Beard, jun. of Penzance, Merchant Capt. Barkley, of the Wolf Sloop of War Rev. Mr. William Borlase, of Zennor William Borlase, LL.D. of Ludgvan, F.R.S. James Bennett Capt. Thomas Braithwaite, of Falmouth James Bonithon, of Penzance Rev. Mr. Jacob Bullock, of Wendron Francis Benallock James Bower, of Lostwithiel James Baron, of ditto Thomas Bennet Nicholas Bishop, of Bristol Jofeph Bunney, Esq. Leicester John Bawden, Exon C. Nicholas Cloak, of Penzance Daniel Carthew, of ditto Robert Coleman, of Bristol George Cooney, of Penzance Mr. Carlyl, of Marazion Humphrey Cole, Attorney at Law, of ditto David Cloak, Surgeon, of Penzance William Cornish, of Marazion Capt. Thomas Cassett, of Plymouth Richard Carne, of Falmouth, Merchant Coleman, Harris, and Co. Merchants at Bristol Henry Coleman, Esq. of Market Harborough, Leicestershire Copies. 20



Esq. Thomas Glynn. Mr. of St. Edward Hobbs. of Penzance Charles Streater Ellis. Attorney at Law. of Marazion Thomas Daniel. near Swanzey. of Penzance E. of Marazion Edward Freeman. of Helston. of Truro. Attorney at Law.Henry Coleman. Esq. of Marazion. Leicester D. Ives Rev. Charles Gwavas. Earth Thomas Giddy. of Plymouth-dock John Hurd. of St. Ives Thomas Ennys. of Penzance Isaac Head. Collector of his Majesty's Customs in the Islands of Scilly William Holbeck. Mr. of Penzance. St. Com. in Wales Robert Dunkin. Esq. of Truro. Ives Thomas Glanvile. Miss C. Mr. of Bristol 2 5 . of ditto James Edwards. of Redruth F. of Penryn William Dawkin. of St. Edward Giddy. Surgeon William Giddy. Haydon. William Ellis. Captain Peter Hill. of Trinity Col. Attorney at Law. Foley Rev. of Lostwithiel Rev. Esq. Andrew Gaylard. of Penzance. of Redruth Rev. Merchant Pascoe Grenfell. John Hosken. Merchant Hugh Edwards. jun. Mr. of Birmingham Christopher Harris. John Halse. of Lostwithiel G. Mr. of ditto. Esq. of ditto James Donithorne. Liskeard Samuel Hick. Merchant Richard Jerveys Gryles. of Penzance John Dennis. of Kilvough. John Dyer. of Falmouth John Hall John Hewett. Oxford. Esq. Attorney at Law 2 Capt. of Sancrete John Hawkins. of Bristol Miss Jane Gilbert. Keneggy 6 Nathanial Hicks. Richard Hichens. of Helston. of Helston Rev. Gent. Esq. of Lostwithiel Edward Harford. Merchant John Grenfell. of Penzance. of ditto H. of Menaccan Thomas Hacker. Esq. Esq. David Dennis. Fisher.

of ditto James Michell. of Penzance Thomas Mathews. of Redruth Thomas John. John Price. of Marazion Charles Newman. Mr. Kimber. of Fowey L. of Penzance Maddren Legoe. John James. of Penzance Henry Michell. Lecturer of ditto 6 . of Penzance. Mr. Mr. of Trereife John Nancarrow. of Penzance N. Ives. William John. of Penzance Rev. Penzance M. of Penzance. Agnes P. Esq. Collector of his Majesty's Customs at St. James Parkin. of Newlyn. Exon Henry Mudge. of Madron John Howell. of Penzance Rev. of Sithney William Nicholls. John Knill. Philip Lyne. of Marazion 2 J. Newton. Mr. of Falmouth Rev. Esq. Newton. Merchant Rev. Agnes K. Attorney at Law. Surgeon. of St. of Oakhampton. of St. of Chyandower James Moore. Ives John Luxmore. Just John Ley. Ives Herbert Mackworth. of St. of Marazion John Michell. Ives John Keir. Joseph Michell.John Hosking. of ditto Mathias Michell. of Penzance. Merchant John James. John Pender. Esq. of St. jun. Mr. of Bristol Thomas Nicholls. of Penzance B. of Stofford. ditto Capt. Samuel Luly. Merchant Benjamin Pidwell. Rev. Nankivell. of Truro Robert Michell. Vicar of Leskard Tobias Lanyon. Esq. Thomas Love. Merchant John James. of Marazion William James. Devonshire I. Esq. of St. of Newlyn Stephen Luke. of St. Lane. of Penzance John Hall. Esq. Devon.

of ditto Thomas Pascoe. of St. of ditto David Richard. Just John Smith. of ditto Josias Perry. Ives. of St. Esq. of ditto Miss Sarah Stephens. of ditto William Skues. Austle. Truro T. of Bristol J. Attorney at Law Thomas Read. Surgeon. of Penzance Rev.D. at Penzance Thomas Rodda. Surgeon. of Bristol Francis Spernon. Surgeon. Esq. of Penzance Uriah Tonkin. in Lostwithiel Rev. of Penzance Joseph Taylor. Buryan Thomas Penrose. of ditto Joseph Tovey. Richard Pearce. of ditto William Tregurtha. of ditto George Scobell. D. Merchant Rev. of Ludgvan. of Cambron George Treweeke. of ditto Charles Rashleigh. of Penzance Charles Rawlinson. Esq. of Penzance R. Surgeon. Fellow of Trinity College. Walter Stone. at Redruth Daniel Pryor. Thomas Trenwith. of Penzance Henry Philips. Efq. -----. Surgeon. Ives William Stevens. of Penzance John Stone. of ditto William Penrose. Surgeon. of Marazion Rev. Mr. of Marazion S. of Helston John Stott. of St. Devon James Pascoe. jun. Trevethan. of Marazion George Rippar. Mr. Attorney at Law. of ditto Rev. Collector of his Majesty's Customs at Penzance John Stackhouse. Surgeon. of Langdon. H. Esq William Stevens. James Tonkin. of ditto Richard Treeve. Mr. Smith. Mr. of ditto Thomas Slade. of Pendarves William Stackhouse. of ditto John Tonkin. of St. of ditto John Treluddra. Trevennen. ------. Oxford William Price. of Marazion Edward Stevens. of Trehane William Sincock. of St. of Bridport Samuel Rodda. of St. of Redruth . Attorney at Law.Thomas Pidwell. of ditto John Pearse. of Marazion Stephen Robinson. Attorney at Law. jun. Thomas Robyns. Esq. Parker. Esq. Ives John Trengrouse.

U. George Veale, Attorney at Law, of Penzance William Usticke, Esq. of Nansalverne W. Rev. Mr. Williams, of Crowan Dionysius Williams, of Penzance, F.R.S. Samuel Woodis, of ditto John Williams, Officer of Excise Matthew Wills, Surgeon, of Helston Richard Williams, Marazion Rev. Mr. Anthony Williams, of St. Keverne Philip Webber, Attorney at Law, Falmouth George Woodis, of Penzance John Weston, Esq. of Illuggan Rev. Thomas Wharton, A. M. Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.

The Life of R I C H A R D of Antonie Esq; By HUGH C******* Esq;


RICHARD CAREW, the Celebrated Author of the Survey of Cornwall, was born of an antient Family at East-Antonie (a), the Seat of his Ancestors, in the Year 1555, if we may credit Mr. Wood (b). He was the Son of Thomas Carew by Elizabeth Edgecumb, Daughter to Sir Richard Edgecumb, a Gentleman says our Author (c), in whom Mildness and Stoutness, Diffidence and Wisdom, Deliberateness of Undertaking, and Sufficiency of Effecting, made a more commendable, than blazing mixture of Vertue. He adds, that Sir Richard, at his fine House, call'd to this day Mount-Edgecumb, "during Queen Mary's Reign, entertain'd at one time for some good space, the Admirals of the English, Spanish, and Netherland Fleets, with many Noblemen besides. But", pursues he, " not too much of this, lest a partial Affection steal, as unawares, into my Commendation, as one, by my Mother, descended from his Loins, and by my Birth a Member of the House (d)." But Mr. Carew hath given us an account of his Ancestors, which I shall set down here, that the Reader may see they were no less distinguished by the great Estates in their possession, than by the Noble Families they were allyed to. Speaking of the Lyner, which, with the Tamer, discharges itself into the Sea above Plymouth;

"A little within this Mouth of Lyner", says he (e), " standeth East-Antonie, the poore home of mine Ancestours, with which in this manner they were invested: Sir John Lerchedekne ------- of Ashton in Devon. Touching our Stock in general", pursues our Author (f), " and my Family in particular ------------our Queen." The Pregnancy of his Parts being much above his Age, he was sent to Oxford in the Year 1566, being then but eleven Years old, and "(g) became a Gentleman Commoner of Christ Church ....... but had his Chamber in Broadgate's Hall:" And three Years after he was call'd to dispute with the incomparable Sir Philip Sidney, who was a Year older than he (h). Dr. Fuller and Mr. Wood have taken notice of this memorable Dispute, without mentioning from whence they had that Particular, which, as we have seen already, is related by Mr. Carew himself. "He was bred", says Dr. Fuller (i), " a GentlemanCommoner in Oxford; where, being but fourteen Years old, and yet three Years standing, he was call'd out to dispute ex tempore, before the Earls of Leicester and Warwick, with the matchless Sir Philip Sidney. Si quaeritis hujus Fortunam pugnae, non est superatus ab illo. Ask you the End of this Contest ? They neither had the better, both the best." Mr. Wood expresses it thus: "At fourteen Years of Age", says he (k), " he disputed ex tempore with the matchless Philip Sidney, (while he was a young (l) Man, I suppose) in the presence of the Earls of Leicester, Warwick, and other Nobility, at what time they were lodged in Christ-Church, to receive entertainment from the Muses." Mr. Wood says afterwards, that "After Mr. Carew had spent three Years in Oxon, he retired to the Middle Temple, where he spent 3 Years more" (m) ; which may be true, tho' he brings in no Authority for it. But what he adds, that "then he was sent with his Uncle (Sir George Carew as it seems) in his Embassage unto the King of Poland; whom when he came to Dantzick, he found that he had been newly gone from thence into Sweden, whither also he went after him :" And that

"After his return, and a short stay made in England, he was sent by his Father into France with Sir Hen. Nevill, who was then Ambassador Leiger unto K. Hen. 4. that he might learn the French Tongue, which by reading and talking, he overcame in three quarters of a Year :" All this, I say, cannot hold, if it be true that, tho' he understood Italian, French, High-Dutch, and Spanish, he had never been out of England ; as his Countryman Charles Fitzgeffry seems to assert in the following Compliment to him: Quis Deus tibi tam bene invocatus (n), Disertissime millium trecentum Idemq; optime omnium CARAEE, (Seu quis multiplicem eruditionem, Seu quis, quo magis emicas elenchum Morum ponderet elegantiorum, Virtutumq; tot auream coronam) Quis (inquam) Deus (o Deus profecto!) Tantis te spoliis, tot & trophaeis Terrarum locupletat exterarum, Domi perpetuo interim morantem Et libris patriaeque servientem? Quo Graij tibi, quo tibi Latini Auri pondera tanta? quove Hetrusci, Galli, Teutones, invidiq; Iberi Tam assatim te opibus suis bearunt? O si tot Deus ora, totq; linguas Mihi idulserit, ut tuas referrem Laudes, quot dedit ora quotq; linguas Tibi uno Deus ore, lingua in una? I may add, that Mr. Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, giving an account of the eminent Men born in that Dutchy, reckons among the Civilians Doctor Carew (o) : "In the Civil Law", says he (p), " there lived of late Doctor Kennals, and now (q) doth Doctor Carew, one of the antientest Masters of the Chancery; in which Calling, after his younger Years spent abroad to his benefit, he hath reposed himself." He mentions him again among the Persons employed in State Affairs, and therethrough stept to Preferment (r). "Master George Carew", says he, " in his younger Years gathered such Fruit as the University, the Inns of Court, and Foreign Travel could yield him. Upon his Return, he was first call'd to the Bar, then supply'd the Place of Secretary to the Lord Chancellor Hatton; and after his Decease, performed the like Office to his two Successors, by special Recommendation from her Majesty, who also gave him the Prothonotaryship of the Chancery; and in anno 1598 sent him Ambassador to the King of Poland, and other Northern Potentates, where through unexpected Accidents, he underwent extraordinary Perils; but God freed him from them, and he performed his Duty in acceptable manner : And at this present the Commonwealth useth his Service, as a Master of the Chancery."

Wood adds. Our Author could never fall into those Inconveniences : He loved Letters. incolumenq. at the end. unanimum. Verum & laudis & eruditionis Patritae genuinus artis haeres Cresce in spem patriae. fatal to their own Persons. Salvumq. Te longae peregrinitates omnes Exanclasse (v) molestias. that it is more particularly so to all Gentlemen. At o Liligeri potentis Aula AEtatem bene sit tibi. in effect. as it appears by the following Verses of the aforesaid Fitzgeffry. tuisq. And if they cannot pass their leisure Hours in reading. Elisae amores. ad parentes Patremq. Membrorum incolumi statu redisse.. Learning is not only useful. at ore Et membris juvenis sat intigellus (x) Totum Nestora vixeris. who. magni Regis contigit. in order to learn the French Tongue . Patris delicias. but sometimes useful to the Publick. being elsewhere so ready to honour himself with the Friendship or Acquaintance of the Great Men of his Time. Emensum omnia taedia. Post desiderium utriusq. longum. piamq. &c. . matrem. they will spend that time in such things as must be detrimental to their Families. went into France with a Nevill.. who are allotted to live in the Country. and. Ad (s) RICHARDUM CARAEUM. As to what Mr.. Melligo juvenum Caraee. quot aut Camoenae Dant vaenum emporio Lutetiano Aut culto Aureliae urbis in Lycaeo. that Mr. At tu non modo stemmatum opumq. it is hardly possible he should not have taken some notice of it here. quotquot Damnoni occiduis alunt in oris : Ecquid Fama sinistimae (t) auricellae Veris se insinuat meae susurris. marisq. upon his Return. but I will presume to say. Ri. that he might learn the French Tongue. Carew was sent by his Father into France with Sir Henry Nevill. viz. hostium timores. reddidisti. e Gallijs reducem. Onustum omnigenae eruditionis Gazis & Spoliis. aemulam tonantis. and not only made them subservient to his own Entertainment. Qua tibi Aonii latus NEVILLI Phoeboeumq. but necessary in all Conditions and States of Life. Donec concilijs senex. I am afraid he hath mistaken our Author for his Son. TRELAVNIVM sequuto Aulam invisere curiamq. quod almum CAREUM modo patriae patriq. Album feceris Albiona factis : Melligo juvenum CARAEE quotquot Damnoni occiduis alunt in oris.Had our Author attended this worthy Person in his Embassies. Filium. or cultivating Arts and Sciences.

such as Sir Robert Cotton. that are consistent with a Country Life. and about that time was the Queens Deputy for the Militia. be the best way for Youths to learn it (y)? He wrote likewise a Dissertation. and was an excellent Judge in those Matters. printed in the Year 1586: "But these Matters" (says he. or 500 Men. (Sir Walter Raleigh being then Lieutenant General of Cornwall) Mr. is shewed for what Profession each one is apt. Whether the ordinary way by teaching Latin by the Rules of Grammar. . that he was made Justice of the Peace in 1581. and most excellent Manager of Bees in Cornwall (B)." Sed haec planius & plenius docebit Richardus Carew de Antonie. And indeed we find in his Survey of Cornwall. not in little. engaged him to attempt a Description of Cornwall. as we shall see anon. non minus generis splendore. Dodderidge. but was afterwards prevail'd upon by his Friends to publish it. It was printed at London in 1594. in answer to a Quaere. by Richard Carew of Antonie. shewing the Excellency of the English Tongue (z) : and published a Translation of the Examen de Ingenios para las Sciencias. enabled him to improve Agriculture and Husbandry to such a degree. and how far he shall profit therein (A). that he was accounted among his Neighbours the greatest Husband. and one of the Quorum (F) : and that in the Year 1599. written by Juan Huerte. that ingenious and learned Spanish Physician.As he was a great Master of Languages. This he only undertook for his private Satisfaction and Entertainment. & non ad tenue elimat (D). eminent for their Learning and Merit. and his Affection to the Government. Mr. appointed for Causam Bay (G). quam virtute & doctrina nobilis. qui hujus regionis descriptionem latiore specie. In which. The Enquiries he had made into the History and Antiquities of Nations. Wood assures us (E). thought himself obliged to do justice both to the Author and his Performance. he delivered his Opinion upon the true and ready way to learn the Latin Tongue. rais'd him to all the Posts of Honour. There was at that time a Society of several Gentlemen. His Proficiency in natural Philosophy. a Person no less eminent for his honourable Ancestors. his Love for Justice and Equity. High-Sheriff of Cornwall in 1586. that he was Justice of the Peace. and Colonel of a Regiment. Treasurer of the Lieutenancy. but at large. than his own Virtue and Learning. as it is natural to every Man to have a particular Fondness for his native Country: Nescio qua natale solum dulcedine cunctos Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui. by discovering the Variety of Natures. in the first Edition of his Britannia. Our Author's Knowledge in the Laws. Carew was one of the Deputy Lieutenants. who had seen it. and 30 Calivers. Mr. armed with 170 Pikes. Mr. at the end of his Account of Cornwall) " will be laid open more distinctly and fully. 300 Musquets. consisting of five Companies. who is writing a Description of this Country. Camden. with this Title: The Examination of Mens Wits. and chiefly of Great Britain.

or Conferences. &c. not contented with a superficial Smattering of Learning. and break their Society. and intended to erect a Library suitable to it. Stow. who were no less conspicuous for their Learning. Carew published his Survey of Cornwall. or any kind of useful Learning. And therefore these Gentlemen considering that they were but a private Society. for the Improvement and Illustration of the History and Antiquities of England. Lieutenant-General of Cornwall. back'd with Conceit and Talkativeness. (a second Solomon forsooth) if he could but scrible a Pamphlet against Witches. that the Queen. which were worthy of them. "This mine ill-husbanded Survey". and continue to employ their Labours upon those things. lest (such was the Wisdom of those Times) they should be prosecuted as a Cabal against the Government : Ne quicquam mali contra Rempublicam illos moliri Rex. contained. who had regular Meetings. than for their Integrity and consummate Wisdom. in order to fix and perpetuate an Institution so beneficial to the Publick. says he to that great . That they would persevere in establishing what they had so nobly begun. Mr. Camden. cannot arrive at due Maturity. in the Year 1602 (L) and did dedicate it to his Friend Sir Walter Raleigh. and in 1589 he was elected a Member of the College of the Antiquaries (H). and only delighted in pedantick scholastical Divinity. or even dissolve. Mr. and a real Encourager of Letters : wherein she had the ready Concurrence of her Ministers.(afterwards Sir John Dodderidge. where they would perform their Exercises. For they had no publick Place for it. But what else could be expected from a Man who never had a relish for polite Literature. they were soon blighted by the Death of that ever-memorable Princess. which for want of the Sun's genial Rays. in short. like those Fruits." Thus flourished that Illustrious College of Antiquaries. by that which they would rescue from it. and for some publick Building. or against tobacco: a Man. which several Accidents might either interrupt. who died one of the Judges of the King's-Bench) Mr. whose Meetings were chiefly held at Sir Robert Cotton's House (I). proved vain and unsuccessful. (which is the highest pitch Persons of the first Rank do commonly arrive to) was truly and solidly learned. That Society had a particular Claim to our Author. And they had the more reason to believe they could obtain such a Grant. that so they might not be drawn into Oblivion themselves. &c. Conciliariive suspicarentur (K). and did besides want some Accommodations. they resolved to apply to the Queen for a Royal Charter. and that Time might not rob them of aught more considerable than that which they should restore. For all the Applications they made for the same purpose to her Successor. they were obliged to dissolve themselves. they had chosen to be the Subject of their Conferences : and concludes with a pathetical Exhortation to his Auditory. as his Soul and Inclinations! As for our learned Antiquaries. The Oration he made at his Introduction. whose Genius and Taste were as low and mean. Lord Warden of the Stannaries. But as fair as the Hopes of this famous College appeared in its Bloom. and fancy'd himself the Wisest and most glorious Prince in the World. thence it subsides to the Advantages and Commendations of that kind of Study. (as I am informed by a Gentleman who saw it) "an elegant Display of the Devastations Time so swiftly makes upon all things.

and the most severe Censors to themselves. And who can be displeased with so just a Character of one of the greatest Men of our Nation? Mr. as it appears by the Encomiums pass'd upon it." Mr. "Besides".. resting no less willing to serve you. that when he first composed this Treatise. which it would be too long to enumerate. not only always as a Magistrate of yourself. Carew's Survey of Cornwall was receiv'd. so the best Authors are the least satisfy'd with their Performances. and probably our Author was his Godfather. His Lordships poor Kinsman.. over whose Bodies and Estates.. Your Ears and Mouth have ever been open to hear and deliver our Grievances. but also very often. for the particulars. I hope. and to embrace a pleasing Hope. and will continue. but in whose Hearts and Loves you possess a far greater Interest. and it must be Favour. not minding that it should be published in Print. Carew observes. Reckon therefore (I pray you) that this Treatise plotteth down Cornwall. and that. and his Friends Persuasions. since I first began these Scriblings. that our Author had been his chief Guide through it (M). and to your Protection when it is passed. Richard Carew of Antonie. . of the highest Place. Mr. excuse my transcribing here the whole Epistle. at the end of his Account of Cornwall. than under you.. Camden. printed in 1607. by your Kindness. and your Feet and Hands ready to go. appealeth to your Lordship's Direction. that hath drawn me to the Offering.. both Martial and Civil Command.. in the sixth Edition of his Britannia. a great while discontinued. for the general. I could not yet find. But as 'tis usual to Authors of an inferior rank to be the best pleased with their Works. These Addresses are a true Test of an Author's Wit and Genius. by your Authority . Wherefore. " long since begun.Man. acknowledges. you carry a large. that shall move your Lordship to the acceptance. Carew subscribes himself. to your Corection if it do pass. (as it hath been ever since) with a general Applause." The Reader will. had caused his Determination to alter. as a Suiter and Solicitor to others. present this Token of my private Gratitude. But since that time. when it came out. The Approbation of the Publick only excites them to mend their Writings.. and not Desert. I. that Charity and good Construction would rest now generally in all Readers. And so I take humble leave. whether it should pass. whose Christen-name was Carew. I was driven either likewise to vary my Report. as one of the common beholden. Neither unduly : for the same intreateth of the Province and Persons. Mr. In his Preface. Sir Walter Raleigh had a Son. and give them all the Perfection they are capable. lately reviewed. says he. he caused only certain written Copies to be given to some of his Friends . that. as it now standeth. and work their Redress.. or else to speak against my Knowledge. " the State of our Country hath undergone so many Alterations. Master Camden's often mentioning this Work. It is Duty and not Presumption. in the reviewing. and now hastily finished. but how he was related to him.

that it was going to be reprinted with large Additions. I would also fain have his Map of our Shire. was not observed. Mr. Dodderidge. and bears such an excessive Price. and if I wist where to find Mr. The first publishing of my Survey was voluntary. was not so much for the enlarging it. as it was first published. and some Oversights of his." Mr. It hath indeed been reported. If any body hath any Additions or Supplements to it. nos in Caria nostra gente agnoscimus. They can hardly be the Author's own Additions. says he (N). and desired to improve it by the Observations of others. &c. another Papinian.Mr. the Arms not the least. But it is to be hoped. and we have seen that Mr. who had writ on the same Subject. does not appear. touching which mine Order. and dedicated it to the Prince : this I much long to see. for that Tract did not come out till 1630) he desired Mr. as the correcting his and the Printers Oversights. ingenium splendidum. Perhaps this is owing to the false Rumours which have been spread from time to time. and highly extols him for his great Skill in History. bellarumque intentionum saecundissimum.'" And a famous Scotch Poet (+) "stiles him another Livy. as the correcting mine and the Printers Oversights: and amongst these. "I make bold". for perfecting of which. However it be. particularly with Sir Henry Spelman. had published some Account of the Dutchy of Cornwall. but not the Author of Wrong and Error. " to use my thanks for your kind remembring me by Sir Anthony Rouse. is of necessity. Carew's Design in the intended second Edition of his Survey. and this it is : I learn that Master Sollicitor hath compiled a Treatise of our Cornish Dutchy. whereby it is become so scarce. and heartily pray by your means to obtain a Copy thereof. suitable to your Direction. 'Palmam igitur cedo' (saith he) '& quod Graeci olim in Caria fua gente. Carew never published a second Edition of his Book. Camden to send him a Copy of it. they may print them separately. Carew was uneasy at the Errors of the Printers. Carew (P) "was intimate with the most noted Scholars of his Time. that Mr. and . (which was not true. admirati sunt. since they are said to be large ones. not so much for the enlarging it. should not have been reprinted since the Year 1602. Vertue. I imagine that I may cull out of Master Sollicitor's Garden many Flowers to adorn this other Edition. Norden. he took a Journey into these Parts. tho' he lived fourteen Years after the writing of that Letter. For these idle common Reports have often prevented new Editions of useful and necessary Books. who in an Epistle (*) to him concerning Tythes. that had crept into his Book. And whether he left behind him a Copy of it revised and corrected for a new Impression. the second. that there was a Copy extant with large Additions (O). another Maro. Being told in the Year 1606. who was then Sollicitor-General. we may reasonably wonder that a Work so valuable. doth not a little extol him for his Ingenuity. as a Shoeinghorn to draw on a Request. and Learning. which I now purpose. and the only compleat one we have on that Subject. but they don't tell us whose Additions they are. that some publick-spirited Persons will reprint it. and so myself made an Instrument.

40.. Qui inter medias de caelesti vita meditationes Placide in Chrifto obdormivit. 1. Ibid. Wood. fol.." Mr. Nepoti Wimundi Carew Militis ex Martha Dennia. ver. Afterwards Sir George Carew.... Ubi supr. within some Miles of Plymouth. Anno aetatis Lxiij. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) In the Eastern Parts of Cornwall. Filius Patri optimo. Et . c. fol. Officiosi obsequii ergo. fol. probably at the Request of Mr. The History of the Worthies of England.. 33. 104. E. Shortly after. 2d Edit. 226. 452. he had a splendid Monument set over his Grave. in 8vo.. sinitimae . Ubi supr.. Ep. Posuerunt. Wood ibid. Carew's Family.. 102.Knowledge in the Laws (Q). Carew "died on the sixth day of November. ubi supra.S.. Caroli Fitzgeofridi Assaniae: sive Epigrammatum Libri tres &c. 1601.. 61. mente generosa. Anth.. The Survey of Cornwall. Survey. Oxon. Filio Thomae Carew ex Anna Edgcombia. Lib. The Survey of Cornwall. written in the Latin Tongue (R)" As I have not seen that Inscription. and was buried in the Church of East-Antonie among his Ancestors. c. with an Inscription thereon. Sir Philip Sidney was born in 1554. fol. 205. 100. written by Mr. The Survey of Cornwall was published in the Year 1602. Arundelia uxor marito charissimo. M. Richardo Carew de Antonie Armigero. fol. I leave to the reader to determine. I cannot tell whether it be the same with the following Epitaph. Eruditione varia. fol.. Wood means by this Parenthesis.. 59. in fifteen hundred and twenty. Ibid.. Wood Athen. 3. 100. Lege. What Mr. vol. Obiit . Pronepoti Joannis Carew ex Thomasina Hollandia: Viro Moribus modestis. p. Ibid. Oxon. Epi. Camden (S). Animo erga Deum devato. Conjugalis fidei ergo. 103. Ibid.

(v) (x) (y) (A) (B) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O) (P) (*) (+) (Q) (R) (S) Leg. &c. It was printed in 1654. direction. Wood. That letter is dated 13th of May 1606. Wood. Sir Walter Raleigh Knight. 453. of Antonie. Ibid. Nicolson. c. Lond. in 8vo. pag. Wood. LVIII. Leg. fol. Londini 1586. ubi supr. &c. long since begun. In his Apol. This mine ill-husbanded Survey. See Wood. 452. to your correction. 53. Joh. ubi supr. II. whether it should passe. 4to. Esquire. The English Historical Library. Epist. pag. p 11. c. integellus. c. 88. ubi supr. 453. In 4to. Smith. Gul. &c. Wood. of the Treatise de non temerandis Ecclesiis. 6. suis. lately reviewed. Lord Warden of the Stannaries. and now hastily finished. 72. ubi supr. cent. ibid. See Dr. Quemque mihi preluxiss non possum non agnoscere. chap. Survey. 83. 106. Camdeni Epistolae. &c. a great while discontinued. 12 of the 2d Edition. Ubi supr. &c. ibid. &c. Wood. Britannia. if it . appealeth to your L. fol. Camdeni Epistolae. 1646. Dunbar Megalo-Britannus in Epigrammat. [Abstract graphics] To the Honorable. Smith's Life of Sir Robert Cotton. THE S V R V E Y OF C O R N W A L L Written by Richard Carew. exantlasse. Lieutenant Generall of Cornwall. ibid. Dr. numb. Ibid. W.

from the sinceritie of a witnesse. When I first composed this Treatise. how Opere in vario. then vnder you.in the reuiewing. to this my rather fancie-sporting. to expect the applause of any other. then the affection of a friend: and therefore I hope. Neither unduely: for the same intreateth of the Province. Besides the state of our Countrie hath vndergone so manie Alterations. fas est obrepere somnum. and worke their redresse. euen myselfe (though Suus cuiq. and solliciter to others. and mouth. both Martiall. resting no lesse willing to serue you. of satisfying. but in whose hearts.you carrie a large. And I acknowledge. master Camdens often-mencioning this worke. and deliuer our grieuances. Farewell. placet partus) as I haue little reason.and not desert. Your Lordships poore kinsman. and to your protection. that. which it selfe produceth : rather a wonder it were. any parcell should retaine a stedfast constitution. as one of the common beholden. when it is passed. present this token of my priuate gratitude. and my friends perswasions. & good construction resteth now generally in all Readers. or raueth. or else to speake against my knowledge.as a suiter. and Persons. Richard Carew of Antonie.doe passe. readie to goe. Albeit. no lesse then in longo. and your feete and hands. I. And no maruaile. but also verie often. Wherefore. by your kindnesse. and loues. & to imbrace a pleasing hope. as it now standeth. either likewise to varie my report. . to heare. and not presumption. according to the occasions. of your selfe. Mine Eulogies proceede no lesse. as a Magistrate. Your eares. addeth. this playing work to come so farr short. and it must be fauour. you possesse a farre greater interest. by your authoritie. not minding that it should be published in Print. haue caused my determination to alter. I well know. not onely. that in the ceaselesse reuolution of the Vniuerse. no mans eye will bee euill: and that each wel-minded Reader will wish a merrie passage. for each succeeding time.ouer whose bodies. Reckon therefore (I pray you) that this treatise plotteth downe Cornwall. haue euer beene open. alwayes. that hath drawne me to the offering. of the highest place. It is dutie. that where my tongue hath beene good. that shall moue your Lordship to the acceptance: and so I take humble leaue. and will continue. and put Prosopopeia into the bookes mouth. I caused onely certaine written copies to bee giuen to some of my friends. goods. and estates. I was driuen. that charitie. But since that time. and that. for the generall. then gaine-fseeking voyage. and ciuiil commaund. & euils. since I first began these scriblings. for the particulars. To the Reader.

I pleade no needlesse haste. T H E S V R O F CORNWALL. The first Booke. a home or corner of Fraunce. I keep my fathers home. in reward for his prowesse: Some. Or friends of dearest price. hath her name by diuers Authors diuersly deriued. bashfull at eche strangers sight. called Gogmagog. brake his necke. not my desert. Some (as our owne Chroniclers) draw it from Corineus. cousin to Brute. Which forth this blooth hath brought. began at last to plant their dwellings [2a] and take roote . But as a child of feeble force. Nor. threw him ouer Cliffe. V E Y Cornwall. 586. the first Conqueror of this Iland: who wrastling at Plymmouth (as they say) with a mightie Giant. then in his measures) from Cornu Galliae. Ne yet rude threats I blaste: I seeke no patrone for my faults. To blaze my praise in verse. mine authors names. for his sake.] as Pirates. For what time the Saxons. And. as Cerealis. and receiued the gift of that Countrie. No fruit I promise from the tree. after many bloudie inuasions [Anno Dom. I curry not with smoothing termes. Which force or stealth hath wrought. Saue to his kinne of neerest bloud. the farthest Shire of England Westwards. Dare not abroad to rome. In catalogue rehearse: I of no willing wrong complaine. prowd of vaunt. With welcome me entice. (no lesse mistaken perhaps in that. from Cornu Walliae. Who.[1] The Prosopopeia to the Booke. which (in my conjecture) carrieth greatest likelyhood of truth. I Crave not courteous ayd of friends. whereagainst nature hath placed it: and some.

But seeing the wisest Enditer. for so they were to them. with many other. to exact an ouer-strict reason for all that which vpon credite shee deliuereth. they giue still the same name to Italy. and to sanctifie the thing itselfe in sundrie parts of his seruice: such iesters dishonest indiscretion is rather charitably to bee pittied. with Clubbes in their hands. Neither needeth this composition to be accompted any way vncouth. the pourtrayture of two men. was Cornwall. that he receiued in reward the place where hee made proofe of his worth. in this facultie of wrastling. are likewise compacted of double languages. The place where Brute is said to haue first landed. then their exception either angerly to be grieued at. which should inferre the same to bee a monument of some moment. there is cut out in the ground. by interpretation strangers. vpon which mine auerment in behalf of Plymmouth is grounded. sooner then elsewhere. I am not ignorant. the Britons. by them supplanted. who not knowing their owne present condition. when cause requireth. though I reuerence antiquitie. deriued likewise from Kerne a home. For mine owne part. or at least their future destinie. the actiuitie of Deuon and Cornishmen. and the other from her Inhabitants. and how stiffely supported by other some: as also that this wrastling pull betweene Corineus and Gogmagog. what they haue once caught hold on. is reported to have befallen at Douer. Now. the one bigger. This ill-halfening hornie name. is shaken by some of our late writers. hath (as Corneto in Italy) opened a gap to the scoffes of many. dooth seeme to deriue them a speciall pedigree. borrowed the one part of her name from her fashion. sithence turned to Wales. were driuen to seeke their safegard in the waste Moores. or seriously to bee confuted. in this question. as Conquerors. affordeth an oportunitie to . and reckon it a kind of wrong. who would warrant her authoritie by apparant veritie. but also in a significant sense. euen as by the same reason. as of Herbipolis in Germanie. Againe. Moreouer. Such as had in this sort withdrawne themselves. both which conjoyned. was Totnes in Cornwall. not only in a good meaning. hath directed the penne of his holiest writers to vse this terme. seeing the same is made familiar vnto vs by the like in other Countries. can be contented to draw an odious mirth from a publike infamie. Lombardie in Italy. and wild Forrests of Wales and Cornwall. euen as Cyrus recompenced Zopirus with the Citie Babylon [Herodotus]. which his policie had recouered. It may then be presumed. and therefore this wrastling likely to haue chaunced there. or stickler: and therefore if there bee any so plunged in the common floud. beyond those of other Shires. with the shape of a horne. and the dangerousnesse of the passages laid them open to priuie inuasions.in this Iland. (whom they terme Gog-Magog) and (as I haue learned) it is renewed by order of the Townesmen. as they will still gripe fast. the Saxons termed Welshmen. craggie Mountaines. how sorely the whole storie of Brute. Notwithstanding. the Cornish people call it Kernow. where the Countries barrennesse barred their pursuers from victuals. vpon the Hawe at Plymmouth. let them sport themselves with these coniectures. And lastly the place. hauing a steepe cliffe adioyning. Cornwall being cast out into the Sea. as they to the Countrie: and their place of abode they called Welshland. yet I rather incline to their side. Cornwall: in which sence. and whose prince (for so with others I take Gogmagog to have beene) hee had conquered. as Matthew of Westminster testifieth. and contriued. The Prouince bestowed on Corineus for this exployt. from that graund wrastler [3] Corineus. and Neoportus in Carniola: all which. I will not take on me the person of either Iudge. the other lesser. make Cornwalliae. Paleocastrum in Crete.

runneth thorow Plymmouth Hauen. rootes of mightie trees are discryed in the sands about it. that Brute landed at Totnes in Cornwall. and carrieth continually an equall depth of fortie or sixtie fathom (a thing not vsuall in the Seas proper Dominion) saue that about the midway. on the West from the Ilands of Scilley. divided therefrom. and in the narrowest of the West part. into the South. and in the Longitude of sixe. was Caraclowse in Cowse. Spaine. the ancient name of Saint Michaels Mount. which at low water discouereth his head. did once extend so wide. both neere vnto. Fishermen also casting their hookes thereabouts. as other more inward parts of the Realme. which springing neere the North Sea. in English. the encroaching Sea hath rauined from it. or homeward bound. But of this too much. increased by so many Lanes and Inclosures. as almost no where equall. offer occasion of landing to any aduerse shipping. to vent forth and make returne of those commodities. They terme it the Gulfe. so in the largest place. and so besieged it with the Ocean. together with diuers other parcels of no little circuite: and that such a Lionnesse there was. The hoare Rocke in the Wood: which now is at euerie floud incompassed by the Sea. counteruailed such disaduantage. Ireland. and yet at some low ebbes. South. The neerenesse helpeth them. by the ryuer Tamer. In this situation. the Cornish-men bare equal sway in Excester with the English: for hee it was who hemmed them within their present limits. a Towne now seated in the midst of Deuon. which being seated neerer the heart. lie not so open to the inuasions of forraine enemies. and diuers other places. through placing it. are sooner sought. to this day retaineth that name. lesse peril. vntill Athelstanes time. that these remote quarters. these proofes are yet remaining. and earlyer ransacked in such troublesome times: or if the Countries long naked sides. when. the Inhabitants find but one way of issue by land: yet hath shee in some good measure. Polidore Virgil allotteth it the fourth part of the whole Iland. and the ancient Chronicles report. Moreover. suiting thereby the other name of Scilla. The whole compasse may hereby be coniectured. The Shire extendeth in length to about seuentie miles: the breadth. with the title of a kingdome. The space between the lands end. It bordereth on the East with Deuon.the fact. either outward. For the rest. it passeth not thirtie. France. in the middle twentie. with a shorter cut. as a demie Iland in an Iland. haue drawn vp peeces of doores and windowes. there lieth a Rocke. Lastly. straightneth the same to a preying onely vpon the outward Skirts by some pettie fleetes: For . three. Moreouer. though nature hath shouldred out Cornwall into the farthest part of the Realme. and the Iles of Scilley. and meaner charge. or spoyles of ciuil tumults. bringeth forraine shipping to claime succour at their harbours. on the North from Ireland. they are checked by an East. and on the South from little Britaine. that. and in the trade way betweene Wales. Neither is it to bee passed ouer without regard. and thirtie minutes. in Cornish Lethowsow. These borders now thus straightned. & Netherland. as that they enabled their inclosed territorie. Cornwall is seated (as most men accompt) in the Latitude of fiftie degrees. some haires will still remaine. which their [4] owne. the maine Ocean sundreth the same. the whole Countrie of Lionnesse. in most places. The like ouerflowing hath happened in Plymmouth Hauen. or either of those Countries doe afford: the lying in the way. being about thirtie miles. at Hartland in Deuon. or South-east wind: and where the Horse walloweth. her forementioned inward naturall strength.

that breaking out into some outragious words. and the great expence of driuing them. Hereon downe comes a Messenger with sharpe letters from the Officers of the Greene cloth. which these parts afford vnto them. Besides that. After the game hath beene brought in by this Winlesse. as it did from the owners at the taking. One is. and least cliented Petiuoguers. and you shall see how we will hamper him: warrant you he shall fetch an errand to London. saith he? Anger him a little. yeelded to vndergoe a proportionable rate of the burthen. the worst conditioned. and the graciousnesse of our Soueraigae. will require the protection of a greater force for execution. would defaulke as much from the iuft price to the Queene. I can adde. for the well effecting. or rather accompting dutie a reason sufficient. then can there be counteruailed with the benefit of any bootie. and appertaining to ouer-many partners. Vpon which reasons. or all these together ouerslipped the time. the poore foule is bound not to release his aduersarie. Vpon half a yeeres warning either partie might repent the bargaine. hath heretofore afforded it a Supersedeas from takers & Purueyours: for if they should fetch any prouision from thence. as hee eateth . and yet to breake they are both afraid. the sollicitation of Sir Richard Gremuile. and the same vnder her Highnesse priuie Seale confirmed. may passe for a commoditie. for redeeming this exemption. and increaseth the charge and time of procuring their redresse. or the backwardnesse of the Inhabitants in paying the same. doe yet (vnder the sweet baite of revenge) convert to a more plentiful prosecution of actions. or conquest. the Iustices strayne courtesie. Which due occasion of discouragement. that the farre distance from the higher seates of Iustice. heretofore through the suite of the Countrie. by another agreement with the Officers. and withheld the satisfaction. either the carelesnesse of the Iustices in imposing this rate. And if to bee free from a dammage. & beare part of your charges too. as in a matter nothing plausible. were they sure to preuaile. when her Majestie made her pleasure afterwards knowne. to increase the flame with their bellowes of perswasion. Hath such a one abused you. where they perceiue a sparke of displeasure kindling. were reuoked and suppressed. her Highnesse shipping should heerethrough bee defrauded of often supplies. to which. if this composition be once set at large. but the same would verie slenderly turne to the benefit of her Majesties house keeping: for the foulenesse and vneasinesse of the waies. at the deliuering. the credite of the Lord Warden. the little mould of Cornish cattel. Notwithstanding. The ordinarie trade of these men is. some of the Purueyours attempts. The conclusion ensued.the danger of farder piercing. suspecting that a heauier load will follow. Cornwall opposing dutie against reason. who plieth the matter with so good a stomack. as in a charge heretofore vnusuall. Thus it fareth too and fro. and the Cornishmen seeme to hold a Wolfe by the eares: for to make payment the people are unwilling. that the far distance of this Countie from the Court. that shee would have a generall contribution from euerie Shire. These commodities goe not vnaccompanied with their inconueniences: for to Cornwall also hath Pandora's Boxe beene opened. you may take advantage thereof. This held for a while. So they compounded to furnish ten Oxen after Michaelmas for thirtie pound price. without his Attournies consent. rippeth a wider gap to intruding iniuries. that his charges must bee borne. well it might be marked with the visard of her Highnes prerogatiue. and an higher price disbursed for the supplie. but within a short space. or the negligence of the Constables in collecting it. they should adde fortie markes of their owne. to undergoe the [5] managing hereof.

euen the hard stones. & subiect to a drie Summers parching. At last. and though pestilentiall. where they landed: for there the same was. yet not the verie pestilence. The middle part of the Shire (sauing the inclosures about some few Townes and Villages) lieth waste and open. or flaugh. and cheapnesse: the hard procuring. some steepe. addeth an extraordinarie increase of price to the Cornish buyers: and for matters of benefit. through the Inhabitants good husbandrie. fashion. The Cornish soyle. as with bellowes. that whereas London furnisheth all prouisions (euen Tynne. and yron barres of the windowes. vpon both coastes. especially in any languishing sicknesse which hath possessed strangers: neither know I. by his extravagant fees of Pro consilio. Autumne bringeth a somewhat late Haruest. though infectious. or preferment. where they seldome inne their Corne before Michaelmas. for the most part. by consequence. Another discommoditie groweth. by the billowes. as afterwards it proued in other places. the substance of the rest consisteth ordinarily in Rockes and Shelse. This notwithstanding. by reason of the Southes neere neighbourhead. Summer imparteth a verie [6] temperate heat. the ayre thereof is cleansed. which fetching a large course. vpon whatsoeuer it incountreth in his way. so as. So as the Inhabitants doe seldome take a ruthful and reauing experience of those harmes. some easie for ascent. pared hedges. One kind of these stormes. then it fell out at Plymmouth. and Seas warme breath. the diseases which the Souldiers brought home with them. Touching the temperature of Cornwall. that vpon the returne of our fleete from the Portugall action. fauoureth it with a milder cold then elsewhere. some little of quantitie. with their kindly ripening. which is a mightie gale of wind. and make a speedie departure. and such other arising in the same Countrie) of best stuffe. and farre carriage. doe fret to be so continually grated. did grow more grieuous. doe from thence violently assault the dwellers at land. the mediation of friends must shut up the matter in a comprimise. and subtill. and serveth in a maner. and flowing and ebbing of the Sea. passing suddainely to the shore. to warrant the hope of a sauing bargaine in the appurtenance. That which bordereth vpon either side of the Sea. whilest they fight about the shell. and dwarfe-growne trees. which infectious diseases vse to carrie with them. of docketing out Writs neuer sued foorth. A shallow earth dooth couer their outside. that this so piercing an ayre. and. &c. and leaue them vncouered houses. when the fountain of his Clients purse is drawne drie. is lifted vp into many hils. the Frost and Snow come verie seldome. by suits at Court. the Countrie is much subiect to stormes. The Spring visiteth not these quarters so timely. besides the packing betweene the Vndersheriffe and him. specially to the middle of the Shire. they call a flaw. . and working strong effects. yet not so contagious. which maketh them hard for manurance. is apter to preserue then recouer health. Winter. and parted in sunder by short and narrow vallies. whether I may impute to this goodnesse of the ayre. 1589. as they carried the same farther into the land. pro amicitia Vicecomitis.the kernell. pro expeditione. sheweth a blackish colour. But yet I haue noted. and therethrough becommeth pure. onely to Summer Cattel. beareth Heath and spirie Grasse. before notice can arriue so far: or the following there. recompencing his slow-fostering of the fruits. store. in the open Sea. and losse the whiles at home. as witnesses of their force and furie : yea. will require a great and assured gaine in the principall. either the opportunitie is past. as the Easterne parts. some great. healthfull.

The first and best Blew: the second. with stone Cole in smaller Kils: this is accompted the better cheape. or falling from the Rockes. Haynborough. and generally carrieth so good regard. They make Lyme. are. and Slate: the rough maketh speedier building. In the rest of this earthy description. Brownwelly. This stone answereth the charge of fetching. the Slate surer. with the profit of long endurance. Carnbray. Quarrie stones are of sundrie sorts. not vnlike the Ieat. and feeling life. sanding. and Chimnies. in colour faire. seruing to the same vse. and then passe on to those things. by the Moores or waste ground. The Blew. For Windowes. and not much differing from the Easterne free stone. with the fairenes of his whitish colour. store enough. Rowtor. For couering of Houses there are three sorts of Slate. or verie little vnder. Caraclouse blacke. as (besides the supplie for home prouision) great store is yeerely conueied by shipping both to other parts of the Realme. These mynerals are not so deepe buried by nature in the entrailes of the Earth. and also beyond the Seas. in lasting strong. Meadow ground it affoordeth little. where the same is found in great quantitie. into Britaine and Netherland. Agnes. moreouer. carrieth a better hue. of growing. as of purpose. are commonly found vnder the walling Slate. Roche. For walling. with a seruent fire of Furze. affordeth Peeble-stones. wrought to a kind of roundnesse. Touching mettals: Copper is found in sundrie places. Hinxten. but with what gaine to the searchers. which from that vse take the name of Healing-stones. pasture for Cattel and Sheepe. and there lying loose. containing certaine glimmering sparkles. but that desire of gaine with the instrument of Art can digge them vp: they may bee diuided into stones and mettals. S. by often rolling of the waues. though lesser heate. Dornes. Corne ground plentie. and more profitable qualitie.and in colour [7] somewhat resembleth gray Marble. and serue to diuers purposes. nor so closely couched amongst the Rockes. and counteruaileth his great hardnesse in working. That name is bestowed on it. but that yeeldeth the whiter Lyme. and so the rest. of another kind of Marle-stone. nor they . which washed out of the earth.of inclosing. there are rough. Sage-leafe coloured. and the two Castellan Danis. or by maintaining a continuall. which vpon her face doe relieue themselues. The Sea strond also in many places. and serue verie handsomely for pauing of streetes and Courts. when the depth hath brought the workmenn to the Water. the foure Boroughs. to withstand the fretting weather. the third taken out of inland Quarries. Hils of greatest name and height are. nature hauing ordained the same. the third and meanest Gray. Moore stone carrieth chiefest reckoning. though differing labour: Pentuan digged out of the Sea Cliffes. and other dressing. I will begin with such mynerals as her bowels yeeld forth. There are also three other sorts of stones. either lying vpon the ground. and hewed with lesse. I haue not beene curious to enquire. in waight light. either by burning a great quantitie thereof together. This Slate is in substance thinne.

and king Edward the third. trees. when as the onely mynerall of Cornish Tynne. nor others from the like attempt. For at one Mine (of which I tooke view) the Owre was shipped to bee refined in Wales. The Cornish Tynners hold a strong imagination. to present his graundame Venus. as thereby the Inhabitants gaine wealth. the earth. who ground themselues vpon authenticall Records. shee seemeth to pull backe with the other. Yea it is not altogether barren of precious stones. and forcibly carrying with it. and the whole Realme a reputation: and with such plentie thereof hath God stuffed the bowels of this little Angle. amongst it Gold. as by credible relation I haue learned. In trauailing abroad. To confirme the likelihood of which supposed truth. and is deriued to a great part of the world besides. which they conceiue at that deluge to haue beene ouerturned and whelmed: but whether then. Dyamonds. and in vse so necessarie. though Cicero excluded the same out of all Britaine: and if wee may beleeve our Chroniclers reports. then draw the fountaine of his praises drie. the same tooke his course from East to West. Tynners doe also find little hoppes of Gold amongst their Owre. as at first sight. Neither hath nature denyed Siluer to Cornwall. as neither round nor Orient. in doing ought of pleasure or necessitie. that (as Astiages dreamed of his daughter) it ouerfloweth England. out of which the Tynne is digged: they are polished. made triall to their losse: howbeit. then acceptable for goodnesse. openeth so large a field to the Countries benefit? this is in working so pliant. Cornwall is also not altogether destitute of Agates [8] and white Corall. that albeit the Tynne lay couched at first in . But for our present experience. The Pearle (though here not aptly raunged) breed in bigge Oysters. what she proffereth with the one hand. then endeere it by mine ouer-weake commendation. alwayes readie for our seruice: but I shall rather disgrace. to a Walnut: in blacknesse and hardnesse they come behind the right ones. and pointed by nature: their quantitie from a Pease. in tarrying at home. Tynne. Let this therefore suffice. neither are they discouraged by this successe. they doe many times digge vp whole and huge Timber trees. the Merchants trafficke. either in his owne shape. and in it Siluer. then Glaucus exchange. squared. which hath found. that in the withdrawing of Noahs floud to the Sea.hastie to reueale. Hence it commeth. either to saue cost in the fewell or to conceale the profit. violently breaking vp. or transformed into other fashions. and sell to the Goldsmithes oftentimes with little better gaine. king Edward the first. that it cannot bee of meane price. which lay any thing loosely. whereof some Gentlemen not long sithence. is alwayes requisite. with it. when he made that gay Coate of them. probable it is. Perhaps Caesar spoyled the best beds. greater in quantitie. reaped some good benefit thereof. But why seeke wee in corners for pettie commodities. and sooner tire myselfe. for sight so faire. and Rocks. which they keepe in quils. that some such cause produced this effect. in eating and drinking. and yet I haue knowne some of them set on so good a foile. they might appose a not vnskilfull Lapidarie. watereth Christendome. and Pearle: for Dyamonds are in many places found cleauing to those Rockes. or sithence. and Muscles. neere the vpper face of the ground.

Where the finding of these affordeth a tempting likelihood. hath. which some terme Thunder-axes. Stream. that euerie likelyhood doth euer proue a certaintie: for diuers haue beene hindered. This yeeldeth a speedie and gaineful recompence to the aduenturers of the search. If any ryuer thwart them. . and first wrought by the Iewes with Pickaxes of Holme. vntill they light at last vpon it. And it may well be. certaine little tooles heads of Brasse. hauing herethrough their wrong side turned outwards. and sharpe Stones serued the Indians for Kniues. the Iewish workmen made here their first arriuall. Boxe. but I hold it little beneficiall to the owners of the soyle. wherein no such Shoad doth lie. and Load: for (say they) the foremencioned floud. and so giue a gesse at the place whence it was broken off. to wit. to haue beene verie auncient. and fallen into my hands: and perhaps vnder one of those Flauians. For those low grounds. and seuen or eight foote in depth. in depth 5. that as Akornes made good bread. But you may not conceiue. which being sought and digged. carried together with the moued Rockes and earth. and that they resolve to search his bed. vntill they approach the open ayre: yet they haue now two kinds of Tynne workes. growing from the like occasion. they also discerne which was the quicke ground (as they call it) that mooued with the floud. or the veines in a mans bodie. as this turning of the earth doth offer to their sight. To find the Load-workes. through bestowing charges in seeking. or pit of five or six foote in length. There are also taken vp in such works. If they misse the Load in one place. left the same scattered here and there in the vallies and ryuers. but they make small shew of any profitable vse. and not finding. which way the floud came that brought it thither. as shed from the maine Load. beforetime fruitfull. foote more or lesse. as the loose ground went. and so a third and fourth. vntill the Spaniards brought them Iron: so in the infancie of knowledge.certaine strakes amongst the Rockes. which either lieth open on the grasse. They maintaine these workes. and at the asswaging. they comprise also the Moore workes. where it passed. these poore instruments for want of better did supplie a turne. Attall Sarazin. from the depth whereof the maine Load spreadeth out his branches. in the end. in English. fayled in substance. whiles a faire show. casting vp trenches before them. which they terme Shoad. and many vndone in finding and not speeding. two or three foote in breadth. accuse the Tynners iniurie by their succeeding barrennesse. Neither were the Romanes ignorant of this trade. by the waters washing & wearing. before Ceres taught the vse of Corne. and made the aduenturers Banckrupt of their hope and purse. and Harts horne: they prooue this by the name of those places yet enduring. commonly farther vp towards the hill.lying on the face of the ground. or 6. Hauing found any such. the Tynners goe to worke. the Iewes offcast. or but shallowly couered. hee is trained by a new channell from his former course. by certaine Tynne-stones. they coniecture by the sight of the ground. and by those tooles daily found amongst the rubble of such workes. like a tree. By this Shaft. as may appeare by a brasse Coyne of Domitian's. and made somwhat smooth and round. is called Streamworke: under this title. There they sincke a Shaft. their first labour is also imployed in seeking this Shoad. [9] They discouer these workes. so much of the Load as was inclosed therein. to proue whether they may so meete with the Load. found in one of these workes. they sincke a like Shaft in another beyond that. & three or foure in breadth. gathering vp such Shoad. and which the firme. tempting them to mvch cost.

This shee reuealed to her husband: and hee. the veines whence Brasse is digged. because the charge amounteth mostly verie high for any one mans purse. Moreouer. shee should find so great store of Tynne. become alike ful againe of the same mettall. as by. met with the effect. through meanes no lesse strange. duskie. to reach vnto: and if the worke doe faile. The same report passeth as currant. that a man of seemely personage told her. and wife to Lanine. but I will not bind any mans credite. then extraordinarie. that neere Ptolomais. and the constitution of mens bodies. and some peculiar celestiall influence. that the ayre and water replenishiing the voide roome. putting the same in triall. Munster in his Cosmographie. dreamed. resembleth his bed. and such other earthy colours. in India. nor the earth consumeth away: and this opinion. and of Salt. in the Ile of Elba. as also in veines which the first workmen followed not. by dreames.Some have found Tynne-workes of great vallew. If the Load wherein the Tynne lieth. within twentie or thirtie yeeres. fitting to this purpose. that the trenches. carrieth a foote and halfe in breadth. heire to one Tresculierd. of Marble. When the new found worke intiseth with probabilitie of profit. doth seeme to vnderprop. blackish. borrowed from Clearchus. as at first. as the Sea sand doth the Cliffes. and oftentimes they find good store of Tynne. by a like dreame of his daughter (see the lucke of women) made the like assay. and others. shall haue it filled with many discourses. call'd S. iudgement and experience. both in the rubble cast vp before. in Paros Iland. amongst such Gentlemen. which in foure yeeres. that leauing these trades of new searching. many shoulders will more easily support the burthen. doe vndergoe the like Metamorphosis. out of which the Owre there is digged. to wit. affirming. except lined beyond ordinarie. as by the former aduenturers haue beene giuen ouer. vnlesse many Loads runne together. From hence there groweth a diuersitie in opinion. touching sundrie others. and is so diuersified to reddish. neither the Owre groweth. [10] There are. are filled in like maner. and grew thereby to good state of wealth. doe take in hand such old Stream and Loadworks. and so by consequence. through the power of the vniuersall agent. deducing thence this reason. a Gentlewoman. one Taprel lately liuing. & dwelling in the Parish of the hundred of West. These . can looke into these matters. out of which glassie Sand being taken. from the upper part of the adioyning mountaines. as would serue to inrich both her selfe and her posteritie. that of the Authors haue herein swayed mine: and yet he that will afford his eare to Astrologers and naturall Philosophers. it is accompted a verie rich worke: but commonly the same exceedeth not a foote. and be not ouerbarren. the discouerer doth commonly associate himselfe with some more partners. farmed the worke of the vnwitting Lord of the soyle. there lieth a round valley. which matter is conuerted into the former substance and that euen Mettals throwne Into this place. & he confirmeth it by sutable examples. of the constellation of the heauens. found a worke. though. But whosoeuer readeth that which Francis Leandro hath written touching the yron mynerals. the winds fill the pit againe. was worth him welneere so many thousand pounds. Niot. how in such a Tenement of her Land. So doth he report. that it onely separateth from the consumed offall. that neere the Citie of Apolonia in Dalmatia. As in Edward the sixts time. are turned into the selfe substance. The colour both of the Shoad and Load. will cleaue perhaps to a third conceite: for hee auoucheth. some of them supposing that the Tynne groweth.

mostly.cap. These Loadworkes. and then passe forward vnder ground. their worke is most by Candle-light. digge vp Tin out of rockie ground. If the Load lie right downe. Their maner of working in the Loadmines. and to giue such other directions. to make timely prouision. in English. and so draw by gesse to the maine Load againe. to admit a renewing vent. as they cannot endure it aboue foure houres in a day. To part the Rockes. their toyle is so extreame. Kayles. which notwithstanding.l. and yet now and then falling downe. seemeth to point at. are a Pick-axe of yron. and Wedges. the greater they find the Load. then are warranted by the Church. to see them applie their labour. When they light vpon a smal veine. either presseth the poore workmen to death. or stoppeth them from returning. The loose Earth is propped by frames of Timber-worke. if need exact it. vnsauorie Damps doe here and there distemper their heads. whome they terme their Captaine: such are the Pel. which may be about eight pence. . or for the yeere. as it beginneth to faile. is to follow the Load as it lieth. which. From some of their bottomes you shal at noone dayes discrie the Starres: the workmen are let down and taken vp in a Stirrup. to place Pumpes for drawing of water. and they their Ouerseer. Whilancleuth. in the space of so many weekes. where hee saith. and require the trauaile of many hands. for binding the worke with frames of Timber. as annoyance for the present. with which. The great Borough: Saint Margets. they follow it sometimes to the depth of fortie or fiftie fathome. which betoken the Vales where the works are set on foote. the vtter part of yron. In most places. and many surnamed Balls. either by the day. by means of certaine firings that may hap to crosse it. they begin at another place neere-hand. In these passages. as a good workman shall hardly be able to hew three foote. that the Inhabitants of Veleriumm Promontorie. or downe-right: both waies the deeper they sincke. either sidelong. the middle of Timber. Their Kalender also alloweth them more Holy-dayes. so farre as the ayre will yeeld them breathing. about sixteene inches long. they haue the foremencioned Axes. as their deseruing can driue the bargaine: at both which rates they must find themselues.partners consist either of such Tinners as worke to their owne behoofe. but are succeeded by spels: the residue of the time. They haue also a broad Shouell. sharpned at the one end to pecke. they meete sometimes with verie loose earth. to driue certaine little yron Wedges. wherewith they cleaue the Rockes. the Tynners digge a conuenient depth. by two men who wind the rope. they make speedie way. If the worke carrie some importance. or their owne profit. sometimes with exceeding hard Rockes. Their ordinarie tooles. they weare out at Coytes. our lawes. that hath his name. The worke of the Ditches: Pulstean. and flat-headed at the other. or like idle exercises. though not with so much daunger in the consequence. being betweene foure and sixe pound.5.8. or of such aduenturers as put in hired labourers. If the Load lie slope-wise. Diod. The myrie head: Crueg braaz. and yet (not seldome) are so tied by the teeth. as they go.Sic. they sinke a Shaft downe thither from the top. or chance to leefe the Load which they wrought. While they thus play the Moldwarps. and sometimes with great streames of water. [11] The Captaines office bindeth him to sort ech workman his taske. into which the staffe is slopewise fastned. The hirelings stand at a certaine wages. that is.

by compassings and turnings. vntil his labour take end with his taske. flat. If the stones be ouer-moyst. thereby to giue it passage away. he setteth the same aside.For conueying away the water. they either fetch athwart the whole Load. at euery discent lyeth a greene turfe. After it is thus washed. to shunne such hils & vallies as let them. or Audit. broad. Opera & impensa periit. and interchangeably filling. and in some places sixe great logges of timber. For supplying such hard seruices. and carrie the same thorow the ground to the Tynworke. and emptying two Buckets. or on horses backs. The streame. . as the next valley ministreth fittest opportunitie. driuen with the water. turned also with a water-wheele. and lifted vp and downe by a wheele. that through this stirring. From the stamping mill. when all is done. either in waynes. Wheeles. bound at the ends with yron. and then carryed. where three. or right from the braunch where they worke. they are dried by the fire in an yron cradle or grate. and they may sing with Augustus bird. costly in charge. driuen by a streame. as their (otherwise) thicke clouded braines. Surely the practice is cunning in deuice. it passeth to the crazing mil. for soonest cutting into the Hil: and therfore a Gentleman of good knowledges. and in some all this will not serue the turne. when they begin to trench without. bruseth the same to a fine sand: howbeit. doe breake it smaller. may wash away the light earth from the Tinne. which of a heauier substance lyeth fast on the turfe. three or foure foote square. which confirmeth my former assertion of the seas intrusion. by their two much height or lownesse. On this the Tinner layeth a certayne portion of the sandie Tinne. and with his shouell softly tosseth the same to and fro. is made to fall by certayne degrees one somwhat distant from another. they pray in aide of sundry deuices. and dig them vp: they are full of rootes of trees. many times the Load falleth away. This Addit. Michaels Mount. and one foote thick. The best of those turfes (for all sorts serue not) are fetched about two miles to the Eastwards of S. with many such like: all which notwithstanding. without ceasing. for and in so small quantitie. and some-where horses also at worke both day & night. If you did see how aptly they cast the ground. digged vp with so great toyle. and on some of them nuts haue beene found. they haue alwaies fresh men at hand. of late times they mostly vse wet stampers. where at a low water they cast aside the sand. [12] They cal it the bringing of an Addit. you would wonder how so great skill could couch in so base a Cabbin. that the Tynne. as Addits. Hauing so cleansed one portion. but only for the crust of their tayles. they put the remnant into a wooden dish. vpon each of which. the Springs so incroche vpon these inuentions. which betweene two grinding stones. somewhat deeper then the water doth lie. should be any way able to acquite the cost: for being once brought aboue ground in the stone. it is first broken in peeces with hammers. after it hath forsaken the mill. the water which runneth ouer it. & so haue no need of the crazing mils. and passing afterwards thorow the managing of so many hands. deduceth this name of Addit. as in sundrie places they are driuen to keepe men. to a stamping mill. and beginneth with another. for conueying the water. Ab aditu ad aquas. Pumps &. ere it come to sale. As much almost dooth it exceede credite. for their best stuffe. and long in effecting: and yet.

since their owne will doth bring them thither. framing. burning the houses. A strange practise (certes) for thrifts sake. either whence a sufficient gaine should arise to counteruaile so manifold expences. This casualtie may bee worth the owner some ten pound by the yeere. Sir Francis Godolphin. with a gainefull ouerplus. hath practised a more sauing way in these matters. as they sit ouer it. before he can bring his Owre to this last mill: whereto if you adde his care and cost. doe cause certaine boyes to stir it vp and downe with their [13] feete. together with the blowers two or three Moneths extreame and increasing labour. In Seuerall. or in commons. it is lawfull for any man to make triall of his fortune that way. or that any gaine could traine men to vndertake such paines and perill. I haue alreadie told you. to set our house on fire. who. I know not whether you would more maruaile. The last remooue. or set it out at a farme certaine. as payeth for the new building. that is. at which time the owners marke is set thereupon. by which they softly shogge the same to and fro in the water betweene their legges. in fetching the same. being about two foote ouer. For which cause the owners doe once in seuen or eight yeeres. is to the place of Coynage. may worke it wholly himselfe. prouided. foule. when any Myne is found. by sharing out vnto him a certaine . and taking light from his experience. Then doth each man carrie his portion to the blowing house. where the same is melted with Char-coale fire. or better. which is proportionably diuided to euerie of the aduenturers. or in wastrell. But there let vs leaue them. and lighter labour. when the Lords part hath beene first deducted vpon the whole. be flitted away. they call blacke Tynne. how great charge the Tynner vndergoeth. and lastly their ugly countenances. made Tynne with good profit. and so saue the burning. lie either in seuerall. and besides. when it is coaled through such farre. without leaue first obtained from the Lord of the soile. or associate partners. casting away the worke. and so cast into peeces of a long and thicke squarenesse. (whose kind helpe hath much aduanced this my playing labour) entertained a Duch mynerall man. in buying the wood for this seruice. In Wastrell. therein to harbour these sparkles. which I shall touch hereafter. Their workes. to take a view of the orders and customes most generally vsed among the Tynners. in felling. and piling it to bee burned. with a sleighter inuention. diuers light sparkles thereof are by the forcible wind. and cumbersome wayes. or leaue it vn wrought at his pleasure. We will now proceede. burne those houses. but building thereon farre more profitable conclusions of his owne inuention. if his Mil haue store of sutors. in enclosed grounds. vntill whatsoeuer of the earthie substance that was yet left. driuen vp to the thatched roofe. Some of later time. danger of skalding their bodies. sweltring heate. both Streame and Load. and hauing two handles fastened at the sides. which worketh the same effect: the residue after this often cleansing.and round. of that refuse which the Tynners reiected as nothing worth. and find so much of this light Tynne in the ashes. which the bellows sendeth forth. blowne by a great paire of Bellowes. During the Tinnes thus melting in the blowing house. Others doe frame the Tunnels of the Chimnies verie large and slope. But sithence I gathered stickes to the building of this poore nest. from three hundred to foure hundred pound waight. that hee acknowledge the Lordes right. mooved with a water-wheele. no man can search for Tynne. tanned with smoake and besmeared with sweate: all these things (I say) being duly considered. to the blowing house.

the other side. In the end. otherwise hee loseth this priuiledge. at the foure corners of his limited proportion. Porters. These bounds he is bound to renew once euerie yeere. cannot be blowen and brought thither. before they can iumpe to an agreement. are Helston. with the present scarcitie and charges of getting and working Tynne. a pottel. and [15] delaying. after much bidding. Viz. and receiue to manage weigh it. encounters his reasons. there are. that is. stoppeth his eares against these charmes. and louing. at like hand with the aduenturers. and there first peized. as also in most places to bestow some time in working the Myne. But about the price there groweth much adoe. commonly that Marchant who hath most money to bestow. and proportionably diuide the gaine and charges. The Lord of the soyle is most-where allowed libertie to place one workman in euerie fifteene for himself. The times of Coynage come twise in the yeere. and may passe by word or Will. Lostwithiel. Iniquum petit. and the like (if he list) on the sides. The worke thus found and bounded. Peizers to to keepe the accompt. and Liskerd. about Midsummer and Michaelmas: but because it falleth out verie often that the Tynne which is wrought. Credo en Dios. that the Law-makers rather respected their owne benefit. tribute or satisfaction. doe make the price. the Tynne. and not before. &c. and then. what danger of Pirates at Sea. which with the other incident fees being satisfied. are brought into a great roome ordained for that purpose. The owner. They measure their blacke Tynne. The Wastrel workes are reckoned amongst chattels. Truro. Each thousand must answere fortie shillings to the Queene. against the limited dayes. inclosed. and after. e're it come from the blowing-house. the Toplisse. To the hard (lesse worth by fiftie shillings in the thousand than the soft) the letter H. diggeth vp three Turfes. and so keeping vp the price. are. on. which inable them to digge for Tynne in any mans ground. or vnclosed. if hee be so disposed. the Dish and the Foote.part. The Marchant vnfoldeth his packe of strange newes. which they call toll: a custome fauouring more of [14] indifferencie. how much of the fore-bought Tynne lieth on their hands. at which rate the Marchant is bound to yeeld present payment . telling what great likelyhood there is of warres. the true touch of all lawes. marked with their Maiesties stampe. the first discouerer aymeth how farre it is likely to extend. For the maner of Coynage: the Blockes or peeces of Tynne. The officers deputed. which containeth a pint. proued whether they be soft Tynne or hard. varying. to beare a Steward. ut aequum ferat. and within that compasse. Townes specially priuiledged for the Coynages. a gallon. Comptroller. answeres his newes with the Spaniards. without licence. then the Tynners constitutions in Deuon. euerie of a fee out this Coynage. it is lawfull for the owner to alienate and distract the same. then tasted. which they terme Post-coynages. then. and that owner who hath most Tynne to sell. looke how many men doe labour therein. which either he brought with him from London (where most of them dwell) or forged by the way. then equitie. in fauour of the Tynners. and towards two gallons. betweene the Marchants and the owners. certaine later times assigned. so many Doales or shares they make thereof. When a Myne is found in any such place. by the Gill. euery other man is restrained from searching. is added. Wherethrough it appeareth. Maiestie. and Receiuer which haue entertainement from her of the coyned Tynne. which they terme Bounding.

and venturing the same. this in truth can bee none other. Saith the Tynner. This they say is no Vsurie. after the price agreed vpon at the Coinages. answering he hath none to spare: in the end. will not faile to be at least twentie three. this owner becomes a pettie chapman: I will serue thee. to borrow some: but they shall as soone wrest the Clubbe out of Hercules fist. at the time of Coynage or deliuerance. When any Western Gent. And yet how bad soeuer this fashion may justly bee accompted. and affected commodities. At which time the price of euerie thousand. to lay open the hard dealing of their Tynne Marchants in this trade. wanteth money to defray his expences at London. Suddenly herein.for so much Tynne as shall be brought him. and of assurance to be serued with Tyn for his money. they are naught all. In this sort. because the price of Tynne is not certainely knowne beforehand: (for once onely within these twelue yeeres. find somwhat friendly vsage in Vsance. saith he: hee deliuers him so much ware as shall . partly to the owners not venting. & such like stuffe for my wife and children. To these hungrie flies. The Tynne so sold. the party must be driuen (with some indignitie) to make three or foure errands to his house. Others notwithstanding are not bound to buy or sell at this price. hosen. of necessitie. wherein yet some haue obserued. then cutthroate and abominable dealing. sometimes higher. and carried price betweene twentie and thirtie pound the thousand. vnlesse they giue bond for euerie twentie pound so taken in lone. that some vpon by-respects. or person of accompt. and sometimes lower. but euerie man left at libertie. I will not condemne all such as vse this trade. Here I must either craue or take leaue of the Londoners. as [16] the money shal amount vnto. and vendible a marchandize. layeth out diuers summes beforehand. and after promise made. I will buy bread and meate for my selfe and my houshold. hath vsually amounted heretofore to the worth of thirtie or fortie thousand pound in money. that hee may stand assured to haue Tynne for his money. and. as one penie out of their fingers. what hee will do with the money. or at farthest within half a yeere after. vnto certaine Cornishmen. desiring some money before the time of his pay at the deliuerance: the other puts him off at first. he resorteth to one of the Tynne Marchants of his acquaintance. reaping thereby a double commoditie. to make his best market. prehaps twentie five pound: yea. of set purpose to escape the penaltie of the Law. to deliuer a thousand pound waight of Tyn at the next Coynage. when the poore man is driuen through necessitie to renew his suite. or otherwise of knowne sufficiencie. forsooth. who are bound to deliuer for the same. owners of Tynworkes. and they impute it partly to the Easterne buyers packing. besides his trade of lone abouementioned. neither yet acquite those who make greatest pretence of zeale in Religion: and it may be. with other lesse beneficiall. must bargaine for tenne thousand at the least. both of excessiue gaine for his lone. whatsoeuer name you list to giue it. or the dead sale and scarcitie. certaine of the same Countrymen do passe farre beyond it. some one Marchant will haue 5. peticoates. that for the most part. which shal be within two or three months. and shooes. they brought it a little vnder twentie pound the thousand:) but if to take aboue fiftie in the hundred be extremitie. according to the quicke vent and aboundance. riseth not to a proportionable enhauncement. at some of their hands: but the common voice saith. that this so profitable. ere hee shall get the money deliuered. as thus: The Marchant. hundred pound out beforehand. he fals to questioning. the poore labouring Tynner resorteth. so many thousands of Tynne.

Now the wealthier sort of Tynners. you shall find it grow to the highest degree of extremitie. or the greatnesse of the price do fall. and that onely for some small time. which often ill succeeding adventurers. for which the poore wretch is bound in Darbyes bonds. to deliuer him two hundred waight of Tynne at the next Coynage. and depend only upon his labour and gaynes. And as mischiefe still creepes onward. A foote of blacke Tynne (as is before said) containeth in measure two gallons. 52. whereas husbandrie yeeldeth that certayne gaine in a mediocritie. made at the Coynage for the thousand. By which proportion. then those which want this dammageable commoditie: and that as by abandoning this trade. in which he cuts him halfe in halfe for the price. Likewise will hee pay for the meaner blacke Tynne (of which about fortie foote will make a thousand) three pence the marke. (which is counted the best sort) will way about foure-score pound. then performe in a larger measure. though subtill and darke. is worth aboue fiue pence the marke. they amend. But whether it proceedeth from this hard dealing. Let vs now examine what course of Iustice is held for deciding such controuersies as befall in Tinne causes. about thirtie will make a thousand) fortie times foure pence: viz. and . and partly according to the hard conscience of the one. which amounteth to twentie pound the thousand: whereas that foote at the price. or foure pence. I will open as plainely as I can. thirteene shillings and foure pence. first out of the loue of the English inhabitants. & such ouer-deare bought Tynne daylie impaire. which may then bee worth fiue pound or foure at the verie least. or from both these together. laying out part of their money beforehand. looke how many markes there are in the price. which is ten shillings the foote. Whereto adding. and necessitie of the other. Of the Myne Tynne (which is meaner) fiftie two pound: of the worst fiftie pound. Two pound of good blacke Tynne. shal he haue for the foote: as if the price be twentie sixe pound. this extreme dealing of the London Marchant and Countrie chapman. fortie: of the middle. After such time as the Iewes by their extreame dealing had worne themselues. that they lay out beforehand but a portion of the money due. they decay againe. which Tynneworkes rather promise. and so shall he haue also after twentie pound for the thousand: for the worse they giue lesse. three pence. and with what priuileges they are endowed and encouraged. and four nobles in money. of the meanest. for euerie foote of his best blacke Tynne (of which as was said. will yeeld one of white: twentle eight or thirtie foote of the best. once it hath beene duly obserued. that the parrishes where Tynne is wrought. partly after the goodnesse. rateably. so many two pence halfepenie. therein are fortie markes: then shall the poore Tynner receiue of him who dealeth most friendly. their gaine of a fourth part at least riseth alwaies certainly. buy this black Tynne of the poore labourers. rest in a meaner plight of wealth. being melted. or for that the Tynners whole familie giue themselues [17] to a lazie kind of life. thirteene shillings & foure pence the thousand. the waight vncertainely followeth the goodnesse. by laying out their money after thus much the marke: which trade. how vncertaine so euer the goodnesse of the Tynne. a thousand. in white Tynne is imitated (or rather exceeded) by the wealthier sort of Tynners themselues in the blacke. after so much the marke: that is.amount to fortie shillings. so by reuiuing the same. A foote of good Moore-tyn.

that certaine Gentlemen. were called before some of the principal Lords of her Maiesties Council. confirmed and inlarged by Parliament. and. and kept. there was allotted vnto them the toll-Tynne within those Tithings. it hapned. the place accustomed. called an assembly of Tynners at Lostwithiel. to their best behoofe. and so taketh hearing of causes. Nisi (saith he) nos ipsi emere voluerimus. but they also proued of void effect. alleadging many reasons how it might proue beneficiall both to her Highnesse and the Countrie. both of a Iudge for Law. and sixteene shillings alreadie payable) as also that her Highnesse would disburse foure thousand pound in lone to the Tynners. in the beginning of Nouember 1600. sonne to Richard. who practised a farre [18] worse kind of preemption. sought to make vse of this preemption. for a yeres space. grewe desirous to renew this benefit: and so vpon suit made to Edmond. In the end it grew to a conclusion. granteth them liberty of selling their Tynne. & Queene Marie. (as I have beene enformed) but either crossed in the prosecution. Last of all. which were againe expounded. life. the Lords of these Tithings. who auouched himselfe an eye-witnesse of that Charter. I have learned. coyned. that should bee transported (ouer and aboue the former fortie shillings. King Edward the firsts Charter. gaue it ouer againe. and Articles were drawne and signed. Earle of Cornwal. By the foreremembred ancient Charters. signified her Maiesties pleasure both for a new imposition of six pound on euerie thousand. the Tynners obtained a Charter from king Iohn. and there peized. and lastly strengthened by Henrie the seuenth. and at Michaelmas terme 1599. or defeated in their expectation. the said Lord Warden. and. they obtayned from him a Charter. . were. the sayd Lords accorded to pay the Earle a halfpeny for euery pound of Tynne which should be wrought. a Gentleman of good qualitie. This for a while was hotely onsetted and a reasonable price offered. who had set this suite on foote. Vpon which ground certaine persons in the Reignes of K. and certaine others deputed for the Marchants.afterwards out of the land it selfe. and the matter there debated. within those Tithings. and learning. with sundrie Priuileges: amongst which. Edward 6. king of the Romans. there is assigned a warden of the Stanneries. in the fiftieth yeere of Edward the third. by the Lord Warden. lymme. and in regard of their labour. Yet afterwards it receiued a second life. that in former time. which vaine successe could not yet discourage some others of later times from the like attempt. authorised to manage all Stannerie causes. the Cornishmen. Againe. and of a Chancellour for conscience. and that for better answering this taxe. and afterwards another from king Edward the first. impanelled a Iurie of twentie foure Tynners. and land excepted: in consideration whereof. then in London. and hold plea of all actions. it was graunted them to keepe a Court. for their parts. in behalfe of the Countrie. which their successours doe yet enioy. and well experienced in these mynerall causes. and bee repayed in Tynne at a certaine rate. and so left the mines vnwrought. Howbeit. This Charter was to be kept in one of the Church steeples. for that intent. whose grounds were best stored with this Minerall. to hold parliaments at their discretion. but (upon what ground I know not) soone cooled againe. This I receiued by report of the late master William Carnsew. being Lords of seuen tithings in Blackmoore. the sayd Tynne should bee brought to certayne places purposely appointed. and preiudiciall to none saue onely the Marchants. the Seale had a Pick-axe and Shouell in saultier grauen therein. as hath beene before expressed. discretion. though now it bee not extant. who supplieth the place. vntill the Earles due were satisfied.

and so to close the best Lawyers mouth with this one speech. rather for seruing a turne. I can in these Tynne cases. And lastly. and warning to the residue. plead but a hearesay experience. so many more iudicious and substantiall persons now and then to swarue from the same. that the witnesses haue not sticked now and then to fatten their euidence. that all poore Tynne Iurours and witnesies. that when they are sworne. He that will spare credit to the common report. Their maner of triall consisteth in the verdict giuen by a Iurie of sixe Tynners. to be his Vice-Warden. Wardens haue now & then made the pillory punishment of some. as the Romans did their Ex animi mei sententia. The women and children in the West part of Cornwall. may appeale to him. Next to the liuelesse things. In matters of important consequence. which consist of sixe out of euery quarter. because these sixe mens iuries fall not within compasse of the Star-chambers censure. who keepeth his Court once in euery three weekes. and then a feeling. are carried by sea to London and other parts . according to which the Steward pronounceth iudgement. vseth to impannell a Iury of foure and twenty principall Tynners. or his Vnderwarden. shall conceiue an ill opinion touching the slippings of both witnesses and iurours sometimes in these Courts: For it is sayd. To each of these is assigned by the L. which in euery place (welneere) differ one from another. as from him (a case of rare experience) to the Lords of the Councill. or de iure & aequo. my conscience. when we see in the open light of our public assises. Hee substituteth some Gentleman in the Shire of good calling and discretion. which for their warme and well wearing. Tiwarnaill and Penwith. to auerre what they list. For mine owne part. doe vse to make Mats of a small and fine kinde of bents there growing. and from their Honours to her Maiesties person: other appeale or remoouing to the common law they gaynsay. is a party. and hold plea of whatsoeuer action of debt or trespasse. example. should in such a remote corner alwayes conforme themselues to the precise rule of vprightnesse. especially. in controuersies growne betweene strangers and some of the same parts. and yet the L. and not to be expected. Warden. yeeldeth them in a maner an vnlimited [19] scope. and Blacke moore: the other. in English Tynne. They are termed Stannery Courts of the Latine word Stannum. whereto any one dealing with blacke or white Tynne. that as there is no smoke without a fire. so commonly the smoke is far greater then the fire.either in Forma iuris. then for manifesting a truth. and that the Iurours verdict hath fauoured more of affection then of reason. either as plaintife or defendant. Foy moore. appertayning to the whole Stannery. that the varietie of customes. which is suspected to imply a conceyted enlargement of their othe: Another. and whose acts doe bind the residue. they vse to adde this word. The Tynners of the whole shire are diuided into foure quarters. that they presume upon a kind of impunity. The Gayle for Stannery causes is kept at Lostwithiel. a Steward. Strange it were. complainant or defendant. Warden. two called Moores. a spectacle. of the places where the Tynne is wrought. and that office is annexed to the Comptrolership. from whom either partie. the L. and therefore will onely inferre. Our custome Is contrary. returnable by the Maiors of the foure Stannery townes. viz. And such fault-finders vouch diuers causes of this partialitie: One. follow those which pertake a growing life.

These bents grow in sandy fields. they cut vp all the grasse of that ground. Labour brought plentie. and cheapnesse sought a vent beyond the seas. In times past. The like may bee sayd of rootes. whosoeuer looketh into the endeauour which the Cornish husbandman is driuen to vse about his Tillage. and stored them with theyr owne cattell. but the outside can better brooke the change of weather. of greater or lesser quantitie. A little before plowing time. some by procuring licence. is accepted for a great restoratiue. this double necessitie draue them to play the good husbands. by the Ploughes turning downe. and abilitie of the Tiller. For first. which must newly be broken. and of such the borderers on the Sea. which they call Beating. Seeding and Sanding. that the Corne hath much adoe to fatten his roote. the Husbandman pileth them in little heapes. and sallets for the table. in some so tough. (and in a maner wholly) to the seeking of Tynne. the ground would become ouer-rancke. Maiorum. the time tedious. that the Oxen can hardly take sure footing. 60. and to prouide corne of their owne. ordinarily . and neglected husbandry: so as the neighbours of Deuon and Sommerset shires. that the Plough will scarcely cut them. they scatter abroad those Beat-boroughs. which afterwards. Sage. hired their pastures at a rent. Rosemary. then is found in any other County of this Realme. or by canding. Some of the gaully grounds doe also yeeld plenty of Rosa solis. and are knit from ouer the head in narrow bredths after a strange fashion. Of herbes and rootes for the pot and medicine. who were likewise supplyed weekely at their markets from those places. The Inland soyle requireth not so large a proportion. An ordinarie Horse wil carrie two sackes of Sand. The inside turned outwards drieth more speedily. As for tillage. Burning. and the expences verie chargeable. Pelamountayne. and in some places. at least. saue that (I suppose) Cornewall naturally bringeth forth greater store of Seaholm and Sampire. it came farre short of feeding the Inhabitants mouthes.of the Realme. Moreouer natures liberall hand decketh many of the sea cliffes with wilde Hissop. shall find the trauell paineful. These Turfes they raise vp somewhat in the midst. and the people to increase. and choke the Corne with weeds. The Seaholme roote preserueth eyther in sirrup. and serue to couer floores and wals. into Turfes. doe bestow. which somewhere also receiueth an increase by the sowing and planting of such as are brought thither from beyond the seas. to reape no little wealth by the same. partly after their neerenesse to the places. from which it is fetched. and partly by the good husbandrie. giue heate to the roote of the Corne. with many hundred quarters of corne and horseloades of bread. and such like well-fauouring herbes. had not the Imbargo with Spaine (whither most was transported) foreclosed this trade. After they haue beene throughly dried. But when the Tynneworkes began to fayle. the Cornish people gaue themselues principally. & small Sand heaps vpon the ground. Cornwall was likely in few yeeres. plentie cheapnesse. And yet. but most Husbands double that number. in euerie Acre. that the Wind and Sunne may the sooner drie them. and in some so shelfie. they sow it almost as thinne as their Corne: for if they should strow the same verie thicke. Cornishmen enioy a like portion in proportion with other Shires. Then doe they bring in Sea sand. about May. The charges of this Beating. and more by stealth (if at least the common brute doe not wrong them with a slaunder) [20] so as. and so burneth them to ashes. The tillable fields are in some places so hilly.

as that one of Tillage. [21] that dearth of corne in Cornwall (for with other Shires I will not vndertake to meddle) so it go not accompanied with a scarcitie. who were better to buy deare bread. for the reasons ensuing: There are no two trades. the poore found happie benefit. contented with a meaner earth. many of them conceiuing like delight to grasse and plant. that these must haue made many hungrie meales. Chessenuts. whereas otherwise. and the pleasant taste of their Grapes. & leaueth them in necessity. the Gentlemen step not farre behind those of other parts. within eight or nine weekes from the time that they sowed it. if through hope of vent. doe seeme to graunt. I answere with this observation: When the price of corne falleth. Mulberies. then was in the whole Shire before: and of this. and then is driuen to giue it at least seuen or eight yeres leyre. Of Wheat there are two sorts. at all times of the yeere. the Tiller can commonly take but two crops of wheate. and the labourers also fed. With the readie money. so termed. and two of Oates. and those out-right haue starued. The Husbandman finding profit herein. recompencing the same with a profitable plentie: and Notwheate. hath also amended the Cornish drinke. may easily bee left at home: and of this. who feare least the transporting of much away. being but a part of his meate. I haue beene alwayes prone to maintaine a Paradox. for they were principally relieued. This increase of Barley tillage. and I am induced thus to thinke. that hath not seene the experience ? For Fruites. which (to the il relishing of strangers) in former times they made onely of Oates. soone emptieth their old store. In the Westerne-most parts of Cornwall. he setteth the Artificer on worke. though the meaner sort come short. so as now they till a larger quantitie in one Hundred. as Whurts. and breake no more ground. wherethrough it falleth out. will leaue too little at home. which therethrough afterwardes become also good for pasture. is no way preiudiciall to the good of the Countrie. by raising the price of his ware. they carrie their Barley to the Mill. Their obiection. gotten by his weekely selling of corne. Cherries. then will seme to supplie their owne turne: the rest. and the soyle yeelding it selfe as ready to receyue and foster. which is bearded. and requireth the best soyle. as Peares. Plums. because it is vnbearded. Rye is employed onely on those worst grounds. and longing to the Orchard. Whereas on the other side. and which he counteruaileth againe. to seeke new reliefe from other places. Peareplummes. they hold on their larger tillage. Strawberies. then to sit idly. Barley is growne into great vse of late yeeres. the scarcitie of Wheate fel out so great. I haue not . and to make his breach elsewhere. such an hastie ripening do the bordering Seas afford. men generally giue ouer surplus Tillage. to fetch in another. is encouraged to bestow paines and charges. that an ill kerned or saued Haruest. knocking his heeles against the wall. and Raspies.amounteth to no lesse then twentie shillings for euerie Acre: which done. what Cornishman is there. French. by conuerting that graine into Mault. the fitnesse of some grounds standing vpon lyme stones. and contenting with a suteable gaine. they imploy in grazing. which will beare no Wheate. in the deare seasons past. which the neerenesse to the South. Yet one speciall priuiledge. and Walnuts. both wild. which vpon such occasions. by the bread made thereof. for enclosing and dressing of waste grounds. which set so many hands on worke. this retaineth one yeeres prouision vnder-hand. the wel growing of Vines.

a brood very hurtfull for deuouring of meat. Cornish houses are most pestred with Rats. for blowing of Tynne. a merry Cornish Gentleman tryed that old fable to be no fable. which sheweth the dangerous entertayning of such a ghest. This mention of Snakes. and alike cumbersome through their crying and ratling. and that is. Touching venimous Wormes. This lacke they supply. with a stumpe. and broken out his teeth (wherein consisteth his venome) used to carrie him about in his bosome. howsing. The East quarters of the Shire are not destitute of Copswoods. by their breathing about a hazell wand. and shall heereafter rue more at leisure: Shipping. in which there appeareth the yellow figure of a Snake. as in other places. that by the time hee had knocked this foule player on the head. to set him to his mouth. either nature hath denyed that commodity. haue bred this consumption: neither doth any man (welnere) seek to repayre so apparant and important a decay. Cornwall can plead no such Charter of natures exemption. doe complayne . the making of Wines: the triall would require little cost. their vaine dread proued safer then his foole-hardinesse: for as he once walked alone. to serue the Tynners turne. & was come to his place of abode. As for the statute Standles. & force of the weather doe so pare and gall them. that they can [22] passe vnder no better title then scar-crowes. are principally imployed to coaling. as Ireland. being giuen to drink of the water wherein this stone hath bene socked. the breach of the sea. clothes. doe make a stone ring of blew colour. that the Snakes. how not long since.hitherto knowne by any to bee put in practise. to make him licke his spittle. the better growne French. & when he came among Gentlewomen. his mouth was scarce able to contayne it. of which the shrubby sort is called tame. The countrey people retaine a conceite. or want of good husbandry lost it. Timber hath in Cornwall. nor they of (almost) an intolerable price: but in most of the West. which the Inhabitants begin now. There was such a one bestowed on me. or by dried Turfes. at their first comming into the West parts. bit him fast by the tongue. and by gestures to craue ayd in earnest of the Gentlewomen. and writings by day. For fewell. which therewith began so to rankle and swell. Among creatures of a breathing life. I will only note such as minister some particular cause of remembrance. some of which are also conuerted into coale. Fayne was he therefore to shew his mishap. to put them in feare: but in the end. whom hee had aforetime often scared in sport. and vessell. would cast him out suddenly. either by Stone cole. Strangers. & that beasts which are stung. or not fully pulled out. For he hauing gotten one of that kind. the Snake in good earnest. while they daunce their gallop gallyards in the roofe at night. will therethrough recouer. commonly called Hawketrees. good quantitie of Broome. fetched out of Wales. called to my remembrance. and the giuer auowed to haue seene a part of the stick sticking in it: but Penes authorem sit sides. taken an vniuersall downefall. and (perhaps) requite it with great aduantage. & in some. Their few parcels yet preserued. either newly growne vp. Of all maner vermine. and was kissing this gentle playfellow. there groweth generally in all parts great store of furze.

so daungerous for accesse. and so full of windings. shortly after followed the like practise. or necessary vses. sword. and the other discontented with the effect. not forgetting yet. though one in kind. Cary bullock. to wit. so many in number. or the good-wiues pultrie. and would yeeld him good profit. Hares. force. the Captaine hunters. that those belonging to the Duke. and Otters. as Princes examples are euer taken for warrantable precedents to the subiect: so most of the Cornish Gentlemen preferring gaine to delight. that the trauailers who passe the Equinoctiall. The other beastes which Cornwall breedeth. and besturreth the vtmost of his nimble stumps to quite his coate from their iawes. Badgers. and trade not so farre downe. there are here and there some few little Warrens. Howbeit. Sir Ionathan Trelawneys: newly reuiued. But king Henrie the eight being perswaded (as it is said) by Sir Richard Pollard. Rouses. So foure of them tooke a fall together. did condiscend to their disparking. to all that his aduersaries can by siedge. who being lesse stored with prouision. Cornwall was stored not long since with many Parkes of fallow Deere. to make an honourable retraict. where he possesseth holds. as he find himselfe ouermatched. and the Kings expectation: wherethrough the one was shent for the attempt. his borne enemies. and if hee be so met. assault. in lieu of shot.this good husbandrie came short of the deuisers promise. he then gives the Fico. and vpon their returne recouer them againe. with his face still turned towardes the enemie: by which meanes. and so with Har and Tue pursue him to the death. and then manfully closing at hand-blowes. doe lay their souldier-like Hounds. to get the start of the way. could steed him with little pleasure in so remote a part. to steale out of sight. and feede on Sea-fish. Beastes of Venery persecuted for their case. as wee read. Parkes yet remaining. haue yet two seuerall places of haunt: some keepe the Cliffes. Of Conies. The Foxe planteth his dwelling in the steep cliffes by the sea side. Notwithstanding. Profitable for skinne and flesh. and to breake their fast upon the good-mans Lambs. It may proceed from some lurking naturall effect of the Climate. are Marternes. Poole. first sending the myre of his tayle against their eyes. Halton. if they were leased out at an improoued rent. he casteth and coasteth the countrie. He crosseth brookes. he abideth. Conies and Deere. that sometime when he marcheth abroad on forraying. make bold now and then to visite the land. he slippeth into couerts. others liue in the fresh ryuers. M. and there breede. or famine. hauing once recouered his fortresse. attempt against him. Foxes. to reuittaile his Male pardus. as in a maner it falleth out a matter impossible to disseyze him of this his ancient inheritance. with the sword of his teeth. and yet the cleanely home-borne finde no such annoyance. the whiles. lately impaled: and . to make them lose the sent. discouering his sallies by their Espyal. doe there lose this manlike hunting vermine. or meate. Restormel and Lanteglos. Then master Reignard ransacketh euery corner of his wily [23] skonce. are in East Hundred. Squirrels. The Otters.that they are visited with the slowe sixe-legged walkers. Liskerd. True it is. myne. or making gaine their delight. in ambush betweene him and home. scantly worth the remembring. serue either for Venerie. and made their Deere leape over the Pale to giue the bullockes place. or dammage feasance. and biddeth them battell.

and (after their growth and strength) able inough for continuance: which sort proue most seruiceable for a rough and hilly Countrie. In Powder Hundred. Beastes seruing for meate onely. fault) retaine long this their naturall goodnesse. tempteth the Marchants (I doubt me. As for their number. and Peeces. and yeeldeth nourishment in greater aboundance. to the beastes that pasture thereupon: So as. seeme to haue put on a part of the others nature. lay waste and open. which boweth downe. Viruans: and Merther. Trela warren. least too soone they grow wearie of well-doing) Cornish Sheepe come but little behind the Easterne flockes. quicke in trauell. The Deuon and Somersetshire grasiers. In West Hundred. draught. by this meanes (and let not the owners commendable industrie. and pleasure. afford so course entertainment. or Pigs. and weakneth their backes. as that of the horned more in quantitie: yet. Goates.Treuamons. Whitfull. Caryhayes. and vtter them at home. they are faine to deliuer vp their carcases for a pledge. which marreth their pace. almost decayed. it may summe the totall to a iolly rate. they vse them to carrie sackes of Sand. vttereth no smal quantitie for the reuitailing of weather-driuen shippes. M. Chamonds. beyond their power of resistaunce) now and then to steale a transportation. and goodnesse. while euerie dweller hath some. and riding. attendance. The Cornish horses. Each Oxe hath his seuerall name. where they are hunted and killed with Crossebowes. through want of good manurance. For meate. in some places of the Countie there are that carrie foure hornes. and plowing. Most of the Cornish sheepe haue no hornes. Leather or Tallow. But since the grounds began to receiue enclosure and dressing for Tillage. the oportunitie of so many Hauens. Sheepe. For after two yeeres age. low of stature. and freedome from rottennesse and such other contagions. without paying custome. feede yeerely great droues of Cattell in the North quarter of Cornwall. and the next Summer they are imployed in harrowing. Beefe. In Stratton Launcels. and course fleeces. in the maner of Deere. if not exceede them in sweetnesse of taste. In Kerier Hundred. vpon which the driuers call aloud. the nature of the soyle hath altered to a better graine. Some Gentlemen suffer their beastes to runne wilde. beyond the rate of other places: and yet. Sir Reginald Mohuns. Coringtons. What time the Shire. coursely fed. and warinesse. Reskymers. though none keepe many. finenesse of Wooll often breeding. to answer their trespasses. Boconnock. and in my conceyte equall. Oxen: for carriage. and price of sale. which notwithstanding. and Rother cattell. commonly are hardly bred. M. and by their fiercenesse. so as their Wooll bare no better name. But verie few of them (through the owners. as in the Summer season raunge thither out of Deuon: to whome the Gentlemen bordering on their haunt. whose wool is finer in qualitie. beare not any extraordinarie price in this Countie. for bignes of mould. Red Deere. turne to their surcharging preiudice. that without better pleading their heeles. M. and for such hath (from all auncientie) beene transported. but onely receiueth such. the Sheepe had generally [24] little bodies. M. this Shire breedeth none. M. Dogs of sundrie sorts.Newton. both to direct and giue them courage as they are at worke. in their Woods and waste grounds. speedie fatting. Two meanes that so . and besides. then of Cornish hayre. horses: for gard.

serves for a wonder) who following his kind. But. Sparhawkes. they are almost come to nought: For since the Statute 12. Howbeit now. discourteous. as to knocke on the head. and for monsters indeed. or giue away this issue of his race. there would bee store sufficient. which enableth eueri man to seize vpon horses that pastured in Commons. and carrie great burdens. if they were vnder a certaine sise. it resteth. As for the Sparhawk. manning.quaile also their stomackes. Ginney duckes. reckoning themselues specially priuiledged to poll in their masters yeere. Quaile. their busie. that hereafter. Of wild. viz. for their Mill and market seruice. which will fare hardly. They arriue first on the North-coast. Hobbies. from France. as the moyst places which supplie them food. and abate their strength. Of Hawkes. Moyles. From whence. To which you may adde. Raile. Plouer. and sometimes despiteful stealing one from another of the Egges and young ones. accustomed to driue those waste grounds. the Inhabitants are most beholden to the Woodcockes. begat many monsters. some were so wise. so as nature denying a great harace. after Beastes. though the ayre bee the greatest place of their haunt by day. whether by his commandement. it hapned that one brought ouer an hee Asse. nusling. and hath also a pace swift. who seeke harbour on the earth at night. and betake themselves to Moyles: for that is a beast. because of the strangenesse of the beast (as euerie thing where it comes first. Ducks. Wood-doue. nature and necessitie guide their returne to the Northern wetter soyle againe. who. there are Marlions. who (when the season of the yeere affordeth) flocke to them in great aboundance. &c. and mewing them. they draw towards those in the South coast. dangerous. and easie enough. and somewhere Lannards. that they cannot discerne their folly herein. as the first rider findeth them ouer-broken to his hands. be trusted vnto. amongst all the rest. the Sherifes officers. looke what is abated from the vsuall number of Hacknies. watching. Of tame Birds. beginne to freeze vp. and euerie plashoote for Springles to take them. Partridge. curing. and such like. haue of late times. though shee serue to flie little aboue sixe weekes in the yeere. follow Birds. not the dammes Foale. yet both Cornish and Deuonshire men employ so much trauaile in seeking. liue verie long. yea. or sufferance. Amongst living things on the land. dieting. but the dames Trotters. This consideration [25] hath made me entertain a conceite. and to seize on those not voluntarie statute-breaking Tits. Fesant. Snyte. and that onely at the Partridge. Cornwall hath Doues. Barbarie hennes. where almost euerie hedge serveth for a Roade. Peacockes. the Countrie people admired them. to kill . Powte. as it must needes proceede from a greater folly. of Henry the eight. where the Faulkner and Spanels must also now and then spare her extraordinarie assistance. taking. should (with a gainefull recompence) be added to their goodnes: and hereof this quarter hath alreadie taken some experiment. that ordinarie Husbandmen should doe well to quit breeding of Horses. which are kept more open by the Summers neerer neighbourhood: and when the Summers heate (with the same effect from a contrarie cause) drieth vp those plashes. as vncouth mongrels. Heathcocke. For. bathing. By which meanes. and these carrying away the little. from naught. drawe indifferently well. not long sithence. yea. Geese. if they were allowed to aire naturally. China geese. carrying. and quietly.

they receiue a new resurrection. few. Goldfinches. It was taken at first. and with these they would cut an Apple in two. notice grew. occasion will be ministred vs to speake particularly in the next booke. Swallowes are found sitting in old deepe Tynne-workes. For he saith. to bee imployed about the water. by the relation of a Venetian Ambassadour. and the things incident thereunto: the water I seuer into fresh and salt. they haue Lynnets. employed in Poland. After hauing thus laid open euerie particular of the land. the warmth restoreth them to life and flight: this I haue seene confirmed also. there came a flocke of Birds into Cornwall. suting therethrough. during the Winter season. of a slymie substance. Not long sithence. as Summer weareth out. which yet are more in number. but the Shote in a maner peculiar to Deuon and Cornwall: in shape and colour he resembleth the Trowt: howbeit in bignesse and goodnesse. and much admired. who make holes in the Ice. Olaus Magnus maketh a farre stranger report. from whence at the next Spring. Of the Ryuers and Hauens which they make. and holes of the sea Cliffes: but touching their lurking places. Blacke-birds. but of Nightingals. that Glocester Shire. that the Fishermen. Shoats. and so after a sweete singing. at one snap. and swifter in course. that Crete fostereth not any Owles. and legge in legge. and heard auowed by trauaylers in those parts: Wherethrough I am induced to giue it a place of probabilitie in my mind. which made a foule spoyle of the Apples. of which more in their particular places. and diuers other. full of Rockes and stones. to vnite in a greater strength. whether through some naturall antipathie. of which kind are. or extended in largenesse. in bignesse not much exceeding a Sparrow. as resort thither for breathing. for a forboden token. fresh. Of singing Birds. nor Larius lacus in Italy Storkes) or rather for that the Country is generally [26] bare of couert and woods. commeth farre behind him. eating onely the kernels. and therefore it shall . (as seuerall persons assembling. and hee addeth for proofe hereof. Thrushes. euerie hill wel-neere sendeth forth plentifull. For they worke out their bed through an earth. but. profitable for moystning the ground. to dip vp such fish with their nets. soone after. nor Rhodes Eagles. Canarie birds. fall downe into certaine great lakes or pooles amongst the Canes. then deepe in bottome. Ruddockes. or none at all. cleare and pleasant springs. make a multitude) take aduantage of the falling grounds. Minowes. Eeles. which the Cornish English terme Angle-touches. His baites are flies and Tag-wormes. which they affect. but euen all the good-huswiues Chickens in a Countrie. wing to wing. In the West parts of Cornwall. and wholesome for mans vse. and of report in this treatise. betweene them and the soyle (as Plinie writeth. These springs. Their bils were thwarted crosse-wise at the end. & diuers by running through veines of Mettals. and other Apple Countries. that in the North parts of the world. naturall order leadeth my next labour. The rest are common to other Shires.not onely the Partridges. and Lampreys. supposed also medicinable for sundrie diseases. and that carrying them home to their Stoues. about Haruest season. I leaue to be discussed by others. congealed in clods. the nature onely of some speciall fishes. haue them an ouer-familiar harme. doe sometimes light on these Swallowes. they clap mouth to mouth. and beget Ryuers. Touching fresh Water.

Some haue also vsed to carry vp into their grounds the Ose or salt water mudde. and the drops thereof resemble sparckles of fire. an Act of Parliament was made 23.suffice to name the chiefest here in generall. which the Saylers terme Briny. which are on the South coast: Tamer. colours. & therewith dresse their grounds. in which a floud-gate is placed with two leaues: these the flowing tyde openeth. Of fresh water Ponds. though not equalling the sand. Falmouth. the waight of the ebbe closeth fast. Tauy. grated from the cliffes) and the Tillers. Lo. strength in bearing. Loo. some bigger. Liner. or wrought out by Art. and shouldreth the sea out of his ancient possession. and the Rode of Mounts bay. Helford. This sand is of diuers kindes. which no other force can doe: and so the imprisoned water payeth the ransome of dryuing an under-shoote wheele for his enlargement. as they need not any particular relation. of which more hereafter. the same casteth a bright shining colour. or at least. Halae. which is a weed either growing vpon the rockes vnder high water marke. as if the waues were turned into flames. and found good profit thereby. as it passeth mine abilitie to moderate the question: onely this I will note. with the onely charge of raysing an head. and Padstowe. some lesser. and after full sea. doe fetch it. To remedy this. some hard. if the sea-water bee slashed with a sticke or Oare. Yet this earth being through such meanes conuerted into sand. that none should labour in Tynneworks. the Inhabitants make vse of diuers his creekes. Cornwall is stored with verie few. that somewhat before a tempest. 8. or hath not taken his due execution. On the North. S. either cast out by nature. the effects are so well knowne to the vulgar. Fala. Foy. George before Loo. On the North. others by horses and waines. his waves worke vp to the shore a great part thereof (together with more of his owne store. H. and the rayne floods wash downe into the riuers. for griste-milles. little amendement appeareth thereby for the present. by thwarting a bancke from side to side. Hauens on the South coast there are. S. The goodnesse increaseth as it is taken farther out of the Sea. S. course in ebbing and flowing. Diuers of these are dayly much endammaged by the earth which the Tynners cast up in their working. and the Ilies of Scilley. Ilands. To this purpose also serueth Orewood. and the causes so controuersed amongst the learned. The colours are answerable to the next Cliffes. from whence it is discharged in the hauens. Plymmouth. Foy. some easie. S. or broken from the bottome of . Amongst other commodities affoorded by the sea. Seaton. some by Barges and Boats. for his saltnesse in taste. Michaels Mount. Camel. and lesse hope may be conceyued for the future. Loo. though the site of so many narrow vallies offereth [27] many. Nicholas in the mouth of Plymmouth. encrocheth vpon his depth. Ies. and goodnesse: the kinds. neere the Deuon and Cornish hauens: but whether it aymed not at the right cause. enricheth the husbandman equally with that of Pactolus: for after the sea hath seasoned it with his salt and fructifying moysture. But the Oceans plentifull beames darken the affecting of this pettie starlight: touching whose nature and properties.

Fisher-boates for the coast. by the common custome alloweth a moytie for his labour. of a kernell voyd of any taste. where they haunt. they haue Cock-boats for passengers. (for that terme is the genus to them all) namely. with what briefnes I can. Scipio and Lelius shall serue for my patrons. Some accustomed to burne it on heapes in pits at the cliffe side. Lighters for burthen. you shall vnderstand. but the noysome sauour hath cursed it out of the countrey. This Floteore is now and then found naturally formed like rufs. or else the next [28] change of wind will carry it away. of so diuersified and pretty workmanship. breeding in the one. what they are. with what engine taken. for the rest of the yeere. The Trowte and Peall come from the Sea. which is placed in the stickellest part of the streame (for there the fish chiefely seeketh passage) and kept abroad with certaine hoopes. so large a commoditie may not passe away in silence. and such like: as if the sea would equall vs in apparel. if at least. who helde it no shame to spend time in their gathering. If I become blame-worthy in speaking of such toyes. and Sammon. saue that they are flatter: the outside consisteth of a hard darke coloured rinde: the inner part. he that inioyeth the Admirals right. and passe vp into the fresh ryuers. and his mouth open to receiue the fish. I will therefore. were consectari minutias. They are refettest (that is fattest) at their first comming from the Sea.the sea by rough weather. Sayn-boats for taking of Pilcherd. The Sammons principal accesse. But to carie you from these trifles. and thereby bettereth in quantity and qualitie: the other must be taken when the first tyde bringeth it. when they come. and cast vpon the next shore by the wind and flood. But though I shunne tediousnesse herein. and passe vp as high as any water . as it resembleth the land for all sorts of liuing creatures. With these are found. to shed their spawne. while I play the fishmonger: and yet. hauing his smaller end fastened against the course of the water. by the Statute thirteene of Richard the second: but if they should bee allowed this priuiledge in Cornwall. and so conuerted the same to a kind of wood. that Cornewall is stored with many sorts of shipping. certaine Nuts. made like the Easterne Weelyes. The first sort is reaped yeerely. Barges for sand. or of the wrackes proceeding from them. and not before. but not so of vertue. and liuing in the other. They are mostly taken with a hooke-net. His vse serueth for barly land. old wiues tales may deserue any credit. while he fareth vp by night. is betweene Michaelmas and Christmas: for then. the Inhabitants might vtterly quit all hope of good by them. to whom. Trowt. the ryuers can afford them competent depth. I feare lest I shal breede you Nauseam. and Barkes and Ships for trafficke: of all which seuerally to particularize. and therefore I will omit to discourse of them. The sea strond is also strowed with sundry fashioned & coloured shels. as if nature were for her pastime disposed to shew her skil in trifles. and the finders petty benefit. combs. somewhat resembling a sheepes kidney. Herein we will first begin with the Peall. shew you. because they partake of both salt and fresh water. especially for women trauayling in childbirth. with what baite they may be trayned. and with what dressing saued. to their great dammage. betweene March and Midsummer. A time forbidden to take them in. moreouer.

. enricht by Phoebus rayes. [29] they returne to the Sea. with the hooke and line. thorow certaine thicke laths. one standeth watching in the darke night. where they vse Flies for their baite: another. His scaly broode to greete doth send. The Alder his new wealth displayes (*) Of budded groates. & so throw them on land. Some farre into the ryuers bore. A threefold rowt. vntill they lay hold on them with their hands. foes to eschew. the Lord of chance. where they wend. with the Sammons speare. rymed as ensueth: THE store-house of Sunnes cheuisance. or their secret dislike. At wonted hoste Dan Lyners Inne. take aduantage of the great raynie flouds. by the deepe pooles. His wife Tellus. Some haile but with the coasting shore. either through those ryuers shallownesse. is by hutches. couched slope-wise one against another. but denieth it to the fish. as he can find no way of returne. sundrie deuices are put in practise: one is. The Moones vassall. while another maketh light with a waze of reed. Vpon the North coast. one scribling of the ryuer Lyner. but so narrowly. whome. After Christmas. as the spring time commeth on. Some multiplie the Harbours store. while the streame tosseth him hither and thither.can carrie them. altogether spent & out of season. Themselves reuest. of middle growth begin. To catch them. to that end. where the Sammons worke their bed for spawning. is made acrosse the ryuer. They vse also to take Sammons and Trowts. if he stumble on the place. and his greatest part let out. their fry doe follow: and it hath beene obserued. bearded at the points. playing in and out. A head of Fagots. and the lower admitteth his entrie. Oceanus Ere yeeres compasse his circle end. to spawne the more safely. With this. and therethrough is discerned. or stones. whose vpper side giueth passage to the water by a grate. a weapon like Neptunes Mace. The clocke whose measures time doth dance. and the laths ends gall him. in the Pooles where they houer. With Lyners supple mantle blew. of Argus hew. And eygall peizd. From hugie bosome. and welcome payes Vnto the Spring. tickling them vnder the bellies. The Sammon naturally resorteth to the flame. few or none are taken. The Trowts. Amongst the rest. What time. through a square roome therein. and. and to the Westwards of Foy. strooken and drawne on land by a cord fastened to the speare. by groping. twixt either finne. The third and more profitable meanes of their taking. Take their lodging. Kind to encrease. Touching these. that they (as also the Trowt and Peall) haunt the same ryuers where they first were bred.

One offers him the daylight in a waze. Against whose slate. NOW to the Sammon. [30] And of the Sammon in particular. With forked Mace. and Porpose. and gaine blowes the fire. And at thy natiue home find'st greatest harme. Rayes. that are made a pray. Playces. Fils with good cheare the Christmas dish. Whiting. the Sammon. Brit. deere school's his foolish gaze. Barne. and oft supplies. Flowkes. and they also are pursued by a bigger. while the lesser flie the greater. Some make his meashie bed. Sharkes. The generall way of killing these (that is the Fishermans bloudie terme. Teaching that season must relish Each in his kind. Limpets. shell. Whirlepole. both skill and will conspire. Saynes. Conger. They may be diuided into three kinds. Shrimps. Yet cowardly. Another troope com's in with fire and sword. Lobsters. The Weare is a frith. Thorn-backes. but leaue it not disgest. Scad. swiftnesse guide. close counterwaite his way. a bunt or cod with an . In the Hauens. but his thence issue barre. goodnesse. In com's the Peall. once in the yeere. greatnesse. a trice. and all of them accustoming.Next. Muscles. and Oysters. each preying one vpon another. at land. Thy neerenesse. and some at another. In his more store. Smelts. Vail'd with nights robe. Eeles. to take their kind of the fresh water. (*) It is said that the fish cometh. Of round fish. there are Wrinkles. as the dayes vp early rise. they stalke the shore aboord. Paine brings the fewell. That hand may execute the heads deuice. and round fish. reaching slope-wise through the Ose. A praise doth find. Chad. Cockles. Hakings. thee betray. when the Alder leafe is growne to the breadth of a groate. Basse. and strength thee arme. his mate. Dabs. from the land to low water marke. Though dread warne. Laftly. Some tickle him. flat. Crabs. Of shell fish. Poore Fish. for this cold-blouded creature) is by Weares. but reaue his rest: Some giue him meate. And where he doth in streame. some at one time of the yeere. doe haunt the depthes and shallowes. king of fish. but are from pleasing farre. and hauing in it. whose smaller sise. the whiles. king of fish. Of flat fish. not praying. Cudles. Millet. As if darknesse alone contriued wiles: But new Neptune. Tuckes. Sprat. Soles. great store. mistrustlesse play. Some build his house. and Tramels. and diuers sorts of fish.

and by casting away the vnseasonable. They haue a propertie. The Tucke carrieth a like fashion. The little ones. though taken out of the water. and of the Lobsters in those of Wrinckles. and Iune. and serueth as a bed for the Oysters to breed in. . Many of the Crabs breede in the shels of Cockles. but be taken. when it is taken vp. wherethrough. out of which. which they terme gard. at first. that in Summer time they weare out of kind (as indeed the milkie are) but some Gentlemen making experiment of the contrarie. and to close vpon the ebbe. The female. athwart from Creeke. vpon the rockes and sands. at low water. waxing bigger. that the fish may not retire with the ebb. and Muscles. cleaue in great numbers. fastned to three spils of yron. and female. [31] The particular taking of sundrie kinds of fishes. while one of them through his sodaine Shutting. vpon their coming backe with the ebbe. and cast away the residue. of about fortie fathome in length. from whence. The Countrie people long retained a conceit. and the sparing restored a plenty againe. not much unlike that which is used for daring of Larkes. For the Haking. and at ful-sea draw the vpper part thereof to their stops. by spoyling the little ones. fastned to a staffe. there ensued a scarcitie. they come forth. and serueth to such vse as the Weare and Haking. and towards Michaelmas. Limpets. and drawe the same on land by two ropes. as my selfe haue seene: being growne. lying in the bottome of the water. that there are of them male. are gathered by hand. which griped Milo by the hands. and drawne at the boates sterne. by spending them oftner and in greater quantitie. began to eate them at all seasons. forsaken by the water. saue that it is narrower meashed. with which they encompasse a part of the Sea. is almost as diuers as themselues. at a great ebb) haue a peculiar dredge. had conspired to deuoure him. the dearth bred a sparing. about May. and liue in holes of Rockes. to their mothers shell. haue in them a certaine kind of milke. as in the Weares. and so trebled the valour of the cleft block. three yong Mice by the heads. Wrinckles. to open against the flood time. which scarcitie brought a dearth. The Ostyers (besides gathering by hand. from whence. they weane themselues. by a long crooke of yron. from shore to shore. with little round nets. they cull the Oysters. which they then shead. Cockles. It is held. to whose feete they fasten a Net. where the fish entering. the which. The Shrimps are dipped vp in shallow water by the shore side. caught in his owne defence. not long sithence occasioned a ridiculous chaunce. together with such fish. certaine Stakes are pitched in the Ose at low water. as lighteth within his precinct. they are dragged out. are stopped from issuing out againe. fastned at his ends. which is a thick strong net.eye-hooke. The Sayne is a net. that of malice prepensed. or before. and (therefore scarce lawfull) with a long bunt in the midst: the Tramell differeth not much from the shape of this bunt. and left drie on the Ose. gathering whatsoeuer it meeteth. and whereof the Oyster is engendered. if they bee touched. fall away.

tayle after top. Gurnard. & called a Conger Eele. Of fat. Breame. so named. the Countri people find them by treading. as thereby shee warranteth the poore from dread of staruing: for euery day they may gather sufficient to preserue their life. Seale. [32] many fathoms in length.Nature hath strowed the shore with such plenty of these shel-fishes. . and their lowd and continuall showting and noyse making. Of Eeles there are two sorts: the one Valsen. Herring. & is enfranchised a Burgesse of that vast common wealth: but in harbor they are taken mostly by Spillers made of a cord. Haddock. Sole and Playce follows the tyde up into the fresh riuers. and carry them into the sea: the other. and one after another. and to each of these a hooke is fastened with bayt: this Spiller they sincke in the sea where those Fishes haue their accustomed haunt. which (so you talke not of Hares or such vncouth things. and see what luck of fish God there shall send vs. and following the fish with the flood. Dories. Mackrell. get belowe them with their Boats. Turbets. Sea-hedge-hogs. because it consisteth of a long smal lyne with a hooke at the end. Now from within harbour. Cod. Pollock. for that proues as ominous to the fisherman. Illeck. to which diuers lesser and shorter are tyed at a little distance. & diuers other. because he wanteth this shelly bulwarke. ventreth out into the maine Ocean. The Porposes are shaped very bigge and blacke. as the beginning a voyage on the day when Childermas day fell. Amongst these. coming from the fresh riuers. For catching of Whiting and Basse. bred in the salt water. Tunny. so long as any depth will serue to bear them. by which means they are sometimes intercepted: for the Borderers watching vntill they be past farre vp into some narrow creeke. when the great raine floods after September doe breake their beds. Hake. so termed. of best taste. They vse also to poche them with an instrument somewhat like the Sammon-speare. as namely of shel-fish. both with those foreremembred. at low water. and (by an olde custome) share them amongst all the assistants with such indifferencie. Oldwife. Squary Scad. which. which afterwards. as if a woman with child bee present. we will launch out into the deepe. ordinarie with vs. Dogfish. the Flowk. draweth it vp againe with his purchase. Round. Wrothe. Guilt-head. and the next morning take it vp againe with the beguiled fish. Becket. Tub. as they wade to seeke them. the babe in her wombe is gratified with a portion: a poynt also obserued by the Speare-hunters in taking of Sammons. doth to the Mariner) may succeed very profitable: for the coast is plentifully stored. Brets. which the Fisherman letteth slip out of his hand by the Boat side to the bottom of the water. leaping vp and downe in the water. Pilcherd. as his bignes increaseth. where. and so take them vp with their hands. After Shel-fish succeedeth the free-fish. Rockling. puffing like a fat lubber out of breath. and cast a strong corded net athwart the streame. and feeling the fish caught by the sturring of the lyne. Scallops & Sheath-fish. Cunner. enlarged to a bigger size. they vse a thred. These chase the smaller schoels of fish from the mayne sea into the hauens. was miraculous to the Rochellers in their siedge 1572. Holybut. Rough-hound. who make short worke with them. vntill the ebbe haue abandoned them to the hunters mercy. Lounp. with which. though not to please their appetite. they fray and stop them from retyring.

and in taste. Being so taken. and from thence. in great numbers. hee cundeth (as they call it) the Master of each boate (who hath his eye still fixed upon him) by crying with a lowd voice. they pack in staunch hogsheads. best discerneth the quantitie and course of the Pilcherd: according whereunto. To each of these. with more certaine profit. or Huer. they vsed at first to fume.and many others. Then those which are to be ventred for Fraunce. by reason of their brusing in the meash. thorow which the schoell of Pilchard passing. carrying about sixe men apeece: with which. and wheazing certing diuersified and significant signes. and guarded by an vtter skinne full of prickles. & there drying them with the smoake of a soft and continuall fire. or Rasor-fish. like that within harbour. either close and tucke it vp in the Sea. quos nunc. Bulking. the Lobster. or pickelling. from whence they purchased the name of Fumados: but now. Those that serue for the hotter Countries of Spaine and Italie. of like or more goodnesse. leaue many behind intangled in the meashes. or draw the same on land. whistling through his fingers. which hee holdeth in his hand. by a Balker. but are now forestalled on the coast by the Drouers and Sayners. some. and saue the residue of the salt for another like seruice. &c. vpon which they feede. The Drouers hang certaine square nets athwart the tyde. draw it to either hand. After one companie haue thus shot their Net. and were wont to pursue the Brit. pressing. The Sayners complayne with open mouth. But the least fish in bignes. who standeth on the Cliffe side. is enclosed in a round shell. so to keepe them in their pickle. clense them. breaketh and scattereth the whole schoels. which they terme. that [33] these drouers worke much preiudice to the Commonwealth of fishermen. if the ground bee not rough of rockes. as the land Vrchin. there commonly belong three or foure boates. but of a farre larger proportion. and so a third. into the hauens. They are saued three maner of wayes: by fuming. but reputed of greater restoratiue. and are directed in their worke. and frayeth them from approaching the shore: neither are those thus taken. they are first salted and piled vp row by row in square heapes on the ground in some celler. At his appointment they cast out their Net. resembleth in length and bignesse a mans finger. doe buy and carrie home. is in fashion. The Sayne. The Sea-hedge-hogge. The Sheath. though the terme still . for (say they) the taking of some few. who attend with their horses and paniers at the Cliffes side. they lie houering upon the coast. another beginneth behind them. the Countrie people. Let the crafts-masters decide the controuersie. is the Pilcherd: they come to take their kind of the fresh (as the rest) betweene haruest and Alhallon-tyde. greedily and speedily seized vpon. they rip the bulk. is by the Marchant. For euery of which. handsomely wrought and pincked. in a house built for the nonce. or fareth. as opportunitie serueth. where they so remaine for fome ten daies. when the season of the yeere and weather serueth. marchantable. as the Schoell lyeth. and most in number. with a bush. greatest for gaine. by hanging them vp on long sticks one by one. fashioned as a loafe of bread. vntil the superfluous moysture of the bloud and salt be soked from them: which accomplished. beate with their Oares to keepe in the Fish. When the nets are so filled. the larger remainder. and reape thereby small gaine to themselues. the Drouers take them up. and at last. and let them fall againe.

for euery sixe tunnes. and welneere acquiteth the cost in sauing. which hee long attendeth. and he (though not verie often) taken with them damage faisant. to deliuer Pilcherd ready saued to the transporter. certaine birds called Gannets. and the other nineteene passe into forraine Realmes with a gainefull vtterance. which afterward they presse with great waights. and often with a bootlesse trauaile: but the Pilcherd Marchant may reape a speedy. sauing and selling to the transporters. and therethrough bewrayeth them to the Balker: so are they likewise persecuted by the Tonny. equalling the proportion of other fish: a matter which yet I reckon not preiudiciall to the Commonwealth. that trade is giuen ouer: and after they haue bene ripped out of the bulk. and if hee finde the same not to answere the number figured on the outside. they are persecuted by the Hakes. as depending upon the seas fortune. within little more then three moneths space. to their great aduantage: for they are allowed a peny for euery lasts carriage (a last is ten thousand) and as much for bulking. The Sayners profit in this trade is vncertayne. and packing them. which hath reuiued the same. as imployed to diuers vses. as there wanted in that. seeing there is store sufficient of other victuals. who leapeth now and then aboue water. which otherwise may turne to the Marchants preiudice: for I haue heard. whereon all other sorts of wood were conuerted to that vse: and yet this scantly supplying a remedie. and so cut their fingers. no stranger should transport beyond the seas any Pilcherd or other fish in cask. vntill his (yet not knowne) succeeder. called a Plusher. take mony beforehand. and serued for the inhabitants cheapest prouision: but of late times. to the end the traine may soke from them into a vessell placed in the ground to receyue it. The Pilcherd are pursued and deuoured by a bigger kinde of fish. but now being depriued of their . washing. they keepe a iust tale of the number that euery hogshead contayneth. two hundred of clapboord fit to make cask. as the price daily extendeth to an higher rate. reffed vpon sticks. that when they are brought to the place of sale. large. Lastly. and stoup to prey vpon them. Howbeit. they pack them orderly in hogsheads made purposely leake. This venting of Pilcherd enhaunced greatly the price of cask. and the takers iarring and brawling one with another. by dispatching the buying. vnlesse hee did bring into the Realme. being somewhat like the Dog-fish. and that of these a twentieth part will serue the Countries need. and so rateably. and assured benefit. and foreclosing the fishes taking their kind within harbour. Eliz. so decreased the number of the taken. and bind themselues for the same. & washed. This commoditie at first carried a very lowe price. diuers of them. the deare sale beyond the seas hath so encreased the number of takers. the buyer openeth one hogs-head at aduentures. hee abateth a like proportion in euery other. soare ouer. there was a statute made 35. at an vnder-rate. who (not long sithence) haunted the coast in great abundance. then in fashion. snatching at wealth ouer-hastily. whereby a lusty huswife may earne three shillings in a night. and the sauing setteth almost an infinite [34] number of women and children on worke. In packing.remaine. for towards the euening they are mostly killed. vpon payne of forfeyting the sayd Pilcherd or fish. The trayne is well solde. This Act to continue before the next Parliament. that from the last of Iune 1594. resemble the Flying fish. And that they may no lesse in fortune.

beheaded) gutted. Some gutted. Sanderlings. as it is held contagious. as Rayes. he delighteth in musike. and littlenesse) Coots. when I haue onely told you. powdred and dried in the Sunne. from whence the women digge them vp. And. to this engine. and it is high time that I draw to harbour: which good counsell I will follow. is in making and growth. Besides these flooting burgesses of the Ocean. as the lesser sort of Hakes. and the saile carrieth out the Boulter into the sea. which is a Spiller of a bigger size. and Conger. reputed noysome to the fish. and lie sleeping in holes of the Cliffe. and Hake. filleth the sayle. so farre from good meate. Eeles. & some of them with the boulter. splitted. Pollocks. These Hakes and diuers of the other forerecited. Mackrell. and dried. and Lugges. Some headed. and lying in the Ose somewhat deepe. for lacke of other prouision. as the lesser Whitings. are taken with threds. Peall. Millet. Some. they haue a deuice of two sticks filled with corks. they tie one end of their Boulter. splitted. not vnlike a Pigge. and kept in pickle. What we lose in Hake. In what maner the Fishermen saue the most part of their fish. are much diminished. which prescribe for a corrodie therein. and crossed flatlong. Amongst the first sort. to surprise more of his Canniballian fellowes. and therewith baite their hookes. powdred. and is so drawne vp. or any lowd noise. verifying the prouerb. we shall haue in Herring. and to shew himselfe almost wholly aboue water. Some cut in peeces. Another net they haue long and narrow meashed. where want of good harbours denieth safe road to the fisherboats. . Pilcherd. is drawne in againe [35] by a cord fastned at the neerer end. there are also certaine flying Citizens of the ayre. and thereby is trained to approach neere the shore. vgly faced. in which the fish intangleth it selfe. and kept in pickle. for taking of Cunners. as Seale and Porpose. And lastly. (in the East parts named Scalpions) and the smaller sort of Conger. They lay also certaine Weelyes in the Sea. gutted. neere his tayle. out of whose midst there riseth a thred. Some gutted. Vpon the North coast. as Whiting. The Fishermens hookes doe not alwayes returne them good prise: for often there cleaueth to the baite. Some are polled (that is. and Thornbackes. so as the wind comming from the shore. a round slymie substance. and footed like a Moldwarp. some boyled. (so named of his diuiug. Basse. called a Blobber. as Buckhorne made of Whitings. iagged. Sammon. For Bait they vse Barne. as the Tagworme. which therethrough are termed Cunner-pots. The Lugge is a worme resembling the Tagworme or Angle-touch. and sell them to the Fishermen: They are descried by their working ouer head. and preserued fresh in Vinegar. splitted. but are now and then waked with the deadly greeting of a bullet in their sides. which after the respite of some houres. Trowt. But you are tired. and powdred. gutted. the day is spent.wonted baite. as Tonny and Turbet. The Seale. and at the same hangeth a saile. or Soyle. There swimmeth also in the Sea. and some but to feed themselues. a certaine fish like a Starre. the Fishermen sometimes cut out a peece of the new taken Hake. They also come on land. of whom some serue for food to vs. and squarie Scads. and dried. we reckon the Dip-chicke. termed a Lestercock. thwarted with little cords of wide distance.

After hauing marched ouer the land. when he is kept tame. but not euerie such Rocke. and traffike. vntill. Murres. and waded thorow the Sea. either for priuate vse. belongeth to their estate. Vnder their reall state. vngratious. Oxen and Kine. long. or entercourse. as comming neerest thereto in their taste. In priuate life. chace them one by one with a boate. Pewets. Ducke and Mallard. and somewhat dangerous in carrying stickes of fire. Pewets. where such as haue leasure to take their pastime. from whence the owner of the land causeth the young ones to be fetched about Whitsontide. many little things like birds. and to plot downe whatsoeuer. and most of the residue. to come and feede the young ones (though perhaps none of his alliance) in the court where they were kept. or seruices of some Manner. his legs of the same colour. Creysers. & sensible. and reputed for fish. are ordinarily found in such places. master Treuanions house. and red. are Ganets. which afford them a place of abode. and require a former mortification: and some are good to bee eaten while they are young. carried home. Commonly thirtie Acres make a farthing land. which yeeld them sustinance. all with a like sauorinesse. but none of the Sea kind will breede out of their naturall place: Yet at Caryhayes. the course of method summoneth me to discourse of the reasonable. It is held. Heron. Iacke-Daw (the second slaunder of our Countrie) shall passe for companie. after her young ones are hatched. as they grow elder. through wearinesse. spirituall. for diuers yeeres together. Euerie tenement is parcell of the demaynes. shee leadeth them sometimes ouer-land. but I cannot heare any man speake of hauing seene them ripe. and Barnacle. bordering on both coastes. and fed fat. and such short ends. Shags. there commeth into consideration. whose young ones are thence ferretted out. and kept tame with the Ducks: the Egges of diuers of these Fowles are good to bee eaten. and to their gouernment. Seapies. noteworthily. though not their diet: I meane not the common Daw.Sea-larkes. Burranets. vntill his full growth dismisse him to be a perfect fowle: and for proofe hereof. which bordereth on the Cliffe. Some one. to discouer all the creatures therein insensible. his feathers blacke. without making any [36] nests. and temporall. Wild-goose. and some weekes after for the second. and. and their houses. and stones. Crane. an old Gull did (with an extraordinarie charitie) accustome. to often diuing. in filching. and therethrough termed a Cornish Chough: his bil is sharpe. being exceeding fat. into the hauen. Ospray (Plynyes Haliaeetos. Meawes. Puffins. his conditions. They are kept tame. I comprise all that their industrie hath procured. but some carrie a rancke taste. as frequenting their haunt. Wigeon. Curlewes. for the first broode. Gull. kept salted. that the Barnacle breedeth vnder water on such ships sides. These content not the stomacke. their Tenements. laying their Egges on the grasse. and hiding of money. they are taken vp at the boates side by hand. The Guls. the Inhabitants. Sea-fowle not eatable. nine farthings a Cornish Acre. Teale. to wit. but one peculiar to Cornwall. the space of a mile or better. reall. a Knights fee. The Burranet hath like breeding. may yeeld yeerely towards thirtie dozen of Guls. but nothing tooth-some. The Puffyn hatcheth in holes of the Cliffe.) Amongst which. and personall. as haue beene verie long at Sea. But this rule is ouerruled to a greater or lesser . breed in little desert Ilands. hanging there by the Bill. and foure Cornish Acres.

Holdings were so plentifull. according to the fruitfulnesse. that he neuer haue power to bite againe. and other perquisites. or by conuention. before they fall. but could obtaine no thorough discharge. and the Importance. But. take for one. or more liues. Heriots. they reckon. and preferred a petition to the then L. which is not altogether destitute of a reasonable pretence. three. called vnto him the Chauncellour. And ouer and aboue the old . a more busie then well occupied person. with her natiue & supernaturall bounty. pledges of the same Mannour. this barking Dogge hath bene mufled.quantitie. and Coise Barons of the Exchequer. when the estate is determined by the Tenants death. & gaue expresse order for stay of the attempt: since which time. appertaining to the Duchie of Cornwall. through which. they call his Barten. It was there manifestly prooued before them. a kind of inheritable estate accrued vnto them. vouchsafed vs gratious audience. then the Suruey Court shal be waited on with many Officers. and in many places. These reasons found fauourable allowance. & haue continued this vse. testified her great dislike of the attempter. which appertaineth to the Lords dwelling house. and Holders so scarce. or to them and their heires. Amongst other of this customarie Land. Somewhere the wiues hold by widdowes estate. as well was the Landlord who could get one to bee his Tenant. The tenants to the rest hold the same either by sufferance. prosecuted the same so far forth. [37] or for liues. and tooke a priuate hearing of the cause. vntill the Gentlemen became suppliants to her Maiesties owne person. either for yeeres. in diuers manners according to the custome of the Mannour. or custome. Wil.) In times past. Fines. vying & reuying each on other. in possession. That part of the demaines. nay thei are taken mostly at a ground-hop. and that not long agoe. take their Holdings (so they terme them) of certaine Commissioners sent for the purpose. who. who doe euerie seuenth yere. and to Master William Killigrews painefull soliciting (being the most kinde patrone of all his Countrey and Countreymens affaires at Court. as their custome will beare. But now the case is altred: for a farme. there are seuenteene Mannours. not long sithence. They repayred to London accordingly. for feare of comming too late. His L. to salue himselfe of a desperate debt. (as that which touched the vndooing of more then a thousand persons) her Highnesse possessed no other lands. vntill the next Michaelmas after. yet will his Executor. or barrennesse of the soyle. before it had made an irremediable breach. Treasurer Burleigh. two. or Berton. Herein we were beholden to Sir Walter Raleghs earnest writing. called the whole right in question: and albeit God denyed his bad minde any good successe. as he brought it to the iutty of a Nisi prius. and either to descend to the next in reuersion. Customarie Tenants for life. that yeelded her so large a benefit in Rents. that besides this long continuance. or Administrator detaine the land. May it please God to award him an vtter choaking. yet another taking vp this broken title. or to returne to the Lord. Hereon certayne Gentlemen were chosen and requested by the Tenants. by getting a Checquer lease of one or two such tenements. for the best part of three hundred yeeres. to become suiters for stopping this gap. by the custome. The customary tenant holdeth at Wil. and they vsed to take assurance for the rent by 2. or reuersion. or (as wee call it) a bargaine can no sooner fall in hand. this long prescription notwithstanding. (who was then in the Countrey) to Sir Henry Killigrews sound aduice.

in this behalfe: namely. are sure of a liuing. wife. or plague. hath made our Countrey very populous: and partly. and the land about Townes. hath replenished these parts of the world with a larger store of the Coyne-currant mettals. Another. The third. at these excessiue fines. for that the late great trade into both the Indies. that for these husbandry matters. may proue (as I gesse) partly. one of them passeth ouer his interest to a stranger. then a tolerable improued rent. dispend as much by his tithe. to pay due . that they fal euery where from Commons to Inclosure. that they alwayes preferre liues before yeeres. who will sooner preiudice their owne present thrift. yet mostly. As for the old rent. by continuing this mingle-mangle. turne them both out of doores. they will giue a hundred or two hundred [38] yeeres purchace and vpward at that rate. after their terme expired. a continuall aking. that afterwards the sonne marieth. it carrieth at the most. when the husband. with the husbandmans payne and charge. and our blessed quietnes giuen scope. once certayne it is. as the Lord of the Mannour by his rent. then aduance the Lords expectant benefit. in that this populousnes hath inforced an industrie in them. for a fine. foure yeeres tillage. to that whereat the tenement may be presently improued. but true and iust meaning hath euer taken place. Now. Neither may I (without wrong) conceyle the iust commendation of most such wiues. as both presuming vpon the Countries healthfulnesse. One. that they will rather take bargaines. to descend successiuely and intirely. from those of some other Shires. goeth neere to defray it. with the one halfe of his Holding in hand. though after the fathers decease. Yet another vnconscionable quirk some haue of late time pried into. Yet is not this deare letting euerie where alike: for the westerne halfe of Cornewall. who in lieu thereof. [39] The ordinary couenants of most conuentionary Tenants are. who by rigour of law shall hold it during the liues of the other twaine. Besides. to haue an estate of three liues: which summe commonly amounteth to ten. when a bargaine is so taken to these three. and our long freedome from any sore wasting warre. by his wiues assent (which in many auncient deeds was formall) departeth to him and his daughter in lawe. and also accounting their family best prouided for. and childe. it often falleth out. and deliuereth his yeruing-goods (as they terme it) to his father. and partake not of some Easterne Tenants enuious dispositions. and much lesse by her husbands: yet I haue seldome or neuer knowne the same put in practise. or twelve yeeres iust value of the land. in a ioynt-lease to three intended by the taker and payer. the mother may. during her life. yonger mariages then of olde. as not bound by her owne word. the proportion but of a tenth part. exceedeth that lying farther in the Countrey. because the banishment of single-liuing Votaries. then our ancestours enioyed: partly. commeth far short of the Easterne. The reason of this enhaunsed price. the Cornish Inhabitants are in sundry points swayed by a diuerse opinion.yerely rent. & somewhere much lesse: so as the Parson of the parish can in most places. being in no sort willing to ouer a penny: for they reckon that. though the price seeme very high. and meanes to this industrie. viz. but once smarting. and this. But howsoeuer I ayme right or wide at this.

Cornub. passing thorow the Countrey. euidenc. edict. concessi vobis mittimus. But this custome hath beene somewhat shaken. [40] Hundred de Penwith. or rather then fayle. de rubro libra unam scedulam. mandantes. Scaccarii nostri exhiberi fecimus pro informations vestra. And to accomplish this part. de quolibet feod. praedicto. without the Lords licence first obtained. his best Iewell. solidorum. praed. Teste Iohanne Cokayn apud Westmonast. Baronibus de dictio Scaccario nostro ibidem liberandum habeatis. quas de libris. praed. per vos capiend. are ordinary with those of other places. HEnricus Dei gratia. & hoc breue ad Scaccarium nostrum super compot. 4. viz. die Ianua. Which conditions are yet enlarged or restrained. Feod. then of Cornwall. vpon death. which is after fiue markes the whole Knights fee. sue to the Court. memorum de anno 3. vlterius inde tam per easdem euident. his best garment then about him. to pay their best beast for a Heriot: yea. pro commodo nostro faciatis. vestrum proxim. record. anno regni Domini Edwardi nuper Regis Angliae. to keepe it on liue. saue that they pay in most places onely fee-Morton releeses. and lastly King of this Land) whereas that of fee-Gloucester is fiue pound. (so called of Iohn Earle first of Morton. by pleading the 11. quod de iure per vos videatur faciend: Ita quod euidenc. The free Tenants seruices. Hillar. iuxta formam statuti. dilectis nobis Vicecom. in lieu thereof. Rex Anglia & Franciae. grinde at the Mill. & Escaetori nostris in Com. by rendring his best beast. though the Cornish Gentlemen vse all possible remedies of almost fas et nefas. vt inspect. Anno 3. 30. Aui nostri 25. to the Lord of the soyle: or if he haue none. Anno Regni nostri 3. or forfeyture. if not surrender. vestro in premiss. & Iohanni Tremayn seniori collectoribus auxilij 20. H. de eodem auxilio redend. Quasdam euidentias. ac Iohanni Colshil. which I receyued from my learned and religious kinseman Master Robert Moyle. assignat salutem. fact. praedicto ad Blanchiam primogenitam filiam nostram maritand. doe haruest iournyes. according to the Demisors humour.Capons. poynts of the Lawe. vna cum toto fac. tento de nob. & duos rotulos de euidentiis nuper collectoribus auxilii praedicti. dwell vpon the Tenement. auo nostro ad filium suum primogenitum milit. fine medio in Com. Milit. faciend. & Dominus Hiberniae. and laboureth of a dangerous Feuer. which he hath with him. he also must redeeme his buriall. . in comming to triall. if a stranger. in Cornub. Vsuall it is for all sorts of Tenants. Record. quam per Inquisitiones super praemiss. chaunce to leaue his carkase behind him. super captione inquisitionum diuersorum feodorum in Com. Rotl. Milit. at least. vt sequitur. anno Regni sui 20. I haue heere inserted a note of the Cornish Knights fees and acres. sub pede sigilli nostri. rotulis & memorand. discharge the office of Reeue and Tithing-man. and to set out no part thereof to tillage.

in Bray Alanas Bloighon ten 2. & di. feod. feod. unius feod. Idem. 1. part. Exon. feod. in Deuon. Idem Will. Idem. Marchio Dorset. in Polruman di. Idem ten. 7 feod. de Killigreu ten. feod. in Efford 1.Will. in Heliset. ten. in Alwerton. feod. Omnia praedicta feod. ten. part. ten. in Worthauale 1. feod. 7. feod. de Bray ten. Hundred de Stratton. ten. feod. 1 feod. feod. Haeres Ties ten. Idem Will. Comes ten. feod. Mich. Idem. in Kilkham land. in Alwington in Deuon 2. feo. & nether rescradeck di. feod. in Donneghny Crugplegh di. Thomas de Wamford ten. 2. Idem Will. Idem ten.in Ouer rescradeck. 1. [41] Ranulphus de Albo Monasterio tenet in Stratton 1. ten. feod. feod. in Lesnewith & Treuyghan di. feod. in Orchard marries. feod in Tihidi & Trenalga. Comes Gloc. Hundred de Lysnewith. feod. dimid. Basset ten. Comes ten. . Comes Gloc. 1. in Bere 1. in Pensenteinon. feod. in Tresciward 1. partes vnius feod. 4. feod. partes feod. 1. Will. in Lauestli. Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. feod. Reginald de Ferrar in ead. in Wolueston 1. in Couerton. & perpet. de la Pomerey ten. de Witha & Iohan. 5. feod. feod. 2. 1. feod. in Oterham 1. magna feod. de Crammon tenent in Trewint & in Westdisart 1. 1. feod. Comes ten. in Loigans. feod. HErbertus de Pyn ten. in Trenwel. Idem ten. feod. feod. Episcop. Will. 1. Henric. in Donneghny de la Bruer. in Middeland 3. ten dimid. feod. Will. in Draynneck. sunt feod. quod Abbas & conuentus de Hartland tenent in pur. Mortanne. de Botriaux tenet in isto Hundred in Wale breux. 1. Maien & Kellemeke. in Veno. 4. Haeres Iocei Dinan ten. ten. Idem Will. in Moteland 1. Henric. Hund. Trethewy & Westory 2. in Tremall. in Binnerton. 2. de Campo Arnulphi ten. Idem Will. Iohannes de Cobbeham in Lancels 1. ten. in Luduon trewedryn. Simon Giffard ten. in Gorten. Marwonchurch 1. Idem ten. Idem Will. de Campo Arnulphi ten. feod. Haeres Marci de Walestbren ten. ten. feo. Rogerus de Crammon ten. Idem Will. feod.

& 6. 3. paru. tenere in pura & perpet. part. Idem ten. feod. feod. in Wike. de Abbate de Tauistauk. feod. di. m Pennalim. Idem Wil. feod. feo. Idem ten. in Tamerton. Idem aqua de Tamar di. parua feod. di. vnius paru. magnum feod. Idem ten. quod Oliuerus de Crammon ten. de Morteynne in Penhangle de Trematon. in Nantoige 1. 1. feod. Omnia praedicta feod. dict. Iohanna Lengleis ten. part. feod. paru. Rogerus de Carmmon ten. in Borton. paru. de honore de Tremeton. feod. partem feod. 3. in Tredenick 5. & 2. 1. 1. in Trecan & Trecurnel & Churleton de praedict. Lamaylwen 1. vnius di. feod. ten. ten. feod. Rogerus de Tredenick ten. feod. Idem ten. mag. 2. 1. feod. di. de Mortimer in Tregantle de Modeton. feod. feod. elem. in Croketon de Tremerton. Nicholaus Danne ten. in Turlebere. Idem ten. & Sunondsham 1. Idem ten. quod Abbas & conu. in Kilkam lond. part. feod. in Bostinne. 1. Hundred de East. Idem ten. de Mortyn in Penpol de Tremerton. dict. 2. in Haston de Tremerton. in Hormecot & Rescher. Guilielmus de Campo Arnulphi ten. feod. 1. in manu reg. 1. 1. de Bodbrand ten.elem. feod. Abbate. 1. Idem ten. in Hilton simul cum Ferewil in Deuon. feod. feod. Mortyn in Treualuare & in Trekinward. 1. de Erth. de Morteynn in Karkeil de Trematon. feod. Mortynn in Halton. Rogerus de Ferrar ten. paru. in Westuenton de Tremerton. Galfrid. paru. dict. feod. Idem ten. feod. parua feod. Idem ten. feod. fe. in burgo paruo Ponte knol. de Groue ten. partes 1. ibid. part. paru. milit. part. 2. prater. Haluethus Maliuery ten. parui feod. feod. ten. feod. 1. Idem Nic. Idem Nich. Prior de Lanceston ten. paru. de Mortyn in Thelebridge in la rode. 2. prout ibid. 1. de Mortyn ibid. 1. 3. Idem Nich. de Merton ten. . 1. ten. 1. & est in manu regis. feod. paru. 1. clam. [42] Idem Calistock 1. i. Idem Will. feod. Idem Rogerus de Inkepenne ten. Idem Galfrid. feo. paru. feod. magnum de Seniock. praed. Idem ten. 1/4 1. IOhanna de Rame ten. di. in Wiston & Serpeknol 1. sunt parua feod. feod. Rex ten. feod. dict. in Wadfaste. feod. feod.

1. fe. Matheus de Trethake ten. feod. 4. in Belionnus. ibid. Tho. in Meuely. in Legh. Mor. in Trethake. part. feod. filius Wil. de Mortyn de rege in Kallilond. feod. Robert. Iohannes de Tinten ten. part. Episcop. in Cruphs & Caruaton. 1. Mort. feo. 1. part. feod. 1. part. Idem Nic. 1. 1. Exon. paru. paru. 4. de Brunn ten. feod. feod. de Cruptus ten. Kilgather & Lansalwys. in Lannomunnus di. Haeres de Walesbren ten. feod. Manerium de Liskerd est di. Rob. 1. 4. Querquius ten. di. Mort. de rege. paru. Lamlewarn. de Serifeaux ten. in Penrosburdon di. in Helland. Mortyn. Ioh. 3. de Cheyndut ten. 1. feod. feod. 2. dict. par. feod. feod. Robertus Giffard te. Mort. Ric. Mor. Mort. feod. . 2. Ric. 1. paru. Polroda. Henricus Camel ten. de Rescarreck ten. Mort. part. dict. feod. feod. Ric. feod. ibi. dict. [43] Idem ten. in Bodannan 4. part. de Mort. de Mor. in Rescarretunus 4. 5. in Kinnarght 4. paru. de Morteyn in custodia regis. in Laurethon. feod. Mor. de Bindon ten. Regin. Mo. Mort. feod. part. de Wellington & Reg. pro duobus feod. paru. part. di. fe. feod. feod. Mort. di. in Tregradeck. ten. Idem Prior de Minstre ten. in Bliston dict. Ioh. feo. Mort. in Fawyton. de Botriaux. Thomy ten. paru. Baro de Stafford ten. Ioh. Mort. de Mortyn in Penhele de rege. feo. paru. paru. 3. 1. Trelewarn & Denant. Matheus & Agnes de Trehauk ten. fe. in Tynten & in Trewinneck 1. feod. de Willi. paru. Gloce. 2. feod. part. in Delisonbol 1. in Treuris de rege. par. feod. ROb. paru. Hundred de West. Danne ten. feod. in Tredawil de Wil. de Bodrigan ten. Hundred de Trigger. CArdynan Penlyn ten. de Trenaga tenet ibid. Mathilda de Hewisch ten.Will. Robertus de Helligan ten. Botriaux. fe. mag. feod. de Botriaux ten. & est in manu reg. di. te. in Lamailwen 4. feod. paru. Idem Nico. in Polisant. dict. Thomas Lercedekne ten. Mor. de Seneschal te. feod. in Trethim Bessant. in Trehome di. 1. feo. Mort. Will. de Beuil ten.

Idem Will. feo. in Eglosel 1. in Cutfordferle. Mort. ratione Aliciae vxoris fuae. Will. in Lishiestick 1. in Treuerlynwater di. ibi. mag. mag. IOhannes de Vinfrauil ten. paru. Ric. de Cant. Mor. feod. de Botriaux ten. part. in Kilkoid 2. feod. fil. Dom. ten. de Campo Arnulphi ten. 4. Iohannes de Guillez ten. part. Idem Will. mag. Episcop. Exon. Ela de sanct. feod. part. par. in Haumal di. fe. di. 1. Barth. feod. Idy. feod. Idem Will. paru. part. part.Mort. Ties te. feod. Iohannes de Tregage tenet dimid. acr. mag. feod. feod. Henric. de Serifeaux ten. paru. in Treawset. ibid. ten. in Prideas 1. in Trekinnen. ibid. 3. feod. Darundle te. Idem Will. paru. mag. Iohannes Hamelyn te. di. in Laherne. feo. ib. Mort. feod. feod. de Lancarsse ten. feod. Mort. mag. ratione Isoldae vxo. feod. feod. 1. ten. eius ibid. ibid. ten. paru. in Trekinnen. ibid. feod. in Tronneck 5. & di. Darundle ten. Hundred de Powder. in Tremor. Exon. in Tregonen 1. feo. Mort. Bartholomeus de Bercle tenet dimid. paru. ten. de Portguin ten. di. paru. in Gouely 1. in Trewoleck. de Berthei ten. Iohannes Darundle ten. [44] Regin. de Berckle te. Idem Will. in Treueald. ten. Mort. feod. Mort. di. feod. Tracy & Hugo Peuerel tenent in Tremscord & Hamatethy. Dom. part. Episcop. ibid. feod. Thomy ten. 1. Barth. feod. ib. Idem Will. feo. feod. Mort. paru. part. mag. 4. 5. ten. feod. mag. in Treuerbindren 5. te. feo. feod. in Trewarnayl. di. in Caruaton 4. Mort. ten. di. di. Idem Will. Will. Rad. Ricard. de sanct. Colano ten. 1. feod. feod. Rosamunda de la forest ten. . feod. ten. in Trenurdre. feod. ten. Rad. Alanus Blughon ten. in Treloy. de Hiuoisch ten. 5. in S. i. vnde Prior ten. Ioh. feo. 5. di. Ioh. di. Siluester de Tregamuran ten. 1. 1. part. Ioh. & di. Rob. Item Rex ten. feod. feod. Hundred de Pider. ten. mag. 2. 1. magnum. Colano ten. in Tiwardraith 1. feod. feo. Idem Will. feod. Mort. in Trewarnayl. in Polrodon Donnat 2. Ric. in Bodenda 4. in Bodrigan Penarth & Cargois 3. in Trenderet. & in Trenbeith 1. paru. 1. in Dinbegh.

in Penzenguans. Idem ten. Ioh. ibid. & di. feod.feo. 1. Stanley & Comes de Riuers ten. par. 1. 1. in Argallez 1. aquam de Fawe pro 2. ibid. fuae ten. Cornub. feod. in Trenasanstel di. part. Serlo de Lauladro ten. part. mili. Henr. Maugi de Killigreu ten. WAlter. Idem ten. Serlo de Lauladro ten. de Hiwisch ten. feod. Marthyn & Tamerton. & 3. illius 20. feod. in Caniwerez 1. in Tragameddon 2. feod. 1. Luntyan 1. in Hellarna. di. feod. 12. Rogerus de Carminon ten. in Alet 3. part. Euidentiae extractae de rubro libra de Scaccario. milit. in Trewyn 3. part. feo. extra 10. Iohannes fil. feod. fil. 1. in Arworthel per Cartam Edwardi quondam Com. ten. Thomas Durant ten. feod. paru. feod. feod. dict. in Mauntayn di. Haeres Thomas de Prideas ten. Will. Hundred de Kerier. ten. 1. ten. in Treuewith & Trewithy di. Episcop. 1. paru. part. 143.feod. Idem ten. feod. feo. in Gloures 1. Baillisbury vaca. de Trethake ten. feod. 1. . 20. feod. di. Will. 1. fe. Reginaldus de Valle torta 59. Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. Mortan. in Elerky. Mo. feod. feod. paru. Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. feod. in Tronalgerthan 4. vxo. in Wynnenton. feo. feod. feod. Henr. de la Pomeray ten. de honore de Tremeton. ten. Steph. ten. in Fountomon 3. part. de Riparys ten. feod. feod. part. Will. Idem ten. feod. in Taluren 1. de Killigreu ten. Mor. feod. in Rescronges dicta feod.in Blanchelond 1. feod. in Fentengullyn di. feod. part. 1. in Tremodret & in la roche 3. Mort. Episcop. Ric. in Eglosroset in Trelewith 1. in Tregony. Goriann & in paru. feo. in Tremnel di. in Boswyghergy 2. Wailisbury & Isolda vxor eius te. in Trelonck. in Trenel 1. part. mag. Mort. Rad. Henricus de la Pomerey ten. Idem ten. Exon. Idem ten. Mort. [45] Iohannis de Riparys te. feod. in Rosewike 1. paru. Idem Episcop. Will. Exon. ten. de Bodrigan ten. Cornub. feod. 3. RObertus de Cardinan 71. paru.Idem Will. paru. ten di. in Trethak 1. de Belloprato ten. paru. 3. Idem Episcop. Rex. in Minstre. Mat. feod. & in S. feod. 1. feod.

Henricus de Pomeray. fac. Radulphus de Treat. Robertus de Tintagle 5. 70. Wil. Acras. Redwory 14. Henricus de Herys 1. fil. Acr. [46] Iohan. de Botterill 12. milit. itinerant. Iohannes de monte acuto. 1. Symon Pincerna 1. Rog. de Bosfco Roardi 2. Regis in Cornubiam. Robertus de Peuerel 9. 1. Ric. pro portanda illa Capa dum Rex fuerit in Cornubia. Flandrensis 7. de Ross. milit. cum relict. Robertus de Mandeuil 1. fil. . 3. milit. 45. PEtrus fil. milit. part. Decunar.s. Bloyon 7. acram pro sequela in Com. milit. Rob. Barth. feod. milit. dies. 1. Cabulion per vnam Capam de Gresenge in aduentum dict. de feod. Trefruss. vt eat in exercitum cum rege stipendiis ipsius Regis. Pharanus Warebras 1. filius Iuonis 1. Couerton. apud Launceston a die Paschae in 3. Will. part. milit. de feod. 1. de Tihidi. 1. Edw. Ric. Robertus fil. Seriantes. Ric. Buzon. Henricus fil. Hundred de Penwith. custodiam per 40. milit. milit. facta coram Salom. & 3. ibid. Wallensis 2. & Sociis suis Iustic. milit. de Bikehat. cum haere de Rupe. Extenta acrarum Cornub. de 5. Espiakelin duas acras & furuum in Lanceneton. eiusdem. Com. Rogerus Cithared 5. Walterius de Dunstan vil. Huardus de Bekelege 1. Wil. de Bodmel 1. Alwarton. milit. Ric. Will. milit. de Pencoit vnam acram in Lametyn prec. Arehennaund. 12. Rad. milit. Walteri 11. Hastul de Sullinge 4. de honore de Midd. milit. milit. Ric. 1. Robert. Ogeri 40. 64. Henricus fil. milit. de Lusti auunculi sui. Lanistly 28.septimanas anno Reg. Gilbertus Anglicus 1. Ric. 4. Alicia de Valletorta 1.Thomas de Middleton 10. de Albemarle 5.

Rogearon. Tremblithe. 15. Hundred de Pider. Acr. Wymanton. Ex. 9. Ac. 4. Godolghan 13. Marchel. 21. Banhedrek. Trelan. 4. 3. 9. 9. Trelew. Presprinick. 9. Sum. Restrongas. 24. 3. 18. 12. 6. Rosewike. 6. als. Clehar. Warewil. 23. Lysard. Epo. 9. Ac. 24. Methean. 120. 6. Methele. Loygans. Bennerton. Luceas 31. 9. 5. 3. dimid. Tremore. 12. 20. 6. Mawgan. Trewarnayl. Kenel 1. 12. 3. 9. Lanheyl Tinten. 39. 55. 6. 18. 9. 1. 51. 6. Maen. . 39. Retergh. Exo. 6. Dygimbris. Luddeuan. 1. 6. S. Porthe. Trewoleck. 8. 9. Helston. Tucays. 18. 9. 9. 8. Acr. Treynwal. Trebrabo. Penuerthy. Carnaton. 21. 6. Tredyne. Pensignans. 9. 18. 3. Treloy. Trefundryn. Hundred de Kerier Talgollon. 30.Treruffe. 4. Lantallen. 9. 532. Elineas. Pengirsick. & Carmynow. Trenowith. Arwothel. [47] S. Cargoule. Bree. Sum. Rialton parua. 15. Peran. 15. 3. Bodwenek. Minster. 12. Berthey. Ify. Eliquyn. 8. Gluuian. 3. Tredeny. Trenhale. Trelybey. 14. de naushike pro. 397. 9. Ryalton magna. S. Withiel. Penryn. 9. Aldennow. Dreyneck. Kelision. 15. 6. di. 18. Trewynnian. Trewotheck. Pawton. 6. 24. Carantock. als. als. 9. 6. Cotford felle. 31. Gurlyn. Tregennow. 15. 6. Deci. Tredaneck. 30. Meyndy. 57. Trewenneck. 20. 8. Trenaweth. 14. Prior Mich. 6. 2. 9. 21. 25. 24. Tenent de Tregony. Kalestek. Vthno. Trewannard. 1. 57. Wenna. Treworder Bilcon. Ryalton. Kelyneck. 9. Lanhernow. Treros. 6. 45. Meddeschole. Cragantallen. 9.

pro. di. Argallas. Rugog. di. 36. 2. 9. Deliodbol. 9. 18. Penpout. Gouily. Acr. Lauada. Killigen. Delioner. Treworeck. Ac. Tybest & Penkeuel. Maresk 36. 36. Werneckbosueleck. 20. Hundred de Powder. Bliston. 1. 12. Alet. 1. Trethewy. Treuanion. Treualgarthyn. Trenyeck & Golours. Growith & Trewithgy. Roscarreck Bighan. Trehaneck. Tinten. 36. Treueruen & Poldu. & dimid. di. 1. Tywascreth. Trelewith. 30. 6. 18. 9. 3. 3. 4. Tregamedon. Pentewyn. 27. 3. 6. Tamitethy. 6. 6. 12. 3. Killiuregh. Trelindret. Tredaek. Peterow. alloc. Nantyan. 6. 11. 33. 6. Lanhaddron. Kestel & Coran. Lanestek. Boswiththe. Broneyr. 3. de Trig. 18. 1. Treueruyn. 9. 3. 12. 14. Brithion. Tremodreth. Boddannan. 9. 3. di. 18. Pentir. Berthey Brune. i8. Hellaund. Hundred de Trigg. 1. Blanchelond. 6. 12. Bodrugan. Trelueck. 12. Polroda. Crogith & Caryheges. Portligwyn. 7. 18. 18. 9. Linnoban. 42. 12. 2. Landegy. 32. 2. Goron. Lannousun. Tregony Pomeray. 573. 15. Acr. 36. Trenance priour. 8. 9. Boderdel. Sum. Tridiseck. 20.Sum. 9. 33. Hundr. Lanowseynt. 6. 12. Kenewyn. 15. 9. Tewynton. 66. [48] Namail. Cargoul. 8. 20. Inde alloc. 6. 1. 20. Lancarff. S. 6. 6. 9. 16. 9. Bendeuy. 473. Elerky. Bodymel. do. Deuon. Pridiaux. 4. 9. 1. Heligan. Tretherf. Penrosburdon. Tregradeck. 93. Pennarth. 7. Trenananstle. 24. Canta. Reskarrekam. 6. . 6. 6. 3. Pensentimow. & Treworeck & Trew. Egloshayl. di. dimid. Trenesquit. 42. 8. di. Eglosros. Trenoweth. Sum. 700. Killigint. 21. 9. Beranel. Trewornar. pro reg. Decuna de Tregaire. Tregarreck.

Landilp & leghe. Penpol. Dysard. 13. 7. Treglasta. Rame. Wolueston. 24. 4. Treuerueth. 17. 17. Weke. 12. 80. 6.2. 7. Boyton & Bradbridge. 20. 3. Morton. 2. 9. Cracampton. Penhasgar. Launceles. 10. Cauilond. 20. 9. Kilkampton & Allerton. 341. Lawytton. 50. Stratton. 3. S. 29. 9. Loghe. 68. Thurlebere. Clemyslond. Ebsett. Tregilla. Haston. di. 12. Trenymel. Germyn. Tredawel. 20. 15. 100. Penquite. Thorleton. 37. 100. Bochym. Wortheual. Witston & S. 26. & dimid. Treuaga. Bryard. 337. 21. 21. Treseward. Whalsborow. Tremayl. Forkeston & Brendon. 16. 7. Tauestok. . Efford. 9. 3. 68. 36. Bere. Decena de Middeland. 18. 5. Sum. Bennalua. Lanrake. Otterham. 24. Tamerton. 21. Trelosk. 57. Halton. S. 8. 8. dimid. Launcelond. 24. Harnacot. Buysworek. 13. Genys.Hundred de Lesnewith. Pennalym. di. Hellesland. Lesnewith. Powndstock. Sum. Petnel. 12. Hamet. Killaton. 1. Cranydon. 12. [49] Hundred de East. 8. Boleny. Wadfast. 2. 50. Marwyn-church & extra. 18. Treualga. 4. Donneny. Hilton. 11. Trefrys. Treuilla. 14. 9. di. 27. Cydmonth. Polisaund 6. & dimid. 14. 9. 10. 20. 18. 21. 35. 8. Mokelound. 5. 18. Item ibid. Modeton. Corg. Fanceston. 8. Trematon. 20. Hundred de West. Wyldsworthy. 6. 3. Penheal. 8. 927. 1. Carnedon. Sum. 12. 7. 80. 2. 44. Hundred de Stratton. Treuartha. Landreyn. Sheuiek. Acr. Newton.

Brothok. & Militum ex Rotulis de feodis Militum. 6. 1. dimid. M. Wot. [50] Nomina Baron. S. 1. Botylet. Alanus de Dunstauill. 5555. Rogerus Anglicus. West Draynez. Perpol. Treuilias. M. 24. 9. Trenant. Willi. Polscoth. Losnewith. 15. vxorem suam. de Lucy in hoc Com. filius Ric. Lutcot. Nicholaus filius Galfridi 10. 12. q. 30. feod. 24. Boterell. Sum. Secundum quod Lucas filius Bernardi Senescallus euis mandauit per litteras Baron. M. 9. 24. M. dimid. Rathwil. 9. 71. Boccalawar. Willi. Oliuer. Secundum quod Senescallus eiusdem mandauit Baron. 24. 6. 6. Tallan. Geruasius filius Willi. Richardus filius Iuo. Langonet. Trelowya. 6. 18. 7. M. Galfridus de Lacell. 6. Pendryn. Sum 353. frater Comitis 4. Killigoreck. 6. Estdraynez. 9. M. de Rupe 3. 6. Trethek. 6. 6. 9. 6. 1. Treueruyn. Robertus de Cardin. Alanus Blundus 7. Rad. 12. M. eodem anno 6. 3. dimid. per Agn. Crutour. 1. Penfran. Stephanus Flandrensis. M. Breuigon. tot. M. S. 4. 9. fuerunt Richard. 3. Laskerd. Henricus de Tredeleberg. 6. dimid. M. Kelly & Mighstow. Recradock. qui habet med. M. R. 5. Bocunek. M. Baurylen & Hamiteth. vel de Scutagio Solutis Regi Richardo primo : In libro rubeo Scaccarii. Lanrethow. dimid. 3. Treuellawan. Willi. 12. de Scaccar. Wynow. 9. M. 5. 1. Plenynt. 3. Colmettyn. Iohannes de Soleigny. 12. M. Fowyton. 3. 9. 6. M. Killigath. Cornubia. 1. M. Regium de Valletorta 51. 3. Tremethert. Manely.Cardinan. Trethu. 1. Acr. Penquite. Willi. 9. Trethewy. in Anno sexto Regis Richardi. dim. sicut Ric. WAlterus Hay 20. M. 6. filius . 6.

li. li. & tenent per seruitium militare. de Ferrers. Andeg. Anno regni Regis Richardi octauo. Senescallus eius mandauit per breue. de Albo Monasterio. li. Robertus Bendyn. Anno Regni Regis Edw. Willi. Rogerus de Mesy. Robertus de Carmeneu. de Grenuile. Iordanus de Hacumb. Wise. Cornubia Anno 40. Henricus de Campo Arnulphi. Henr. Le Petit. de la Pombre. . Cornubiae. THomas de Tracy. 16. cuius terrae in Cornubia valent 40. de Botriaux. 30. Ad mandatum vestrum. Domino Henrico. Iohannes de Tynten. filius Roberti. 40. Henricus de Dones. Iohannes de Alneto. Duct Nor. Henr. 15. 50. le Flamanc. libras & plus. Marc. 16. li. filius Henr. Stephanus de Bellocampo. videlicet. & milites non sunt. IOhannes de Treiagu vicecomes. Dei gratia. quindecem libratas terrae vel plus. tertii. Willi. 15. li. salutem. filii Regis Edw 17. li. [51] Willi. 15. Reginaldus de Botriaux. Philippus de Valletorta. Nomina Militum. Regi Angliae. Nomina militum de Com. li. lllustri viro. li. excellentiae vestrae praesentibus transmitto. THomas Lercedekne est in Vascoma in sericium Regis.Willi. 16. Aquitan. li. Richard. Rad. & aliorum hominum ad Arma. I5. Richard. & Com. Reginaldus de Mohun. Robertas de Draenas. nomina illorum qui ten. 16. li. li. vicecomes Cornubiae. li. cum omni reverentia & obsequio. Domino Hiberniae. WIlli. tam infra libertates quam extra. de Campo Arnulphi. 14.

Cum nuper tibi praeceperimus. Iohannes le Scor. 24. distincte & aperte. Rogerus de Reskymmer. Iacobum licentia Domini Regis. salutem. Iohannes de Carmenou. post octavas Sci. teneant sine delatione rogares. cum licentia regis pro se & duobus valectis. quilibet eorum prout decuerit statum suum. cum equis & Armis. Nomina hominum ad Arma In Com. & Dux Aquit. Anno regni nostri vicesimo quinto. de Boteraus Senior. nomina eorum dilacerata. quod essent ad nos Londini die dominica prox. Alii multi Armigeri desunt.vicecomiti Cornub. videlicet. tibi praecipimus.Robertus filius Willi. proximo futuras. Oliuerus de Carminou. Dominus Hiberniae. de Bello Prato. Rad. & pro saluatione & communi utilitate regni nostri. terrae & redditus per annum. Basset. Isti praenominati habent 40. firmiter iniungentes. Dominus Willi. iniungentes eisdem. libr. quod omnes & singulos de balliua tua infra libertates & extra. non possunt legi in originali. IOhannes de Dynham. . Willi. Henricus de Peng. seu redditus vel amplius. quam illos similiter qui plus habent. de Boteraus maior. Cornubiae. Rad. fermiterq. Iohannes de Lambron. Dominus Willi. de quocunq. Teste meipso apud Portesmouth. tam illos qui viginti libratas terrae & redditus per annum habent. EDwardus Dei gratia. Iohannes de Pyn. & specialiter requireres ex parte nostra. DOminus Oliuerus de Denham. [52] Richardus de Cerefeaux iunior. in Com. Iohannis Bapt. Rex Angliae. de Taluran. Otto de Bodrugan peregrinatus est ad San. Rogerus Pridyas. sub sigillo tuo certiores reddere non omittas: Remittens nobis tunc hoc breue. partes transmarinas. peregrinatus est cum Ottone de Bodrugan. ut speramus. de Bloyen. die Maii. parati transfretare cum corpore nostro. Cornubiae. ad Dei nostri & ipsorum honorem. impotens miles coronator Domini Regis. Nomina eorum qui habent viginti libratas terrae. quod mandato nostro praedicto diligenter & celeriter executo. nos de nominibus omnium illorum de balliua tua quos sit rogaueris ad dictam diem dominie.

Thomas de Pridias. NOW to weaue on our former web. Walterus de Trem. Willi. to make the walles thick. Iohannes de Kylgat. Iohannes de Lambron. for chimneyes. Robertus le Brun. was to plant their houses lowe. Roulandus de Quoykyn. Rogerus de Meules. to couer their planchings with earth. de San. Bloyhon. their windowes arched and little. Hugo Peuerell. Rad. Rogerus le Flemming. Richardus le Ceariseus. to set hearths in the midst of the roome. Richardus de Reskymer. Iohannes de Kellerion. Wynnoko. whereas . de Trewythen. Robertus Gifford. del Estre. Steph. Osbertus le Sor. Petrus de Fysac. Richardus de Greneuyle. de Bret. seeking therethrough onely strength and warmenesse. Serlo de Lansladeron. Stepha. de Cheyndut. Rad. Thomas de Waunford. to lay the stones with morter of lyme and sand. Iohannes de Arundell. Rogerus de Carminou. de Bello Prato. Robertus filius Willi. Dominus Reginaldus de Botreaus. Richardus de Huwyse. Iohannes de Thurlebere. Rogerus Cola. Willi. Henricus de Kymyell. The ancient maner of Cornish building. le Petit. which vented the smoake at a louer in the toppe. de Beuill. filius Oliueri de Arundell. to frame the roomes not to exceede two stories. Thomas le Erchideakene. and to bee packed thick with timber. Thomas de Kan. Rad. Richardus de Trenaga. and their lights inwards to the court.Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus Dominus [53] Willi. Iohannes de Tynton. and the roofes to rise in length aboue proportion. Odo de la Roche. Reg. de Campo Arnulphi. Philip. Walterus de Cornubia. Mich. Stephanus de Trewynt. Henricus de la Pomerey. Iohannes filius Willi.

The poore Cotager contenteth himselfe with Cob for his wals. [54] The Westerne are better trauaileable. Horse. at Foy. Of these. lay them with earthen morter. at S. two bridges of the same name. and Milbrook. build their walles thinne. vpon Camel. at Helston. at Golsinni. and outward. that in the middle part of the Countie. Iames day. Eliz. for their amendement. September. Fayres there are many. at S. For maintenance of traffike by buying and selling. &c. 25. Ies. On S. as it is not continued by any. the statute 18. S. In Trig H. at Bodmyn. April 24. Bodmyn and Launceston are the greatest: this as placed in the broadest. and New Bridge. raise them to three or foure stoaries. Dilland & Helland. and Perin. And in Penwith Hundred. and Truro. they seat their dwellings high. Bartholmews. at Camelford. besides many vp-hils and downe-hils. S. Grampord. and Thatch for his couering: as for Brick and Lath walles. Wade. some of which here ensue. Iune 11. and Liskerd. Saltash. In Powder H. at Minhinet. and at S. at Liskerd.now-adayes. and Marcasiow. Michaels mount. Laurence. at Launceston. Vpon Deuon. Foy riuer. at the Towne of the same name. for they are worth no curious enquiry. Tregny. Tregny. are in the Easterne part of Cornwall. on the Natiuitie of our Lady. Grampord. Fala riuer. Lostwithiel. at Launceston. On the North coast. and Camelford. at Pensants. In Lesnewith H. at Saltash. and so step forth to their personal. at Loo. Thomas transl. In Stratton H. the Romanes did not extend theirs so farre: but those layd out of later times. Trywartheuy. is reasonably wel executed. 24. Lyner. On the Assumption of our Lady. coueting chiefly prospect and pleasure. S. Probus. Stephens. Pelint. Margets day. Helston. This entercourse is obtayned by high wayes and Bridges: for highwayes. at S. at Bottreaux Castle. at Loo. there are weekely markets kept: In the Hundred of East. by reason either of their mire or stones. Reprin. Helston. Mathews day. on S. May 1. Laurence day. Colombs Iuly. vneasy. Germaines. at Lostwithiel. Marie weeke. mould their lights large. as lesse subiect to these discommodities: generally. the riuer Tamer hath Polston. at Lalant. S. . Columbs. It resteth. Nighton. that after the Cornish Inhabitants reall priuate estate. and their roofes square and slight. they can hardly brooke the Cornish weather: and the vse thereof being put in triall by some. In Kerier Hun. at Bodmin. In west H. Launceston. on S. On S. or Niot. S. at Kellington. I speake of their entercourse and traffike. Perin. that at Noddetor. Loo riuer. at S. As for Glasse and Plaister for priuate mens houses. August 1. Seton. on S. Lostwithiel. was found so vnprofitable. March 13. Bridges. and Loo. Gresham. Probus. they are of late yeeres introduction.

Touching the personall estate of the Cornish Inhabitants. On S. by alike. ap Tuder. And it is likewise obserued by strangers. they partake in some sort with their kinsmen the Welsh: for as the Welshmen catalogize ap Rice. (or at least) no rateable deduction. is driuen to exceed them in quantitie of measure. to begin with their name in generall. being least in the East parts. at Bodmyn. Nouember. as was payd in the market for the bigger. from 18. intitle one another with his owne & his fathers christen name. maketh a price for the lesser to follow with little. Touching wayghts. that the Cornish miles are much longer then those about London. they sell at home to their neighbours. dwelling at Pendaruis. at S. did specially exempt those appertayning to the cunnage. not only from others. I learne by master Camden (who. they cannot abate the higher to this proportion: and yet from the want of this reformation. foote. Besides. by strangers.October. as the Arch-antiquarie Iustus Lipsius testifieth of him. So doth their Pearch exceed that of other Countries. gallons the bushell. by the smaller meafure. Touching their particular denominations. at Treuenna in Tintagel. Nicholas day. there ensue many inconueniences. Britanniae nebulas claro ingenij sole illustrauit) that Ptolomey calleth them Damnonii. that they should be priuiledged to continue their former vsage. And because traffike cannot bee exercised without waights and measures. and deliuer it to the transporting Marchant. betweene 18. the statute 12. for the Farmer that hath the greatest bushell at the market. I can impute this generall enlargement of saleable things. ap Griffin. Dionise day. and Aretemidorus. 7. but more compendious maner. where they measure Oates by the hogshead. whom their memorie can reach vnto: So the Westerne Cornish. if at least the wearinesse of their bodies (after so painefull a iourney) blemish not the coniecture of their mindes. to no cause sooner. gallons the bushell. &c. to equall others in quality of price. which made a generall ordinance therein. Leonards day. Thomas. vntill they end in the highest of the stock. then the Cornish mans want of vent and money. to 24. which amounteth vnto 18. the [55] rest of the weeke. at Launceston and Tregny. and 24. Katherins day. In measures the Shire varieth. his yonger brother . at 16. but also in it selfe: for they haue a land-measure. who therethrough. for the same summe. and increasing to the Westwards. where the Saxons haue not intruded their newer vsances. There are also some Ingrossers. in Deuon and Cornwall. a word or two of them. on S. Strabo Ostidamnii. The land-measure differeth in diuers places. December. H. on S. is called Iohn Thomas Pendaruis. Rich. on S. Cossini. as Iohn. and conclude with the place of his dwelling. ap Lewellin. is sixteene gallons the bushell. after 18. ap Owen. and a water-measure: the water-measure. The Iustices of peace haue oftentimes indeuoured to reduce this variance to a certaintie of double Winchester: but though they raysed the lower. the sonne of Thomas. viz. of things sold at the ships side (as salt and peason) by the Inhabitants. who buy Wheat of the husbandman.

but are fayne to borrow of the English: mary. Through which meanes. alias Godolghan. Pol. he vouched many wordes of one sence in both. or at least had some acquayntance with the Greeke: and besides diuers reasons which hee produced to proue the same. and many other. that the Cornish tongue was deriued from. the other to Rescrowe. by remoouing their dwellings. the one to Carnsew. then the Greekes for Ineptus. . Richard Thomas Pendaruis. two brethren of the Thomasses. as the Welsh. horse white. a little Citie: Cosowarth. alias. as Godolfin. with throat letters.is named. the greene Castle on the hill: which Gentlemen giue such Armes. to Carclew. the French for Stand. who beareth a Wolfe passant. You shall know the Cornishmen. Deaw. which soundeth the lost Goat: and a Goate he beareth for his coate: Carminow. the English for Emulus. diuers Gent. This language is stored with sufficient plenty to expresse the conceits of a good wit. Others they have not past two or three naturell. which signifie a Towne. Wonnen. and differeth onely in the dialect. and a head: whence grew the common by-word. Reskimer. and spitefull nick-names. a white Eagle: Chiwarton. as Father ours. &c. as for example : [56] Greeke Teino Mamma Episcopos Klyo Didaskein Kyon Kentron Methyo Scaphe Ronchos Cornish Tedna Mamm Escoppe Klowo Dathisky Kye Kentron Methow Scapth Ronche English Draw Mother Bishop Heere To teach Dogge Spurre Drink Boat Snorting. And as the Cornish names hold an affinity with the Welsh. so is their language deduced from the same source. or the Irish for Knaue. Pol. the high Groue. Carnsew. one master Thomas Williams. discoursed once with mee. A friend of mine. Most of them begin with Tre. and Pen. Pidder. &c. &c. Tre. Neither doe they want some signification. March guiddn. the great Dogges race. a Top. But the Cornish is more easie to bee pronounced. &c. By Tre. They place the adiective after the substantive. this want is releeuved with a flood of most bitter curses. both in prose and rime: yet they can no more giue a Cornish word for Tye. a black rock: his house Bokelly. as Trengoue to Nance. and not so vnpleasing in sound. Bonithon. Carndew. and others haue changed their names. like the Grecians and Latines. 1 2 3 4 In numbring they say. or Pen.

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Pimp. I can speake no Saxonage. Iammez: Walter. great head: pedn mowzack. ten thousand mischiefs in thy guts. Dobby: Rafe. Molla tuenda laaz. and eclipsing (somewhat like the Somersetshire men) specially in pronouncing the names: as Thomas they call. [57] Frowncis: Iames. Mille. Cecco: Dominick. But the principall loue and knowledge of this language. Stampoli: Adrianople. whorra: priest. who terme Frauncis. Relauta: by my troth. cazock. and the ten commaundements. stinking head: and so in Infinitum. Daaui: Mary. Adrina: an Olifant. Wheytack. 10000. liued in Doctor Kennall the Ciuilian. and hath driuen the same into the vttermost skirts of the shire. Maari: Frauncis. Punthack. Naw. notwithstanding thogh they witnes their spite on the one side. Eath. holding herein a contrary course of extension to the Italians abridgement. Cans. he will never 'scrip' (escape) it. Trenestatha. a thousand vengeances take thee. Puzwarthack. is Good morrow to you. as to a stranger they will not speake it: for if meeting them by chance. Durdatha why. Nichlaaz: Reginald. Meea nauidua cowzasawzneck. Watty: Robert. . with a broad and rude accent. deuils head: Pedn brauze. he is nothing 'pridy' (handsome). Zith. is good and pure. Zitack. Fatlugan a why: How do you? Da durdalathawhy: Wel I thanke you. Beco : Lawrence. A a a a a sister. in part. The English which they speake. Dowthack. Most of the Inhabitants can no word of Cornish. 1000. Warrasay: by my fayth. and the Easterne Marchants: but they disgrace it. coggaz: partridge. Pedn ioll. they call Whoore: whoore. to Cola. Clemmcowe. Reinol: David. Fil: and the Sicilians. who curtayle Nicholas. Deag. Renzo: as also to the Turks. haue beene used in Cornish beyond all remembrance. grigear: Mare. Deaw Egganz. as receyuing it from the best hands of their owne Gentry. 13 14 15 16 17 18 Tarnack. you inquire the way or any such matter. but very few are ignorant of the English: and yet some so affect their owne. Benetugana: Farewell. Molla. &c. the Apostles Creed. yet retayne they as great a proofe of their deuotion on the other: for the Lords Prayer. Betha why Iawanneck: Be you mery. 19 20 40 100. Whey. Naunzack. Which termes. Tummas & Tubby: Mathew. Good night. Eygganz. they haue taken vp certayne peculiar phrases. Raw: Clemence. Tis not 'bezibd' (fortuned) to me: Thou hast no 'road' (ayme). your answere shal be. Itack. Mille vengeance warna thy. which require a speciall Dictionarie for their interpretation: of which kinde are. and with him lyeth buryed: for the English speach doth still encroche vpon it. Besides these. Mathaw: Nicholas. Ednack. who name Constantinople.

Which policy the French were driuen vnto. in their Indies. if you match it with other champion Shires. where it is written. but also the title of proprietie. Some holde the affirmatiue. vpon any sodaine occasion. to make them passable. and the desolate walks in the Mores. thereabouts. where whole streets. methinks. and vouch to prooue it. to make head. Ich to Ick. and manured. you cannot easily make choyce to stand in any one of them. 'lidden' (by-word). in ensuing Bodins rate. Lacedemon. and continue in vse amongst the Dutch: as Nimme commeth of Nimpt: Vang. because the plenty of hils & valleys. I may gather the same to be better inhabited. saue in such townes. to Erbnuss. and the enemie in so far a march and retrait. or some: twentie. whether Cornwall haue heretofore beene better stored with people. The other rude termes. that for this reason. that which lyeth: which termes. in the deare price of farmes or bargaines. the dust which riseth: Brusse. Lading. should aduenture a greater hazard to bee distressed by the way. or some: ten. a sufficient number for their owne defence.'boobish' (lubberly). is properly the cutting of little chippes from a stick. 'hoase' (forbeare). or same: as two. may yet proportionably be gessed at by the musters taken of the able men (hereafter set downe) which wee will value at a third part of the whole. But another question falleth sometimes into scanning. as also the ruines yet resting in the wilde Moores. so they want but another Spencer. The residue retired into the heart of the land. in Edward the thirds time. then it is now. To reproue one of lazines. alleadging the reasons heretofore touched. 'thew' (threaten). My last proofe is grounded on this. they will say. that where the most part of the shire is seuered into inclosures. Doest thou make Idle a coate? that is. the generall decay of Inland townes. contayneth more dwellings then Megalopolis. as were able to muster. or some: id est. vpon a longer warning. haue begotten a seuen-fold race of cotages neere the sea side. Cund to Cundigen. Touching the decayed Inland townes. which extendeth vnto fiftie. a coate for idlenes? In coniecturing what number may effect a thing. He that cannot conceiue this. by which mine assent is rather swayed: for I suppose that those waste grounds were inhabited. which testifie a former inhabitance. our naturall language. may plead in their defence. they adde. they are counteruayled with a surplusage of increase of those on the coast. So Thwyting. and the benefit of significancy: for most of them take their source from the Saxon. within a like circuit of miles. aboue a quarter of a mile distance from . of Fieng: the one importing a taking by ones selfe: the other by deliuery: both which we now confound. And thus much of Cornwall compared with it selfe: now. not onely the prescription of antiquitie. Pilme. namely. they might sooner assemble from all sides. pay tribute to Comdowne Castle. afford a large quantity of ground thereunto. 'skew' (shunne). being but fourty eight furlongs in compasse. The number of Cornish Inhabitants. vpon the Englishmens [58] often roades. 'dule' (comfort). as they expresse our meaning more directly. 'shune' (strange). though it cannot directly bee summed. and the Spaniards make vse of at this day. where. when the Saxons and Danes continual inuasions draue them to abandon the sea coasts. may read Polibius in his 9 booke. wherewith Deuon and Cornish men are often twyted. to Geladen: eruing goods. besides particular houses. Others incline againe to the negatiue.

rauine. . or Aborigenes. Camden. raptus venerem. their death. caenacula rupes. The first Inhabitants. the bleeding wound . Such was Keby son to Solomon prince of Cor. huge of body. which therethrough he endowed with his name. For drinke. Combate. through the conuersation of forraine Marchants trading into their countrey for Tyn. grew to a larger measure of ciuility. Praeda cibos. This was the Titans haunt. dumeta thoros. dennrs . From which ciuility. Chiefe foyson had. rough of liuing. whome an old Poet desciphered in certaine verses. Mortem pugna. the Cornish peoples disposition & quality of mind and body. terror maiorque premebat. for lust. they stepped a degree farder to holines. And forest fury prest Thee. who if my author [59a] the Legend lye not) after that (like another Iohannes de temporibus) he had liued two hundred yeres with perfect health. in the fruitful age of Canonization. succeed to be surueyed. A headlong brunt. and dire dismay. And such were Dubslane. But afterwards. force. Their games. monstrisque gemebat Monticolis tellus. & Manslunum. language. pocula trunci: Antra lares. which he since hath published. Whom beasts raw hides for clothing seru'd. rocks. & helped to stuffe the church kalender with diuers Saints. & sauage of conditions. impetus arma. and generally well-deseruing Countreyman M. Their beds. and then their degrees and recreations. as the Paynims held. by the testimony of Diodorus Siculus. either made or borne Cornish. the Cornishmen. that with utmost bound Of Zephire art possest. animos furor. Sed paucis famulosa domus. Te furor extremum Zephiri Cornubia limen. Pars erat Occidui. for their food. brakes. Cups. now Clarentieulx. After the names. their courage. hollow trees. Which sound thus in English. such Peran. who (I speake vpon Math. life-reauing knocks. Their Empire. quibus vda ferarum Terga dabant vestes. but with No plenty did abound. The earth groan'd at the harmes Of these mount-harbour'd monsters : but The coast extending West. sepulchra rubus. brambles. and number thus perused. --Titanibus ilia. their graue. which I receiued of my particular kind friend. Imperium vires. sed eorum plurima tractus. but more remoted Ilanders. their armes . Prey. Cornwall. as well ancient as present. their lodging. tooke his last rest in a Cornish parish.some dwelling house. then others their fellow. resembled those whom our stories affirme Brute to haue found here at his landing. spectacula caedes. parlour. cruor haustus. rage . Machecu.

of Westm. credit) forsooke Ireland, thrust themselues to sea, in a Boat made of three Oxe skinnes and a halfe, with seuen daies victuall, and miraculously arriued in Cornwall. Of Cornishmen, whose industrie in learned knowledges hath recommended their fame to their posterity, these few as yet are onely come to my notice: [1170] Iohn of Cornwall, a student at Rome, and other places in Italy, wrote of the Incarnation of Christ, against Peter Lumbard, and dedicated the same to Pope Alexander the third, by whom he was highly fauoured. [1201] Simon Thurnay, after he had out-gone all the Oxford schollers in prophane learning (sayth the commendably paynefull Antiquarie, and my kind friend, Master Hooker) passed from thence to Paris, and there so profited in the study of diuinitie, that he attayned the chiefest place amongst the profound Sorbonists. But it was a windy knowledge that thus filled his sayles of glory, which grew at last so to tempest his wittes, as he held Aristotle superior to Moses and Christ, and yet but equall to himselfe. But this extreame surquedry, forfeyted his wittes, so as at last they could not serue him to know any letter in the booke, or to remember ought that he had done. In King Henry the thirds time, liued Michael of Cornwall, admirable (as those dayes gaue) for his variety of Latine rimes, who maintayned the reputation of his Countrey, against Henry de Abrincis, the Kings Arch-Poet, but somewhat angerly, as it seemeth by these verses against the said de Abrincis: Est tibi gamba capri, crus Passeris, & latus Apri, Os leporis, catuli nasus, dens & gena muli, Frons vetulae, tauri caput, & color vndique Mauri His argumentis, quibus est argutia mentis, Quod non a Monstro differs, satis hic tibi monstro. [1292] Walter of Exon, a Franciscane Frier of Carocus in Cornwall, at the request of Baldwin of Exon (de-) formed the Historie of Guy of Warwick. Godfrey, surnamed of Cornwall, was about that time a cunning Schoole-man, and Diuinitie Reader in Paris. [1342] William de Grenefild, from the Deanry of Chichester, stepped to the Chauncellorship of England, and Archbishoprick of York, under K. E. the first. In Ed, the seconds daies, one Geffrey of Cornwall, is remembred for a writer. Iohn Treuisa, a Cornishman, liued in R. the 2. raigne, & translated diuers books into English. King Henry the fift not vnmindfull of the ciuiller Arts amongst his Martiall exployts, founded an Vniversitie at Caen in Normandie, & appointed Michael Tregury of Cornwall, for his rare gifts in learning, to bee Gouernour thereof. In Henry the sixts time, Iohn Skewish compiled certaine abbridgements of Chronicles, and the warres of Troy.

King Henry the 7. promoted Iohn Arundel for his learning, to the sea of Excester. Neither is Thomas Triuet to be forgotten, as a writer, [60] though he haue grauen his memory in a fairer letter, by building the costly bridge at Bridge-water, of which sometimes he was Lord. Within our remembrance Cornwall hath bred or harboured Diuines, graced with the degree Doctorship, Moreman Tremayn, Nichols and Rolls. Bachelers, Medhope, Stowel, Moore, Denis. Of Preachers, the shire holdeth a number, plentifull in regard of other shires, though not competant to the full necessity of their owne, all commendably labouring in their vocation, though not endowed with an equal ability to discharge the same. In the Ciuil law there liued of late Doctor Kennals, & now doth Doctor Carew, one of the ancientest masters of the Chauncerie; in which calling, after his yonger yeres spent abroad to his benefit, he hath reposed himselfe. Bachelers there are Carnsew, Kete, & Denis. Barristers at the Common law, Chiuerton, Tremayne, Skawn, Michel, Moyle, Courtnay, Tub, Treffry, Sayer. These testifie the honesty of their carriage by the mediocrity of their estate: and (if they will giue me leaue to report a iest) do verify an old Gentlemans prophesie, who said that there stood a man at Polton bridge (the first entrance into Cornwall, as you passe towards Launceston, where the Assizes are holden) with a blacke bill in his hand, ready to knock downe all the great Lawyers, that should offer to plant themselues in that Countie. In earnest, whether it be occasioned through the countries pouerty, or by reason of the far distance thereof from the supremer Courts, or for that the multiplicity of petty ones neere at hand, appertaining to the Dutchy, Stannary, and Franchises, do enable the attourneyes and such like of small reading, to serue the peoples turne, and so curtail the better studied Counsellours profiting; once certayne it is, that few men of Law, haue either in our time, or in that of our forefathers, growne heere to any supereminent height of learning, liuely-hood or authoritie. Of like fortune, but lesse number are the Phisicions; by how much the fewer, by so much the greater witnesses of the soyles healthfulnes. The most professors of that science in this Country, sauing only one Io. Williams, can better vouch practise for their warrant, then warrant for their practise. Amongst these, I reckon Rawe Clyes a black Smith by his occupation, and furnished with no more learning, then is suteable to such a calling, who yet hath ministred Phisike for many yeeres, with so often successe & general applause, that not only the home-bred multitude beleeueth mightily in him, but euen persons of the better calling, resort to him from remote parts of the realme, to make trial of his cunning, by the hazard of their liues; & sundry, either vpon iust cause, or to cloke their folly, report that they haue reaped their errands end at his hands. But farre more commendable is M. Atwel, sometimes Parson of Caluerly in Deuon, & now of S. Tue in Cornwall. For besides other parts of learning, with which he hath bene seasoned, he is not vnseene in the Theoricks of Phisike, & can out of them readily and probably discourse, touching the nature and accidents of all diseases. Besides, his iudgment in vrines commeth little behind the skilfullest in that profession. Mary his practise is somewhat strange and varying from all others: for though now and then he vse blood-letting, and doe ordinarily minister Manus Christi, and such like cordials, [61] of his owne compounding (a poynt fitting well with my humour,

as enabling nature, who best knoweth how to worke) yet mostly for all diseases he prescribeth milk, and very often milk and apples, a course deepely subiect to the exception of the best esteemed Practitioners; and such notwithstanding, as whereby either the vertue of the medicine, or the fortune of the Phisicion, or the credulitie of the Patient, hath recouered sundry out of desperate and forlorne extremities. This his reputation is of many yeeres standing, and maintayneth it selfe vnimpayred. But the same soareth to an higher pitch, by the helpe of another wing, and that is, his liberalitie. On the poore he bestoweth his paines & charges gratis: of the rich he taketh moderately, but leaues the one halfe behind, in gift amongst the houshould, if he be called abroad to visit any: The rest together with the profits of his benefice (rather charitably accepted then strictly exacted from his Parishioners) he powreth out with both hands in pios vsus, and will hardly suffer a penny to sleepe, but neuer to dwell with him. Few Townes there are in Cornwall, or any other shire between that and London, which haue not in some large measure tasted of his bountie. None commeth in kindnes to see him, but departed gratifyed with somewhat, if his modestie will accept it. Briefly, his sound affection in religion, is so wayted on by honesty of life, and pleasantnesse of conuersation, that in Fabritius his voluntary pouertie, he is an equall partner of his honour, and possesseth a large interest in the loue of his neighbours. My loue to vertue, and not any particular beholdingnes, hath expressed this my testimony. For persons imployed in state affaires, and there-through stept to preferment, that I may not outstride late remembrance, Sir Richard Edgecumb the elder, was Comptroller of the houshold, and priuie Counseller to King Henry the seuenth, being sent by him also in diuers Ambassades, in one of which to the Duke of Britaine he deceased. King Henry the eight made like vse in this last kind, of Iohn Tregonwel, who graduated a Doctor, and dubbed a Knight, did his Prince good seruice, and left faire reuenewes to his posterity. Sir Thomas Arundel, a younger brother of Lanhearn house, maried the sister to Queene Katherine Howard, & in Edward the 6. time was made a priuie Counseller: but cleauing to the Duke of Somerset, he lost his head with him. Sir Henry Killigrew, after Ambassades and messages, and many other employments of peace and warre, in his Princes seruice, to the good of his Countrey, hath made choyce of a retyred estate, and reuerently regarded by all sorts, placeth his principall contentment in himselfe, which, to a life so well acted, can no way bee wanting. Master George Carew, in his yonger yeeres gathered such fruit, as the Vniuersitie, the Innes of Court, and forrayne trauell could yeeld him: vpon his returne, he was first called to the Barre; then supplyed the place of Secretarie to the Lord Chauncellour Hatton; and after his decease, performed the like office to his two successours, by speciall recommendation from her Maiestie, who also gaue him the Prothonotaryship of the Chauncery, and in anno, 1598. sent him Ambassadour [62] to the King of Poland, and other Nothern Potentates' where, through vnexpected accidents, he vnderwent

by his long trauell. the absolutest man of war for precise obseruing martiall rules which his dayes afforded. by his present valiant cariage in Ireland. by meanes of her Highnes bounty. vntill. & the second of the three Christian worthies by desert: whom (if you so please) that Captayne of Armes and Venery. hath affoorded a far larger proportion of well deseruing and employed members. Sir Tristram. after his trauell and following the warres vnder the Emperour Maximilian. his son Iohn took hold of euery martiall occasion that was ministred him. 7. vsed his seruice in great trust. albeit they fall not within the compasse of my knowledge. as appeared by the skarres hee brought home. took prisoner one Duncane Camel. with competent pentions out of her owne cofers. a King of Britaine by succession. purchased loue amongst his acquaintance. no lesse to the beautifying of his fame. H. Arthur claimeth the first mention. for the teachers at Saltash. testifyed his good liking by his liberality. & the more willingly to resign his life in the vnfortunate Mary Rose. who (by a rare temperature of vertues) breathed courage into his soldiers. I will end with master William Lower. &. vpon a long fight at sea. as Captaine. late captaine of Sir Frauncis . the second Sir Ric. that Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerne. shall accompany. though by inhabitance a Calisian. a hardy Scottish Pirate. & for martial affaires. then the disfiguring of his face: Whose Nephew. then easily to be discerned for which he deserueth principall commendation himselfe. hath so inriched himselfe with sufficiency for matters of policy. and at this present the common wealth vseth his seruice. with martiall employments abroad: whereof the K. where H. when he found none other to compare withall in his life. no doubt. & of the whole fleet as Vice-admirall) that it seemed thereby. to the good of their Prince and Countrey. for which his name is recorded by sundry forrain writers and his vndertaking to people Virginia and Ireland. In descending to martiall men. More assured I am. & he performed his duty in acceptable maner. and Perin. a Cornishman by birth. Which domestical example. the 8: for our Chronicles report it. A disposition & successe equally fatall to that house: for his sonne againe. Neither may I without wrong passe ouer Captaine George Wray in silence. Godolphin also demeaned himselfe very valiantly in a charge which hee bare beyond the seas. and bred dismay in his enemies. Greinuile the elder enterlace his home Magistracy. that it is better knowne. besides his commendable sufficiencie of head and hand for inuention and execution. the Ocean became his bedde of honour. and of which the Spaniard may say with Pirrhus. how far he outgoeth most others in both. I must make a great leap (which conuinceth me an vnworthy associat of the antiquary Colledge) to Sir Iohn Naphant who (if I mistake not) was by country a Cornish man. A victorious losse for the realme. Launceston. Cornwall. So did Sir Rich. Or captaine Hender. three market townes of the County. it is likely that the succeeding age wil much encrease the number. he striued through a vertuous enuy to exceed it in his death. encouraged his sonne Roger the more hardily to hazard. who to that end hath established seed-plots of free Schooles. vnder the command of Sir Walter Ralegh. in seruice against her Highnesse enemies. Sir Wil. of the same name and dignity. Towards the end of that Kings raine. made so glorious a conclusion in her Maiesties ship the Reuenge (of which he had charge. as a Master of the Chauncery. against the great Turke. that many such conquests would beget his vtter ouerthrow. From them.extraordinary perils. Lastly. and presented him to K. and Cardinal Wolsey owned him for his first master. but God freed him from them.

one Beauchamp to 106. that Cornwall at this present enioyeth the residence of none at al. &c healthfull constitution of their bodies. who hath opened the war schoole vnto a great many Cornish young gentlemen. threw a stone of some pounds wayght. whose yeres added together. so for Noblemen. viz. liked better to transplant their possessions neerer to the heart of the Realme. and yet neuer tugged with him. Bottraux Castle vaunted his Baron of that title. partly. a free-Mason. committed to Launceston Gayle for the last Cornish commotion. One Polzew. a Ioyner. sixe bushels of wheaten meale. And in the parish where God hath seated my poore dwelling. & 90. within 14. Iohn Romane. by I wote not how many reuolutions. with all the due parts of honour. and in most persons. weekes space. yea Brawne the begger. would beare the whole carkase of an Oxe. and the Miller a lubber of foure and twenty yeres age. For strength. a short clownish grub. actiue. he may professe of the mechanicall. employed by her Maiestie amongst others. a kinsman of his. by inhabitance) though Irish by birth. retayning the honour. one Kiltor. reckoning fifteen gallons to the bushel. a Milwright. &c. made vp the summe of 340. mettall founder. Conquerours dayes. both now descended to the Earles of Huntingdon: the last deceased of which. in the peace gouernment of the shire. that vnder his conduct sought to conforme themselues to his patterne. a Gentleman for his good parts. while hee so well deserues it. at one time. For Mechanical sciences the old Veale of Bodmyn might iustly expostulate with my silence. Phisicion. The Cornish minds thus qualified. a Caruer. for that their issue male. & quid non? yea a Surgeon. out-scoreth a hundred winters. a Clockmaker. laying there in the castle-greene vpon his back. I may deliuer in a word. So as that which Gorgias of Leontium vaunted of the liberall sciences. when hee was a Calfe. to Gentlemen of the Easterne parts: and partly. . like that so famous Milo. touching each whereof a little in particular. though we shall haue a fitter generall occasion to discourse therof.Veres companie in Netherland. This man hath beene so beholden to Mercuryes predominant strength in his natiuitie. that without a teacher hee is become very skilfull in welneere all manner of handy-crafts: a Carpenter. Elder times were not so barraine: for besides the Lord Tregoyes in Wil. together with the Inheritance. are the better enabled to expresse the same by the strong. to 112. where we handle their passetimes. is ordinary in euery place. lately liuing. The occasion whereof groweth. For activity. Now to the degrees of their seuerall callings. one Iohn Bray (well knowne to me as my tenant) carried vpon his backe. if I should not spare him a roome in his Suruey. I remember the decease of foure. which leadeth into the parke. little affecting [64] so remote a corner. accompanied with an able vse of the body & his sences. to be ignorant in none. euerie way accomplished. yeres age. For health. departed with the land to my kinde friend master Iohn Hender. wherein as I will poast ouer the Dukes to another place. reached vnto 130. vpon the whole. a Cornishman by wandring (for I cannot say. by the space welneere of a Butte length. 80. Alchumist. ouer that Towres top. Architect. because their issue female haue caried away the Inhabitance.

that all Cornish gentlemen are cousins. hath wrought many interchangeable matches with eche others stock. but not costly builded or furnished houses. find their improuident couetous humour punished with going barefoot. but that it admitteth his exceptions: for there are diuers. stayed in his cariage. and giuen beginning to the prouerbe. to equall the expences of those Easterne dwellers. A Gentleman and his wife will ride to make mery with his next neighbour. and is also issued from one of those Earles of Deuons sisters and heyres. maintayneth the reputation. who reckon by the hundreds: besides. one that by his courteous. The Lord Bray dwelt at [blank]: the Lord Brooke. solde to Sir William Mohun. who came in with the Conquerour. which endeth in an injurious consequence. later ordinarily treble the certaine reuennue of their rents) enable them with their few scores. then their liuelyhood: for that. as I haue elsewhere touched: yet this rule is not so generall. & often visit one another. make euen at the yeeres end with the profits of their liuing. lawing. law and marchandise. and now resi- . the cheapnes of their prouisions. and liberall course of life. afford the more inward Inhabitants of the Realme.The Lord Bonuile his house was at Trelawne. a Knight well spoken. and after a day or twayne. Gentlemen descended from those. lately purchased of her Highnes. The most Cornish Gentlemen can better vaunt of their pedigree. and encreaseth the loue alwayes borne his ancestours. as I find recorded to haue come in with the Conquerour. They conuerse familiarly together. whose patrimonies extend to a large proportion. or such like. alias. to lay downe the names of such Cornish gentlemen. liue void of factions amongst themselues (at leastwise such as breake out into anie daungerous excesse) and delight not in brauerie of apparrell: yet the women would be verie loth to come behind the fashion. & for the residue. they finde meanes by a suruey. and fines (which 2. where one of them hath his tombe: the Lord Marney at Colquite: and the Lord Denham at Cardenham. at Kellington. but that some. Trelawney. and their casualties of Tyn. which may perhaps ouer-empty their husbands purses. in gaping for dead mens shooes. This angle which so shutteth them in. that the king hath there no cousins. they deriue from great antiquitie. Boconnock also appertained to the Earles of Deuon. One cause there is of both proceeding from the want of those supplies. giue kind entertainement to strangers. in [65] newfanglednes of the maner. those two couples goe to a third: in which progresse they encrease like snowballs. by Sir Ionathan Trelawny. and of thrifty prouidence. (and I make question. now resteth in Sir Reignald Mohun his sonne. And heere I thought requisite. to defray any extraordinarie charge of building. This together with other fayre possessions. who deriued his pedigree from the ancient Barons of that name. are reuerenced and beloued of their neighbours. They keepe liberall. and was by Frauncis Earle of Bedford. Yet I cannot denie. whether any shire in England. which seruice. till through their burdensome waight they breake againe. can muster a like number of faire coate-Armours) whereas this declineth to the meane.iust. if not in costlynes of the matter. marriage. of but equall quantitie.

Chaumont. then others elsewhere by choyce. Bluet. Barret. From Gentility. alias. Which error their posteritie likewise ensued. to a great many my Countrymen. and to note onely. that of diuers Gentlemen there haue bene in Cornwall. to my much reuerenced friends the Heralds. . the Armes of one stocke were greatly diuersified in the younger braunches. Karrow. If the variety of Armes disclaime from any of these names. that before these later petty differences grew in vogue. or the supposall of commodities there arising. Semtabyn. that diuers Cornish Gentlemen. Miners. Beauchamp. Mohun. then perfect collection of most of the Cornish Gentlemens names & Armes: But because the publishing thereof might perhaps goe accompanied with diuers wrongs. for building of shipping. but an emulation against them. alias. Arundell. alias. alias. both which (when need requireth) furnish her Maiesties nauy with good store of very seruiceable Mariners. as also. as if one member in a body could continue his wel-being without a beholdingnes to the rest. which the scite vpon the sea proffereth vnto many. Saulay.ding in Cornwall. haue left their owne coats. either their names are worne out. which is or should be in the townesmen. whom my want of information should be forced to passe ouer vnmentioned. Beuill. Carew. Bluat. Mowne. I will not say a malice. which the disease of discontent affecteth. Bray. & some others giue themselues to fishing voyages. Denis. Samtalbin. or the warrantize from ouerlooking & bearing. by thrusting my sickle into their haruest. Those in Cornwall do no more by nature. conceiue themselves an estranged society from the vpland dwellers. we wil descend to ciuility. and traffiking in grosse: yet some of the Easterne townes piddle that way. Bellet. Rouse. borne yonger brothers. and to the truth it selfe. Chamond. Pomeray. Basset. & honoured those of their wiues with the first quarter of their shields. and cary. I will not stand vpon a stiffe iustification: and yet it is to bee noted. alias. into other families: as likewise. are lately denized Cornish. or the loue of quiet in so remote a corner. Malet. Courtenay. and accruing. & Artificers labours at the weekly markets. or their liuings transferred by the females. alias. and aduanced by match. where my report (relying vpon other mens credits) might through their errour intitle me the publisher (though not the author) of falshood: I rather thought fit altogether to omit it. being generally drawne thither (besides other more priuate respects) through eyther the desire of change. Saule. I had also made a more paynful. where little difference in quality tendeth to an [66] equality in estates. Very few among them make vse of that oportunity. Their chiefest trade consisteth in vttering their petty marchandises. sundry of those there now inhabiting. Greinuile.

namely. and abandoned streets. an act of Parliament was made for repayring. they receyued in answere. Lostwithiel. to which sundrie old folke had so accustomed their youth. and for all furniture a pad and halter. a mazer and a panne or two. that neither such an outcorner was frequented with many wayfarers. but those of the Inland. or forestalling at the Townes end. I can say little. Suteable hereunto was their dwelling. as all other English folke vsed before R. and therefore I will step downe the next staire to husbandmen. few partitions. so much linen cloth had not yet stepped ouer the narrow channell. the 2. with little hazard. Bodmyn. Anno 32. other then a hole in the wall to let out the smoke: their bed. course in matter. and to make great prouision vpon small hope of vtterance. cheese. or at best. If I mistake not the cause. God wotte what liquor: their meat. the sea-coast Townes begin to proclaime their bettering in wealth. their grounds lay all in common. sowre milke. as too true an euidence. who were tyed by the one legge at pasture: their apparell. To conclude. Truro. rubbed forth their estate in the poorest plight. amongst others. as they call it. on which the meaner countrie wenches of the westerne parts doe yet ride astride. complayning how it kept them ouer hote. no planchings or glasse windows. betweene them and Brittaine. for any difference from that of other shires. to haue bin an effect of the countries impouerishing. Strangers occasioned to trauaile through the shire.There are (if they be not slaundered) that hunt after a more easie then commendable profit. 8. low thatched roofes. and then. no lesse sharply then truly. seeing Aspettare. that they are admitted no partners in this amendment. wife brought in the side saddle fashion of straw. Their horses shod onlie before. and (I would I could not say) with lesse conscience. that they could hardly abide to weare any shooes. course lodging. Whitsull. were to incurre a skorne-worthy losse. curds. Touching the Yeomanarie of Cornwall. proue them any welcomer ghests then their masters: but in stead of remedy. straw and a blanket: as for sheets. I conceyue their former large peopling. & non venire (saith the same Italian) is one of the tre cose da morire. for the most part. and scarcely any chimnies. did they inuite any. I may with charitie inough wish them still the same fortune: for as is elsewhere touched. to inueigh against the bad drinke. ill shapen in maner: their legges and feet naked and bare. & to that their implements of houshold: walles of earth. These in times not past the remembrance of some yet liuing. were wont. vouch their ruined houses. or onely diuided by stitch-meale: little bread-corne: their drinke. worth the observing. and Helston in Cornwall. the Borough townes of Launceston. but whey: for the richest Farmour in a parish brewed not aboue twyce a yeere. and such like as came from the cow and ewe. by costly encrease of buildings. I cannot relate. [67] butter. milke. and slacke attendance which they found in thosehouses that went for Innes: neither did their horses better entertainment. while the inuasion of forraine enemies draue the Sea-coast Inhabitants to seeke a more safe. but with what fruit to their good. Within late yeeres memorie. comprised all their substance: but now most of these fashions are vniuersally banished. H. like the Italians. nor by hanging out signes. Liskerd. water. then commodious abode in those Inland parts. and the Cornish husbandman conformeth himself with a better supplied ciuilitie to .

they maintaine idlenes. all impietie: for a worse kind of people then these vagabonds. which sendeth ouer yeerely. to the high offence of God and good order. yea and dayly whole Ship-loades of these crooked slips. that this so hainous an enormitie may be both easily and quickly reformed: for let the Constables execute upon the rogues that last most beneficiall Act of Parliament. and working them all the shrewd turnes which with hope of impunitie they can deuise: howbeit. and the terror thereof will free the . We must also spare a roome in this Suruey. of whom few Shires can shew more. Onelie it might be wished. and their consciences lighter: a reporter must auerre no falshood. to the poore. & therethrough in some measure. he can maintaine himselfe & his familie in a competent decencie to their calling. as enured in their obeysance from their ancestors. Surely we finde by experience. and not make choice. Ireland prescribeth to be the nurserie. in combining against. nor conceale any truth. of whose work you may also make some vse: their staruing is not to be feared. weareth out vnto a more milde and conuersable fashion. which hath directed him a more thriuing forme of husbandrie. for pettie supposed wrongs. that herethrough. and those vermine swarme againe in euerie corner: yet those peeuish charitable cannot be ignorant. or apparrell? (and nothing els he ought to be owner of) he must procure them of the worst by free gift. Manie good Statutes haue beene enacted for redresse of these abuses. how fostering a fresh memorie of their expulsion long agoe by the English. heedfully and diligently put in practise: but [68] after the nine dayes wonder expired. because they know no greater. but rather by little and little. or not so much subtiltie and stiffenesse to prosecute them: so should their purses be heauier. it shooteth not to a like extremitie in all places and persons. Lacks he meat. lecherie. you do him wrong. and holding them as Roytelets. for a iust price. One point of their former roughnesse. the care abandoned. or owne fewer then Cornwall. for they may be prouided for at home. some of the Westerne people do yet still retaine. for his prouisions of necessitie and pleasure: for his quarterlie rent serueth rather as a token of subiection to his Land-lord. and findeth monie to bestow weekely at the markets. with due seueritie for one weeke. while you metamorphize him from a begger to a buyer. if they list: no almes therefore should be cast away upon them. theft. drinke. giueth of them. his fine once ouercome. blasphemie. to pay those Lords their rent. their auncient countrimen: namely. of the best. and vpon the first publishing. the law is forgotten. but money least of all: for in giuing him siluer. and in a word. drunkennesse. Well. they second the same with a bitter repining at their fellowship: and this the worst sort expresse. and companie louingly together: to their gentlemen they carrie a verie dutifull regard. wil suffice to releeue an honest poore parishioner for a week. though the rogue laugh you to scorne at night. verifie that testimonie which Mathew Westm. the alewife hath reason the next day to pray for you. then any grieuous exaction on his tenement.the Easterne patterne. and the dishabited townes afford them rooting: so vpon the matter. by changing his vocation. the realme is not pestered withal: what they consume in a day. and our halcion dayes of peace enabled him to applie the lesson: so as. to the robberie of the needy impotent. together with the Welsh. the whole County maketh a contribution. Atheisme. that diuers amongst them had lesse spleene to attempt law-suits. Amongst themselues they agree well.

euery good liuer. make collection among the parishioners. and S. [69] The haruest dinners are held by euery wealthy man. or as wee terme it. Let the neighbour be so pinched by the purse. If the Constables persift in their remisnesse. The afternoones are consumed in such exercises. Thomas by Launceston. the neighbours meet at the Church-house. Church-ales. which by many smalls. Besides. which consist principally in feastes and pastimes. Vpon the first statute. the neighbour parishes. that they are defrauded of their right. and he will become a great deale the more sensible to season his charity with discretion for a long time after. who by his graciousnes in gathering. by appoynting certaine cotagers houses in euery parish to serue. by Liskerd. & other acates. and you are acquited for the whole yere. and though it beare onely the name of a dinner. a helplesse pittie. and good husbandry in expending. to the great charge. The much eating of fish. is reckoned a great breeder of those contagious humours. vnlesse I should eccho some of their complaints. against Whitsontide. and this way frankely spend their money together. which they terme their Saints feast. to be Wardens. of whatsoeuer prouision it pleaseth them voluntarily to bestow. dayly euents minister often pittifull spectacles to the Cornishmens eyes. some being authours of their owne calamity by the forementioned diet. who deuiding the task. especially newly taken. Laurence by Bodmyn: of which. Which experience lessoneth them to illude this later. This they imploy in brewing. S. and some others succeeding therein to an haereditarius morbus of their ancestors: whom we will leaue to the poorest comfort in miserie. and there merily feed on their owne victuals. let the Iustices lay the penalty vpon them. I haue little to say. as olde . Their feasts are commonly haruest dinners. But let me lead you from these vnpleasing matters. which turne into Leprosie: but whence soeuer the cause proceedeth. the deuotion of certaine Cornish Gentlemens ancesters erected at Minhinet. two young men of the parish are yerely chosen by their last foregoers. contributing some petty portion to the stock. Concerning the other. whereto he inuiteth his next neighbours and kinred. and they will no longer hoodwinke themselues at their neighbours faults. but once or twise. but little benefit of the Countrey. this last is well endowed & gouerned. of people visited with this affliction. For the Church-ale. and the solemnizing of their parish Churches dedication. baking. yet the ghests take their supper also with them. can best aduauce the Churches profit. at those times louingly visit one another. vpon which Holydayes. Lazer-houses. to refresh yourselues with taking view of the Cornishmens recreations.parish for a month: vse it a month. and therein principally of the liuers. for that purpose. betweene Michaelmas and Candlemas. and consume a great part of the night after in Christmas rule: neither doth the good cheere wholly expire (though it somewhat decrease) but with the end of the weeke. groweth to a meetly greatnes: for there is entertayned a kinde of emulation betweene these Wardens. nomine tenus. there was a house of correction erected at Bodmin.

least in their exclayming or declayming against Church-ales and Saints feasts. if not my proofes: Of things induced by our forefathers. such rates and taxes as the magistrate imposeth for the Countries defence. & the country eased of that charge to their purse and conscience. some were instituted to a good vse. both condemned these Saints feasts as superstitious. and an enabling of the body by commendable exercises. these be mine assertions. repairing of Churches. Now that Church-ales ought to bee sorted in the better ranke of these twaine. to wit. vaine disports of ministrelsie.and yong folke (hauing leysure) doe accustomably weare out the time withall. by euery housholder of the parish. raising a store. which might be concerted partly to good and godly vses. lasciuiousnes. stept athwart him with these obiections: That hee must pardon my dissenting from his opinion. which ensueth this gourmandise. His reply was. and peruerted to a bad: againe. the Wardens yeeld in their account to the Parishioners. and not perce into the pith. to requite him with the like kindnes. idlenes. amending of high wayes. and the thing it selfe had beene corrupted with such a multitude of abuses. When the feast is ended. such necessary and profitable contributions might stil be continued gratis. their ringleaders did onely regard the rinde. compounding of controuersies. And first touching Church-ales. As for his fore-remembred good causes and effects. it could not be martialled with the sacred matters. let it breed none offence. or the Princes seruice. drunkennesse. building of bridges. by defraying at an instant. and disorderly night-watchings. I doubt. as will not fayle when their like turne cometh about. and that the rest were chiefly swayed by their example: euen as the vulgar. Howbeit. that the best curing was to cut it cleane away. in this volubilitie of praising. I sawe not. that the very title of ale was somewhat nasty. to defray any extraordinary charges arising in the parish. with a neere friend. I do reuerence (sayd he) the calling and iudgement of the Ministers. within his owne dores. maybe gathered from their causes and [70] effects. dauncing. and so continued in the practise. is layd vp in store. touching the goodnesse of the institution: for taken at best. appealing of quarrels. but that somewhat stil remayneth to couer the purses bottome. but that if the peoples mindes were guided by the true leuell of christian charity & duetie. and that the matter controuersed. and partly for the Princes seruice. who (as I conceiue) looked hereinto with an indifferent and vnpreiudicating eye. that if this ordinance could not reach . and such money as exceedeth the disbursments. Of late times. which I thus rasse vp together: entertaining of Christian loue. each entertayning such forrayne acquaintance. Neither of which commonly gripe so much. Briefly. for me to report a conference that I had not long since. as licencious: concerning which. or imposed on them for the good of the Countrey. some were both naught in the inuention. but rather with the ciuill. and suppressed the Church-ales. The Saints feast is kept vpon the dedication day. many Ministers haue by their ernest inuectiues. rather stouped to the wayght of their authoritie. they tende to an instructing of the minde by amiable conference. then became perswaded by the force of their reasons. holdeth some affinity with their profession. as releeuing all sorts of poore people. especially when most of them concurre in one opinion. But I fearing lest my friend would runne himselfe out of breath. conforming of mens behauiour to a ciuill conuersation. if not with the profane.

if you taynt them with suspect: of superstition. that should rather conclude a reformation of the fault. Lams tide. but a matter practised amongst vs from our eldest auncestours. For to prosecute your owne Metaphore (quoth hee) surely I holde him for a sory Surgeon. as other folk did. to serue their humours. that the people might by other meanes be trayned with an equall largesse to semblable workes of charitie. I maintayne neither Paradox. who. nor conceite in nubibus. but. for his part hee would loqui cum vulgo. by successe of time. then an abrogation of the fact. the men from the women: that the meats should be sawced with pleasant. Now touching the Saints feasts. and they may much the sooner bee both espied and redressed. with profitable and well pleasing fruit. vntill it were first thoroughly banished from mariages. because they are held vpon those Saints daies. will reaue the life of his Patient from him. whereas the licour itselfe is the English mans ancientest and wholesomest drinke. with adding onely one word more for my better iustification: that in defending feasts. Mine exception against the title. by the best and strictest disciplined common wealth of the Lacedemonians. then sixepence in coyne. you wrong your iudgement. who (forsooth) would not say Christmas. . and this shilling they would willingly double. doe they not? and yet in these publike meetings. distinguished by degrees of the better and meaner: and seuered into sexes. yet it succeeded the same in the next degree. they are so presented to euery mans sight. doubtlesse. nor Michaelmas. could breed no maner of scandall. but by taking away the lymme. great and many [71] haue. as Catholike Switzers. Where I affirmed. & your iudgement wrongeth mee. but honest talke: that their songs should be of their auncestours honourable actions: the principall time of the morning. that cannot skill to salue a sore. As for the argument of abuse. or what else I listed: mary. he mockingly matched with their scrupulous precisenes. that the drinke should neither be too strong in taste. crept hereinto. pennyworth of ware. Now in such indifferent matters. which he had obserued to be this: that they would sooner depart with 12. diuine. for working them to a good purpose. though hee studied sentire cum sapientibus. and (our Countries patterne) the court: all which should be concluded. or ciuill. to helpe the disease. If you thinke I goe about to defend Church-ales. I would rather (as a Burgesse of this ale-parliament) enact certaine lawes. by which such assemblies should be gouerned: namely. who place therein a principal Arcanum imperij. Christmas reuels.vnto that sanctity which dependeth on the first table. and Candles tide. as appertayning to the second. as well by the reformed. Toms tide. Abuses. nor too often tasted: that the ghests should be enterlarded. and little better then the Phisicion. which I so largely dilated. and serueth many for meate and cloth too. so they might share but some pittance thereof againe. he was contented I should call it Church beere. as into what other almost. or Church wine. as shame somewhat restrayneth the excesse. who had their ordinary Sissitia. and Michaels tide: who (quoth he) by like consequence must also bind themselues to say. yong and old. with all their faults. But if the name of ale relish so ill. but Christs tide. I would haue hallowed to Gods seruice: the after-noones applied to manlike actiuities: and yet I would not altogether barre sober and open dauncing. he suspected lest I did not enter into a through consideration of their nature and qualitie. after the Persian custome. by ages. with a reasonable and seasonable portion of the night: and so (sayd hee) will I conclude this part of my speech. and now in our dayes. both in former ages. and not onely by our nation.

My last note touching these feasts. compiled in Cornish out of some scripture history. that hee appealed not from. not the allowance of a position. And with this his passion. booke of Gods Citie. and recommend it ouer to your fauourable acceptation. in English. His turne came: quoth the Ordinary. I will ward that blow with the shield of Arch-Saint Austines authoritie. Shooting. as I induced Archery. then intrudeth thereto by anticipation. by this ensuing Prosopopeia: . is a kinde of Enterlude. shooting carrieth the preeminence. was accordingly lessoned (before-hand) by the Ordinary. Summa. read a lesson to our ciuilest gentry. cleauing more to the letter then the sense.by whose names the parish Churches are stiled. Hawking. by succession. but to the honourably respected censure of the reuerend Ministery. the Cornish men haue Guary miracles. For representing it. Hereon the prompter falles to flat rayling & cursing in the bitterest termes he could deuise: which the Gentleman with a set gesture and countenance still soberly related. they raise an earthen Amphitheatre. the Actor makes the audience in like sort acquainted. pronounced those words aloud. Wrastling. Chap. a miracle-play. to hear and see it: for they haue therein. vntill the Ordinary. he closed his discourse with this protection. was faine to giue ouer all. that he must say after him. or 50. of practising a mery pranke: for he vndertaking (perhaps of set purpose) an Actors roome. cunningly contriued for the ditty. and pleasantly for the note. hauing the Diameter of his enclosed playne some 40. Amongst them. They haue also Cornish three mens songs. desiring his speach might receiue. and preseance. many miles off. which accompanied the Romanes vetus Comedia. and 27. and such other games. Which trousse though it brake off the Enterlude. Go forth man and shew thy selfe. to delight as well the eye as the eare: the players conne not their parts without booke. Amongst bodily pastimes. such Guaries could haue affoorded. who followeth at their back with the booke in his hand. in some open field. but the licence of a proposition: which my friends modest submission. to which in mine yonger yeeres I caried such affection. yet defrauded not the beholders. but dismissed them with a great deale more sport and laughter. foot. and telleth them softly what they must pronounce aloud. in the like case. Which maner once gaue occasion to a pleasant conceyted gentleman. and rather expecteth his turne for the best roome. and three mens songs: and for exercise of the body. and like a bad Clarke in scripture matters. who (though rude in their other fashions) may for their discreete Judgement in precedence. The Country people flock from all sides. perswading others to the like liking. Pastimes to delight the minde. at such publike meetings. The Guary miracle. deuils and deuices. [72] Hurling. Hunting. The gentleman steps out vpon the stage. tendeth to a commendation of the ghests. I could not but embrace my selfe. to step or sit before the elder honest. then 20. driuen at last into a madde rage. not wealth but age is most regarded: so as (saue in a verie notorious disproportion of estates) the younger rich reckoneth it a shame sooner then a grace. Oh (sayes the fellowe softly in his eare) you marre all the play. who in his 8. but are prompted by one called the Ordinary. with that grossenes. iustifieth a lesse allowable practise of the primitiue Christians.

esteeme me: if necessary. succoured their friends. so in peace I supplie you pastime. Alas. and made their names fearfull to the present age. the first corrupter of Archery. my deare friends. score: for strength. or taynt your nose with my sent. Edwards. and helpe digestion when you are full. Lastly. And thus much for Archery. and the whole keepeth [73] an harmonicall proportion. If I be praise-worthy. through mee onely your auncestours defended their Countrey. who professed and protested themselues to haue bene eye-witnesses. and Floddon. and those not the least. & hanging me thus vp. Buts made them perfect in the one. yea and Iury. or lay in her swathling clouts. and from behinde his head. Italy. but to your selues: to blame you. Fraunce. and to your bodyes healthfull exercise: yea I prouide you food when you are hungrie. employ me: so shall you reuoke my death to life. their shaft was a cloth yard. the dangers of warre. I haue heard by credible report of those. for I hant the light and open fieldes: nor my conuersation dangerous: nay. Wherefore. but of greatest consequence. to your lymmes I yeelde actiue plyantnesse. you must beare withall. Am I vnhandsome in your sight? Euery piece of mee is comely. your familiar: neither is my company shamefull. were then scarcely knowne. cheapnesse is my purueyour. whose tale. am I costly to bee prouided? or hard to bee maintayned? No. that when mine aduerse party was yet scarcely borne. Whence then proceedeth this vnkinde and vnusuall strangenesse? Am I heavy for burden? Forsooth. but in the way of reconciliation. what my desert can justify your adandoning my fellowship. or very foolish in the attempt. Agincourt. & her mind is passionate. and little practised. to the battayles of Cresey. and shew your selues no degenerate issue of such honourable Progenitours. with his right hand. it shields you from dangers. enlarged their Dominions. Cyprus. score. they would pierce any ordinary armour: and one master Robert Arundell (whom I well knew) could shoot 12. their pricks 24. I appeale then to your valiant Princes. aduanced their religion. sitting upon his cowes back. Lastly. to be vmpires of this controuersie: all which (I doubt not) will with their euidence playnely prooue. which was either very cunning in the performance. and both in warre and peace. conforme your reason by practise. and the other part serueth for a walking-staffe in your hand. and conuert your practise to the good of your selues and your Country. easinesse my preseruer. your countrywoman: by dwelling your neighbour: by education. that one Robert Bone of Antony shot at a little bird. the bird (I meane) not the cowe. And as in fight I giue you protection. with his left. Am I combrous for carriage? I couch a part of my selfe close vnder your girdle. but for your good: to expostulate with you. seeing I have so substantially euicted the rightof my cause conforme your wils to reason. And in particular. through too much precisenesse. admit me: if profitable. Spaine. The first of these somewhat resembled one . to be smoke-starued ouer your chimnies? I am no stranger vnto you. like that hellborne murderer. but by birth. whom you accept before me. a fewe light stickes of wood. for she is a woman. I come to complaine vpon you. for neere and well aimed shooting. and Henries. Poyters. if it be disordered. and rouing in the othe: for prickes. and killed it. nor defile your face and fingers with my colour. and their fame euerlasting to those that ensue.My deare friends. neither doe I make you blow away your charges with my breath. vanquished their enemies. And to giue you some taste of the Cornish mens former sufficiency that way: for long shooting. to the regions of Scotland.

to one Toko a Dane: and by the Switzers histories. vntill hauing met (as the Frenchman sayes) Chausseura son pied. and assaying to lay hold vpon him. nor hand-fast vnder girdle: . there are 15. as. where some indifferent person throweth vp a ball. ten or twelue score off. in the East parts of Cornwall. or extraordinary accident. Out of these ranks they match themselues by payres. & shooting them all at once. and in the West. It is therefore a very disaduantageable match. reported by Saxo Gramaticus. that leeseth many goales: howbeit. to the countrey. and directly against them. 2. Sometimes one chosen person on eche party dealeth the ball. If hee escape the first. and not two set vpon one man at once: that the Hurler against the ball. the which whosoeuer can catch. to the one side. as with one arrow he claue the firing of his aduersaries bowe. that side carryeth away best reputation. they pitch two bushes in the ground. The other thrusteth him in the breast. who strip them. and if his hap or agility bee so good. who nocking three arrowes. are specially to watch one another during the play. which is the word of yeelding. After this. another taketh him in hand. the second he fixed betweene his fingers. which they terme their Goales. keepeth the ball longest. to Guillaum Tell. 20. For hurling to goales. which giueth most falles in the hurling. chosen out on each side. Hold. the chiefe occasioner. hee findeth one or two fresh men. mentioned by Zosimus.selues into their slightest apparell. to goales. and might haue deserued a double stipend in the graund Signiors gard. Then must he cast the ball (named Dealing) to some one of his fellowes. and then ioyne hands in ranke one against another. & so passe away: euery of which couple. and cary through his aduersaries goale.Menelaus. to keepe him off. The Hurlers are bound to the obseruation of many lawes. that they may not turne their taile to their Sultan while they draw. But therein consisteth one of Hercules his labours: for he that is once possessed of the ball. in wrastling. as to shake off or outrunne his counter-wayters. for so good a markman. no small poynt of manhood. some eight or ten foote asunder. hath wonne the game. and place in weldoing the same. One of these is appoynted by lots. at the goale. and so a third. or cry. hath his contrary mate waiting at inches. neyther is hee left. attributed by the same Saxo. lib. where the one halfe of his archers are left-handed. other twayne in like distance. would strike three seuerall persons. [74] Hurling taketh his denomination from throwing of the ball. who catching the same in his hand. that they must hurle man to man. and part-author of their libertie. or 30. and the other to his aduerse party. There is assigned for their gard. readie to receiue and keepe him off. and with the third strooke his shaft which he was nocking: or with that exploit of the fathers piercing an apple on his sonnes head. must not but. and presseth his contrary neerest to their owne goale. the residue draw into the midst betweene both goales. players more or lesse. with his closed fist. and is of two sorts. hee eyther touch the ground with some part of his bodie. one embracing another. The other may in some sort compare with that Auo. a couple of their best stopping Hurlers. maketh away withall as before. which they call Butting.

or e're the other haue it fast. viz. Whosoeuer getteth seizure of this ball. which they should keepe. which (by casting the Countrie) they know he must needs touch at: and if his good fortune gard him not the better. and that company. there are horsemen placed also on either party (as it were in ambush) and ready to ride away with the ball. the Hurlers take for a iust cause of going together by the eares. and cary it by force. nor matching of men: but a siluer ball is cast vp. but with their fists onely. till (without all respects) he be layd flat on Gods dear earth: which fall once receiued. other troups lye houering on the sides. seuen or eight miles out of the direct way. The Hurlers take their next way ouer hilles. appointing that on such a holyday. When they meet. The least breach of these lawes. plashes and riuers whatsoeuer. so as you shall sometimes see 20. and of the other party to succor them. there is neyther comparing of numbers. which straightway of defendant becommeth assailant. neither doth any among them seek reuenge for such wrongs or hurts. Ware West. dales. the whole company runneth with the ball. crying. all that . as bound to few of these orders: Some two or more Gentlemen doe commonly make this match. and so. to helpe or stop their escape: and where the ball it selfe goeth. or more parishes of the East or South quarter. the better to scape vnespied. of which either side maketh choice after the neernesse to their dwellings. and thorow bushes. which can catch. giue notice thereof to their mates. like wings. he may not throw it to any of his mates. hedges. who maketh away withall in like maner. gaineth the ball and victory. must but onely in the others brest: that he must deale no Fore-ball. they will bring to such an indifferent place. crosse-lane. will carry the same quite backwards. findeth himselfe generally pursued by the aduerse party. where commonly the ghests vndertake to encounter all commers. Lastly. or sleight. A play (verily) both rude & rough. Ware East. yet he shall be surely met at some hedge corner. if any of the other part can catch it flying between. two. three. as in the other hurling) to some one of his fellowes. &c. Sometimes. to their place assigned. he thereby winneth the same to his side. These hurling matches are mostly vsed at weddings. mires. of the West or North. in some sort resembling the feats of warre: for you shall haue companies layd out before. and yet such. three or foure miles asunder. disableth him from any longer detayning the ball: hee therefore throwet the same (with like hazard of intercepting. get to the goale by a windlace: which once knowne to be wonne. on the one side. neither will they leaue. is more diffuse and confuse. with his owne and his horses ouerthrowe to the ground. or some townes or villages. at last. lie tugging together in the water. fardest before him. as is not destitute of policies. briers. it resembleth the ioyning of the two mayne battels: the slowest footed who come lagge. or 30. Their goales are either those Gentlemens houses. as the other. scrambling and scratching for the ball. in dealing the ball. supply the showe of a rere-ward: yea. yea. ditches. in maner of a fore-ward. but at the like play againe. to encounter them that come with the ball.that hee who hath the ball. Such as see where the ball is played. Againe. or deep water. But they may not so steale the palme: for gallop any one of them neuer so fast. if they can catch it at aduantage. Sometimes a foote-man getting it by stealth. of assailant falls to be defendant. as the same is carried. [75] The hurling to the Countrey. to hurle against so many other. standing neerer the goale. hee is like to pay the price of his theft. then himselfe. bridge.

should they be. or condemne it for the boysterousnes and harmes which it begetteth: for as on the one side it makes their bodies strong. to meet an enemie in the face: so on the other part. but his cleane made body and actiue strength. whether I should more commend this game for the manhood and exercise. a skilfull weake man wil soone get the ouerhand of one that is strong and ignorant. and himselfe becommeth peaceable as before. when the hurling is ended. you shall see them retyring home. & neuer Attourney nor Crowner troubled for the matter. which they call. and to beare his aduerse party downe: wherein. my friend Iohn Goit may iustly challenge the first place. extend (with great agility) to whatsoeuer other exercise. stripped into their dublets and hosen. and out of ioynt. &c. it is accompanied with many dangers. hath bred them so skilfull an habit. with his best aduantage. I cannot well resolue. and contrary heele do touch the ground. and make a narrow escape. the Faulx. their first pretended founder. Amongst Cornish wrastlers. as from a pitched battaile. as that either his backe. fore-hip. not by prerogatiue of his seruice in her Maiesties gard. but through hauing answered all challenges in that pastime without blemish. wearing a girdle to take hold by. as they presume. if their cunning were answerable to their practise: for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes. bones broken. can bereaue them of this Laurell: and matchlesse. and nimble. and vntrussed. and such bruses as serue to shorten their daies. and stil neighbours. fareth straightwayes like a madde man. they fall presently to the effects of anger: for each. playing three pulles. For performing this play. the beholders cast themselues in a ring. or (at least) it ministred some stuffe to the farcing of that fable. where the most vntowardly amongst them. it is called a foyle. some of which do euer fall to the players share. strugling and fighting with those that goe about to holde him: and no sooner is the ball gone from him. forward and backward. with bloody pates. This hath also his lawes. that they may so the better commaund the vse of their lymmes. hard. either Cornish men deriued from Corineus. Wrastling is as full of manlinesse.side flocke thither with great iolity: and if the same bee a Gentlemans house. that neither the ancient Greek Palestritae. in which. will not as readily giue you a muster of this exercise. of taking hold onely aboue girdle. and puts a courage into their hearts. Neither is his commendation bounded within these limits.not their. they giue him the ball for a Trophee. certes. Such are the Trip. Making a place: into the middle space whereof. Inturne. yet al is good play. striueth how to take hold of other. nor the Turks so much delighted Peluianders. and diuers other like. and first shaking hands in token of friendship. the Mare. in Deuon or Cornwall. now liuing. For proofe whereof. The ball in this play may bee compared to an infernall spirit: for whosoeuer catcheth it. their continual exercise in this play. or the one shoulder. but hee resigneth this fury to the [76] next recyuer. and bound to answere his successour. If he be endangered. the two champion wrastlers step forth. for tryall of the mastery. once countrymen. more delightfull. Many sleights and tricks appertaine hereunto. is accounted to giue the fall. as you are prone to require it. of the arme or . and the drinking out of his Beere to boote. whosoeuer ouerthroweth his mate in such sort. the Bretons. But to let that passe. the fall-giuer to be exempted from playing again with the taker. and lesse dangerous: which pastime.

] Belinus. with the possession of the kingdome. gaue to his sonne Tennancius. of a Kingdome. or was rather vexed a long time. or set vp for Bidales: but time or their abuse hath now worne them out of date and vse.] Clotenus King of Cornwall. as an entire state of it selfe. and respectfull carriage.] If there was a Brute King of Brittaine. slewe Alectus. their long patience into a sudden fury.] After this Iland became a parcell of Iulius Caesars conquests. the Duchy of Cornwall.legge: besides his abilitie (vpon often tryall) to take charge at Sea. who maried Gonorille. the Emperour Dioclesians deputy.] Cassibelane. . brother to that great terror of the Romanes. Brutes eldest sonne Locrine tooke to wife. and inuested their leader Asclepiodotus Duke of Cornwall. by force of armes. succeeding his brother Lud in the Kingdome. hath at diuers times enioyed sundry titles. and on her begat Morgan: but whiles he attempted with his other brother in law. Brennus. that succeeded his father in the kingdome. who. [Anno Dom. had for his appannage (as the French terme it) Loegria. to wrest the kingdome from their wiues father. The last poynt of this first booke. and by her had issue Madan. Cordeilla. that there was likewise a Corineus Duke of Cornwall.] Conan Meridock. by the same authority it is to bee proued. [3105. which offreth a double consideration: the one. [3574. eyther as Master. 231.] Next him. [77] Siluer prizes for this and other actiuities. [329. [3908. at last. the third disherited sister. and Cornwall. But the Bretons turning. when this Iland had beene long distressed with the ciuil warres of petty Kings. vnder the gouernment of such rulers. and in a pitched battell bereft Henninus of his life. begat a sonne named Mulmutius Dunwallo. whome the Emperour Constantine appoynted gouernour of this Iland. Principality. reduced the same againe into one peaceable Monarchy. the other. rose in armes. whose daughter Gwendolene. Duchy. I finde Henninus Duke. [Anno mundi 2850. Wales. brought an armie out of Fraunce to the olde mans succour. as may appear by these few notes. as the Romanes sent hither. were wont to be carried about by certaine Circumforanei. Cornwall. the same rested it selfe. as a part of the Realme: both which shal be seuerally handled. was Duke of Cornwall. or Captayne. All which good parts hee graceth with a good fellowlike. is to plot downe the Cornish gouernment. nephew to Octauius. before the course of nature should cast the same vpon them. one of King Leirs daughters and heires. kinde. [3476. as an entire state. and Earledome. with which I haue stored my selfe out of our Chronicles.

first wan from the Saxons. a French writer. passed with an armie into Fraunce. Earle of Cornwall. and afterwards. virgins. which concluding at last in a peace. who being once peaceably setled. Cornwall. a Romane. [443. [688. wrote ouer vnto Dionethus. Kay) by Octauius. by reauing off his life. suffred him quietly to depart the Realme. [383. who maried his daughter. & miscaried. for that he had slayne the king of Cornwall. bound with the solemnity of an othe. vnlesse you will. and a daughter called Amy. by force of armes. termeth him) to send him some Maidens. there was present one Corinius. a king of the Saxons. . a Paynim king of Fraunce. Duke of Cornwall. That Marke swayed the Cornish septer. brother to Aurelius and Vter-pendragon. whom he might couple in mariage with his people.] At the Sinode of Arles in Fraunce.[351. [433. were shipped. [500. grew great warres. (as Mathew of West. & by the valiant forgoing of his life. withall. But Childerick violating the word of a king. sonne to Salomon Duke of Cornwall. associated with other Welsh kings. became Gods Minister. succeeded him also in gouernment: betweene whome.] Blederic Duke of Cornwall. about founding the Vniuersitie of Cambridge. caused his owne sonne to be throwne into the fire and burned. & gouerner of the Realme. got his partners the victory. Vrsula & her companions the 11000. to take vengeance of his periury. one Childerick. vnder the Emperour Honorius. darrayned a battel against Ethelferd. and the fore-remembred Conan. and Somerset shires. vntil Cador. [603. shake the irrefragable authoritie of the round tables Romants. you cannot make question.] This Arthur discomfited in fight. conquered there Armorica (naming it little Brittaine) and gaue the same in fee to Conan. deliuereth (vpon the credit of our British Historians) that about this time.] After the abouenamed Octauius his decease.] Iuor.] And vpon Igerna wife to Gorlois. harrowing the Country as he passed. inuaded eftsoones the Westerne coasts. as he returned from a feast. Deuon. [page 78] Nicholas Gille. Vter begat the worthy Arthur. Maximianus. Duke of Cornwall. king of the Northumbers. [526. whereon S.] Hee also maketh mention of one Moigne. or Dionotus Duke or King of Cornwall. Maxim.] Carodoc Duke of Cornwall was employed (sayth D. as their wel known hiftory reporteth. sonne to Alane king of little Brittaine. Meroueus. vpon certaine couenants.

in euery Kings dayes since the conquest: but master Camden. who finding the truth of his Ambassadours falshood. and of Deuon) valiantly repulsed Adelred. he returnes answer to the King. whose daughter and heire Agnes. and principall descents. thereby got captiuity. one Condor possessed the Earledome of Cornwall. which setteth downe all the noble mens creations.] Dungarth king of Corn. [720. and maried her. king of Westsex.] Alpsius is recorded (about this time) for Duke of Deuon and Cornwall. and lost his honour. and left vs a certeyner notice. But so braue a lustre could not lye long concealed. king of Westsex. without shining foorth into Edgars knowledge. In this variance. then an established dignity. and did homage for the same: he had issue another Condor. was the first Earle of Norman blood. This note I borrowed out of an industrious collection. beeing a widdowe. The following ages receiued a more distinct forme. slewe him. [959. and rather betokened a successiue office. against Henry the first. [1067. it is great reason. the fame of whose beauty. how the common report far exceeded her priuate worth. cousin to Kentwin. brother to William Conquerour. in the time of king Etheldred. with which that King inuested the forementioned Reignald. caused King Edgar to send Earle Athelwold. Armes. [872. our Clarentieulx.] Orgerius Duke of Cornwall. what time he assayled him in Cornwall: yet in the end. king of the Bretons in Wales and Cornwall. before the duety of his alleageance. was maried to Reignald Earle of Bristowe.and then. which came much short of meriting a partnership in so great a Princes bed: and (not long after) begged and obtayned the Kings good will. by his mother Herlot. for obtaining her at her fathers hands in mariage. But the Earle with the first sight of this faire Lady. and tired with continuall onsets. he was driuen to quit the same. who taking part with Duke Robert.] Roderic. (vnder whom. taking to wife Ethelburg. nameth him Cadoc. by mischance was drowned. that the ballance panche on his side. to wed her himselfe.] What time William the bastard subdued this Realme. tooke Athelwold at an aduantage.] Polidor Virgill maketh mention of one Reginaldus Comes Britannorum. that Robert Morton. Bletius was Prince of this last. being ouer-matched in number. had a daughter named Alfride. [866. [page 79] Hitherunto. that preferring the accomplishment of his lust. and that his sonne William succeeded him. base sonne to King Henry the first. and retire himselfe into Wales. whome hee had wooed a mayde. enioyed the same by composition. and saith farther. [900. was so besotted in her loue. who hath both authority to . these titles of honour carry a kinde of confusednes.

&c. as particular persons. Feodary. or to pay the same vnto Englishmen. touching Excheators. nublt Cornubia Romae. &c. Dukes in the whole. sonnes to Henry the seuenth. to wife take. [80] Gaugeor.establish his assertion. Edward sonne to Richard the third. So doth that. and those others beforeremembred. and Henry. that for her sake. that this Edmond dyed without issue. exempt that officer in Cornwall. Customer. and (to this end) appoynted their speciall officers. then receiue estimation from whatsoeuer dignitie. that it shall not be hurtful or preiudiciall to the Prince. Money sayd. and himself by a violent death. degenerating in his choyce. that the first Earles bare a heauy hand in commaund ouer their subiects: for both diuers ancient records (as I haue learned) make mention of tributes. and hath bene so enioyed. the first in England. as Sheriffe. nor to any waights of the cunnage: and so doth that 1. the Kings part of all forfeytures within Cornwall. the blacke Prince: for his heroicall vertues did rather bestow. 4. and a rarely approued knowledge. Auditor. 7. Peter Gaueston. Edward the. expired in Iohn of Eltham. [1257. and it may farther be gathered. Clarke of the Market. erected the same to a Duchy. Henry Earle of Cornwall. in that. then his brother was often driuen to extreame shifts. is reserued to the Duke. namely. whose functions appertayne to the iurisdiction of the Stannary. whose posterity ended in himselfe. in English commodities. Since which it is successiuely incorporated in the Kings eldest sonne. imposed (almost) vpon euery thing of profit. whose daughter and heire Isabell (sayth mine authour) was married to Morice Fitsharding Lord Barckleigh: but others affirme. Butler. He had issue. second. giuing of liberty to send Burgesses to the Parliaments. Admirall. It should seeme. as well townes. beene priuiledged with royall iurisdiction or Crowne rights. Mynes. returne of writs. Receyuer. and graced it with his sonne. to warrant his authoritie. For by that Act. a Gascoyne. King Edward the third. Henry the third. besides the L. by act of Parliament in the 11. The last title of this Earldome. created his mynion. prouide. who deceased issuelesse: and Edmond. After which. Henry the fift. These Earles and Dukes haue from the beginning. 8. Hauener. Edward the sixt: 10. H. 17. Henry the sixt. Nummus ait pro me. concerning the reformation of waights & measures. Searcher. Excheator. Edw. through needinesse: which made that barbarous age to poetrize. by Richard the second. honoured therewith his brother Richard King of the Romanes. wards. H. Edward the fift. Edward his sonne. Treasure-trovee. 11. and lastly. our Parliaments haue euer carried a reuerend regard. a Prince no lesse plentifully flowing in wealth. Warden. Rome did Cornwall. Richard the first gaue this Earledome to his brother Iohn. Comptroller. toll. custome. which enioyneth forrayne Marchants to bestow such money as they receiue for their wares.] Iohns sonne. Arthure. Hee dying issue-lesse. Earle of this County. within the Duchy of Cornwall. yonger sonne to that King Edward. were faine to procure Charters and graunts . yeere of his raigne. To the preseruation of which royalties.

dry. viz. that it continueth in full power. vnto Christs Colledge in Oxford. they fell into foule reparations. But since the principality of Wales and this Duchy became united in one person. annexed certain manners lying in Corn. and aduancing her Maiesties profit: & to this end procured Letters patents. what is become of this Duchy. that none should salt. tooke this last by act of Parl. I haue vnderstood. fowling. builded Castle-wise for their residence. yea twice or thrice grew forth againe. the kings meaning went with his pretence. of most earnest suit. Which bondage. from faire buildings. the larger scope. this Castle. A matter that would. fishing. or honoraria legatio. one not long agoe sought in part to reestablish. for corporations. and that her Maiestie hath onely custodiam . for want of the kings issue male: some auerring. affecting his honour of Newelm. mines. and (as is hoped) will neuer shoote out heereafter. and greater commaund of that. and neglect. then plucked vp by the roote. hawking. haue made him an absolute disposer of all the Westerne shipping and traffike. It were against duetie to make question. The Earles had foure houses. Wherefore the Cornish Iustices of the peace. and yet wee finde it an ordinary policy amongst Princes. & by consequence. this ill weed. when the Vniuersitie is visited with any contagious sicknes. Restormel. but yet. which Wallingford Castle might afford it. King H. are now sunke into vtter ruine. and from foule reparations. Launceston. to send their successours. or pack any fish in Deuon or Cornwall. vnder pretence of receiuing a rent decayed euer since 9. who vse it as a place of retrayt. with a kinde of libera. and their sea and land dependants. and what not? so as (vpon the matter) the plight of a Cornish Inhabitant and a French pezant did differ very little. from the Duchy. against the battery of time. the same King. not long after. 2. to beat it downe. Howsoeuer. Howbeit. and backing of Sir Walter Ralegh. maugre the warmers and waterers. into the remoter quarters of their dominions. but folding vp a multitude of inconueniences to her Maiestie. & the whole Commonwealth. the strength of these Castles could not so gard them. hath robbed this of his Lords presence. as if they would shunne occasions of ielousie. whether in this exchange. Few words. springing from an ouer-neere neighbourhood. faires. Trematon. passed away. but that. Some holding it altogether extinct. the 8. hunting. markets. that it is suspended in nubibus (as they say) pro tempore: and some supposing. & in lieu thereof. without his licence and warrant.from them.falne [81] to the Crowne. once. rather cut off by the ground. hath by her Maiesties gracious breath beene euer parched vp. at least it shall still finde an vnited resistance. for a necessary and speedy redresse herein: and through the neuer fayling forwardnesse. that question is made amongst men of knowledge. and pregnant reasons. and Liskerd. and vpon his issueles decease receiued them againe. became humble suiters to the Lords of her Highnes priuy Councell. through the Marques of Excesters attainder: which Queene Marie afterwards restored in tayle to his sonne. obtayned a reuocation. by consequence. the Earle of Deuon. taking or freeing from tolls. & respecting the commodities. H.

how in the yeere. amongst whome Herstane was consecrated to Cornwall. Whereon I ground two collections: the first. who adorneth the Gentility of his birth. Martine. Fryeries. . at Peryn. with the honestie of his life. from a Monke of Winchester. Germanes. he ordayned seuen bishops in one day. sede vacante. referred ouer to the Exchequer above. Lumigius. as of Bishopricks. by the aduice of his Councell. and Eadwolfe to Crediton. Since it made roome to Christianity. that the light of the Gospell tooke not his originall shining into these parts. Coelling. as much as in them lay. The Bishops see was formerly at S. reproouing him. [82] It oweth subiection to the Metropolitane of Canterbury. which last had three townes in Cornwall. so as he left a poore remainder to his successours. some by long leasing. Bodmyn. at S. After that. and Landwhitton. Whereon.] For religious houses. Forinosus the Pope sent a sharpe letter to Edward the sonne of Alfride. approueth himselfe a liberall and commendable pastor. and S. made hauock of those liuings before-hand. by his grace with Canutus King of the Angles. Pontium. to wit. and obeyed not the Apostolike decrees. Penes Iudicem lis sit. I read. from the Romish Bishop: the other that the Cornish (like their cousins the Welsh] could not bee soone or easily induced to acknowledge his iurisdiction. but by reason the Danes burned there his Church and palace. and some by flat selling. spirituall. and hath one onely Archdeaconry. Touching the spirituall: In ancient times this Shire had his particular Bishop: and I find. Bishop of the dioces in King H. euery Sheriffe is summoned to enter his account in the Duchy Exchequer. at S. to root out (as mine author sayth) their errours: for before.] the same remooued to S. as Burien and Temple. Colledges. and Arch-bishop Pleymund. [1031. they withstood the truth. that thence he might yeerely visit the people. which place is now supplied by master Thomas Sumaster. Crantock. the 8. Peran: and some to priuate persons. Germaines. elected Abbot of Tavistoke. my (not ouer-curious) enquiry hath learned out these: Pryories. Nunries. aduanced to the Bishoprick of Creditune. at Launceston. Petrocks in Bodmyn. and from thence.] and from that Abbey. for suffering the West Saxons to be destitute of Bishops seuen yeeres together. Probuss. Hospitals. and temporall. assigned him. Buryen. to wit. coniecturing (as it is conceyued) that the Cathedrall Churches should not long ouer-liue the suppressed Monasteries. at Helston. Cornwall considered as a part of the Realme. 905. some appertaining to the dignities of the Cathedrall Church at Exon. Once. This Bishoprick had diuers faire houses and large reuenues in Cornwall: but one Veyzy. Cunedag builded a Temple in Cornwall to Apollo. time. obtayned an annexion of Cornwall (lately fallen voyd) and so made one Dioces of that and Deuon. and by both sorts of feeding. Truro. as it hath euer since continued. [Anno Mundi 3172. Tywardreth. Bodmyn. S. Certaine Peculiars there are. that in the time of Paganisme. at Lostwithyel. but where it stood I know not. sorteth her gouernment into two kindes.ducatus. [979.

as Churchwardens. master Camden noteth out of Iohannes Sarisburiensis. The Bishop. for they grew vp in more corrupt ages. those daies knew few. & others not bound to ordinary residence. and did accordingly from time to time bestowe his requisite endeauour. euery parish had certaine officers. ignorance. if it were kept fast to his first institution. For martiall affaires. and in regard of my good meaning. And lest negligence. close vp their mouthes. in his cathedrall church. & good order there reuerently obserued. the Bishop. of the soyle where it stood. For warning the Clergy. by the religious houses encrochments. Martiall. decently maintayned.Of parishes. some resident. or endowed the same with some liuelyhood. the County hath 161. Doubtles. An honour equall to the Romanes Triarii. if euery one thus entrusted. Sidemen. & doe not blemish it with my pensil. was associated with certaine Prebendaries. to look vpon the originall beauty thereof. and Ciuill. as they (together with those of Deuon and Wiltshire) were wont to be entrusted. He & they againe had their Ordinary. the Archbishop had his prouincial Sinod. yere. & admit the ministers. the Curats chose yerely their Deanes rurall. who stept into that roome. Besides this Incumbent. allow. who were called to consultation. vpon things of greater consequence: & for matters of principal importance. whose duety bound them to see the buildings & ornaments appertaining to Gods seruice. as master Camden noteth. or the righting amongst so many hands? But I haue thrust my sickle ouer-farre into anothers haruest: let my mistaking be corrected. men. might with his far better effects. or band of supply. and as others haue. the Hierarchy of our English Church. But albeit neither our time can well brooke it. about the time of our last conquest. & the whole clergy their national. or was L. not by election (as some imagine) but mostly. by the well or ill discharging of so waighty a function. & sent them abroad in yerely progresses. the country was sorted by a more orderly maner into parishes. and 8. or partiality. about 180. would remember that he had a soule to saue or lose. by the nomination of him that eyther built the Church. & they there sworn duly to make it. & corruption. yere to ouerlook their actions. Afterwards. for the Subsidiary Cohort. shooteth out also into two branches. . As for Vicarages. called their Parson. & imparting their superiours directions. which serued for seed plots of the ministery. that the Cornish mens valiancy purchased them such reputation amongst our ancestours. as they and the Bishop were semblably subiect to the Metropolitanes suruey euery 7. The Temporal gouernment of Cornwall. if (at least) I be able to tricke the same truly out. nor the succeeding would long hold it: yet it shal not do much amisse. what the least fault could escape the espiall of so many eyes. pardoned. Monasteries & cathedral Churches were likewise founded. At the planting of Christian religion. & to examine. & euery parish committed to a spirituall father. to labour the Lords vineyard. [83] Now then. might admit or foist in abuses. who serued as his ghostly counsel in points of his charge. an Archdeacon was appointed to take account of their doings by an yerely visitation. euery 3. who would thrust vpon vs their often varying discipline.

| 130. who had good reason to knowe the same. Colonell of the horse. Scowt Master. | 240. | 20. | 200.Pikes. | 40. | 500. Beuil Sir Rei. | 760. | 225. | 500. Bernard Greinuile. | 40. | | 4. | 170. Sir Reignald Mohun. Arm. | 210. Iohn Harris. nihil est quod non superemus. Marshall. | 490. Treffry. | 100. Quarter Master. and more to report it: his verses. | 170. Iohn Arundell of Trerise. | 600. | 30. Carew Antony Rouse Ch. | of them. | | Colonell generall. relictum Quid nos deterret. |*3 | 1. | 60. Cooke. |*4 | 1. Richard Carew. Blackdon. Camden. Treasurer. | 40. Sergeant maior. | | Corporals of the field. [84] Regiments. Numbers. | 130.and the shoot-anker of the battell. I will now set downe the principall Commaunders & Officers. Rattenbury. Viuian Ar. Harris Companies. Prouost Marshall. | 1200. | 180. | 100. | 315. | 390. Muskets. touching these martiall causes. together with the forces of the shire. being that Countryman. | 190. Sir Fra. Lord Lieutenant generall. | | 6. Humphrey Parcks. Sled Ammunition Master. Caliueri -------------------------------------------------| 12. Parker Ha. | 400. Sir Walter Ralegh. Leon. Will. | 80. | 40. Christopher Harris. | 130. Treuanion Will. |*1 | 6. are these: â â Rex Arcturus nos primos Cornubienses Bellum facturus vocat. Fraus ni nos superet. si firmiter in pede stemus. William Carnsew. Godol. | 370. Bernard Greinuile. |*5 . | 20. | 300. With which concurreth the ancient. Otwell Hill. nobis sit vtrumq. Sir Nicholas Parker. | 240. | | 10. | | | Deputie | Lieutenants | | | Sir Frauncis Godolphin. Greinuile Ri. | 470. reliquis. Richard Carew. | 130. Treffry Sir Nic. for which I haue also beene beholding to M. | | Osburne. Peter Edgecumb. | 60. | 670. | | 5. Master of the Ordinance. | 320. | | 5. | 200. Mohun Ber. dat primitus ictum Per quem pax lisque. | 190. if not authenticall testimony of Michael Cornubiensis. | 140. | | | | or any 3. Rusall. | | 6. | 270. |*2 | 2. | 1000. Sir Will. Trench Master. Sir Nicholas Parker. vt puta Caesaris enses Nobis non alijs.

| 2165. three thousand sixe hundred wayght. or naught. three thousand six hundred waight. sixe. & partly through mine own knowledge. Which commendable indeuour shall not. if the same he compared with Deuon and other Counties: which groweth. to call forth the vttermost number of able hands to fight. Canon corne powder for the said ordinance. and their farnesse from timely succour by their friends.Summa. bullet. much exceedeth the shires proportion. They are all prouided of powder. enioyne for orders sake. three thousand sixe hundred wayght. Match. & order taken for furnishing of victuals. | -------------------------------------------------- Causam Bay] Foy] Pendennis] S. but vnlike him could not with their blasting threats ouerthrow our walles) it pleased her Maiestie of her prouident and gracious care. turne them to the preiudice of any vnwonted charge hereafter. I am sure. is now growne to nought. & match in competent sort. shodde with Iron. All which. Hitherto neither hath the commaundement bin reuoked. ought not. and Ram2. which I omit. | 1330. and partly by ouerlong. from her owne store. | 6030. and fur2. | 2535. for that their neerenesse on all quarters to the enemy. Fine corne powder. with all other necessaries. three. procured them to arme themselues beyond lawe and theirability. Sacres | with wheeles. The number as it standeth. well mounted vpon carryages 2. There are many more vnarmed pikes. Spare pairs of wheeles. to furnish Cornwall with ordinance and munition. twenty. haue forced the Commaunders. and the Lieutenants excuse it by insufficiency. Shot of Iron for the sayd pieces. Mawes] the Mount] This may serue for a generall estimat of the Cornish forces. shod with Iron. Spare axeltrees. or euil keeping. as followeth: | of cast Iron. and rather by perswasion then authority. as better fitting a supply vpon necessitie. partly by piecemeale employment. Lead. then to bee exposed (for opposed) to an enemie. partly out of our certificate made to the Lords 1599. I hope. sixe hundred wayght. partly by information from the Sargeant maior. Spunges. Minions | nished with Ladles. when the Spanish floting Babel pretended the conquest of our Iland (which like Iosuahs armie they compassed. [*1 [*2 [*3 [*4 [*5 For For Fpr For For | 58. nor the omission controlled. the Lords in their directions. In the yeere 1588. Faulcons | mers. saue the ordinance itselfe. of eche sort. and mounting a third part of the shot (at least) vpon cause of seruice. [85] . which I haue gathered. Light horses.

bettered his plot and allowance. appertayningto the Duchy. the Cornish forces voluntarily assembled themselues. some. when the Spanish fleet was againe expected. some double. through the neernesse to the sea. Which often ventings notwithstanding. and made head. Forts and Castles there are. and gouerned by the foreremembred Sir Frauncis Godolphin. which (I gesse) tooke their originall from the statute 4. olde and worne out of date. and the sollicitation of his friends. As for soldiers sent into other places. there passed ouer this last yeere into Netherland. into their assigned seacoast townes. who with his inuention and purse. were allotted out. the next Captains should forthwith put themselues with their companies. Moreouer. welneere euery parish is charged with one. neither is acquitted from performing the like seruice for Fraunce. vpon euery occasion. is a fort at Silley. by other meanes. and therein hath so tempered strength with delight. if the employment be in Brittaine or Normandy. at the entrance. and Westpart of their south coast. or Danis. Amongst the first sort. where any commodity of landing seemeth to inuite the enemie. and both with vse. anno 1595. Lastly. And besides. some single. Castellan Denis. and diuers round holds on the tops of hils. and some in present vse. which are watched. by her Maiesties order. Mawes Castle. if cause so required. I reckon these. they often make out men of warre against the Spaniards. and are euer sithence duely repayred. called [blank] reduced to a more defensible plight. cast vp in diuers places on the South coast. to a like ready. middle. and prouided in a readines to march for the ayd of Deuon. 8. and treble trenched. vpon any cause of seruice. . by order to the Captaynes of those limits. that vpon any alarum. and much lesse confused way of assembling. of which I shall haue occasion to speake more particularly in my second booke. anno 1599. as the opportunity of their dwellings affoorded best occasion. by direction from the Lords. by a new commaund. secundum vsum. Of the later sort. to send an equall number into Cornwall. there to serue under Sir Frauncis Vere. but (so farre as I can see) not greatly ad propositum: for the Lords better digested instructions. whom the adioyning land-forces were appoynted to second and third. haue reduced the Countrey. which are termed. H. as need requireth. and the aduantage of the hilly situations. The rest are S. Michaels mount. voluntaries and vpwards. order was taken. Pendenis fort. The yeere following. a proportionable supply to the wants of Ireland.After the sudden surprize of Pensants. when they were destyned to become our scourge. Cornwall yeeldeth. as raysed by the Danes. in this ranke wee may muster the earthen Bulwarks. as also Tintogel. and a commodious dwelling. and S. 4000. as it serueth for a sure hold. vpon like necessitie. vpon the instance of Captaine Lower. with allowance of garrison. 100. at one time. as the Lord Lieutenant of that County had the same order. Of Beacons.

leadeth me to entreat of Cornwals ciuill government. parts in 5. Medland. the middle sized 2. Vice-admiral. Trig. how the Constables commaund & example. Iustices of the peace. which haue their Baylifs as the Hundreds. Kerier to Penwith. dooth East Hundred to that of West: in the Southerne.| Lesneweth H. to giue [86] his hourely attendance. and Leets. East| West H. who performe it not with that discretion. Minhinet. & Iudges of assize. and so of this book. because it submitteth them to a subalterne commaund. N. I would not wish the blaze of their authority blemished. but with little satisfaction of diuers: neither will it euer fare otherwise. trust. Stewards of Courts Barons. but this office for giuing of warnings. Trig beareth 5. Clifton. of boroughs & corporations of the Stannaries. The generall. Constables of the hundreds the shire hath none. so this later lieth in the hands of the Constables. drew many of the not worst meaning people. for their opinion touching the erecting of some. is supplyed by the deputy Baylifs. | Trig H. Watches and searches oftentimes carry waighty consequence. if there were as much care vsed in choyce of the persons. Franchises. Lesnewith & Stratton 4. Franchises. which giueth little encouragement to an innouation. Powder to Pider: and in the Westerne. W. proueth fruitles. Wise direction without diligent execution. we haue spoken already. and general. & from the Lords to the Iustices. | Stratton H. | Kerier. Cornwall hath the Duchy. Stoke Cliuisland. The last branch of my diuision. West. East. secrecy. Pider. Powder. whose dispatch is welneere as speedy as the horses. In the Northern. Rialton. S. as the credit of their place deserueth. | East H. & all his rates proportioned as followeth: Diuisions. Coroners. Kerier. & collection of rates. into that extremest breach of duty. So in the Easterne. which containe [blank] tithings: by these the shire is deuided into limits. & Portreeues. There is the like proportion made of the parishes in the Easterne diuision. I haue knowne the Iudges moued diuers times. as it passeth for a part of the Realme. as the former is deriued from her Maiesty to the Lords. | Powder H. Now. and that may againe be subdiuided into iurisdiction particular. whereas now in their parishes they are absolute. Sherife. . Hundreds there are but 9. The particular iurisdiction is exercised by Constables. euery thorow-fare weekly appoynteth a foot-Poast. Lesnewith. In all rates.For carrying of such aduertisements and letters. by the Clarke of the market. the East & South limits beare 3. the bigger 3. Hundreds. to the North and West. Neither can the parish Constables well brooke the same. & Penwith. Stratton. apiece. & therefore (this notwithstanding) I wish it followed in the residue. & found them of seueral resolutions. which were often requisite to the importance of the affaires.| Pider H. or 4. & speed. to attend the publike seruices. the least whereof hath one. & Maiors. and miscary in the managing: and it was seene in the last Cornish rebellion.| Penwith. Caruanton. Pawton. more then of custome. and Kellylond.

corporations 2. Lostwithiel. But the other answere. with more haste then good speed. Bodmyn. the neernesse of commencing their suits. that speedy iustice is administred in their townes. Truro: for the East. of Trig. vexation begetteth charges. Bodmyn: of Lesnewith. This inuectiue is somewhat deeply steeped in gall. Perin. Trig [blank] Lesnewith [blank] Stratton [blank] Powder [blank] Pider [blank] Kerier [blank] Penwith [blank] Corporations are priuiledged with the administration of iustice. within their liberties. but by subtilty. in debts and controuersies. then the shortnes of tryals cutteth off. Columbs: of Kerier. Such are Saltash. that these trials are often poasted on. & must therefore . great and doubtfull. feeling his authoritie to wane. & in the other halfe. [87] For the Hundreds of East. wherethrough they become altogether depraued in body. Eastloo. & serueth others turnes. Colombs. Grampond: of Pider. Camelford. Lanreath. for their owne limits. Liskerd. West H. and that it saueth great expences. for many of their wearish and ill-disposed bodies. S. that knowes not why he is good. is Bodmyn : for the East and North. which poor Artificers cannot vndergoe. maketh friends of that Mammon. disdayne at their neighbours. there spring pride amongst themselues. incident to assize trials. and welneere allof them haue large exemptions and iurisdictions. Grampond. or complices: for as it hath bene well sayd. Helston. becomes a magistrate. how from these imperfect associations. Launceston: for the South and West. Againe. more or lesse. Adde hereunto that the Maior exercising his office but during one yeere. Thus dooth the opportunity inure them to vexation. to be requited with the like. parishes 19. Helston. He cannot long be good. They alleadge for themselues. A garment (in diuers mens opinions) ouer-rich and wide. and minde. Pensants. They conclude. Kellington : of West. borrowing from iustice.The conuenientest & vsual places of assembly for the whole County. for the West. goods. are Iustices of the peace. East H. and Monopolies against the Commonwealth. S. while an ignorant fellow. Liskerd: for the North. The Maiors and Recorders. and charge hatcheth pouerty: which pouerty. that towne: of Powder. what hee may lend to his purse. and deliberation open the doore to reason. & takes vpon him peremptory iudgement. for the first halfe thereof is commonly to learne what he ought to doe. hath parishes 30. which by the fumes arising from cholers boyling heat. according to the purport of their Charter. accompanied with idlenes (for they cannot follow law. in some of these. Launceston. Westloo. Padstowe. is much obscured. corporations 2. Helston: of Penwith. of a sowter. Camelford: for the South. Camelford: of Stratton. whereas longer respite would make way to deliberation. and worke) seeketh not to releeue itselfe by industry. Truro. draweth on more expences.

Chiuerton 10. let such a one bee arrested within their corporations. Bologna grassa. that a minde valewing his reputation at the due price. 2. for mine owne part. P. farre from needinesse: and by daily experience giuing proofe.| Tristramus Arscot Q. 16. chosen by the voyces of the freeholders. 4. hath beene heretofore so abused by his deputies. as they stand placed in the Commission. Godolphin M. Florenza bella.| Q. 23. Mohun M. if any other townsman of the higher sort beare him an old grudge.| Thomas S. Wray Q. 22. Gallants of Foy. Thebae superbae. as free from greedinesse. in whom he possesseth none. Q. as Roma santa. Aubin Q. 21. Napoli gentile. or neere the towne. Christ. Foure Coroners. will easily repute all dishonest gaine much inferiour thereunto. who at this present make their ordinary residence in Corn. Pride of Truro. not of all. Ric. then the Sunne beames by shining vpon a dunghill will be blemished. 19. Greinuile 7.| Carolus Treuanion Q. it falleth out sundry times very distastefull and iniurious towards strangers. Antonius Rowse 8.| Q. some of the idle disposed Cornish men nicke their townes with by-words. through his vertue. 25. he must be contented to fret the colde yrons with his legges. if the bringer be a man of sway. Q. &c. who for the present are.| Iohannes Hender Petrus Courtney 9. 18. his calling neuer so regardfull. &c. to their priuate gaine. Now. a Gentleman. Carew de Anth. as Numantia bellicosa. Bern. Charles Treuanion. 17. 3. Treffry de Fowey Q. Willi. Corinthus ornata. do serue the shire. &c. 6.| Q. Parker M. would worke a reformation of many disorders. Arth. Venetia ricca.| Georgius Kekiwiche Q. as. Ed Hancock. Arund. no sureties but townsmen can finde acceptance. that the same is tainted with a kinde of discredit. de Trerise 12. Petrus Edgecomb 5. Ferrara ciuile. Rauenna antiqua. Surely. as through his faire liuelyhood. Nic. Reg. I haue here set downe the names of those Commissioners for the peace. and the present Italians doe the like touching theirs. if the action brought.| Q. The good fellowship of Padstowe.| Io.bee interpreted. amongst them. Iona. or little interest? The ancients vsed to grace their Cities with seuerall titles. 20. Tho. will procure an euerlasting enemy at his doore. Carthago emula. Harris de Lansre. [88] his cause neuer so iust. Hierusalem sancta. Harris Io. Tub. 27. and his heart with griefe: for what one. where the priority is mostly deferred to antiquity. by becomming surety for a party. be his behauiour neuer so honest. which notwithstanding. 24. 1. Rob Moyle Q. in. Trenance. Fra. being rightly & duly executed. & his ability neuer so sufficient. The Vice-admiralty is exercised by M.| W. 26. Bligh. . and strangers they reckon all that are not Burgesses. Athenae doctae. and Bastard. Trelawney M. and a great good to the Common-wealth.| Thomas Lower Q. The Clarke of the markets office. In an imitation whereof. carry a shew of waight. but the worst. that how commodious soeuer this iurisdiction may proue amongst themselues. Harris 11. & that in conuersing with the worst sort of people (which his office oftentimes enforceth) he can no more be disgraced. I am of opinion. yet if he haue none acquaintance in the towne.

or the next. But about twenty yeres sithence. mencioned in the one. and the generall practise hath gone with the former. Degor. the Easterne Iustices making the greatest number. about the time of keeping their Sessions. as it gaue the Westerne Iustices the greatest part of their will. Hannibal Viuian 13. called into question. either in regard of their ease. should seeme to make a construction of like meaning in the rest. seeing no day certain is directed for beginning the Sessions. and end at Bodmyn. it cannot admit an interpretation of the same weeke it selfe. and that no recognisance should be discharged. by supporting the former: for the end . and trouble of the Countrey. for then they deferre it till the next: and yet. hath resolued. who suite themselues to the other fashion. on the Tuesdayes and Wednesdayes.| Otwel Hill 28. the Epiphanie. if those feastes fall vpon any later day in the weeke then Munday. in such cases. and the translation of S. and sometimes broken. and lately accustomed. Teste Newbrigensi. 30. Againe. as it eased the trauell of the people.Th. The Iudges of the circuits Oracle. as it was pleadable by prescription. and the next begin. at Bodmyn. they ought to call it for the morrow following. Michael. when they were disposed to attend both places. to put it ouer vnto the weeke ensuing: and these are their reasons: If the Sessions must bee kept in the first weeke after. leaning one dayes space for riding betweene. worthily blotted out of the Calender. vpon debating of the matter. ill example. with the great vncertaynty. those. haue resolued. Their ordinary use was. doe yet swarue therefrom. that one newly associated. Another variance hath sometimes fallen out betweene Cornwall and Deuon. 29. This proposition. so it salued a sore which chiefly grieued the Easterne: for before. that neyther of these wayes tendeth to any breach of the lawe. whether this custome were as warrantable by right. if they will constantly binde themselues to the former sense. Thomas (which. Nic. when those dayes fall on the Friday. that the Terme-suiters may best speed their businesse. It hapned. waying.| Iohannes Trefusis 15. 5. or for both together.| Q. by the Westerne Iustices. to be ended at Truro the Friday and Saterday following. And thereupon they began to appoynt the intire Sessions at either place one after another. H. Prideaux Q. de Taluerne Q. and end at Truro. Besides. that the Sessions should enterchangeably one quarter begin at Bodmyn. to begin the quarter Sessions for the East halfe of the Shire. and to adiourne the [89] same for the West halfe. and it hath euer sithence beene accordingly obserued. the clause of Easter. so as seuerall and contrary precepts of summons were directed to the Sheriffe. This was sometimes performed. Chamons 14. when those festiuall dayes fall vpon a Munday. or vpon scruple of conscience. that prescription is no Supersedeas for swearing. Once sure it is. was. made this motion for a reconcilement. viz. whether the Sessions shall be proclaimed for that weeke. to which the Commission of the peace referreth the Iustices Quaeres. Arun. what was done in the beginning at one place. and not yet seasoned with either humour. and in this separation having farthest to ride. or cause decided out of his owne diuision. at Truro. enacteth that the Iustices shall hold the same in the first weeke after S. For whereas the Statute 2. and whether it as much aduanced the administration of iustice. the clause of Easter. or might be vndoone in the ending at the other: wherefore all parties willingly condiscended hereunto. is euer the seuenth of Iuly) and their oath bindeth them to a strickt obseruation hereof: the question hath growne. But the Cornish Iustices.

and account seldome taken or made. Lostwithiel. subsequent. to any other shire. what hath bene done therein. gaue the Cornish Iustices leave to alter the same. de Penwith . nor vouchings. which amongst other shires. Cornub. or countenance. S. One only Iudge was wont. The boroughs so priuiledged. and S. wealth and pouerty. if not larger number of Burgesses. order the controuersies: and as diuersitie in opinions breedeth no enmity. and (not seldome) an extent of time. Liskerd. they are troubled with more extraordinary supplications in Cornwall. Prury. by the diuers wayes of loue and reuerence. then grauity. Bossimy. The common Gayle of the shire for offendours. I wil conclude with the highest iurisdiction. but shewing of law cases. Meddishole. Kellington. is taken for no disgrace. S. with a milde mercy in remitting.of these Sessions deliuereth them space inough [90] to ouertake the beginning of the Termes. Downeuet. the Parliament. Mawes: and because Quindec. are these following: Launceston. de 15. Saltash. while the causes are on the backside. I haue heard the Iudges note. through the grace of his Earles. where they are holden. and in confusion they mayntayne equality: for though they speake more then one at once. the vsuall (though not indifferentest) place. we must acknowledge. namely. Eastloo. Hund. in deciding. to dispatch the Assizes. Camelford. H. poasted ouer to Gentlemens hearing. amongst whom. Neither doe assertions. Truro. vt patet. to which Cornwall. But malice and iniquity haue so encreased. For the rest. together with the Subsidies. Helston. Germanes. in Paroch. tooke it away againe. but proofes in hearings. at Launceston. sendeth an equall. this of our last is not the least: for they doe so temper a quick conceit with a stayed iudgement. can carry a matter against the truth. 8. are ordinarily graunted at Parliaments. so ouer-ruling by most voyces. that contrarie vertues may. God hath blessed this Westerne circuit with speciall choyce of vpright and honest Iudges. is kept at Launceston: for that statute. p. that besides their ordinary paines. at the Cornish bench. Westloo. a strict seuerity in punishing. by a Prouiso. yet no one mans speach. [91] Md. meet in one onely poynt of honour. Iues. 33. then in any other shire: whereto they yet giue no great encouragement. through two contrary effects. that ever since our remembrance. more of fauour (as the case now standeth with many of them) then merit. I will heere set downe the ordinary rate of them. Verily. equity beareth more sway. & gayle deliuery. and an awfull grauitie at the Bench. in that this keepership is annexed to the Constableship of the Castle. that now necessity exacteth the presence of both. and that graunted out in lease. as they make proofe. Bodmyn. with a familiar kindnesse in conuersation. Tregny. in three dayes at farthest.

6 S. S.14.6.8 1.2. S.12.Paroc.0 Sum.0.3 2. Siluan. Gerend. Burg.6. 0. Twynnock.4 4.6 0. 0. Ey.5 0.19. 81.0 2.0 Laurocen. Constantyn. 2.10 S. de Fowy. Martyn.0 Burg.10.14. S. S.16.10.6 S. Lanhorn.0 8.4 S.1 Woluele.0 1.18. 6.10.6. Hund. Burg. 6.7. Penkeuel. Rumon.8. Denis. Mawnan.6 0. Keyran. 2. [92] Carhayes.16.ma. Sennar. Sampson. de Kerier.2. Eglosros Moresk.2 Vthno. Tywardreth Argallas.7 2. 2.8 S. S.4.3. Ladock. Fowy extra. S. 2.8 S. 1. 2.8.0 S. 0. S. Eglosmerther. 4. de Powder.11 Feock. S.0 2. 52. Synan.4 0. 8. Antony.11. S.14.5. Ewe. Luduan. Anthonie.0 S. Ewynne.6 Germock. S. Sithne. S. de Helston. S.11. Corentun.8 4.8 3.0 1.2 Caniborn. Hund. Briack.14.16.6 0. S.8 3.6 1. S.2 1.14.ma.5 Kedruth.4 2.16. Wendron. Michaels.10.4 6.0 2.8.6 Laundut. Kenwen.8. Budock.0 S. Burg.4. Mewan.7.18. Landreth.12.11. Gorian. Crade. S.12.11 1.10.12. Mawgan.5. 0.0 2.0 4. Awstle.13.4 1.8. Pawl. Maddern.0 3.15.0 6. Gorgian.5. Crowen. Sancred.15. 3.10.19. Iusti. Gluuiack.4 0. S. Felis. Minster 1. de Lostwi.0 S.parua.4.10. S.1 0.6 1.0 3. Grogith.Kneth & | Restormel.0 S.4 Wyneanton. S. Wennape.0.8 0.0 1. | S. Stephens.6. Landy. Rumon.2 1.8 2.2. 1. 2. Erly.12.3 1.8 S. de Mia.0 Elerky.8 1.11. Melor.18.0 .10 S. 3.15. Arwothel. 0.4 2. 2.0 1. S.0 Crewenne. S.0 2. 2.0 2.0 0. Burgus de Perm.3 Germogh. Wynwolny. Manerium de | Towington in | 2.16. 2.17. 8. 1. Manerium de | pen.2.5 3. 1.11.12. S.10 2.0. 2li. Hillary S. Lanuoreck.6.8d.8 0.6. Melan.0 0. 2.0 3. S.4 S.12. S. 3.5. Roche.2 0.11s. Morueth.8.0 0. S.5. Sum. Illogan. Goran 0. 1.0 S. 1.4. S. Stidian.0 6. S. Keby.0 S. 2.9 S. Winner. S.1. 1. 1.

0 Bridgerule. Whitston.| S. de Camelforth.Burg. Burg.0. Iuliet. Iacobstow.11.0 1. Lanhidrock. Bruke.17.6.5. 2.4 0. Agnes.0 Hund. Poghwil.2 1.4.0 1.10. Maruy.10.0 2. [93] Hund. Laneuet.0 . Bodmyn ext. 1.6 2.4. Petrock mi.8 Athawyn. Egloshail.10 5. S. 3.9. de Lesnewith. Lanherne.4 2.0 Calendry 1.18. de Tintagle.6. 2.6. S.6. Tweir.7.6 3.0 3. Temple S.3 S. S.19.0 1. de Tregony.10 1. S. | 0.2 Lesnewith.6 1.4. Colan.0.8. de Meddi. Petrock ma. Probus.15.2 0.19.6 P.0 Boyton. S.0 1.10.0 0.16.0 2.8 1. Ma. Treualga.0 1.0. S. Iust. 2.0 0.0 Bur. 1.18. Hellond. 1. Ermets. 2.4 0.8 0.6.0 1.9.0 Oterham. 0. 1. S. 1.0 S. Newlyn. S. S. Columb ma.10 2. Euoder. Bur. de Trigge.6 Moristow.6 Wyke.8 Hund. Brue rode.4 1. Wenne 0.5 20.8 0. Burg.0 1.16.9. de Lesnewith.8. Austle.1.6 Treneglos. S.18. Alternon Dauid. Bu.14.0 0.12.0 1. 5.6. 3.2 4. S. de Castle | Boterel.17. 2.13. Ouerwynchurch. de Pennayn.1. Columb mi.14.8 2.0 0. Ede. Bliston. Kilkhamlond. S. S.0 S. Maben. 1.7. S.13.19. Ermets Landege.13.0 1.4.0 Bur. Withiel. Teth.7. S. Minuer.9 1.0. S.8 2. 1. de Grand.6 12. 0.0 Burg.16.15.4. Oldstowe. Caranto.8. S.10.8 1.0 S.0 1. Cleder.16.0 1. Bur.6 2.2 0.16.0 2.0 3.0 1.13.0 1.6 3. 1. Launcels. Vuel.0 Lanteglos. Mihelstowe.0 Maner. de Kilkhamp.4 Aleyn. S.0 Hund. Genis.14.0 1.7. 1.17. Laud. de Pider. Podistok.6. de Tintagle.14. de Truru.10 1.0.0 4. Crede.10. Peran.8 1. 1.0.19. Lasullian. 1.1. Warburg S.0 Stratton. 0. Cuthbert.8 1.19. de Bodmyn.2. S.8.0 Minster.6. Eudelian. P.0.3.19.

Iohns.4 0. 6.0 0. Lawanneck.0 2.17. 12. Lawlutton.0 4. tot.10 2.4. Martyn de Loo.3. 479.0 1. praed. Maben.0 .0 1.7 1. Iue.19. 0.3. de Westwibilsher.0.0 Sum.13.03.8. milit.13. Melan. 1.8. appunctuat. Burg. Pleuiul. Stephens of | Lanceston. S. Pillaton.0 1.0 2.0 0. [94] Md. Piderwyn.6 1. 13.0 Oterham.0 Meer. Kayn.Hund.0 0.0 1.2 1. 0.15. Villade. Maner. p.0 1. H. Cleder.0 0. Lansalwys.16. per Edmund.0 0.0 2.0. Liskerd.0. | Helland.11.7.0 0. 0. de Downuet. Cardinham. de Liskerd.0 Sum.6 1.0 Hund.0 3.0 1.16. Manerium de | Tremeton. 4.18. 1. de Eastwibilshere.10. Bodulgat tunc vn. | Quedock.12. S.5.15. de Loo. Lasant. Landilp. Morual.19. Brotheck. de Lesnowith.7.18. S. 1.6. S. Dulo. Wynnock. S.0 1. S.0 2.0 1. Pynnock. Germyns.15. Niot. Lanraythew. Bur. particulariter. 15.0 1. Tallan.10. Exon. Hund. Parochia de | Menefride.0 2.8. Burg. 0.15. Tudy.0 2. S.0 1. Southil. in Cornub.4 0. de Bodmyn. Episc.0 1. Trigge. postea sequuntur deductiones & allocat.0 1.4. Warlegan.9. S.0 2.0 6.0 1. | Linkinhorne.0 0. in Anno 24.14. Clere.18.0 1. Com.6 2.0.18. Reprina. vt pt. Minhinet. de eisdem sum.9.0 1. Egloskery.10.15.11. 5.0 Aldehan. Seuiock. Vepe.0 1. Stoke. S.12. Tethe.4 2.10.0 0. Northil.12.0 0. Rame. & 10.15.0 Lanteglos.12.17. Dominick.0 Boskenna. Burg. Bruer. Egloshail Temple.0 1. S.0 6.9.8 0.0 1. Burg. 1. de Ash.0 0. de Liskerd.10.0 1.0 1.19. & Thom. Antony.6.18. Laurake.0 1. Calstock.

12. Thebut.0 0.0 1.10.0 Rame Quethiock. Pederwyn. Hund. de Penwith.0 1.1.0 0. Whithton. Treueglos. S. Germyns. 0 Hund.0 0.10.0 0. Luduan.0 1.0 Lanrethow. Stephens. Felix. S. Bu.0 0. de West.0. Lawanneck. Gothian.1. Senan. | S.10.10. 0. 1.10.0 Egloskery. 1.0 S. S.0. 8.0 0.0 0. S.0 Lawhitton. Burgus de | Liskerd.13. Sencrede.6.0 Burgus de | Kilkampton. 0.10.0 0.12.9. | Merwinchurch.8. Manerium | de Liskerd. S.10.9. Kilkampton.0.0 0.10. de East.0 1. Hund.0.0 3. Stratton.0 0. 0.0. Talland.0 2.0 Laurake. 1.10. Pawl.0 0. Domineck. S. S. Warburg.10.10.0 0.0 0.0 0. Morual.18.0 0. Melan.0 1. 1.0 Sum.0 0. S. Calstok.0 0. 0. 22. 1.0 0.0 0. 1.0 0. Morestow.10. Michaels. 0. Antony. Alternon.0 0. Lanteglos.0.10. 10. 0. Pondistoke.0 S.0 Sum. Vepe.0 Sum.10. Mynster.10. Nyot. Lancels.12. S.10. 12.0 1.6.0 0. de Camelforth.0 Sum.12.0 0. S. S.Burg.0 . 0.0 0.15.10. 1.12.0 2. Pynnock. | S.18.10. Iacobstow. Manerium de | Tremeton. | Burgus de | Downeued. Veryn. 7. Dauid.0 0. Ius t.15. Parish of Liskerd. S.15. Gennys.0 4. S.0 0. Poughwel. Selenan.0. [95] Hund. S. Iohns.0 Aduen.5.0 0.0. Iues.0 0. Camborn. de Botriscast.15.12.0 0. S. 0.0 0. Boyton. S. Lesnowith.0 1. Cleer. | S. 0.0 0. Minhinet. de Stratton. 0. 7.0.0 0.0 0.

0 0. de Powder.5.0 8.10. Grey. 6.0 0.10.10. Petrock maior.10.10. Breock.0 Withiel.10. **************************************************************** THE S V R V E Y C O R N W A L L. Melan. de Helston.10. S. Hund.0 0. 0.0 S. 16. S. de Kerier. Edy. Crade. Mawnan. 0.10. Enoder.10. S. | 0. 10.0 Lamorek. Keby. Goran.0 0.18. 0.6.0. Wynner.0 0.10.0 Vwel.5.10. 0.0 0. Stedian. 0. Burgus de | Truru.0 0.0 0.0 0.10.0 1. Wynampton.0 0.9. 0.10. Hund.12. S. 0. 0.10. Newlyn. Petrock minor. Illerky. | Roche.0 0. 0.0 S. S.0 S.0 Carnenton. Burg. Stephens.10.0 Lamhorn.0 Sum. S. Sampsons.0 0. de Pider.6. 0. & 10. 0. Arwothel. tot. S.15.0 S.0 1.11. Lamhern. 2. [96]************************* missing scan *******************88 Hund.0 Tywardreth.10. Pyran. 113. 0. 0.0 S. Wenep. OF .0 Sum.10.0 Sum.15. 0. The second Booke. 0. Ewyn. 0.10.0 0. 0. 0.0 0. Minster.0.0 Eglosros. Allen. Sum. 0.S.10. Gereus. Lanhidrok. S. Constantyn.10. 15. Colan.0 Burgus de | 0.0 0. 17.0 S.0 0. S. 19. 10. Argallas.15. deductions.0 Lostwithiel.0 0.0 S.0 0. 0.6.6. Moresk.

Cornwall. tribute. and banishing. [519. and then established his conquest. forrayed the Countrey. On their Reguli (as Vincentius deliuereth) he imposed an yerely tribute. was called by the Saxons. stouped to the commaund of Egbert King of West-sex. and forces. the Cornishmen quitting their libertie with their prince. which hee pretended for one of the causes. not long after. sonne to Alane. and retire into Wales. and Cornishmen in general. li. was ioyned a fourth. 25. in siluer. [809. I borrow out of Strabo. where. and added such strength to his enemies. that about sixtie yeeres from the landing of Hengist. Deuon. The highest which my search can reach vnto. whom he ouercame in battel.] Adelred. king of West-sex. or accident. as their note-worthie site. ioyned battell with Certicus. and with their territorie (saith William Malmsburie) enlarged his confines. [720. him.] To these afflictions by home-neighbours of bondage.] Yet. Next I find. king of the said little Breteigne. and some in little Breteigne: since which time. thus abandoned by fortune. out of his late conquered Ireland. [688. and killed . for their Inhabitance. shall offer occasion. & left onely the narrow angle on the West of Tamer riuer. Soueraigne of the West-Saxons. and hunting hounds and hawkes. [937. and inforced his subiects to seeke safegard by flight. would not so forsake themselues. landed in the West parts. [Anno Do. and Blederick Prince of those prouinces. thogh equally destitute of successe as before. a mightie King amongst the Bretons. that the Danes landed in sundry places of Cornwall. & Somerset shires. [997. an arch Pirate of the Norwegians. burned the Townes. at discretion. [590. with his owne death accompanied the ouerthrow of his armie. of 20. till then. inuaded Deuon and Cornwall. by force of armes. at [97 Certicesford. against Careticus king of the Bretons. encountred and discomfited: [750. coped once againe with Certicus. some in Wales. king of the Bretons. whom Roderick. processe of time reaued from. oxen. against Caesar.] which notwithstanding. that the Westerne Bretons gaue ayde vnto the Armorici of Fraunce. wanne from the Saxons. li. they bare equall sway with the Saxons. the Bretons. and after long fight. but with renued courage. to their aide.] Athelstane handled them yet more extremely. 300.IN this second booke I will first report what I haue learned of Cornwall. who writeth.] Howbeit. which hath euer since beene their fatall bound. they could neuer recouer againe their auncient possession of the whole Iland. of spoyling by forrayne enemies: for Roger Houedon telleth vs. some in Cornwall. or any memorable action.] Gurmund. 509. and his sonne Kenrick. for hee draue them out of Excester. by a peaceable composition with his aduerse partie.] one Nazaleod. in gold. and from thence descend to the particular places and persons.] So. that he was driuen to abandon Cornwall. of the former or later ages. Iuor. why he inuaded this Iland.

against the power of Fraunce. Yet would not the Scots take so much warning by their successe. but Hugh Courtney Earle of Deuon. both to the Earle Montford. besides Barks. [1339. and 2000. vpon her arriual out of Fraunce. who vnder their Captaines Iohn Apport and Iohn Cornwall. the 7. Lastly. were induced to rebellion. being destitute of horses and treasure. he prayed therein ayde of his loyals.] Queene Margaret. bred not his mistaking in the place. as they readily followed Sir Edw. from the Deuon and Cornish men. a Black-smith. [1068. de Mesuile and Philip de Courtney. By his relation aso. men at armes. by the testimony of Mathew Paris.] Neither did his suppressour and successour. he distributed his armie into three portions. Courtney. with 40. after the losse of Barnet field. Griffin ap Conan Prince of Wales. . in support of that quarrell. the Kings brother. [1485. Froissarts [98] ignorance of our English names. vpon an honourable composition surrendred the same. the Earle of Sarum. by the euidence of armes. finde them more loyall: for the Cornish men repining at a Subsidy lately graunted him by Act of Parliament. set to sea. [113. employed in the like errand. King Harolds two sonnes. ships.] And so much were those Western people addicted to that name. remooued it with posse Comitatus.] To whom succeeded in the like occupation. and then retiring with their prey into Ireland. one of which (wherein consisted the forces of the fourth part of England and Cornwal) hee committed to the leading of Gilbert Earl of Strigill. & Michael Ioseph. to the messengers of his heroicall Countesse. Godwin. Cornwalls neere neighbourhead gaue oportunity of accesse. when he appealed to that Kings ayd. in his reuolt against Richard the third. about Christmas arriued in Cornwall. harrowing Deuon and Cornwall. & his brother Peter. and so afterwards. H. receiued great ayd. in the end. wife to H. by Thomas Flammock. for want of due succours. H. [1227. and recommitted them to the wooden prison that brought them thither.] After the conquest. after long tossing at sea. [1497. 6.the people. And from Cornwall. discomfiting the forces opposed against them. the first inuaded. though to smal purpose. besides Archers. William Earle of Sarum. for recouering his right in Brittaine (albeit I cannot bring home Cepsee the designed port of his landing) and after his captiuitie. made an vnlawfull entry into Deuon and Cornwall.] In Henry the thirds time. vnder the conduct of Thomas. a Gentleman. and Edmond magnus. had defended the Fort of Bercherel in Brittaine. as example by their precedent.] When Edward the third auerred his right to the Crowne of Fraunce. with much adoe. aboue a yeres space. Bishop of Excester. if at least. the French for a counterplea. [1471. that those souldiers of Cornwall. at two seuerall times: the later of which. when K. what time the assisted the Duke of Buckingham. his authoritie enformeth me. Earle of that shire. did Earl Richard. Wil.

Notwithstanding. giuing. receyuing. as he sate in Commission at Helston for matters of reformation in religion: and the yere following. [1549. vnder the conduct of Arundel. Lords & Commons were gathered in strength sufficient. which rising in Deuon. to Edgecumb: on the toppe thereof riseth a little vaulted Chappell. with which power they marched into Deuon. taking the Hundreds for my guydes. which yet (as euer) quayled in their ouerthrow. Keueren. Hookers limits. whose posterity conueyed it by inter-marriages. as they lye in my way. assaulted Excester. and by the way baptizing Plymston. Plymstock. Wydeslade. at Plymouth hauen. &c. yet doth the iurisdiction of the water wholly appertayne to the Duchy of Cornwall.with whom they marched to Taunton. Perkin Warbeck. degenerated to their party. that name and armes to his owner. and expressed the like consideration. in battell. receyued the repulse. called. is Rame head. which serueth for a marke at sea. as is knowne. and others. here emptieth it selfe into the sea. the punishment of their seducers by iustice. from Durnford. eyther to satisfie the affection of some speciall persons. I will make easie iournies from place to place. yet sometimes affoording succour to the . and may therefore bee claymed as a part of that County. or to appropriate the soyle to the former Lords. & gaue the L. and by his possession. it grew to a general reuolt. From thence trending Penlee poynt. landed in Cornwall. an open roade. S. to intrude vpon my good friend M. It borroweth that name of the riuer Plym. went to Bodmyn. where Iames Touchet. The hauen parteth Deuon and Cornwall welneere euery where. with which encrease they passed by Sarisbury to Winchester. and soone after. so named for his site. by his proportion. and reserue to him the description of the farther shore. besieged and assaulted Excester. and from thence to Welles. a late great man ensued. and therein. In my particular view. I will forbeare what I may. Resogan. But by this time. was first occasioned by one Kilter. assembled a trayne of rake-hels. to make head against them. vntill I haue accomplished this wearisome voyage. The first promontory of this harbour on the West side.] The last Cornish rebellion. followed by 6000. Body. in diuision of his lands between two of his sonnes. and so into Kent. and other his associats of a Westerne parish. there murdering the prouost of Perin. and London. Lord Audely. In the same fatall yeere of reuolts. and as he deserued. because some few interlaced places are excepted: a matter so sorted at the first partition. you discouer Kings sand and Causam Bay. who imbrued their wicked hands in the guiltles blood of one M. as Tamer riuer runneth: I say welneere. [98] My first entrance must be by the hundred of East. Now though this hauen thus bound both shires. black Heath saw the ouerthrow of their forces. a Commissioner for the sayd Subsidy. or that (notwithstanding this seuerance) there might stil rest some cause of entercourse between the Inhabitants of both Counties: as I haue heard. Russell (employed with an army against them) more then one hot encounter. a counterfeit Prince. and in the end sped.

that the Earle of Richmond (afterwards Henry the seuenth) while hee houered vpon the coast. The shore is peopled with some dwelling houses. and remoued the barrels. called the Yate. and others. neere a narrow entrance. who there shrowded themselues. ninetie seuen: at which time. dearely rented for a short vsage. The Inginer of this practise. it yeelded a safe protection to diuers dutyful subiects. (as hath since appeared by some examinations) was a Portugall. Nicholas Iland. for health. somewhat within the Iland. sent some closely into the village. At which time. I would presume to ranke it. which by a traine should haue burned the houses. and raised a weake kind of fortification. with the bounce of a Caliuer chaced them aboord. and boasted to haue burned his Ship: for which two honourable exploits. in the darke of the night. in quantity. here by stealth refreshed himselfe. with a round turret at eche end. raigne. kept for his surprising at Plymouth. while most of the able people gaue their attendance at the Countie Assises. vpon certaine doores. a Spaniard riding on the Bay. in fashion. & the hall rising in the mids aboue the rest. a house builded and named by Sir Ric. It is seated against the North. about 3. he richly rewarded his hoste. before the traynes came to worke their effect. which yeeldeth a stately sound. strongly fortifyed. therethrough to contest. I haue heard the Inhabitants thereabouts to report. From this Iland. Edgecumb. planted some Ordinance. whereto they are directed by certaine markes at land. When the Cornish rebels.woorst sort of Seafarers. father to the now possessioner: and if comparisons were as lawfull in the making. [100] In the mouth of the harbour. lyeth S. with any subiects house of his degree in England. the opened casements admit a refreshing coolenes: in Winter. in sauing of Pilcherd. But one of the Inhabitants. losengy. turmoyled the quiet of those quarters. carefully garded. discouered at the low water of Spring tides. for ships to passe thorow. in the midst of a Deere park. and subiect to the Commaunder of Plymmouth fort. the 6. garretted on the top. as you enter the same. espying these vnwelcome ghests. hyed speedily a shipboord. standeth mount Edgecumb. and many Cellers. as not subiect to comptrolment of Plymouth forts. euer since one thousand. Here also of late yeeres. Vpon this South shore. the landing of the expected enemie: and a strong watch is continually kept there. who sometimes sayled with Sir Iohn Borowghs. to shape the greatest part of the hauen. a range of rocks reacheth ouer to the Southwest shore. and escaped happily to a better fortune. but being aduertised of streight watch. during Edw. the two closed doores exclude all offensiue coldnesse: the parlour and dining . the King of Spaine bestowed on him two hundred duckets. and commodities. In Summer. if not repulse. part of the Cornish forces twise encamped themselues. as they prooue odious in the matching. depending vpon their labour. and leauing onely a narrow entrance in the midst. thorow which the salt water breaketh vp into the country. pleasure. there flocketh a great concourse of Sayners. who hanged vp barrels of matter fit to take fire. on the declining of a hill. The house is builded square. fiue hundred. acres.

3. was wont to be planted with ordinance. Ma. Deere. & the townes of Plymmouth. In the yeere one thousand. with many noble men besides. in the Summer euenings. into my commendation. which are bound to the Eastwards. and a great circuit of the land adioyning. yet remaining. fruit. whither the gentry of the house walking downe. A little below the house. Langued as the field. lyme. together with the passage betweene. confirme the neighbours report. according to the nature of the place. into the more inward parts of the hauen. neither hath the opportunity of the harbour wanted occasions to bring them. Nicholas Iland. take the pleasure of the sight. (much haunted as the high way to PIymmouth) the whole towne of Stonehouse. & Netherland fleets. the Spaniards vaunts caused the Cornish forces to aduance there a kind of fortification. by my mother. armed as the third. and heire of Stephan Durnford: and his father Sir Richard. least a partiall affection steale. a member of the house. called West stone house. with their base voices greeted such ghests as visited the house. and the dwelling stored with wood. Both sides of the forementioned narrowe entrance. These names of Peers and Richard. that neere the waters side. as the Sconce fell out vnnecessarie. and sometimes at all aduentures. as those doe in Catwater. and to plot the making of a Bridge on barges ouer that strait. and Conies. and marle. for some good space. there stood once a towne. and by my birth. Stonehouse. called Hamose. deliberatenes of vndertaking. to satisfie the owners want. descended from his loynes. as one. and accommodate his neighbours. Master Peter Edgecumbe (commonly called Peers) married Margaret the daughter of Sir Andrew Lutterel. at vnwares. lieth a safe and commodious Road for shipping. & Saltajh. Spanish. then blazing mixture of vertue) during Q. the Admirals of the English. Plymmouth fort. which at coming & parting. Edgecumbs inheritance: these sides are fenced with blockhouses. Bores heades coped. they haue successiuely varied for sixe or seuen descents. ninetie nine. Hee beareth for his Armes. appertaine to M. for inhibiting the enemies accesse by boates and Gallies. timber. fiue hundred. For proofe whereof. to which vnderly S. It is supplyed with a neuer-fayling spring of water. married [blank] the daughter of Tremayn. [101] Certaine olde ruines. On the seaclifs groweth great plenty of the best Ore-wood. arable and meadow. and that next to Mount Edgecumb. the earst remembred Sir Ric. (a gentleman in whom mildnes & stoutnes. Sayne-boates come and draw with their nets for fish. Milbrook. and compounded of the words Ose. made a more commendable. But not too much of this. A little inward from Mountedgecumb. The ground abundantly answereth a housekeepers necessities. who would . raigne. entertained at one time. Or. whether the bridge would haue proued as impossible. buy the profit of the draughts. for pasture. & sufficieney of effecting. betweene two Cotises. and Ham. or the owners a franke mind to inuite them. seruing both for building. But it may be doubted. Gules on a Bend ermine.chamber giue you a large & diuersified prospect of land & sea. and is replenished with a kinde of stone. vntill the French by fire and sword ouerthrew it. his father Sir Richard married [blank] the daughter of Tregian: his father Sir Peers married [blank] the daughter. arg. diffidence & wisdome. Here those vessels cast anchor.

It is reported. as passing thorow their streights. and descended by his daughters and heires. there was an ordinary passage ouer this water. a village of some 80. that in times past. At the higher end of a creek. the one ten weekes after the other. wife to Richard Adams of this towne. who liued vntil baptisme. and had welneere forty ships and barks at one time belonging therevnto. Yet do they prescribe. that in the seuenth moneth. called Horsecoue. to their former vndeserued plight. he returning to his rule the 8. and borrowing his name from a mill and little brook. Monck. lyeth the Peninsula of Inswork. wherefore. But our late broyles with Spayne haue let vp a more compendious. they deny it. that a childe borne in the seuenth moneth may liue. in the eighth. & the later hitherto: Which might happen. Milbrook lurketh between two hilles. both Astrologers and Phisicions [102] doe affirme. in a suburbiall market (as I may terme it) to Plymmouth. passing vp from hence. yeeres) this village tooke great encrease of wealth and buildings. for their reliefe. Or if these coniecturall reasons suffice not to warrant a probability of the truth. haue bene annexed thereunto. was deliuered of two male children. and begin by little and little. if not forestalling. in that the woman bearing twinnes. by course of nature. such corne and victuals. The site is naturally both pleasant and profitable.fare to the West. though not so honest way of gayning. to a place on Deuon side. by the generall bound. the childe. was also deliuered of twinnes. and of this Milbrook. A part of Mount-Edgecumb. In my remembrance (which extendeth not to aboue 40. beginning at Saturne: after which reckoning. because euerie wind that can erue them at Sea. by his dreery influence. then many others of far greater blaze. The Phisicions deliuer. to reduce these plaine dealers. but in the 8. it is readier (as halfe loosed) to take issue by any outward chance. that the child in the mothers wombe. when it beginneth to settle againe. to the other: and surely they are not unworthy of fauour: for this towne furnisheth more able Mariners at euery prest for her Highnesse seruice. the owner by his ingenious experiments. and as yet retayneth some weakenes of the former sturring. month. in the moneths following. shall presse them farther: for hee writeth. is successiuely gouerned euery moneth. It chanced about twenty yeeres sithence. but long since discontinued. houses. it requireth a more forcible occasion. brought forth the first before his time. by intercepting. slide. though seuered from Deuon. by a better disposition worketh a more beneficiall effect. infortunateth any birth that shal then casually befall: whereas his succeeder Iupiter. and Treuilian. by some blow. three Gentlemen of Deuon. get ouer Crymell passage. through the iust and industrious trade of fishing. will from thence carrie them out: which commoditie other roads doe not so conueniently affoord. to Forteskew. vpon some of the foreremembred considerations. yet. by the seuen Planets. Now. Aside of Milbrook. that one Richaurd. Plynies authority in a stranger case. Mary. . & that induceth a slaughtering violence. to which. on whose neckland standeth an ancient house of the Champernons. at that time. turneth it self in the mothers belly. cannot for want of time or weather. and these are their reasons: The Astrologers hold. running therethrough. and the later in his due season. that a woman brought a bed of one childe in the seuenth moneth. or other extraordinary accident.

viz. Roseworthy. you meet with the foot of Lyner. haue procured the seale of the Maior of . and William: to Sir Robert. I was there called to dispute ex tempore (impar congressus Achilli) with the matchles Sir Ph. the poore home of mine ancestours. shee gaue to Nicholas: Lyham. wiues: the first. as in Froissard you shall note the like. retayning their names. Robert. who left her inheritance to her only daughter Ione: and she taking a patterne from her fathers fortune. that shee and hers fell at square. by the predominant salt water. and Michael. that Earledome deuolued. Waryne. espoused likewise 2. Allenor. daughter of the L. and others. and Southtawton. and Bledeuagh. Knight. as after the fathers decease. whose rare worth my pen is not able to shaddow. and not priest. she disinherited him of all her lands. & had 2. Reignald. and bestowed them on her yonger sonnes. because both being enfranchised to a sudden absolute iurisdiction. which discord (with an vnnaturall extremity) brake forth into a blow. This I learned by the report of Sir Peter Carew. to whose children. Combhall. the daughter of Iohn Bosowr. where it winneth fellowship with Tamer. Iohn. the daughter and heire of Iordan of Haccumb. And. I haue set my seale . as being a scholler in Oxford of fourteene yeeres age. Otho. Richard married Ione. yet longer. Bosewen. Sir Nicholas Baron of Carew. with which in this maner they were inuested: Sir Iohn Lerchedekne. and not by his calling. one of the daughters and heires to Iohn Talbot de Castro Ricardi. where shee lyeth buried. the one to be heire to the other: and in witnes hereof (sayth she in her conueyance) to each of these deedes fiue times indented. to Sir Hugh Courtney of Bauncton (which I take is now named Boconnock. and because my seale is to many vnknowne. Leycester. she disposed of her sayd mannours as followeth: Haccumb. and Tregennow. neither of them can easily temper the same with a requisite moderation: so it chaunced. to be familiar amongst the nobility of Gascoigne) by Cecill. Richard. Iohn. Warwick. to Hugh: East-Antony. then vndutifully giuen his mother: for vpon so iust a cause. till then.daily addeth an artificiall surplusage. Bokeland. Sidney. being seuenteene mannours. that. much lesse with his due lineaments to represent) at such time. brother to [103] Iohn Earle of Oxford: to Sir Nicholas. the elder of that name. Passing somewhat farther vp. tooke to wife Elizabeth. Margery dyed childlesse. wedded to Sir Walter Lucy: Margery. and became widdow of both. & the later. and eldest of our stock (a Gentleman. good agreement betweene the mother and eldest sonne hath commonly weake continuance. Nicholas. Beaumond. that bare him Thomas. in presence of the Earles. afterwards knighted. to Alexander: Wicheband. and Sir Robert Fere. Widebridge. husbands. (for he was so called of his family. and the issue of their bodies. for want thereof. to Sir Thomas Arundel of Taluerne: and Philip. standeth East-Antony. in whome the heires male of this multiplyed hope tooke an end. and Landegy. Maud. Hugh. our foreremembred Philip.) From Lucy descended the Lord Faux. substituting. Alexander. Sir Hugh Courtney was second sonne to Ed. and this. had issue 9. Shoggebroke. vpon a wrong conceyued opinion touching my sufficiency. shee bare Thomas. Earle of Deuon. for want of issue in the elder stock. anno 1419. and diuers other great personages. By the forementioned conueyance. Ringmore. and on her begat three daughters and heires. by him no lesse dearly. Martyn. though their ouer-weake streames were long before confounded. sonnes. to William: and lastly. A little within this mouth of Lyner. to Iohn: al which she entailed to them. and Milton. and three yeeres standing. as is testified by her toomb-stone in West-Antony Church. Ralph. Warine. Manedon.

and they myselfe. to wish a weale. Shee shall not. which downe to me. We are the fist: to swarue herefrom. Arch-deacons heire. I will not though I could. lately wedded to Briget. saue mine. Black-bearded all the race. The Barons wife. The smelling fence we sundry want. Thomas her eldest sonne. But want it without lack: For t'is no sense. Alexander maried Elizabeth the daughter of Hatch. though she would. we owne our babes. is descended Carew of Haccumb. one of the daughters and heires of Holland: their sonne Sir Wymond. and sister to Sir Anthony Denny. doe waxe and wane. I doe the name auowe. it throwes away: The sonne. repayred this losse. the now Earle of Oxford. . By tip of th' upper lip. daughters and heires. and begate Iohn. to be also adioyned. God may dispose. not valuing at due price His wealth. as deceasing issuelesse. and all their wiues. And Carru is a plowe. [104] From fire to sonne. By 4. and from Iohn Vere. Frenchmen the word. and one of the heires to her mother Catherine Cosewarth. in part. The fire. All which. daughter to Iohn Arundel of Trerice. who hath made me father of Richard. and my family in particular. And neuer did tha'duentrous change. by seruice or by match.the Citie of Exon. espoused Martha. From William is come Carew of Crocum in Somerset shire. By thrift and lauishing. being once vainly disposed (I would it had bene but once) I made this idle obseruation. Wrong dide by mothership. daughter of Iohn Chudleigh of Ashton in Deuon. The elder stock. Vnto her yonger sonne Gaue Antony. That brings a greater wrack. Romanes the trade. deriueth his pedigree. Through natures marke. Touching our stock in generall. Repaireth this decay. Sir Wymond had Thomas. who tooke to wife Thamesin. and we a braunch. the husband of Elizabeth Edgecumb. linked in matrimony with Iulian. who by vertue of this entayle. As for my wife. Of double wedding proue. by matching with one of Carminowes. Our family transplants it selfe. At Phoebes gouerning. CArew of ancient Carru was. the daughter of Edmund. exprest A Turtles single loue. descents hath runne. From Nicholas. succeeded also to Hughs portion.

to doe the like: if they be so disposed. changeth his former softnes. eche from other. through the sunne and winde. 3. sable: armed and Langued Gules. if hee there aduenture his naturall theft. a large ouerflowing of the salt water tides. I will put my selfe to the payne of particularly describing it.To grow in other shires. and yet. to a firmer hardnesse. receyueth for recompence. the owners pleasure. As best behoofe appeares. wherein I will by the way interlace some notes. lest emptying the water. and others. as it would foreclose his entrance. Lyons passant. And Countrey rather makes then takes. Our eldest daughter widow fell. And yet but halfed them. there is digged a round pit. By order borne. The Armes of our family. to barre any Otter from issuing. It riseth of equall heighth with the banks. to inuite your longer stay at our cold harbour. saue the labour of perusing it. for the Imitaters better instruction. Those which my parents got. either vpon cause or kindnesse. are Or. by casting vp part of the Ose to the heades. one third We in the graue haue layd. Three Kings of England Godfathers. This place is deepened to a pond. and you may (notwithstanding) at your pleasure. Mine trebled haue in either sexe. For Godmother. The Ose thus aduaunced. but must leaue about three foot depth within. whose dwelling affoordeth a semblable oportunity. . lest they too much stop the waters passage. Round about the pond. Before our yongest borne: So doe hard haps vnlooked come. for that diuers strangers haue. and to keepe in the fish. standeth a flood-gate. but lose the pastime of his hunting. which God My graundsire did allot: Whose grace in Court. rarely obtayned. which deliuering a little fresh rillet into the sea. nor the compasse too little. to bee drawne vp and let downe through reigles in the side postes. In one of the corners next the sea. when the flood-gate is taken vp: and therefore you must not make the frith too close. if the same declined outwards. It exceedeth good maners. & they must outreach the highest full sea mark. part to the middle. and their middle space filled vp with small stones: this serueth to let in the salt water. our Queene. it wholly abandon the fish. To th'yongst of those eighteene. by two foot at least: neyther ought your flood-gates foote to stand euen with the pondes bottome. and then a mayd. sloped inwards. the lower keepeth in the salt: the middle rayseth an Iland for the Workmens [105] ease. Children thrice three God hath vs lent. whose mouth is encompassed with a double frith. of two foote distance. So are our hopes forlorne. within short space. and the fishes succour. pretended to like well of a saltwater pond there made. there is pitched a frith of three foote heighth. may (perhaps) take some light herefrom. and part to the sides: the vpper head stoppeth out the fresh water. Two sonnes. There lyeth a creeke of Ose. betweene two hilles. of which. In the halfe circle enclosed between the flood-gate and the compasse frith.

wherewith. Neither doth al this require ouer-long. when the full sea falleth in the after-noones. which the fish then best affecteth. which the flood. Guilthead. and so to saue ouer often drawing. and the new admitted. so as on the last day you keepe the aduantage. you may place your flood-gate euen with the floore of your pond. together with sundry other. The pond may not carry one continuall depth. but containe some shallow places. without stop or attendance: and in this case. which is easily done. Peale. which is continually fedde with the water soaking from the sayd flood-gate. The pond also breedeth Crabs. if his sides be walled vp with Cob. and there abideth. 8. but not in their wonted reddish graine. by the inner side of the flood-gate. frithed on the sides. and taking small fishes. At full sea downe goeth the flood-gate againe. and foure foot depth. but whether they ouerliue their breeders rauening. Thus much for the making: now to the vse. The fish thus taken. is requisite. at least. Whiting. Flouk. at which time. they are bought for a trifle. where the water entreth. The pond will moreouer keepe Shote. vntill the next day minister the like ocasion: and after this maner is opened and closed. sixe foote depth of water. for sixe dayes in the whole. in making that place. and Sole. and serue to make a lesse Sayne. The best meanes of preuenting leakage. then at highest. the rest of the yeere it is carryed away by a trench. for auoyding diuers discommodities. And all these seruices about my pond. of fome 30. and 2. The floodgate will hold water best. or busie paines or attendance: for if the former water be let out (sauing in extreme cold weather) before any new come in. the old water let out.of three foot diameter. & two of the spring. are commonly Basse. which will quurt vp his chinkes. that you haue before taken. fathom length. is to let three or foure shouels full of earth fall softly downe. betweene Midsummer and the end of August. daies of the neap. doth giue you. to any big growth. I am not certayne. & Shrimps. and so suffering the tyde to take his course forth and back. and Sammon. in seasonable plight. or 40. in a boat halfe full of water. my people make draughtes on the shallow places within harbour. Eeles. during Summer season. in depth. but when you are disposed to view all your store. In the higher banke there is also a flood-gate. But mine lieth so high from the mouth of the hauen. Trought. In winter season. this is the maner: when the Pilcherd Sayners cut the most impayred pieces out of their nets. by letting in the salt water euery tyde. Now touching the fish. when the weather is hote. may best benefit themselues. Smelts. or stopped somewhat too late. to wit. lower then the bankes and frith. and serueth to keepe any fish aliue. for this purpose. and so continueth new. and (in the beginning) Oysters grew vpon boughs of trees (an Indian miracle) which were cast in thither. They feed on salt vnmarchantable . and for them all to play in. Such as haue the meanes. it little skilleth. as I am driuen to detayne the last prouision. and not for his worke. to protect the smaller fish from the greater. continuing from thenceforth other ten dayes vnmedled withall. Plaice. Millet. The Basse and Millet do also spawn there. to let in the fresh water. the flood-gate is hoysed vp. to serue as a houer for the fish. are performed by an old fellow whome I [106] keepe for almes. which entreth thorow a little augre hole in the bottome. cast them into the pond: they are kept & brought thither aliue. vntill the comming spring-tyde haue taken two daies encrease. and neuer take it vp.

by throwing in their bayte at the ponds mouth. the mids in neap: With changelesse change by shoales they keepe. Lymy. And againe. for which. keepe the depth. and fatte. There sucking Millet. and deliuereth them to the demaunders ready vse. like the chopping of their meat. as euenings passe. and calme in sprite. where (about Lent) they bury themselues to spawn. killeth them: they grow very fast. . Greedy to catch. and in the top of the water plainly discouer themselues. and chawing of the sedge. The pleasure which I took at my friends pleasure herein. I vaunt not manhood by debates. In heat the top. in cold the deepe: In spring the mouth. by a little Sayne net: specially the Eeles in weelies: the Flowks. For safe bayt at due place doe looke: Bold to approche. & confirmeth Plynies assertion. I enuy not the misers feares: But meane in state. which also bettereth their taste. with those in the Sicilian riuer Elorus. by groping in the sand. & the liuers of beasts: the rest deuoure their meat. & the Basse and Millet by angling. they swimme with the ryme of the water. at all seasons. as they resorted thither. Leonicus voucheth the testimony of Apollodorus. My fishfull pond is my delight. Lugges. Euery euening they come to a place certain in the pond. or thicke puddelly water. ready. My fishfull pond is my delight. Where equall distant Iland viewes His forced banks. approche very neere. And net becomes the fishes nest. and Otters cage : [107] Where salt and fresh the poole renues. and Barne. ready to fly. at the mouth of the pond.Pilcherd. serueth for a summons to call them. and in Summer. to take pleasure of the new entring water. for receiuing their allowed pittance. a knocking. They are taken generally. little Crabs. and in the Winter. Tag-wormes. idlely busied me thus to expresse the same. In the hotest Summer weather. If they be absent. They were first trayned hereunto. Side-walking Crab. but the Millets content themselues with sucking it. Ne shoulder clymers downe the stayres. seasonable. swallowing Basse. that fishes do heare. and calme in sprite. called Brit. fruitfull. quick to espy. And flip-fist Eele. but not cheap : Thus meane in state. small fish. I Wayt not at the Lawyers gates. Fat. As Spring and drowth encrease or swage: Where boat presents his seruice prest. wry-mouthed Flooke. and are now become alike tame.

fish-like diue in waue. to deliuer you the plot. as the same was deuised for mee. Who feeling force of Sunne too great. In themidst. turrets. Where pond doth th' Ocean captiue make. there should haue risen a boorded roome. like Swallowes. the late Sir Arthure Champernowne. downe-falne. to keepe the fishing implements. Swallowes in wet. the second. so to leaue a second Tarras. that where the side walks . of the like fashion. as many windowes should haue bene set. to beare. Nor water-gieu'd. & the fourth a stayre. And both them challenge for their pray. winglesse fly. which because some other may (perhaps) elsewhere put in execution. this sport I take. so should this vpper round roome be sieled square. finlesse swimme. for flight to fayle. to build a little woodden banqueting house. Their push a bubble vp doth reare. one should haue made a kitchin. and in three of the places where [108] the round joyned with the square. [107] The fish and swallowes it espie. There meane of calmy ayre to proue. These. That. for ascending to the next loft: which next loft should haue risen on the flat roofe of the lower. But carelesse of foresight in weale. The bubble driues the Fly to brinke: So Fish in vaine deuoure the ayre. The Swallowes. escape away. While thus they can nor liue nor dye. By kinde 'gainst kinde their prey to get. Of the 4. to the end.STench-louing Flies. The euening deaw droplodes their wing. Swallowes in vayne the water drinke. Fish in the drye. With buzzing moane their bane they sing. The fish. like Mount-Edgecumb. with ballisters. mount on high. shut out by this round. but lesser proportion. so to leaue sufficient space betweene that and the rayles for a walke round about: this square roome should within side haue bene sieled roundwise. it wil not do much amisse. Their course vnto some water set. moysture doth beget. This should first have bene planched ouer and rayled about. and this. I carried once a purpose. by that perfectly accomplished gentleman. The Iland is square. with foure rounds at the corners. While Fly escapes. swimming in ayre. Twixt coole below and warmth aboue. on the Iland in my pond. The Swallowes as their kindely spoyle. the fourth should haue serued for a dore. a buttery. but of a lesser size againe. One bent their diuers ventures haue. So forst. The fish as caught within their toyle. those. a store-house. the third. their father heat. Fluttering in waue. weake to drowne. in a round forme. like the other: and as the square roome below was sieled round. On mother.

whereon she got holde. and boxes. & not appetite. is called Sheuiock. and their Armes once painted round about. but the boat (as hauing done his enioyned errand) presently recommited it selfe to the stormes disposition. with a more kindely and better relished saltnes. and many others. and floting by her. sauing one onely woman. They are held to be father and sonne. so called (as our neighbours relate) euer since my great grandsire espying 2. by her charitie. There runneth also a tale amongst the parishioners. to a place called Wilcoue. that a boat ouer-fraighted with people. & their two onely sonnes. which groweth (as I coniecture) because Lyners lesser streame leaueth them to bee seasoned. with the rest of the tenement. & there set them on land. was vnusually. yeres agoe. About 40. found their buriall in the waues. to try (as in a lists) the vttermost of their quarrell: which place they could not quit. and his wife the barne adioyning. for a reliefe. vent out the alye fume of their fury. The woman thus freed from one peril at sea. then those of the adioyning Tamer. somtimes the ancient Dannyes inheritance & inhabitance: by whose daughter and heire. was from thence brought home to be here interred. how one of these Dannyes ancestours vndertook to build the Church. the barne was found to cost three halfepence more then the Church: . at a hote combate on the shore. The next parish vpon this riuer. and by the winde and tyde. by one kind of misfortune. it chanced. and all the folke drowned. her husband tooke the same. at seuerall times. But that ground was fore ordained to her good: for not long after. and it now serueth her for a dwelling. not of men. casting vp their accounts. she clymed vp the cliffe in such a steepe place. tooke them into his boat. for keeping other fishing feasts. vpon finishing of their workes. aduentured another of little lesse consequence at land. Ouer-against this pond. lyeth beggers Iland. is Cater for the stomack. but now by the malice. the same (together with other faire possessions) descended to the Earles of Deuon.and sieling ioyned. neere to a place called Henpoint. three windowes their places. and one of their ladies by her husbands side. sunk. and that. but of time. in lease. finde a welcomer acceptance. towards these and a doore might likewise find tweene the round and square. and almost miraculously driuen athwart the chanell. sate astride vpon one of his sides. where the taste. The Oysters dredged in this Lyner. as the very consideration thereof. of that idle occupation. vntil the low water should enfranchise them by wading & the respite. and that the sonne slayne in our warres with Fraunce. in rowing downe the riuer from Saltash market. doth euer sithence halfe amaze the beholders. while he was rowing homewards from Saltash. was by the extreme weather. having their pictures embossed on their tombes in the side walles. whom it pleased God so to protect and direct. for being not yet thoroughly restored to her sense. full of water. defaced. named Agnes. In [109] the church there lie two Knights of that name. that in her first popping vp againe (which most liuing things accustome) shee espyed the boat (after it had discharged his burthen) risen likewise. The voyd spaces behee would haue turned to Cupboards necessary vtensiles. where shee no sooner stepped ashore. Her sayd husband. the wife of one Cornish.

but through an inueterate byword. and a little Church. though now forgotten accident. amongst which first sort. it passed to Crediton: and lastly. time. but beyond the apprehensiue imitation of any other in the shire. and by the owners charity distributeth. where this Gentleman enioyeth fayre possessions. with purpose to beg such a matter at his hands: Our gentleman became inquisitiue to know their suit: they made strange to impart it. was from S. He hath issue by Blanch. cuckolds: for as the dwellings are more then doubled. or 3. viz. wan some good grace with the King. who againe. This while. that it is peopled with 12. not vpon any present desert. G. and wealthy Farmours. from thence to Excester. out comes . if you ioyne to the store of people. the quantity and quality of the soyle. then Iugurth found fault with in the dungeon. maried Buller: his graundsire [blank] their ancient dwelling was in Essex. the almes accustomably expected and expended at at such places. some 2. pro virili. & beareth for his armes. the 8. whose continuall. as from hence. in H. waited at a doore where the King was to passe forth. sonne and heire apparent to Sir Philip of Deuon. and master Champernownes acquaintance. where the Romanes buried him aliue. changing his note with his coate. a poore village but a much frequented thorow-fare. especially the women (like the Campellians in the North. of which much might be spoken. remooued hither. Now when the golden showre of the dissolued Abbey lands. and sundry ruines. but little wealth. But this first losse receyued reliefe through a succeeding Priory. by putting the Inhabitants in minde of this priuiledge. Germanes. which at the general suppression. and inquisitiue liberality to the poore. Neither will it (I thinke) much displease you to heare. came by the same. two Lyons in bend passant Sa. Petrocks in Bodmyn. a house so named (by likelyhood) for some former memorable. somewhat infamous. when the Cornish Dioces vnited with Deuon. the daughter of Sir Frauncis Godolphin: his father George. rayned welnere into euery gapers mouth. and 13. extraordinarily extend it selfe to an inuiting emulation. In this parish standeth Crasthole.and so it might well fall out: for it is a great barne. of whom master Eliot bought it. followed the Court. dwellings. occasioned eyther through abandoning their fishing trade. large. and through his pleasant conceits. is now named Port Eliot. and the London Bargers) forslow not to baigne them (vnlesse they plead their heels the faster) with a worse perfume. the Bishop of Cornwals See. cotifed. as the greater sort imagine: for in former times. The Church towne mustreth many inhabitants. the Kings seruants. the greatest parish in Cornwall. George Keckwitch of Catch-French. which by the high site. Howsoeuer. Ar. or by their being abandoned of the religious people. as some conceiue. did in the late deare yeres. many wayfarers make themselues glee. so (I hope) the cuckolds are lesse then singled. how the gentlemans ancestour. might more fitly be termed Open hill. I may not (without withdrawing my testimony due to vertue) omit M. to attend his languishing and miserable death. wherethrough it affoordeth commodious dwellings to sundry ancient Gentlemen. Vpon Sheuiock abbutteth S. [110] Iohn Champernowne. gentlemen.

howbeit. daughter of Semtabyn : and his father [blank] daughter of Forteskew. the ouertaken companions were fayne to allot him this Priory for his partage. and so doth M. a Moyle passant. Gent. descanted thus: [111] WHo first gaue Lyners name. His Armes. Tho. B. called Seaton. the large proportion of the parish. borowing his name of Cheuereul. where the riuer Lyner first mingleth his fresh streame with the brinish waues: touching whose name and quality. findeth that contentment. a Saultier Ar. Martlets O. which many ambitious heads. In this parish lyeth Bake. Geo. by Tregonnock. and passing through Laurake parish. Or from what cause it came. Ro. an ancient house of the Bishops. with a rarer modesty. he appeales to the King: the King avoweth his equall meaning in the largesse. who maried Anne daughter of M. Peter Courtney hath an high seated house. to whom that dwelling first descended. which heauenly fauour. Germanes. . Smith. called Wotton. Hard 'tis for certaine to expresse: Experience yet directs. Leauing S. whose Armes are Ar. G. Champernowne: afterwards. the dwelling of M. far and wide doe vainely seeke for: hee maried Tremayn: his father Robert [blank] one of the daughters and heires to Killigrew: and his sonne Iohn. Ar. vpon a Friday. the mansion of the foreremembred M. very shortly after publike seruice was ended. The house perhaps. by a handsome fence forbidding any foes inuasion: it is ouerlooked. signifying a wild Goat (as those high clifs affoord them a commodious inhabitance) and on the other. that as she thee bear'th. a part of this parish confineth on the maine sea & offreth a faire landing place. vpon the one side of the riuer (which there dischargeth his streame into the Ocean) by Keuerel. a French word. He beareth for his Armes. then hunting after any others good liking. as he did mistris Vaughan. you descend to Noddetor bridge. a great part of whose chauncell anno 1592. So thou doest line the earth. with whom immediately before. At the townes end. who in a quiet and honest retirednes. Beares heads erased Sa. which intituled it Beak. Lock. & more affecting his owne recreation. whereon. and frame a gesse. a Cheuron betweene 3. Wadham. betweene 4. Priscilla the daughter of M. from a well aduanced Promontory. Iohn father to Robert maried Agnes. in which M. saued many persons liues. a Gentlewoman suppressing her rare learning. Thereat to ayme. so doth master Champernowne: they preferre their petition. he requireth his share. in former times. fel suddenly downe.the King: they kneele down. Moyle. Is't. the ancient house of the Langdons. of so little respite. Cuddenbeak. taketh a pleasant prospect of the riuer. one delighted in the solitary solace of his banks. it had bene stuffed: and the deuout charges of the well disposed parishioners quickly repayred this ruine. The parish Church answereth in bignesse. the King graunts it: they render humble thanks. By tryall of effects. & the surplusage of the Priory. of faire reuennues. they deny it. & yet expressing the same in her vertuous life and Christian decease.

Item. And throw'st into the sea thy mite? Is't. ruine. . And streame with waue combines. Nor hils a barre. descended to his auncesters. his deepest bottome sound. Ensue. His face in mourning weedes doth wrap. you fall downe by Master Bonds auncient house of Earth. Who like a lambe. he rolles. WHen Sunne the earth least shadow spares. his rage he wreakes. In following the course of Lyner. not so much beholden to the owners inhabitancy as to natures pleasant and commodious seating. as some puppy seat. Witnesse. For absence of his clearest eie. Before. Bullers Shillingham. And faintly sliding euery rock. by giuing breath. So Lyner on his course rusheth: Or. Downe-borne bridges. whereso he stray'th. And scornes old bankes should bound him more. now scarce a bound. on which abbutteth Ma. And drops teares in his Centers lap. Rockes in his wombe. of yron makes his bed. now a rill. vptorne wear's. The strongest rampire fear's his shocke. Then Lyners peeble bones he bares. losse. And earth. Plucks from his foamy fleece a lock: Before. as the threshing lout. to that of Master Wiuels. Shepheard adiew's his swymming flocke. Plaines scarce can serue to giue him scope. And getteth whelps of mongrell kinde: Lyner. second Sea. and bear's. as a line doth guide. Then. The heauens with brasse enarch his head. his force. Into mens houses fierce he breakes. terrour. Small beasts. But when the milder-mooded skie. Rusheth his Lyners out.With purseld streames of blew and white: Or. a fence. the sea so lines. newly and fayrely builded. from the daughter and heire of that name. their wracke. Lineth a mastiue great. Or. and wayle. And highest stalles in heauen his seat. rickes on his backe. death. a riuer. that with twisted line. And on each stop. Lyner gynnes Lyon-like to roare. So thou doest leuell slide. Begetting waters freshly brin'de. The Angler doth vntwine The fishes life. doth lowly bleat. The Hinde his whelmed haruest hope. Children him ouer-leape at will.

incamped in three places against it. the body verified. Richard Greynuile the elder did. Next. expressed the same to bee the burial of a Duke. and those without. The while. how. stepped betweene him and home. & there for a while indured the Rebels siege. three Besants. with his Ladie and followers. Three Belles Ar. though not the place. he was hereby wonne. as it doth of the Hauen. who wanting great Ordinance. and Sir Richard himselfe made an exchange from Trematon Castle. as well as their eyes. how much the word of a souldier imported. or enemies kept faith and promise: but some of those within. a writing graued in the Lead. could haue wrought the besieged small scathe. mingling humble intreatings with rude menaces. S. one by a deed before date. which being opened. from the Bailiefes arrest. gaue land. shewed the proportion of a verie bigge man. without regard of sexe or shame. The seely Gentlewomen. had his friends. laid hold on his aged vnweyldie body. the daughter and heire to master Hechins. The partie farder told me. Porter. and Richard Carew of Antony his keeper by lease. and exercised the vttermost of their barbarous crueltie (death excepted) on the surprised prisoners. to issue forth at a posterne gate for parley. Master Anthonie Rouse his Baylife by inheritance. a Leaden coffin. albeit my best pleasing coniecture. So prosecuting their first treacherie against the prince. with the Gayle to boote. and farre lesse. on a Cheuron Sa. . M. were stripped from their apparrell to their very smockes. put themselues into this Castle. Of the ancient officers. when Vantor was L. and a poore dwelling for the keeper of the Gayle. because his daughter was married to Edgar. one of the Dukes foremencioned foure houses: for now all the inner buildings are sunke into ruine: onely there remaine the Iuie-tapissed wals of the Keepe. if they cannot by suretiship discharge themselues. his father with Fits: his [112] Armes are Ar. and base Court. to that of Launceston. to which prisoners are brought vpon actions. and Countrie adioyning. Porters Armes are Sa. that about fourscore yeres since. M. wee take view of Trematon Castle. viz. George Wadham enioying in the right of his wife. to whose ancestor. with their bodies after their hearts. together with other faire reuennues. by the title of Russell Ianitori de Trematon. slipping by night ouer the wals. whose heire was married to the prince. lighteth vpon Orgerius. that Omnis caro puluis. liberally bestoweth in continuall hospitalitie. lying without the gate. It standeth in S. a part of those rakehels.Bond married with Fountaine. with suteable actions towards his subiects. M. which he still enioyeth. to plucke away their rings. I haue receiued information. thereof. from al places appurtenant to that large Lordship. not knowing what honestie. there was digged vp in the Parish Chauncell. and threatned to leaue it liuelesse. and some of their fingers broken. one yet retayneth the name. or rather was. a Canton Erm. they seized on the Castle. This Castle vaunteth the Lord Warden his steward by Patent. if the inclosed did not leaue their resistance. Stephens parish : the sheafe whereof. I cannot deuise. But who it should bee. but when the hands went about to ascertaine themselues. It is. At the last Cornish commotion. from one auerring eyewitnes.

Master Hechins armes, are Sa. a crosse Fleurty, [113] quarterly B. and G. betweene 4. Lyons heades erased Sa. langued of the second. M. Wadhams, G. a Cheuron betweene three Roses Ar. The same parish also compriseth Saltash, in old writings, called Villa de Esse; Esse his towne: and such Gentlemen there have been of ancient descent and faire reuennues. The word Salt, is added thereunto, because it standeth on the sea, & to distinguish it from other places of the same name. It is seated on the declyning of a steep hill, consisteth of three streets, which euery showre washeth cleane, compriseth betweene 80. and 100. households, vnderlyeth the gouernment of a Maior & his 10. brethren, and possesseth sundry large priuiledges ouer the whole hauen, to wit, an yeerely rent of boates and barges appertayning to the harbour, ancorage of strange shipping, crowning of dead persons, laying of arrests, and other Admirall rights, besides electing of Burgesses for the Parliaments, benefit of the passage, foreclosing all others, saue themselues, from dredging of Oysters, except betweene Candlemas and Easter, weekely markets, halfe-yeerely fayres, &c. The towne is of late yeeres well encreased and adorned with buildings, & the townsmen addict themselues to the honest trade of marchandise, which endoweth them with a competent wealth. Some 7. or 8. ships belong thereunto. It was not long since, that the neighbour-ministers successiuely bestowed their paines in preaching there, on the market daies, and the bordering gentlemen yeelded their presence. Sermon ended, the Preachers resorted to one ordinary, and the Gentlemen to another. This affoorded commendable effects to many works of loue and charity: but, with the retorted blame, from one to another, it is now wholly giuen ouer. Heere, that great Carrack, which Sir Frauncis Drake surprised, in her returne from the East Indies, vnloded her frayght, and through a negligent fyring, met with an vnproper ending. In this towne also dwelleth one Grisling, deafe from a long time, who, besides his merry conceites, of counterfeyting by signes (like the Romane Pantomimi) any kinde of occupation or exercise, hath a strange quality, to vnderstand what you say, by marking the mouing of your lips, especially if you speake deliberately, of any ordinary matter, so as (contrary to the rules of nature, and yet without the helpe of arte) he can see words as they passe forth of your mouth: and of this I haue caused him to giue often experiments. And if Plyny now liued, I suppose he would affoord a roome, in his natural History, to a dogge of this town, who (as I haue learned by the faithfull report of master Thomas Parkins) vsed daily to fetch meate at his house there, and to carry the same vnto a blinde mastiffe, that lay in a brake without the towne: yea, (that more is) hee would vpon Sundayes conduct him thither to dynner, and, the meale ended, guide him back to his couch and couert againe. I had almost forgotten to tell you, that there is a well in this towne, whose water will neuer boyle peason to a seasonable softnes. At the foot of Saltash, there abbutteth vpon the sea, a rock, called Ashtorre, alias, Effes Torre, which is inuested with the iurisdiction of a mannour, and claymeth the suites of many Gentlemen,

as his freeholders in Knights [114] seruice. Below this, there is a rock on eche side of the riuer, the one termed the Bull, the other the Hen; that on Deuon, this on Cornwall side. The Hen standeth a little distant from the shore, which giueth occasion to a Packe, how between it and the land, the Queenes greatest ship may saile; but it is meant of the farther distant. Aboue Saltash, Cargreen, a fisher towne, sheweth it selfe, but can hardly muster a meane plight of dwellings or dwellers: so may their care be greene, because their wealth is withered. Neere thereunto is Clifton, a neat seated house, appertayning to one of the Arundels, descended by a yonger brother, from those of Trerice; he maried Hill, his father, Cole. Neither hath your eye scarcely quitted that, when it receiueth Halton, the pleasant and commodious dwelling of M. Anthony Rouse, both which benefits, he empleyeth to a kind & vninterrupted entertainment of such, as visit him vpon his not spare inuiting, or their owne occasions, who (without the selfe guilt of an vngratefull wrong) must witnes, that his frankenesse confirmeth their welcome, by whatsoeuer meanes, prouision, the fewell of hospitality, can in the best maner supply. His auncestours were Lords of little Modbury in Deuon, before the descent of times grew to a distinguishment, by the date of writings: which mannour, together with other lands, through a lineall succession, fell to be possessed by Raphe, Wil. Raphe, Iohn, Wil. Raphe, and Raphe, whose daughter and heire Elizabeth, bestowed the same, with her selfe, vpon the family of the Dimocks, Robert, second sonne to the last mentioned Raphe, saue one, had issue Will, who maried Alice, the daughter and heire of Tho. of Edmerston. Wil. had another Wil. and he had Iohn, and Iohn againe had Wil. This Wil. had Roger, who vpon Iulian, sister and coheire of Iohn Hill of Fleet, begat Iohn and Richard, father to the Gentleman now liuing, and he matched with Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Southcott, and one of the heires to her mother, the daughter of Barnehouse: besides which, he succeeded to his vncle Iohns inheritance, who deceased issuelesse: and being yet scarcely entred the limits of an healthfull olde age, seeth his pedigree extended into two farther descents. As for those outreaching mans memory, I haue seene them very sufficiently verified: his Armes are, O. an Eagle displayed B. pruning her wing, armed and langued G. Vpon the top of a creek hereby, lyeth Crocadon, the mansion of M. Treuisa, a Gent, deriuing himselfe from the ancient and weldeseruing Chronicler of that name: he beareth G. a garbe O. A mile aboue Halton, standeth Cuttayle, another house of M. Edgecumbs, so named (as wee may coniecture) of the French Courtaile, in English, short cut; because here, the salt water course is straightned, by the incroching banks. The buildings are ancient, large, strong and fayre, and appurtenanced with the necessaries of wood, water, fishing, parks, and mils, with the deuotion of (in times past) a rich furnished Chappell, and with the charity of almes-houses for certaine poore people, whom the owners vsed to releeue. It is reported, & credited thereabouts, how Sir Ric. Edgecumb the elder, was driuen to hide himself in those his thick woods, which ouerlook the riuer, what time being suspected of fauouring the Earle of Richmonds party, against King R. the 3. hee was hotely pursued, and narrowely searched for. [115] Which extremity taught him a sudden policy, to put a stone in his cap, & tumble the same into the water, while these rangers were

fast at his heeles, who looking downe after the noyse, and seeing his cap swimming thereon, supposed that he had desperately drowned himselfe, gaue ouer their farther hunting, and left him liberty to shift away, and ship ouer into Brittaine: for a gratefull remembrance of which deliuery, hee afterwards builded in the place of his lurking, a Chappell, not yet vtterly decayed. And thus hauing coasted the Cornish side of Plymmouth hauen, I hold it not amisse, to make report of such great voyages, as, by the memory of our Chronicles, or our owne view, from this harbour, tooke their beginning or ending. Heere the neuer inough commended black Prince, attended by the Earles of Warwick, Suffolk, Sarisbury, and Oxford, the Lord Chandos and others, committed himselfe to the sea, with a nauy of 300. bottoms, for landing and maintayning his fathers right in France; and hither, after his glorious battell at Poictiers, he returned, with the captiue French King and his nobles. Here the Lady Katherine, daughter to the King of Spaine, and wife to our Prince Arthur, tooke land, at her first arriuall in England. Heere shipped himselfe, the Lord Darcy, sent by King Henry the 8. with a lusty crew of soldiers, for that Ferdinands iust assistance, against the Infidels: but vsed by him as a stale, for the vniust conquest of Christian Nauar. Here, mostly, haue the troups of aduenturers, made their Rendez vous, for attempting newe discoueries or inhabitances: as, Tho. Stukeleigh for Florida, Sir Humfrey Gilbert for Newfound-land, Sir Rich. Greynuile for Virginea, Sir Martyn Frobisher, and Master Dauies, for the North-west passage, Sir Walter Raleigh for Guiana, &c. Here, Count Mongomery made forth, with a more commendable meaning, then able meanes, or welspeeding effect, for relieving the hard besieged, and sore distressed Rochellers. Here, Sir Fra. Drake first extended the point of that liquid line, wherewith (as an emulator of the Sunnes glorie) he encompassed the world. Here, Master Candish began to second him, with a like heroicall spirit, and fortunate successe. Here, Don Antonio, King of Portugall, the Earles of Cumberland, Essex, and Notingham, the Lord Warden of the Stanneries, Sir Iohn Norrice, Sir Iohn Hawkins (and who elsewhere, and not here ?) haue euer accustomed to cut sayle, in carrying defiance, againt the imaginarie new Monarch; and heere to cast anker, vpon their returne with spoyle and honour. I omit the infinite swarme of single ships, and pettie fleetes, dayly heere manned out to the same effect. And here, in eightie eight, the foreremembred Lord Admirall expected, and set forth, against that heauen-threatning Armado, which, to bee tainted with the shamefuller disgrace, and to blaze our renoume with the brighter lustre, termed itselfe, Inuincible. But I may not grow ouer-lasciuious in extolling.

are by the Cornishmen. I must say amplio. Mary. at Hengistendune. the 2. argueth in times past to haue caried some valew. S. [116] From Plymmouth hauen. that about Anno 806. This down is edged by Carybullock. with whome the Welsh ioyned in insurrection against king Egbright. Those workes afford store of the formentioned Cornish Diamonds. which in the Saxon signifieth a horse. Downeuet and Newport: that (perhaps so called) of downe yeelding. Thomas & S. Roger Houeden reporteth. Hengsten downe. expresseth it selfe in the Inhabitants late repayred and enlarged buildings. Stephens. A newe increase of wealth. of that time. The parish Church of Launceston itselfe. called Lesteeuan (Lez in Cornish signifieth broad. into what new names Pontium & Coilleng there also mentioned. now Lawhittan. the same boadeth a showre within short time after. passe for Cornwall) because the other prouince. & those are scatteringly erected) and were anciently termed Lanstaphadon.King R. from Mary Magdalen. which I take to be this place (if at least West-wales may. Which grewe from the store of Tynne. now it hath lost his qualitie. from the Cornish Diocesse. to which yet. A little aside from hence. which (as I haue elsewhere noted) was exempted vnto Edwulff Bishop of Creditune. and by his being girded with a wall. of his newer erection. of his raigne. whose image is curiously hewed in a side of the wall. sometimes a parke of the Dukes. in former times. and spiritualtie. as hauing a steep hill: this. and the whole Church fayrely builded. Is worth London towne. deare ybought. both for the temporaltie. by interpretation. and reape benefit by their fayres . restrained all passengers from shipping themselues in any other Ports then such as are there set down: of which Plymmouth was one. lyeth Landwhitton. there digged vp: but that gainfull plentie is now fallen to a scant-sauing scarcitie. & to such least daintie beasts it yeeldeth fittest pasture. and his scarlet-robde brethren. This name it borroweth of Hengst. They are gouerned by a Maior. the same oweth present subiection. and written Lanceston. Anno 5. Stephens Church: they consist of two boroughs. brother to Alpsius. Those buildings commonly knowne by the name of Launston. that. is more commonly diuided into North and South. The towne was first founded (saith M. passing farther into the countrie. a fleete of Danes arriued in West-wales. through exchaunging Deere for Bullocke. fetcheth his title of dedication. The countrie people haue a by word. The neighbouring Inhabitants obserue also. Hooker) by Eadulphus. but hee gloriously discomfited them. are now metamorphized. well ywrought. Hengsten downe presenteth his waste head and sides to our sight. by Act of Parliament. Duke of Deuon and Cornwall. but best brooking that name. With them ioyne the parishes of S. is capped with a cloud. that when the top of Hengsten. by interpretation.

kindnesse and stoutnes. the daughter to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. and through his learning and wisdome. an Abbey. endowed this towne with the priuiledge of one. Hee beareth Sa. old to him by succession. which grace all his actions. George Greinuile. claiming the right of ancient demain. for his low and moyst seate. Henry 8. a priuiledged franchise. an ancient Castle. for holding the shire-Assizes. Poole standeth in Mynhinet parish. in eight lineall descents. there were found certaine leather coynes in the Castle wall. A little without the towne. master Christopher Harris owneth a third part of Trecarell (the proiect: and onset of a sumptuous building) as coheire to the last Gentleman of that name. no one borne heire of his house euer succeeded to the land: hee beareth A. He maried Iulian. yeares past. About 60. grauity and pleasantnes. yet new. the coheire of Reskimer: his graundfather Lamellyns Inheritrix. Richard his father tooke to wife. one of the inheritors to Tregarthen: which helps. and the common Gayle. aduanced his credit to an especiall good regard in his Countrey. I haue heard him deliuer an obseruation. the Constables dwelling house. miles distant from Launceston. where Sir Ionathan hath a large . his Lord. The Statute of 32. but admitteth no partner in the sweetly tempered mixture of bounty and thrift. three Croissants within a border A. daughters and heires of William Viel: and Iane. Trebigh. three Restes O. in respect of his owne antiquitie: diuers his auncestors haue reaped the praise and reputation of a stayed carriage. The base court compriseth a decayed Chappell. Courtney: his father the Fesse betweene three Poole. one of Kelwayes heires.is to this day principally remembred. is by conuerted to a generall welcomer of his Hee married the daughter of Sir William coheire of Killigrew. but I find it not turned to any vse. who descended from a yonger brother of that family. farre beneath his worth & calling: he married Sir Henry Killigrews daughter: his father. To the town there is adioynant in site. Neither may wee forget Master Coringtons house of Newton. but merrie prankes. Penheale mannour coasteth the high way. and Degory his graundfather. & sometimes appertaining to the Earles of Huntingdon. as they would now of couetousnesse. through his rash. a [117] large hall. by the name of the mad Corington. About 2. a Saultier Sa. but purchased not long sithence by the late M. furthered by Reignald Earle of Cornwall. was called. whose faire stamp and strong substance. haue endowed his sonne with an elder brothers liuelyhood: he beareth G.and markets. whose steepe rocky-footed Keepe. a battelaxes A. and anno 1128. hath his top enuironed with a treble wal. but sequestred in iurisdiction. one of the 6. which tooke order touching Sanctuaries. Castle terrible. Hee beareth Sa. men say. howbeit one of them. friends and neighbours. were founded a Friery. houseth Sir Ionathan Trelawny. In Lezant parish heereby. that. and the County Assizes. together with his owne good husbandry. Master William Wray. and in regard thereof. is not vnaptly named. till then resisted the assault of time.

and the Inhabitants industrie commendable. and welbeloued Incumbents. M. lyeth master Chamonds house and place of Launcels. for that it was sometimes a Cell. Master Billet. well learned. in an enuiable mediocritie of fortune do happilie possesse themselues. a Cheuron betweene three Buckles S. B. on a Cheuron O. M. but especially from their Garlick (the Countreymans Triacle) which they vent. S. Croissants A. [118] Sundrie other Gent. Manaton. with three well borne. and therefore it shall next succeede. not onely into Cornwall. Spurre. Out of Sir Ionathans house is also descended Master Edward Trelawny. late deceased. Doctor Tremayne. betweene three Roses A. This Gentlemans father. Vpon one side of the towne. M. appertaining to the Abbot of Hartlond. Lower. who. wherethrough it hath successiuely beene graced. for their dwellings. His circuit is slender. Their armes are A. and 2. and some others. of long life. three mullets of the field. G. betweene 3. rest beholden to this hundred. B. so called. and communicate their sufficient means to the seruice of their prince. who beareth S. the good of their neighbours. Tregodecke. betweene three Boares heads coped. Bligh. Chiuerton A. standing on a hill V. on a Bend S. M. an extraordinary fauour. none but the fellowes admittable. armed G. a Griffon segreant O. Stratton Hundred STratton Hundred extendeth the breadth of Cornewall. as that of East beginneth it on the South. a Castle S. and Master Denis. a Cheuron engrayled O. but many other shires besides. to the North. but his fruitfulnesse great. a rose of the first. gaue the same his name. and (if I mistake not) taketh it from Strata. sixe Crosses crosselet Fichee. A. M. a street: other memorable matter to report thereof. Stratton. Becket. M. receiued at Gods hands. mullets pearced S.priuiledged Mannour of the same name: the Benefice is giuen by Excester Colledge in Oxford. a Fesse. betweene three Oke-leaues Vert. a garb O. who reape a large benefit from their orchyards and gardens. . M. a Cheuron. Truisa G. O. a Gentleman qualified with many good parts. who beareth A. I finde not any. and the bettering of their owne estate: of which sort are. the onely market towne of this Hundred.

by his issuelesse decease. three Pine-apple trees V. and thereon. Tristram Arscot. had an elder sonne called Thomas. Master Arundel of Trerice possesseth a pleasant-seated house. to his great charges. wee meete with Bude. for his better plight: for this Gentleman hath. and by dame Iane. as bring their tide with them. and whether the females haue brought in a verie populous kindred. and daughter of Sir Iohn Sentleger. by euerie sea-floud made an Iland. Per eminentiam. is the present owner. by Arscot. to Tripcony. and by her saw fiue sonnes. a decayed Chappell: it spareth roade onely to such small shipping. wherein yet. He knew aboue 50. master Greynuile. In Launcels parish. in whose mouth riseth a little hill. who by his trauailing abroad in his yonger yeres. and vertuous M. and the auncient dwelling of the Greynuiles famous family. the daughter of Sir Peers Courtney. he beareth party per Cheuron B. the house of M. seuerall Iudges of the westerne circuit. Sir Iohn Chamond his father. flowers de Luce: G. whose causey serueth. and daughter to Sir Thomas Greynuile. called Efford. and heires. as a place of great and good marke & scope. let. parson of Kilkhampton. the widdow of the wise. whose two daughters. to discharge his calling at home. and two daughters. an open sandie Bay. builded a Salt-water mill. It is receiued by tradition. athwart this Bay. Tonacumb.Hee serued in the office of a iustice of peace. and leaueth them drie. Master Bernard Greinuile. and that not vnproperly. and Treuanion. [119] Vpon the North-sea. there affordeth passage to the other shore: but now it may take a new name. a man learned in the common lawes. Lea. & thither hath lately remoued his residence. He married one of the daughters and heires of Treuenner. is. standeth Norton. alias Ebbingford. and daunger. that his belsire. and demaines. Edmond Tremayne. when the ebbe hath carried away the Salt-water. with whome they matched. in Deuon. descended to his brothers sonne: he beareth A. widdowe to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice. because euerie low water. he purchased. bordereth Stow. hath the better enabled himselfe. his vncle and neighbour. whose stately house of Anery. as a verie conuenient bridge to saue the way-farers former trouble. He was vncle. a Gent. Vpon one side hereof. . caried part of the lands. late the house of Master Iohn Kempthorne. the yongest out-stepping 40. almost 60. sonne and heire to Sir Richard. He tooke to wife Eulalia. et E. thereby. Returning to the Westwards. a Cheuron betweene 3. also. from whence are issued diuers male branches. Master Chamond beareth A. was knighted at the Sepulchre. in chiefe two stagges heads cabased 0. who married Katherine. treadeth the honourable steps of his auncestours. and great vncle to at least 300. alias. so singly called. yeeres. did exceed him. and in a kind magnanimite. yeeres.

. was forewarned. which deuide the mount from the continent. liked her. with the losse of his life. on Acheros in Italy. the 4. Stationem. begged her of her poore parents. This village was the birth-place of Thomasine Bonauenture. he fulfilled the effect of the prophecy. to bring them to their end. together with faire lodgings. amongst the rest. in another sort and sense then they imagined. feeding and apparelling the poor. that a London merchant passing by. and in the said mounts Chappell lieth buried. for meeting their fatal Hierusalem. and left her a wealthy widdow. and officers. another of his houses. heeded her. And so Pope Gerebert. it chanced. It hapned. So Philip of Macedon. Lord Maior of London. and Atis the sonne of Croesus. with Sir John Perciual. no lesse then her seemely personage. saw her. and combrous for trauellers. and kept the same by strong hand. as fortune in the meanes of her preferment. as the prouerb sayth. to works no lesse bountifull. to delude their preuentiue wearinesse. at this S. and the more to rewe. For auoyding which encounter. so God blessed the same with al wished successe: for diuers the best Gent. So Cambises lighted on Ecbatana in Egypt. vnder one Cholwel. by a wot not what Calker. Mary Wike. Amongst the rest. building of bridges. and an Iron poynted weapon at the hunting of a Bore. hee marched thither. whether by descent. And to shew. she founded a Chauntery and free-schoole. vpon duety of his office. repayring of high waies. So Amilcar supped in Siracusa. sonnes of Deuon and Cornwall were there vertuously trained vp. In processe of time. Marie Wike standeth in a fruitfull soyle. S. her mistres was summoned by death to appeare in the other world. opened a gap to the oppression of the whole. Such strange accidents of extraordinary aduancements are verified by the ample testimonie of many histories. for the Schoolemasters. hee alwaies shunned Efford. Michaels mount by policy. how he should bee slaine on the sands. & dwelt at Trerice. that what time the Earle of Oxford surprized S. an honest and religious teacher. course for pasture. that vertue as well bare a part in the desert. by the statute made in Edw. the other to a chamber in Westminster. or euent. skirted with a moore. for supporting the incident charges: wherein as the bent of her desire was holy. so called: [120] for-whiles in her girlish age she kept sheepe on the foreremembred moore. and. and her good thewes. and commaundement from the Prince. in both kinds of diuine and humane learning. in a Skirmish on the sands. ubi exercitus agit. that a petty smacke onely of Popery. signifieth a towne: by master Camden. the 6. with posse Comitatus. and Alexander Epirot. But. that he aduanced her from a seruant to a wife. wherethrough. then the one to a Chappell in Rome. whom she also ouerliued. and there. endowing of maydens. to besiege it. and carried her to his home. Wic. I know not. touching the suppression of Chaunteries. and added twenty pound of yeerely reuennue. which caused the neighbours so much the rather. Fato viam sternit. relieuing of prisoners. &c. so much contented her master. or desired.Sir Iohn Arundel. & the Prince of Wales ware a Crown thorow Cheapside. Her second mariage befell with one Henry Gall: her third and last. and our king H. this Sir Iohn Arundel was Sherife of Cornwall. raigne. by master Lambert. trauailed no farther. found a chariot in a swords hilt. she employed the whole residue of her life and last widdowhood. vel Sinum. schollers. Fata viam inuenient. then charitable: namely. and as experience teacheth mens curiosity.

as the short in the bottome by extending. giue you entrance to the hill. in his swadling clouts. The first place which heere offreth itselfe to sight. yet the ruines argue it. and the other halfe on an Iland. to a farre higher estate. his courage and wisedome raysed him by degrees. a Caue. which being fenced with a . the Senatorship of Rome. you must first descend with a dangerous declyning. that any tall stature shal find roome by a little bending. resisteth the fretting furie of the weather. shew the same. For being begotten in Lucca. which in Cornish signifieth broad. by my guides report. more famous for his antiquite. reaching once. two. in passing thither. From which step. and seruing each bodies proportion for a buriall. LEsnewith Hundred taketh his name of a parish therein (as Stratton doth of a towne) memorable for nothing else. called Francesco Guinigi. he was taken vp by a widdowe. a decayed Chappell. to the soueraignty of Lucca. is called Black head. which is new. some farre way vnder ground. seated on a bad harbour of the North sea. by the downefalne steepe Cliffes. to haue beene once. but now diuorced. by match it descended to the L. Tintogel. The diuersified roomes of a prison. & suburbed with a poore market town. though it shut out the sea from his wonted recourse. continued together (within mens remembrance) by a drawe-bridge. and through his steepnesse threatning. to the wide world. the speciall fauour of the Emperour. g. then descerneable by their owne endurance. by a path. no vnworthie dwelling for the Cornish princes. or three terrifying steps. as euerie where narrow. giuen by him to a Gent. a faire spring of water. The cyment wherewith the stones were layd. The fardest poynt of this hill. heeretofore to haue exercised some large iurisdiction. so in many places. better then themselues. & [121] resteth in the Earle of Huntingdon. which. hewen out in the rocke. and a neere hope (only by death preuented) of subduing Florence. sauing in one only place. and newith. in the Castle. well knowne to the coasting Mariners. and conyes: Vpon the same. hath yet more strengthened the late Iland: for. then regardable for his present estate. yet entitling the owner in times past. on the farther side. Hungerford. by vnknowne parents. But. where they proffer an vneasie landing place for boats. with the stile of a Baron. if that in Wales carrie an equall veritie. abbutteth likewise on the sea. through his sticklenesse occasioning. Not farre from thence. with the failing of your foore. It may he deriued. for Euphonias sake being turned into n. whereas Stratton is straightned on the one by Deuon: or from Les and gwith. placed by her with a Clergy man her brother. and then make a worse ascent. and by Guinigi left tutor to his onely sonne. I saw. as a new breadth. Halfe the buildings were raised on the continent. better preserued by the Inhabitants memorie. and (which you will perhaps suspect of vntruth) an Hermites graue. is Bottreaux Castle.we read in Machiauell (howbeit controuled by the often reproued Iouius) that Castruccio Caestracani climed from a baser birth. towards the East. which importeth broad Ashen trees. the ruine of your life. either from Les. for both sexes. At the top. and cast out. Lesnewith Hundred. because it enlargeth his limits farther into Cornwall on both sides. The high cliffs are by sea vnaccessible round abouts. from whom. the myracle will soone reape credite: for this is so sloped inwards at both ends. which supplieth pasture for sheepe.

A Spring there wets his head. Which Corineus auncient broode. thorow which you may rowe at ful sea. One collecting the wonders of Cornwall. there lyeth a great standing water. as the name yet continuing. It is not layd vp amongst the least vaunts of this Castle.R. who for abusing the same. and [122] that without taynt of bastardy.] to a prison. the 3. about whose foote. Which import in English: There is a place within the winding shore of Seuerne sea. The Hermits graue awards. and is within presently commaunded by a hardly clymed hill. refluus quern circuit aestus. it restrained one Iohn Northamptons libertie. his foote A gate of Iron gardes: There measure due to eche ones length. Sometimes the seate of Kings. sometimes of yron. Fulminat hic late. vpon the fayre Igerna. by the late L. admitteth entrance thorow a gate. because her husband dyed some houres before. was cancelled as vnnecessary. Foes vayne attempting force. Est locus Abrini sinuoso littore ponti. vntill H. Tindagel Castle call. his nephew Dauid. Tintogel hath kept long silence in our stories. Whose prayse the Breton sings. Vnder the Iland runnes a caue. IN the mids of the wilde moores of this Hundred. but not without a kinde of horrour. as a perpetuall Penitenciary. but ghastly wise. But thorowfare denies. as followeth: Tintogel in his ruines vauntes. expresseth. was condemned hither. Rupe situs media. in his vnruly Maioralty of London. rimed touching this. the more it scornes. & abbetting. Camden deliuereth vs these verses out of an olde Poet. against the King. Of later times. caue aboue. wide blazeth ouer all. There. Yet strength'ned so. 2. whom now The fallen clifs diuorce. turrito vertice Castrum. Where that beneath alloweth both. Earle Ri grew into obloquy for priuy receyuing there. A see of ancienty belonging to this Castle. On mids of rock. M. far [122] from any dwelling or riuer. touching Tintogel. In safe. sayth Merlyn. entrie admits.garretted wall. A bridge these buildings ioynd. at the uncouthnesse of the place. Nomine Tindagium. . The tydes turne-keeping play: A towry-topped Castle heere. Paris report) his brother. at which time (by Mat. And place which worthy Arthur bred. Treasurer Burleigh. being turned from a Palace [8 . that our victorious Arthur was here begotten by the valiant Vter Pendragon. raigne. After which. veteres dixere Corini.

While waue their life outweares. that a fagot once throwne thereinto. caused a boate and nets to be carried thither ouer land. great) and the decrease.]. they caught none. saue a fewe Eeles vpon hookes: the poole prooued no where past a fathome and halfe deepe. occasioned by the next drowth. that His fountaines nature showes So strange a change. and to the sea The slaughtered bodies beares: Full many swimme. Touching the opinion of ebbing and flowing. to try what truth rested in these reports. and partly. . neere to Camelford [525. which the said Master Camden voucheth out of Marianus Scotus [820.]. The same is incorporated with a Maioralty. for store of Inhabitants. it should seeme to bee grounded. from the Cornish word Cam. as. the bloody streame Vpswelling ouerflowes His both side banks. for Doz. vpon those sandie bankes: and thus the miracle of Dosmery poole deceased. fed by no perceyued spring. which Houeden assigneth to haue bene darrayned at Gauelford. come. dwelling not farre off. partly vpon the increase. Fish. For testimony whereof. and for a great way very shallow. crooked.]. The riuer Camel wonders. about a mile or better in compasse. yet steppeth little before the [123] meanest sort of Boroughs. wherein the one took his death. was taken vp at Foy hauen. and maur. miles distant. is. and sue for ayde. as Cam. that it had a whirle-poole in the midst thereof. that this towne is sometimes termed Gaffelford: wherethrough we may marke it for the lists of a great fight betweene the Bretons & Deuonshire men [812. nor any fill. 6.called Dosmery poole. from the often winding stream. Wherefore. Et petere auxilium. a market and Fayre (but not faire) towne fetcheth his deriuation from the riuer Camel. & ducit in aequor Corpora caesorum. and that. and. in English. & nameth Burgesses to the Parliament. quos vndis vita reliquit. Master Camden letteth vs vnderstand. and describeth by these verses of an elder Poet: -----------. bearing Arthurs name. the olde folke thereabouts will shew you a stone. some Gent. vntill (of late) certaine Tynners brought an Audit therefrom. though now depraued to Atry. Mutatam stupet esse sui. More then a mile about. and the other his deaths wound. was that last dismal battel strooken betweene the noble king Arthur. and his treacherous nephew Mordred. no streames It empt. that it did ebbe & flow. which runneth thorow it. The countrey people held many strange conceits of this poole. Of this other wonder hee sayd.Naturam Cambala fontis. On top stands of a hill. which the raine floods brought thereinto from the bordering hils (which perhaps gaue also the name. or the Inhabitants store. Vpon the riuer of Camel. for that the windes doe driue the waues to and fro. and perhaps the same. plures natare videres. transcendit inundans Sanguineus torrens ripas. Dosmery poole amid the moores. Camelford. neither hauing any auoydance.

so neerely coasting it in most places. vp to the middle. for curing of mad men. as it was vneasie to feele. whose South side is hidden from the Sunne. the quarter Sessions for the East diuision. alongst and athwart the water. Bos venna. It may be. that euery generall infection is here first admitted. nor open ayre to their other roomes. & last excluded: yet the many decayed houses. [124] Trigge Hundred. or more contagiously. as neither can light haue entrance to their staires. then Saltash. howbeit. S. for towne and parish. and halfe yeerely faires. The iurisdiction thereof is administred by a Maior and his brethren. for recouery. Nunne had the thanks: but if there appeared small amendment. while there remayned in him any hope of life.In our forefathers daies. fell into a square and close walled plot. as I receyued it from the beholders. It breedeth therefore little cause of maruaile. his backe towards the poole. I holde none more healthfully seated. in that respect. if his right wits returned. then cleanly seruice. Their back houses. . tooke him. in Cornish. Then was hee conueyed to the Church. the greatest of Cornwall. and certaine Masses sung ouer him. as knowledge now commeth short of devotion. and from thence with a sudden blow in the brest. Nunnes well. Nunnes poole. as supported by a weekly market. leading East and West. washed downe thorow their houses into the streetes. The water running from S. who (the fable saith) vsed to cure his patients of that impatience. when deuotion as much exceeded knowledge. Vpon this wall was the franticke person set to stand. and their filth by euery great showre. of more necessary. It consisteth wholly (in a maner) of one street. I wil (if you please) deliuer you the practise. it may stil retaine the precedence. though somewhat farther distant: and for a Corollarium. to take acknowledgment of statute bonds. proue the towne to haue bene once very populous. are clymed vp vnto by steps. which Saints Altar (it may be) by pars pro toto. and againe. there were many bowssening places. one at Alternunne in this Hundred. had somewhat forgot his fury. this deuice tooke original from that master of Bedlem. by keeping them bound in pooles. he was bowssened againe. by forgoing his strength. gaue name to the Church: and because the maner of this bowssening is not so vnpleasing to heare. commonly termed Bodman. this Hundred cannot vaunt any ouer-large scope. by an high hill. as kitchins. vntill the patient. their Conduit water runneth thorow the Churchyard. after the fit of their fury. vpon which handling. which (by illusion. signifieth an Inhabitant. provided for the nonce. called S. which might bee filled at what depth they listed. stables. &c. turne into Badham: for of all the townes in Cornwall. and vpon warrant of their Charter. they claime authoritie. welneere the space of an Easterne mile. not vnaptly. if not Etimology) a man might. in Cornish. then this. and tossed him vp and downe. and. tumbled headlong into the pond: where a strong fellowe. The other side is also ouerlooked by a great hill. and amongst the rest. the ordinary place of buriall. THe name of Trig. or extraordinary plenty of dwellings: his chiefe towne is Bodmyn. and so more or lesse.

hee gaue the Maior sufficient watchwordes of timely warning. Germans. for better exploiting their pastimes. pitching their campe at the townes end. saying he could neuer do his master better seruice. and houses. then commendable amongst the townsemen. (after hauing feasted Sir Anthony) himselfe was hanged. hath left his name more memorable. [981. vntill the Danish pirats. . and not the blame of crueltie. the Bishop of Cornwall (as I haue elsewhere related) held his See at S. About a yeere before this sturre was raysed. and besides. haue left out a part of the truth. maintayned by her Maiesties liberalitie. for causing their Maior to erect a gallowes before his owne doore. but as an officer by direction. with their residence.Ed. and (through mischance. serued a while as a house of correction. alike deseruing. Sir Anthony Kingston. For other accidents. then Prouost-marshall of the Kings armie. and here they imprisoned such Gentlemen. was prosecuted amongst them in all exercises. and. as they had plucked out of their holes.7. This once begunne. in this tale. also. for their well deserued euill speeding. the other. or continuance. conuerted the spill of an old candlesticke to a gunne. they called the olde religion. vntill the fortune of warre gaue verdit with the right of iustice.In former times. he equalled his master. vpon which. firing their Palace. For Sir Anthony did nothing herein. in the last commotion. to hang one for another. vnto S.6. to spare one of the two. charged it with powder and a stone.] from all quarters of the shire. As for the millers man. were I not put in mind thereof through a fore-halfening of this rebellion. had not haltered him to that aduancement. the one whereof. In like sort (say they) he trussed vp a millers man. and Friery. readily inclined to the worst reports. and therefore it deserued the praise of mercy. or vngraciousnesse) therewith killed a calfe: whereupon. for atchieuing his. and Captaine. the owner complayned. then benefit. made this towne the Rendez vous of his assembling forces. which later. in their common offence of rebellion. but with greater charge. in this towne. by an action of the schollers. I should perhaps haue forgotten the free schoole here. as a Iudge by discretion. thereby. who accustomably diuide themselues. each partie knowing.] after his landing in the West parts of Cornwall. that the rest might carrie the better grace. and the diuision ended. that Perkyn Warbecke. he could not afford) to shift for safety. flocked the Rebels. now and then. grew therethrough into two factions. which I will report from some of their owne mouthes. the master whipped. [3. for the shire. handled with some egernesse and roughnes. in regard of his owne perill. They were succeeded by a Priory. & large space of respite (more then which. [125] But mens tongues.] forced them to remoue the same. Hither.H. and speeding enterprise against King Henry the seuenth. At last one of the boyes. the schollers. the new. if an vneschewable destiny. [11. I find. for that he presented himselfe in the others stead. and still keeping the same companions. Petroos.

[126] against whome hee warred. assembled. Yea (to bring these examples neerer home) the like hath hapned both before and sithence. foreshewe future accidents: as in the Planets. vnder two Captaines. by the fighting together of the Sunne and Moone. that Vitiges had the worst. the youth of all sorts. This while it happens. amongst boyes in other places. hanged vp at the next tree. they named Bellisarius. against Caesar and Anthony. who after 6. borrowing the names of those Princes. about 10. When Caesar was departed from Rome. one they entitled the Prince of Condy. dayes skirmishing. after their vsual maner of pastime. In men. sometimes ridiculous. For three dayes space. the imaginary Prince receiued a quelling wound in his head. some of the boyes banded themselues. and then darrayning a kinde of battell (but without Armes) the Caesarians got the ouerhand. with stones. In the buckling of these counterfeite Commaunders. chose out amongst themselues. and with like successe and boding. And before Alexanders battel with Darius. two of the best actiuity and seemelinesse. quitted the striplings (or slipstrings) of their punishment. a clock in the morning: the very howre (saith this Portugall confessour) that the Prince himselfe. and so fast. hy testimony of the ceremonious Texera. the other Mounsieur. Generall for Iustinian the Emperour in Italy. by a casual skirmish of the camp-straglers. that the Samnite boyes. clubs. doth God at his pleasure. at last made a composition. to 22. and finally brake vp in a peace. The which notifyed to the Samnites. to decide the like Soueraignty. The same authour vouched a semblable chaunce. whome the aduerse party with a iesting and craking maner. So doth Mercurius Gallobelgicus giue vs to wit. that a Woolfe is descryed: away runne the boyes: fast abides the imaginary Felon. sometimes wonderfull. the towns boyes (without any mans commaund) parted in twayne: the one side calling themselues Pompeyans. A like accident befell sithence. and other weapons. it fell out. and departed: even as that siege endured sixe moneths. as a presage of Lewes the prince of Condyes death. as for the Maior and others for the King. the other Caesarians. 1569. first. A like prank vnder the like assumed names. before the battell at Thrasimenus. from 9. the other Vitiges king of the Gothes. Foure daies before which. vntill at last it grewe to Pistoles: by one of which.By such tokens. to try the title of the worlds Empire with Pompey. the one. somewhat before the siege of Rochell 1572. yeres age. that for want of timely rescouse. but encreased the dismay of the elder people. when they draue their cattel to feeding. In birds. but yet with no intent to kill him. by the furious bickering betweene two Eagles. where. and (of their owne accord) chose two Commaunders. at Xaintes. that in the . who then lay in the field against him. against the destruction of Hierusalem. the breath poasted out of his body. with like meanes. in earnest. and left the same a liuelesse carkase. Procopius affirmeth. what time Brute brought forth the remnant of his army at Philippi. And to the same purpose. betweene Hannibal and the Romanes. by the encountring of Chariots and armies in the ayre. they plaied. and then by Alexanders voluntary setting those Captaines to a single combat. they violently assaulted each other. when Octauius and Anthony were. by a like shot was slaughtered.

when we see one slouenly appareled. or some such like felony: and after he hath beene arraygned and tryed. in a plentifull spring. and so fast. finding the abuse. comprizing certayne parishes. then hurt of the party condemned. Howbeit. or to see some strange matter there: which concludeth at least. The Turkish batalion. to be ascertained himselfe. that there rested no lesse vertue (forsooth) for healing all diseases. towards the North sea. the Turks betake themselues to their heeles. aged betweene 11. whome they summon to Halgauer. sequestred the spring. I haue spoken in my former booke. touching the rare effects of Warwickshire wels. iudgement is giuen in formal termes. Turkish boyes. first assisted. or going vntrussed. Aside from this towne. neere vnto Bodmyn. Within short space after the great fame dispersed. In the end. and executed in some one vngracious pranke or other. and very full of quauemires. the consequence. that God woud not spare some watchword out of his prescience. that the same is waightier. extendeth a fruitfull veine of land. forbad the resort. the water should seeme to be healthfull. and suppressed the miracle. they cause him to be solemnely arrested. He shall be presented in Halgauer Court. or desirous to nusle the yonger sort in martiall exployts. But the neighbour Iustices. Those. which (in my conceite) argueth a running thorow some minerall veine. for sometimes they fall out idle. and will continue the best part of a yeere. a Turkish Beglerbey of Greece. where he is charged with wearing one spurre.yeere 1594. called Scarlets well: which report grew so farre. But such occurrents do not alwayes either foregoe. yeeres. and then conquered their Citie. led out of Alba Regalis. Hence is sprung the prouerb. they extend this merriment with the largest. he directed to call vpon Iesus. The name signifieth the Goats moore. by playing the box with strangers. to the Constantinopolitanes. or wanting a girdle. who may serue and deserue to make pastime. and looking into. about 600. The Christian. to the preiudice of ouer-credulous people. or foresignifie. with a trayning them into the mire. with all requisite circumstances. more to the skorne. vpon Hala: both parts he enioyned to bicker coragiously. what time Baldwyn Earle of Flaunders and others. which serueth better . [127] for his appearance before the Maior of Halgauer. and Iesus party carryeth away the victory. that folke ranne flocking thither in huge numbers. terming the one. the forces encounter. without alteration of sent or taste. Touching Veall the Mercurialist. these. either seeking by a fore-coniecture. the other. some idle enuious head raysed a brute. and such a place it is. and therewithall a possessing of some vertue. The youthlyer sort of Bodmyn townsmen vse sometimes to sport themselues. like the Raine-bowe. The token is giuen. Nicetaes Choniates taketh it very vnkindly. But now and then. onely you shall see it represent many colours. lying a little without the towne. from all quarters. When these mates meet with any rawe seruingman. and 14. and egged them onward with the enticement of rewards. Howbeit. the fight is hote. and seuered them into two troups. perswading them to fight with a Dragon lurking in Halgauer. to say. or other young master. and sometimes not at all. then the ordinary of his kinde. if not helpfull: for it retaineth this extraordinary quality.

and diuers more. as. I owe the thankful acknowledgement of [128] many corrected slippings in these my notes. two seuerall Corporations. Pentuan. Amongst whom. doe merit a commending remembrance. The little parish called Temple. Endelion. wee will first pitch at the Looes. Roses are his armes. and the North rocky clifs. . in a no lesse praise-worthy. confineth that of West. in English. His father maried the sole Inheritrix to Pentire. This Gent. as the mannour to his ancestours. in vertue and modesty at home: the fruites whereof. rightly Carndeaw. on the waste side thereof: a place. after the Cornish pronunciation. hauing (not through any constrayning necessitie. skirteth this hundred. a black rock: and such a one the heire owneth which gaue name to his ancient possessed mannour. & kinde entertaining. distinguished by the addition of East and West. in Cornish. Flammock. and a rock. a Cheuron betweene 2. in S. betweene steepe coasting hils: for Loo. as once appertayning to the Templers. a Goat passant. master Carnsew. In entring the same. exempted from the Bishops iurisdiction. and a sea-tenche nayante proper. Herethrough. They beare A. The family is populous. G. master Roscarrock. Roses. which bound his demaines.then any other place in Cornwall for Winter feeding. whose well qualified and sweete pleasing sufficiency draweth him out from this cloyster. so as he might make vse of either climate for his residence. Hundred of West. doe little differ. purporteth in Cornish. Kew. brought vp in learning and experience abroade: these. Richard. I may not omit the yongest brother. Hugh. in Cornish. to conuerse with and assist his friends. Carnsew. and suitably enricheth the Farmours. His house Bokelly may be deriued from Both. at Bokelly: in S. a Goate and kelly which is lost: and the Goate he giueth for his Armes. They tooke that name from a fresh riuer. for his ciuill carriage. attired and trippled 0. father married the daughter of Fits in Deuon and left behinde him three sonnes. Barret. many a bad mariage bargaine is there yerely slubbred vp. Mathew and William. A. is seated on the South sea. Roscarrock. and ioyned by a faire bridge of many arches. The armes of this family are thus blasoned. perhaps added the rest. and kinde hospitality. but of them two brothers. and lowe. master Penkeuel. WIth Trig Hundred on the South side. at his House of the same denomination: besides. sundry Gentlemen haue there planted their seates. and Nicholas for his industrious delight in matters of history and antiquity. then rare-continuing concord. as fruitfull. Nichols. but not so from disorder: for if common report communicate with truth. they taste and expresse. with two daughters: those. made their elder brothers mansion a Colledge of single liuing. but taketh his name from the relation which it beareth to that of East: the circuit thereof is not so large. S. and to whose sounder iudgement. meaneth a flower. whose dwelling. abutting vpon a nauigable creek. which there payeth his tribute to the sea: and the riuer (as I coniecture) from his low passage. The heire hath issue by the daughter of Treuanion. Cauel. or constraintiue vowe) but on a voluntary choyce.

The other commeth short of his fellowes length. foote in height. resembling the ordinary spill of a Crosse. but not crosse the seas: howbeit. but vanteth greater wealth. Cleer parish. called The other halfe stone. is broad. did a great while sithence. because the widenesse of this Hundred. [129] and your feete pestered with a large number of yong ones. and yet I will not ioyne hands with them who terme it Legio. but now. if I should say. But whencesoever you deriue the name. supporting (naythelesse) those poore buildings. Coynages. which I found to be thus: There are two moore stones. and thickenesse. you might well thinke I iested. euer since the first so called. as lately incorporated. that later is worm-eaten out of date and vse. Armes. welneere. are G. pitched in the ground. take 3. in a furious fight. to take view of an antiquitie. coasting Liskerd. and plentifully stored with Conies. is fenced with a garretted wall. Their profit chiefly accrueth from their weekely markets. brooketh his name by a more percing. leauing a little edge at the one side. repairing thither. and the neglect of industrie. against any sudden attempt of the enemy. without care of building any nests: at which time. the one of a more broade then thicke squarenesse. with a sufficient stablenesse. & hatch their egges. in regard of the antiquity. Now. able to brooke. and hath of late yeeres somewhat releeued his former pouerty. and some not yet disclosed. is Liskerd. you shall see your head shadowed with a cloud of old ones. they are not altogether destitute of bigger shipping: amongst which. where they lay. but in a meaner degree. one hath successiuely retained the name of the George of Loo. by the better halfe. but. doubleth it in breadth. at which time (through the leaue and kindnesse of Master May. Les. a Cheuron vary betweene three Crownes. neither dare I auow it in earnest. as more commodiously seated: yet the foundation of their houses is grounded on the sand. is gone. West-Loo mustereth an endowment with the like meanes. Fayres. and is likewise handsomely carued. Almost directly ouer against the barred hauen of Loo. and markets. witnessing their general dislike of your disturbance. and ker. (as vitall spirits in a decayed bodie) keepe the inner partes of the towne aliue. and industrious fishing. vnlesse they can approue the same by a Romane faith. S. heere contracteth the traffike of the Inhabitants. French men of warre. Thither I rode.East-Loo voucheth lesse antiquity. which in those open wastes. with diaper worke. as well as sicknesse. some formerly. very neere together. extendeth S. When the season of the yere yeeldeth oportunity. as to accommodate the placing of somewhat else . while the ruyned skirtes accuse the iniurie of time. as founded by the Romanes. scowreth away thrift. They both are mortifed in the top. and somewhat curiously hewed. This Gent. with boats of a middle size. about 8. some newly. The middle market towne of this Hundred. the Castle serued the Earle of Cornwall for one of his houses. to deduce the towne and Castle from their first originall. The towne towards the sea. through their diuersified cries. hard it is. the owner) you may make and take your choyce. that it is so called. then profitable ayre. Georges Iland. a great abundance of sundry sea-fowle breed upon the strond. about halfe a mile in compasse. in Cornish. Of later times.

for that it meaneth. so metamorphosed. in shape. And alike strange obseruation. In this latter.thereupon. and haue here inserted. No ouer-holy Saint. Kaynes well: but lest you make a wonder first at the Saint. it may proceede from one of these respects. are to be seene certaine stones. I will relate you another of the Cornish natural wonders. continued it on a whole yere together. is a heap of rocks. trees of diuers kinde. whether I may referre to the parish of S. of which. This well is very quaint. in an open plaine. I remember to haue read. betweene Excester and the lands ende. S. and milder sex. Guerijr and S. in Dutch. touching some in Germany (as I take it) who for a semblable prophanation. that a redoubled numbring. which I caused to be taken out. and is distant full fiftie myles from either. He who caused the spring to be pictured. and for their hurling vpon the Sabboth. he turned aside. and therethrough termed Wringcheese. that which Mat. a stone and halfe. 4. One and a halfe. approx d O n l E R T : R O 3 a U I T p R O a n l m a where 'a' is a Greek alpha character] Why this should be termed. [image. you must vnderstand. in quality. Howbeit. reporteth of K. to lot of Kayne befell. The shape. for doing his deuotion. whose other part resteth elsewhere: or. which presse one of a lesse size. how comming into Cornwall on hunting. viz. I haltingly ayme. I cannot resolue with my selfe. taketh place here. Neot made their abode (quaere. The hurlers. (another halfe) importeth. and you much lesse. a woman. because it is the halfe of a monument. The other halfe stone. Neot in this Hundred. that this was not Kayne the man-queller. and there found his orisons seconded with a happy effect. namely. It should seeme to be a bound stone: for some of the neighbours obserued to mee. before you take notice of the well. to interpret. where S. for abler capacities. Next. whether he meane not their burials) or rather so resolue. I know not well. added this rime for an exposition: In name. fashioned like a cheese. either. are graued certaine letters. some sixe or eight stand vpright in proportionable distance: they are termed. with dauncing. into a Church. Alfred. after the Dutch phrase and their owne measure. Ander halb. because Asser so deliuers it. Almost adioyning hereunto. . then mine own. somewhat squared. But far stranger is the country peoples report. The like whereof. The name. as at Stonehenge. neuer eueneth with the first. For. to wit. that once they were men. as Sesqui alter doth in Latine. to wit. that the [130] same limiteth iust the halfe way. West. Not farre hence. and fastened about a foote deepe in the ground. through the Priests accursing. but one of a gentler spirit.

and ruines of a fining house. The mention of this Knight. whome it embraced as owner & Inhabitant. by the name of Doctor Burcot. Oke. Ouer-sleeping. howsoeuer vnsauorie. and sometimes downe. &c. &c. in seeking of siluer owre: howbeit. hee afterwards lighted on a thriftier vayne. as I will Size him. Thereby the mastry gaines. his master. so as he would not beleeue. of face freckled. for strike him. with a panier. Moreouer. were it neuer so unlawfull. of composition. Saterday Friday. wadeth and walloweth (for swimme hee could not) sometimes up. in his Orco: or rather. by his sudden death. the night time. to his cater at the sea side. for man. a sometimes vncouth seruaunt of his. much visited. whereinto the tide then flowed. without regard of way or wearinesse. in Sir Williams life time. like a spanyell. conuince Burchard Craneigh. and certaine fishermen were drawing their nets: which after Iohn Size had a while beheld. Whose chance. or some other accident. This fellow was taken vp by Sir William. instead of halfe his words. whose monstrous conditions. and vsed to lie in strawe. Whose floore this spring doth wash. of constitution leane. in his account of the weeke. and his heeles vpwards. or reaching: and by his present fortune.Withy. and whatsoeuer else. First of this sacred streame to drinke. being interpreted in English. To Sir William he bare such faithfulnesse. he would take a hot yron out of the fire. the rubble of certaine mines. and liuely imitated by Ariosto. which necessitie of nature requireth. described by Homer and Virgil. that man or wife. In this Hundred. of diet. of practising phisike at London. Spare he was of speech. Elme and Ash. spare. with his head downe. On a time. suffering none to come neere him. he passed by a riuer. calleth to my rememberance. hee casts to haue a share amongst them. but by constraint. or dangerous. yet. vsed this terme Size. that hee would follow his horse. the Duchmans vaine endeuour. partly resembled that Polyphemus. In his way. in whome (by Suetonius report) the Emperour Nero tooke such pleasure. The quality. and there. sent him. should containe so much: yet could no man. naturally. welneere starued with cold. to his . for his master. [131] through his franke inuitings. to fetch fome fish. and performe whatsoeuer hee commanded. and was it selfe. for the space of a flight shoot. at his masters bidding. signifieth. or choice attaines. with their scales. He hath lost his griping. at any time. thistles. he would deuoure nettles. and. carrying his panier still before him. in the deepest of Winter. and liuing birds. expecting strangers. So into the water he leaps. if it might be swallowed: neither this a little. vnder a hedge. as it often bred a second wonder. where he grewe famous. with his bare hand. Make with their roots an arched roofe. neuer changed his apparell. made him to lose a day. by her husbands conueyance. (in some sort) iustifieth that name: for the same hath lately forgone Sir William Beuill. and feathers. well proportioned. It yeeldeth a large viewe of the South coast. and fishies. but that Svnday was Saterday. that Egyptian Polyphagus. and hunger: hee was of stature meane. Killigarth. how his belly. burning coles and candles. waite at his chamber doore. the pith of Artichokes. hee is a good Size. discouer him doing of that. and cleanely inough. and is passed into the possession of the faire Lady his widdow. but in such quantitie. raw.

a younger branch of the ancient stocke. (burdened with 110. to redeemme his enlargement. and thrust forth his sonnes to be trayned in martiall knowledge . yeeres age) entertained a British miller. steepe hils. where so much was going. and the beholders great pittying. proue more handie. At S. to his foredeferred. here to make choyce of their dwellings. wherethrough. But this fellowes seruice befell commodious in the worst sense. surprizeth suddenly his master. and abroad he rogues: which remitter brought him the end. For when. the daughter and heire of Bear. he stealeth ouer into his countrey. where plenty of fish is vented to the fish driuers. neither wanted he (as some say) a bele Isound. of his ill fortune. Buller now Sherife at Tregarrick. on a playne Crosse A. Hee maried Treffry. commendable through his double prouision. vntill at last. then our owne. so under a hedge he found his miserable death. faire possessions. which draue this Gentleman to salue them all by new compositions with the pretenders: and for compassing the same. His ancestours bare S. as hauing both furnished himself with great ordinance. but not vnencumbred with titles. tooke to wife the widdowe of Courtney. as M. and wearied. [132] within the memorie of a next neighbour to the house. vntill the fathers rebellion forfeited it to the Prince. not long after his acceptance. armed and tripped O. and home he hieth. siding the South. and forceth the Gent. Thomas Lower. A little to the Westwards from Killigarth. to Gentlemens houses. out he scrambleth. vntill (vpon I wot not what veake. planted in Somerset shire. Sir Tristram. The warmth of this Hundred. In this sort he continued for diuers yeeres. a Bull passant G. carrieth them speedily vnto Lantreghey. Master Murth inheriteth a house and demaynes. whose liuelyhood repayred what the elder brothers daughters had impaired. Sir Williams father maried the daughter of Militon: his graundfather. Winowe inhabiteth M. quarter pierced 4. for such idle occupations. Wideslades sonne led a walking life with his harpe. called Prake. all wet. Master Buller married the daughter of one Williams. and his ghests. Tregose. the more aptly to resemble his patterne. against the warres. In the same parish where Killigarth is seated. through penury. he was entitled. whom we call Iowters. and not auoyded destiny: for as vnder a hedge hee was found pyning. his father. and the Princes largesse rewarded therewith his subiects. and daughter and heire to Trethurffe. hath enticed many Gent. or vnkindnesse) away he gets. at a Christmas supper. Eagles of the field. a Counsellour at lawe in Deuon: his father. and his owne indeuour. The Beuils Armes are A. One of their auncestours. returneth priuily backe againe. with the sale of a great part of his reuenewes. for priuate defence of the County. sometimes the Wideslades inheritance. as that people. warres grewe betweene vs & France. with a French crew. to get an extraordinary experience in husbandry. with a bitter complaint to his master. and by his other actiue qualities. the poore harbour and village of Polpera coucheth betweene 2. he purchased and left to his sonne.owne extreame hazard of drowning. as well as the rest. that he could not catch some fish. by whose dower.

and beareth A. charged with Cinquefoyles. a Cheuron. and (amongst other commodities) is appurtenanced with a walk. betweene three Crowes. It is cut out in the side of a steepe hill. which flitteth vnder his house. His wife was one of Reskimers daughters and heires: his mother. Sundry more Gentlemen this little Hundred possesseth and possessioneth. & the good of his friends and himself. and (perhaps) such it was before better manurance reduced it to the present fruitfulnesse. ouer Foy riuer. in Cornish. betweene three Sammon speares S. and is conuerted on the foreside. which if I could as playnly shew you. and the walkers sitting. In passing along. to be a place of diuersified pleasings: I will therefore do my best. His wife was daughter and heire to Hart. from his ancestours. into Summer houses. Master Glyn of Glynfoord. a Maunche Maltaile S. and banked with sweete senting flowers: It wideneth to a sufficient breadth. for soaking vp the rayne. to not much lesse. Dolphins S. May. euenly leuelled. 3. G. floored with sand. Croissants within a border A. you might. as my selfe haue oftentimes delightingly seene it. for the march of fiue or sixe in front. The store of Sammons which it affoordeth. Laureast. A. for the planting of Ordinance. & yet. is the inheritance of M. Kendal. The same descended to Sir Reignald Mohun. It is hemmed in one the West. for the publike seruice of the Countrey. as the second Grilles. G. Harris. at whose mouth standeth Hall. and on the back part. which (by his vncles yet want of issue) intitleth him with a faire expectancy. by which you shal (in part) giue a gesse at the substance. caused his ancestours ta take the Sammon speares for their Armes: for hee beareth A. He maried with Buller: his mother was daughter to Moyle of Bake. But want of information. a Cheuron. employing his sound iudgement. by match with Vpton. his mother sister to M. by their match with the daughter and heire of Fits-Williams. the daughter of Treffrey: his house descended to his auncestour. Hee beareth B. the antiqitie of his descent. not ouer-busie turnings. and endowed with a pleasant and profitable fishing and command of the riuer. then halfe a London mile: neyther doth it lead wearisomely forthright. as the grounds oportunity affoordeth. manifesteth. and other praise-worthy parts. the vast Ocean. to descry by their fardest kenning. maketh mee fardle vp these. a Cheuron betweene 3. a Gent. for their more priuate retrait and recreation. & would auow the same. to trace you. to the seruice of his Prince and country. a shaddow thereof. by the East side of Foy hauen. your eyes shall be called away from guiding your feete. as Code. and extendeth. and omit the rest. whose foote the salt water washeth. a Cheuron engrayled O. by this compounded name. closed with two thorne hedges. Achym. and lothnes to waxe tedious. Iohn Harris. betweene three Roses A. who beareth A. . Treworgy is owed by M. into platformes. and [133] the ordinary passage there. to serue for bowling. a Cheuron vary betweene three Crownes. within a border of the first. which aduantage encreaseth the prospect. but yeeldeth varied. a moore. Hee beareth S. Chr. &c.and exercises.

to signifie a dissolution of that line. and that naturally growen. & driueth before it. father to Sir William. a Crosse engrayled Sa. both of these. if not of the monarchy. or no. married. This fagot. and Viuian. at an instant. do enioy. into ayre. Sir Reig. I haue seen. by the common law. A farre truer foretoken. of flowing and ebbing. with many embracing armes. one then other: wherefore it finding a barre. and parted. at the mouth. by the pieces strong imprisonment. Cornish Gent. gracing her dignitie. enioyeth this Hall. to most quarters of the world. as part of her ioynture. But this halfening. on the other. they take view of all sized cocks. a kind of Fagot. againe subdiuided into other twayne. Reignald. being all one peece of wood. that the same is conuerted. and Trethurffe: and Trethurffes portion. for any more images of the French Kings: which some prophetically interpreted. by Portruan. the other. the vnsetled obstacle of the bullet. ride the home and forraine shipping. and no lesse expressing. a Lady. the one. ouerliuing him. whose age and painting. at Paris. at this place of Hall. houering on the coast. to Sergeant Heale: his father. touching the Earle of Deuons progeny. and from the fire. euery of which changes. Mohun. that continually this way trade. Trelawny. and on the back and sides. Mounsieur la Noue noteth. the widdowe of Trelawny. And in semblable maner the last Earles inheritance accrued vnto 4. there is no roome left. one of which. The armes of the Mohuns are O. but confere with any in the sayd towne or Shipping. Courtney of Ladocke. imparting thereunto a portion of his fury. SOme impute the force of Powder vnto this. there mine author failes me. Powder Hundred. with her vertue. two fishing villages: behinde. to a fiery. is. the present flourishing estate of that kingdome. into foure sticks. Neerer home. Arundell of Taluerne. at the ends. then professing religion. you may from thence. the towne of Foy subiecteth his whole length and breadth to your ouerlooking: and directly vnder you. it lighteth on the faire and commodious hauen. where the tyde daily presenteth his double seruice. vtterly conuinceth of falshood. and his creekes (like a young wanton louer) folde about the land. wedded the daughter of Sir William Treuanion.sparkled with ships. that without troubling the passer. not only call to. This walke is garded upon the one side. that it was carefully preserued by those noble men: but whether vpon that prescience. or borrowing Stentors voyce. Mohun is widdower of two wiues. requireth a greater enlargement. contracting your sight to a narrower scope. the daughter of Horsey. and fisherboates. that in the great hall of [134] iustice. . where the way is least stopped. Againe. who. barges. daughter to Sir Henry Killigrew. the rising hill beareth off the colde Northern blasts: before. vnder. and one of the heires. to wit. from his earthy substance. approueth the credited tradition. is wrapped about the middle part with a bond. to carry and recarry whatsoeuer the Inhabitants shall bee pleased to charge him withall. as descended from his two daughters and heires. Sir William. by consequence breaketh forth with a sudden violence. and next. to Sir Iohn her late brother. first. ouer. in so neere a distance. by Bodyneck. forth and backe.

Hee married one of Tremaynes heires: his father. by coping with the enemy at sea. tall ships did. saile. yeeres sithence. valiantly defended this his dwelling. the daughter of Killigrew: and beareth S. Wil. the townesmen vaunt. that it is reported. Treffry. they stifly refused to vaile their bonets at the summons of those townes. that for reskuing certaine ships of Rye from the Normans in Henrie the thirds time. resemble but also because wider. as is witnessed by their toombe-stones. & that on the townes side. our Foyens tooke heart at grasse. It receyueth this name of the riuer. a Gent. whereof there is some memorie in their Chauncell window. belong to the harbour. and Winchelsea. which occasioned his auncestours (though endowed elsewhere. fortified & fenced with ordinance. without bidding farewell: the merit of which exploit. turned not rather Golant into Gallant. The commendation of which industry. and bettered. a Cheuron betweene three Hawthornes A. whether a causelesse ambition in the posteritie. against the French. about 145. and bestoweth the same on the town. to make. Heereon. welnere from one sea to the other. their principall Commaunder in . & made proofe thereof in many occurrents. of their owne and their wiues inheritance) for many descents. and in both these vocations they so fortunately prospered. Castle-wise builded [135] and sufficiently flanked. to the good of his country. But I will returne to the towne. During the warlike raignes of our two valiant Edwards. with large reuennues. and the shire. that they were glad to forsake patch. & courage. and enioy part of the priuiledges appertaining to the Cinque ports. and made returne of many prizes: which purchases hauing aduanced them to a good estate of wealth. that hath vowed his rare gifts of learning. which contempt (by the better enabled Sea-farers. these my notes haue bin not a little beholden. reckoned intolerable) caused the Ripiers to make out with might and mayne against them. with 47.To which (through want of a probable Etymon) I may. & to whose iudicious corrections. is principally due to the prouidence and direction of M. quaere. we must begin where we left. by the more ciuill trade of marchandise. 60. afterwards entitled them Gallants of Foy: and (it may bee) they fought to eternize this memorable fact. with the name of Fisart Bagga. howbeit. the Foyens addicted themselues to backe their Princes quarrell. and chauncing about that time (I speake vpon the credit of tradition) to sayle neere Rye. then any other Hundred of as stretching East. the first & third. His entrance is garded with Block-houses. with a more hardy onset. the heir of Tresithny. not only for the names sake. which I haue seen in the church. after the Greeke and Romane maner. the hundred of Powder. and that they assisted the siege of Callais. Once. Foath. and yet is not excluded from the healthfull ayre. to wit. the same was (when the quieter conditioned times gaue meanes) heedfully and diligently employed. at Foy hauen. a full purse begetting a stout stomack. ouerlooketh the towne and hauen with a pleasant prospect. at one time. then happy issue: for the Foy men gaue them so rough entertaynment at their welcome. for their greater glory. this parcel of the Cornish earth extendeth it selfe compriseth more parishes. and vse of the country. and South In describing the same. and West. wisdome. in part. in Cornish. by inuesting the towne of Golant with that name: notwithstanding. as also the towne it selfe. they beare the armes. One of them. His faire & ancient house. his graundfather. what time they had surprized the rest of the towne. from Foy to Falmouth: and North. here their ordinary residence.

(a towne thereby) who. then laid hold on. how he fought brauely at sea. first opened a light and way. seeing which way the game would goe. to restraine the abuses of sea-officers. vpon the English mens goods and bodies. and slaughtered all the Saylers. of Lanyne. that Sir Hugh Calueley. and other actions fitting a Gent. pourtrayed in many places of their Church Steeple. is deskanted vpon. and in hold. our Foy gallants. deputed to gard the sea. the chaine of their hauen remoued to Dartmouth. chanced there to meete a Cornish barge. the 2. Walsingham telleth vs. for their punishment. whose ragged staffe is yet to be seene. in an old three mans songs. Yet their so often good successe. which hauing worne out his victuals. belonging to Foy harbour. to the townesmens newe thriuing. and Sir Th. and his owne deliuery. as hee sent Commissioners vnto Lostwithiel. a plaine Crosse betweene 2. and possessions. vnable to beare a low sayle. as I coniecture) set forth by Iohn the French king. . well affected to his God. and strong resistance) ouermastered them as well. to the Princes Officers. sunk it. and left his sonne large wealth. though not to an equall height of their first aboundance. and closely hid himselfe amongst the ballast. to ioyne companie with them: howbeit they bought this refusall verie deare. by R. neither would be entreated by those knights. that were come aboord. Prince. their goods were confiscated. 6. and Countrey. in trade of marchandise. and no sooner come. which hee had forecommitted. one onely boy. sometimes tasted the sawce of crosser speeding. in their fresh gale of fortune. Anno. limited for the like seruice. Not long after. trained thither the greatest number of the Burgesses. cutting off (amongst other pranckes) a Pursiuants eares: whereat king Edward the fourth conceiued such indignation. for his industrious iudgement and aduenturing. where the boy. H. in reuenge of the great rauine. (auowing themselues vpon the Earle of Warwicke. to releeue themselues: but now of late yeres doe more and more aspire to a great amendment of their former defeats. vnder pretence of vsing their seruice. in wrong exactions at Foy. there was an Act of Parliament made. sonne to a widdow. Ouer a while. one Harrington executed. excepted. secretly stole aboord the Flemming. for Tho. 1379. the prowesse of one Nicholas. riseth from his new buriall. but that a Flemmish man of warre lighted vpon them. and some other hauens. neere Foy. namely. in vaine. who in the heate of the bickering. Moreouer. descended from a yonger brother of an ancient house in Deuon. Croissants A. and crueltie. was then sayling homewards. bewrayeth the fact. the commendable deserts of Master Rashleigh the elder. and in diuers priuate houses) as also to violate their dutie at land. as they did at first in number. this Pirate cast Anker in an English harbor. with Iohn Dory (a Genowey. and (after much bloudshed on both sides) tooke. at last in force. by insolent disobedience. Where I may not passe in silence. He married the daughter of Bonithon. and (after a long. began to skum the Seas. and slew him. Anno 28. Percy. & their wonted iolity transformed into a sudden misery: from which they striued a long time. & so wrought meanes. in sea affaires. his father. with their often piracies. tooke the Barge. hearing his Countrimens voice. and beareth S. and [136] time. who (together with a dayly bettering his estate) conuerteth the same to hospitality. For no sooner was the English fleete past out of sight.that seruice.

to the princes defrauding. by some information. God giueth him such power ouer those. the ashes (doubtles) as that. whose prerogatiue challengeth these casualties. artificially ioyned. and seeke shelter of the next house they could get into. a Gentleman. and ful of a black earth. and with the same in the night. encouraged by the [1457. was perswaded. the land openeth a large sandie drab Bay. are forced to abandon their enterprise. one M. as he bettered this naturall patterne.] ciuill warres. chanced. dwelling not farre off. and prosecute it with a wrong. the Moone-light is ouer-cast with darkenesse.The Lord of Pomier. by whome I haue profited. burned a part of Foy. a pot of Gold is the least of their expectation. furnished a nauy within the riuer of Sayne. I will not vndertake to define. but yet with a thankefull acknowledgement. a Norman. which. who begin a matter. vp riseth a blustering tempest. which was guilded and graued with letters. . But see the chance. in English. a working they fall. are therethrough aptly termed Trewardreth. the thunder cracketh. whom at their ebbing. they (ouer-greedy for booty) rudely brake. by obseruing that the high Summer tydes brought with them young Basses and Millets. the vrna of some famous personage. our money-seekers washed. and with his ships to his home. whose couer. Whether this proceeded from a naturall accident. defaced by this misaduenture. Vpon a side of this bay. but past ability of reading. purporting some memorable antiquity. that treasure lay hidden vnder this stone: wherefore. where they would liue for many weekes without any reuisitation of the sea: who. in stead of loden. they left behinde in little pits of the euen ground. I haue receiued credible information. as it should seeme. for the Sea to ouer-flow. there lieth a big and long moore stone. of more deuotion then knowledge. In midst of their toyling. vpon a great chest of stone. and therewithall a great earthen pot enclosed. raised the next day by the Sherife. downe fals a mightie showre. the lightning flameth: in conclusion. in entring and breaking another mans land. and the village adioyning. Elder times. or loden with water. without his leaue. he made speed away to his ships. vpon couetousnesse to gaine by extraordinarie meanes. thither with certaine good fellowes hee hyeth to dig it vp. and direct the end thereof. in stead of yellow earth. containing the remainder of certaine ingraued letters. their labour shortneth. or imagination. and other houses confyning: but vpon approch of the countryes forces. then hurt. so did I his artificiall. which. vnderwent the common downefall. The Sandie towne. wherewith our Realme was then distressed. in their digging. In a high way neere this towne. Peter Beuill first began the experiment of making a saltwater pond. certaine hedges deuiding a closse on the seaside hereabouts. induced thereunto. here founded a religious house. A little beyond Foy. It may bee. or a working of the diuell. their hope increaseth. in a faire Moone-shine night. in King Henrie the eights raigne. and more afraid. [137] Not many yeres sithence. the skie gathereth clouds. that some three yeeres sithence.

Kendals hospitality. beisdes the vaults. solemnely receiued him at the Churchyard stile. and his large windowes taking their light inwards. for store of resort and franknes of entertainment. and so strong for defence. it may moue compassion. Wil. and the Lions principall strength (men. It is seated in a park. because. so fayre (in regard of those dayes) for building. an ouen of 14. it exceeded all others of his sort. was formed round. & all other rites due to the estate of a Prince: with which dinner. Lestormel. markets. His base court is rather to be coniectured. but the gayle for the whole Stannary. others. it selfe alone. did there assemble: amongst whom. and vnder . he repaired with the same pompe. to end in a valley. and keeping of the County Courts. the ceremony ended. prooueth the like hospitality of those dayes. backed to the Westwards. that it should betoken the royalties appertaining to the honour of Cornwall. say) consisteth in his tayle. a scepter in his hand. it hath common with the most: Coynage of Tynne. M. to keepe the publike waights and measures. It consisted of two stories. by a conduit. one (as it fell to his lot by turne) brauely apparelled. by one onely gate. was by act of Parliament assigned. kept the tables end himselfe. a sword borne before him. that a Palace. ordayned for the Countie. and garretted: his flat roofe couered with lead. and was serued with kneeling. from the higher ground adioyning. onely with three. foot largenes. through his exceeding proportion. which was thus: Vpon little Easter Sunday. 7. deserueth a speciall remembrance. which in English. & the place which he entrusted with his Exchequer. with another. and here kept house. Yet all this can hardly rayse it to a tolerable condition of wealth and inhabitance. amongst which. The inner court grounded vpon an intrenched rocke. then vntill I haue shewed you a solemne custome in times past here yeerely obserued. so this towne claymeth the precedence. H. the Freeholders of the towne and mannour. by themselues or their deputies. sometimes the Dukes principal house. This towne anno 11. by the remnant of some fewe ruines. while he liued. assay. Certes. faires. that the cause and authour outreach remembrance: howbeit. to a house foreprouided for that purpose.Lostwithiel should seeme to fetch his originall from the Cornish Lostwithiall. Lostwithiel subiected it selfe to the commaund of Restormel Castle. had his vtter wall thick. Water was conueyed thither. and his Lords chiefest residence. strong. rode thorow the principall streete to the Church: there the Curate in his best beseene. gallantly mounted. & falling euery other way. and euery man returned home again. somewhat higher. and admitted entrance and issue. should in time of secure peace. Maioralty. and conducted him to heare diuine seruice: after which. vpon the plaine neck of a hill. alias. fenced with a Portcouliz. and nomination of Burgesses for the parliament. so necessary for commodities. and dutifully attended by all the rest also on horseback. with a Crowne on his head. and where his wayghtier affaires were managed. soundeth a Lions tayle: for as the Earle of this prouince gaue the Lyon in armes. these circumstances offer a coniecture. made a feast to his attendants. Wherefore I will [138] detayne you no longer. The pedigree of this vsage is deriued from so many descents of ages. then discerned. so delightfull for prospect. so healthfull for aire. watered by the fishfull riuer of Foy. and onely of late daies discontinued.

the conduit pipes taken away. who doubly fetcheth his pedigree. seated in a playne. in this Hundred. a part of whose naturall wals is wrought out of the rock itselfe. within his ordynarie extent. and hollow downwards. he hath bene called. and meritorious (no doubt) for the Hermite. be wronged with those spoylings. . due to his calling. his sonne the daughter of Saintabyn: he beareth O. from that honourable flocke. At Ladocke. neere to the heau'ns. the timber rooted vp. you shall haue wonne the top of the Cornish Archbeacon Hainborough. the planchings rotten. Collalto in Italy. to the West. may you dwell. himselfe Reskimers. Farre from the world. [139] After wee haue quitted Restormel. a great part of Deuon. and a File with as many Lambeaux. to the Eastwards. before the publike charge in his Countrie. to ebbe and flowe as the sea. and gluts your eye. Is't true that Spring in rock hereby. the Ocean.the protection of his naturall Princes. you shall thence plainely discerne. at once. to Master Samuel. There. wherethrough it passeth also for a wonder. with a winding depth. B. with promise of any better entertainement. three Torteaux. which contayneth water. and Sceafel in the Ile of Man: for if the weathers darkenesse bounde not your eye-sight. and to which long sithence. girded on either side. it could endure no greater. who maried Halse : his father (a wise and pleasant conceited Gent. very neere the lands end. It now appertayneth by lease. were it but in regard of such an vneasie climing to his cell and Chappell. Doth tide-wise ebbe and flow? Or haue wee fooles with lyers met? Fame saies it: be it so. with (as it were) two substitutes. Neere the foote of Roche. You neighbour-scorners. to wit. pluct out to serue priuate buildings: onely there remayneth an vtter defacement. then which. high and steepe rock. to complayne vpon this vnregarded distresse. Hermits. and embraceth the contentment of a quiet priuate life. to the North and South. then the name carieth written in his forehead. dwelleth master Peter Courtney. as another Cornish wonder. a huge. Goe people Roche's cell. at the hands of any forrayne and deadly enemy: for the Parke is disparked. Haynboroughs wide prospect. Both feedes.) matched with Tremayne. Roche becomes our next place of soiourne. dournes & clauels. though hardly inuiting. leuell with the ground aboue. there lyeth a rock. and sundrie Ilands scattered therein. as it In length and breadth doth lie. reported by some of the neighbours. the roofe made sale of. His father maried (as I haue shewed) the daughter & coheir of Trethurffe. which (as little to great) may for prospect compare with Rama in Palestina. With Cornwals whole extent. who dwelt on the top thereof. From hence ascending easily the space of a mile. holy-prowd. Of these. and the hewed stones of the windowes. Henius in Medica. the wals fallen downe.

and consequently dumbe. whose high. It standeth in Probus Parish.Leo Aser. touching one Edward Bone. Gwarnack. but did not recompence it with the like raritie. fell vnto Tregian. by the well disposed Inhabitants: and here also dwelleth one Williams. in this Hundred. whome hee had once seene. Stourtons daughter: hee beareth Erm. by match with the Inheritrix thereof. so affected. alias. vntill. with which that region aboundeth. would yet bee one of the first. notwithstanding. who would readily and safely conduct straunger trauailers. as hee shunned all lewd parts himselfe. and such like Instruments. or rather defected. For. . then to their conceiuing one another. hee was afflicted with so firme a memorie. if there went speech of a Sermon. and faire Church towre. and that the meanes he vsed. by his owne industrie. and handsomely play vpon them. but also tune. seemed rather an hinderance to others conceiuing them. to receiue. and other passionate gestures. to make way. and proportion. and difference. which gaue him perfect notice of the places. his honest life was also answerable. of hewed Moore stone. And to make his minde knowne. by some speciall obseruation. was builded within compasse of our remembrance. (which hee could and would quickely doe) his master should straightwayes know it. that their want of a tongue. in his booke of Netherland. Golden. for a not much lesse straunge relation. being able therethrough. for euer after. without any teacher. order. and all other matters. hee vsed verie effectuall signes. was. borne at Weruicke in Flaunders. to learne. who falling blind before he attained two yeeres age. telleth vs of a blind guide. with the soonest. any newes that was sturring in the Countrie: especially. that he would not onely know any partie. sometimes seruant to the said master Courtney: which fellow (as by the assertion of diuers credible persons. was the Beuils ancient seate. ouer the huge Deserts. whose name was Kempe: which two. whose two daughters and heires. deuised many seruiceable tooles for his science. Somewhat neere the place of his birth. Wolueden. hee would repaire to the place. Likewise. on a chiefe S. Organes. or their master his fellow. there dwelt another. not only turne. and approued description of his Countrie. within some myles distance. I haue beene informed) deafe from his cradle. and not rest free from importuning. in this. and earnest tokenings. in the delightfull. such strange. while his Sermon lasted: to which religious zeale. to such a perfection in Timber handy-craft. as he could. either the fellow had put away his fault. These examples I thrust out before me. and expresse to his master. God laid the like infirmitie. married Arundel of Trerice. maketh report of one Martyn Catelyn. often. and besides. Lewes Guicciardin. in certaine distances. and Greinuile. with great facilitie. if hee espied any in his fellow seruants. Vyolons. their Graund-child with the L. so. three Martlets O. Tregean signifieth the Giants towne: their sonne married in Lanherne house. and such heartie laughters. to smell at the sand. but also make him knowne to any other. [140] and make Virginals. would vse such kinde embracements. when they chaunced to meete. and perform any enioyned errand. Vpon a brother of his. and setting himselfe directly against the Preacher. grew. Besides. looke him stedfastly in the face.

then the towne of their abilitie. He married Coffyn. lately to ride twelue myles in a morning. hee beareth G. to whome hee was great great Graundfather. and well regarded familie in Lancashire. who better know it: certain it is. here shouldreth out the Ocean. then by hoording vp treasure of gratitude. Dudman. gratis. Whose possession. who as diuers other Gentlemen. who being learned in the lawes. to foretoken the owners sonne insuing death. between three Garbes Ermine. to whom it likewise accrued. because there groweth an Oke. and accommodated in Deuon. and this. as doth another. and the Corporation but halfe. the Cornish men haue this one. as heire to his mother. how he may make other profit thereby. drawing towards the South sea.a wealthie. S. and Isy (two nothing ambitious Saints. bearing his leaues speckled with white. doe yet rather make choyce of a pleasing and retired equalitie in the little Cornish Angle. allotting an impossible time of performance. supplying the owner large meanes of hospitalitie. who chaunged his name with the house. three Armes in circle ioyned at the Tronkes 0. Hee matched with Roscarrocke. is yet to learne. He deriueth himselfe from a populous. Penwarne. a large demaines adioyning thereunto (which I will not deriue from Sir Bars du Ganis. as inioyning that. Amongst sundrie prouerbs. Bodrugan. in the same Parish of Meuagesy. in the Hundred of East: but whether the former partake any supernaturall propertie. by matching with the daughter and heire of that name: a seate. though not themselues. a man of great liuely-hood. For the present. replenished with Inhabitants. a Cheuron. and by him so imployed. and Rame head. that diuers auncient families in England are admonished by such predictions. alias. to shape the same a large bosome betweene it selfe. called Painters Oke. met in Sir Peers Edgecumb. dwelleth master Richard Tremayn. yet. wee will touch at the late Parke of Lanhadron. Meuie. Of Pentuan I haue spoken before. well descended. a wel-knowne foreland to most Saylers. it harboureth master Dart. by descent from his Father. bestoweth the fruites of his paines and knowledge. for being witnesse to the christening of a child. who reckoned to receiue most good. When Rame-head and Dudman meet. when his leaues are al of one colour (as I haue [141] heard some report) let those affirme. which are wel-neere twentie myles in distance. From hence. on whom hee. when he doth it. descended from a yonger brother of Colocumb house. who may better vaunt of their townes antiquitie. though the neighbours so say) was the dwelling of Sir Henrie Trenowith. the daughter and heire to Cosowarth. and able. now liuing. in Deuon. and other appurtenances. with hands proper. and married the daughter of Denham: and beareth G. and lost house and holding. if it tooke that name from any great Bridge. in resting satisfied with the partage of so pettie a limit) is vested in master Otwell Hill. Graund-father to sixtie persons. in right of his wife. hath now Nomen sine re: for the Bridge there is supported with onely a few arches. . or at least to practise. in the mindfull breasts of poore and rich. through his fruitfulnesse. At the adioyning Saint Tue. and charitable Farmer. Grampond.

signifieth to beare his seede. from Arundels daughter and heire: his father married the daughter of Morgan. which in English soundeth. Truro consisteth of three streetes. deseruing a regardfull estimation. against king Henrie the seuenth. [blank] Master Sayers: . and benefited with the generall Westerne Sessions. may be learned out of this Cornish propheticall rime. Here Truro stood. Of better regard is Truro. as Fentengollan. Which is to say. Roseland. vpon Sir Richard Edgecumb. &c. by water. they obserue.through attainder for rebellion. Ardeuora. or accident. as the principall towne of the Hauen. Next. woe: but whatsoeuer shall become therof hereafter. The Treuanions Armes are A. Iohn. priuiledged with a Mayraltie. not specially memorable (in my knowledge) for any extraordinarie worth. where there is more vse. you are ouer-looked. whose mother was coheire to Marwood. is a circuite. I hold it to haue got the start in wealth of any other Cornish towne. a Fesse B. or Trisow. alias. by an intailed gift. and Hugh. and now to master Holcomb. by sundrie Gentlemens commodious seates. which brought him an honourable ally. Faires. charged with three Escalops O. the present possessioner. lately appertayning to master Carmynow. his Graundsire. forewent him in succession [142] to their fathers inheritance. to the good of their Countrie. who married the daughter of master Peter Courtney. Edward. and profit of faire lodgings. and benefiting the owners with his fruitfulnesse. A like mischief of a mysterie. or as some other define it. Woe. in some industrious trade. and sister to the first Lord Humdons wife. The shape of the towne. and it shall in time bee said. and passed to the better world in a single life: himselfe by matching the daughter and heire of Witchalse. and to come behind none in buildings. vpon one of whose Creekes. Markets. as the Harbours oportunitie inuiteth them. tooke to wife the said Sir Richard Edgecumbs daughter. Truru. Ombdina geueth try ru. Three of this Gentlemans elder brethren. by interpretation often louing. in English. hath raised issue vnto them. Descending from Truro to the Hauens mouth. inhabited by master Thomas Peyton. Coynages. By this time we approch the limits of Falmouth Hauen. [blank] Master Bescawnes. Tru ru. ru. so that though the original of his name came (perhaps) as master Camden noteth. through the Countie Assizes. Lanceston onely excepted. delighting in seede) descended to M. standeth the market and incorporate towne of Tregny. and continueth the hope of posteritie. containing certaine Parishes hereabouts. by a long ranke of auncestors. Triueth eu. Master Sayers house. and imploying their riches. and Etymon of the name. Charles Treuanion. that in taking T. for getting. betweene two Cheurons G. for the present. a Gentleman for his age and vertues. from his former thickets. I wish that they would likewise deserue praise. the Harts well. yet his present estate better resembleth a flowrie effect. from the towne. lyeth the foreremembred Caryhayes (Kery haz in Cornish. Sir William Treuanion. The king bestowed it. there resteth ru.

faue the memorie Of thy deare worth. so soone not to be spar'd. and hath bred Gent. should sacrifice our teares. I Must now. a Gentleman. vnto thy resting bones: Short be the date. who matched with Tanner. nor Iohn his vertuous. for pleasant prospect. blind eyes. challengeth the preeminence: it was giuen to a yonger brother of Lanhearne. Soft be the graue. that deserue a deniall of admission or passage. after our vsuall maner. Sheldrakes proper. a Cheuron betweene 3. mans nature beares. who through his worth deserueth. the liuing with the dead. and whose daughter & heire apparant. comptrolleth any shipping. a Lyon rampant G. Pomeroy. in our regard.but amongst all. linked in wedlock with the coheire of Trencreeke. and hopeful succeeding sonne. vpon that side of the riuer. who matched with Godolphin. His mother was Lower of Trelask. three Morions heads O. Polwheel beareth S. who married the daughter of Roscarrock: who beareth A. Hee bearth A. a Saultier engrayled Erm. vntill a new oportunity call mee to end the other part of Falmouth hauen. to thy losse. Kendall. who married with Carew. &c. in chiefe. Taluerne. The miry worke. Yet pardon vs. and Vnsase 6. whose name is deduced from his dwelling: and his dwelling may be interpreted. as member to his head. but not orderly marked. Mawes Castle. sweete soule. on a chiefe S. and beareth A. We will close vp this Hundred. with the Gentlemen of marke. Saint Maryes. who espoused Rashleigh: and his father. the Martiall and ciuill gouernments committed to his trust: hee beareth partie per fesse Ar. two Cheurons. Hearle. [143] Seeke not. and with due care and judgement dischargeth. Such are Tanner. Polwheele. Faulcons heads erased S. for some six or seuen descents past. a branch of Bery Pomeroy in Deuon: he beareth O. S. lineally descended from sundry Knights. betweene 3. alias. though this remembrance renew that sorrow. and in chiefe a Lyon passant G. and other hous-keeping commodities. with his Point-blanke Ordinance. We. And skornes. Since nought thou leau'st vs. who wedded Treuanion: and his sonne Treffry. hath taken to husband the yong Penkeuil. this our bootlesse mone. in English. To ioyne with Christ. and is commaunded by master Viuian. . Vpon the East side of the Hauens entrance. a Fesse G. for a while. & valiant Sir Iohn Arundell. I may not forget the late kind. which once I partly expressed in the ensuing Epitaph. and pities. Sawle. that vs againe atones. large scope. But timelesse was that time. who beareth A. Tis earth you see : our Arundel is gone. a Lyon rampant G. bid the South sea farewell. of good worth and calling: amongst whom. Thou time hast changed to eternitie. The towne of the borough. Pider Hundred.

and take the Hundred of Pider in taske. called The sisters. from his new and stately house. in English. The great Arundels: and greatest stroke. as compendious. strongest. & not vnproperly. for which it commodiously lieth. whose notice is yet enuied vs by time. made (through vniting their weak forces) sufficiently strong. to resist the Oceans threatening billows. Nicholas Prideaux. commonly. at Penwith. as it resembleth the same in denomination. for that a great cawsey (now couered with grasse) doth lead vnto it. at the conquest they came. in French. and on a banke the same . He maried one of Viels coheires. to all which. Pider in Cornish is 4. of which my former booke maketh mention. called Mawgan: Ladu is Cornish for a bank. the top of a hill is enuironed with deep treble trenches. Padstowe first presenteth it selfe. lye there interred. termed Beelowzy. which (signifying a head) doth seeme so to require it. a Swallow. and fayrest that the Shire can muster. which leaue a large playne space in the midst: they call it Castellan Danis. a towne and hauen of suteable quality. by traffiking [144] with Ireland. contracting the same into Padstowe. which confineth with Powder in situation. subiect to the Lordship and patronage of the Lanhearn Arundels. where 9. a Cheuron S. Saint Colombs is a bigge parish. and it seemeth (in times past) to haue bin a matter of moment. hauen. & out of France. as the inscriptions on their graue stones doe testify. which affoordeth a way. & countrey adioyning. to yield him the freer passage. and this is the fourth Hundred of Cornwall. which (diuorced from their parent) find their rage subdued by the others lowly submission. the longest. M. his authority a direction. He beareth A. It tooke his name of a foorde adioyning. in chief a fyle with three Lambreaux G. and borroweth it of Petrock and Stowe. that it may embrace the riuer Camel. long and great stones. Their sayd house of Lanhearne. that the North Cornish coast possesseth. when the tyde is out. his wisdome is a stay. It hath lately purchased a corporation and reapeth greatest thrift. the rather. floweth up into the countrey. Wade bridge delivereth you into a waste ground. if you begin your reckoning from the Wester part. for continuing the memory of somewhat. for both (though bad) are the best. for loue. and seeme to haue bene so pitched. ebbeth away againe. who for many descents. In entring this Hundred. and a meane market towne. The Countrey people entitle them. liuing. and respect. maketh Cornwall beholden to his residence. by which meanes they both vndergoe Wade bridge. stand in a ranke together. and hauing performed this naturall courtesie. & sixe Swallowes they giue in Armes. The salt water leauing Padstowe. The Borough gaue name to the harbour. not so safe. Theire name is deriued from Hirundelle. The harbour is barred with banks of sand. in the Countrey heretofore they bare. standeth in the next parish. and though endowed with fayre reuenues in Deuon. Neere to Belowdy. thereby taketh a ful and large prospect of the towne.

were by the water receiued. Michael tooke to wife Sidenhams daughter of Dulverton in Somerset shire. the Crosse they threwe into the well. I am called to stop at Cosowarth. as they prooue by olde euidence. receiue the general applause. and generally. a short ensuing death was boded: and perhaps. to his owne. it is more regardable for profit. for that with equall courage. Iohn the heire of that house. these idle-headed seekers resorted thither. importeth The high groue: and well stored with trees it hath bene. and is father onely of issue female. The Gent. neither is yet altogether destitute. Swallowes in pile A.is seated. endeuoureth to imitate the holy Prophet Dauid. what hearne may mean. Michael. From hence. Cosowarth. in English. Edward. if reiected. to be distinguished with the Raigners number. neuer tasted the sweet and sowre of bridale fruit. & an offring [145] in the other: the offring fell to the Priests share. Lock. yet the same wanted wood. by the double duety of consanguinitie and affinity. not needing in the Norman Kings new birth. to foreknowe what fortune should betide them. in Cornish. issue only one daughter Katherine. hee tooke downe the Popes Bull. and hazard. if it sunk. Iron shield. The house of Cosowarth. and the auncient inheritance there adioyning. Little Colan hath lesse worth the obseruation. not altogether vntruely. ignorance bids mee keepe silence. Thomas maried the daughter of Samtabyn. now liuing. It is appurtenanced with a large scope of land. on whom he begat Iohn and Dorothy: Iohn the elder and Robert. and Robert. which was in this maner: Vpon Palm Sunday. and therein ioyning Poetry with Diuinity. while a foolish conceyt of this halfening might the sooner helpe it onwards. with Arundel of Trerice. Stourton. King H. hauing by the daughter of Williams. 6. set vp at Antwerp against his Soueraigne. suffered part of his lands to descend vnto the children of her first husband. of his translation into English meeter. then commendale for pleasure. Hee addicteth himself to an Ecclesiasticall life. and by him knighted. The like is written by Pausanias. Iohn. marchant. and by others touching the offrings throwne into the fornace of mount Etna in Sicill. or pity. the party should outliue that yeere. maried Anne the daughter of Henry Gerningham: his father (a man of a goodly presence and kinde magnanimity) maried the daughter of the Earle of Darby. in lieu whereof. A contrary practise to the goddess Iunoes lake In Laconia: for there. which if it swamme. He had issue Thomas. . the 8. who married the daughter of Sir Wil. whose Psalmes. their simplicity. it betokened good luck. beyond a great many other wel-deseruing vndertakers of the same taske. Alen Hill: another part hee intayled in her second marriage. they burned heath. to their issue. with a palme crosse in one hand. which (while the owners there liued) was employed to franke hospitality. euill. and widdow to the L. his vncle Iohn succeeded. He beareth S. he gaue to the heires male of his stock. of Inus in Greece. which inhabitance altered the Inhabitants from their former French name Escudifer. if the wheaten cakes. who sought at our Lady Nants well there. by which conueyance. cast in vpon her festiuall day. vnlesse you will deride.

since hands could yeeld none aid. &c. Iew. And nature lent. and heire. H. for accompanying him therein. sought. Our eyes with teares performe thine obsequy. and sixe horses. raigne. What Tre is. then behoouefull: and therefore I will onely (as by the way) touch some fewe poynts. here. Treres. on the good husbandry of the country. made a short period of his long hoped life: whose decease I bewayled in these rimes. Vnripened fruit in grouth. succeeding in this inheritance. married the daughter of Arundel of Trerice. shall vs conioyne againe. Rare in effect. In Edward the this land and and encreased S. HE that at sea and land amidst his foes. gaue him ten pound fee. and vpon the declyning of a hill the house is seated. . And hearts with sighes. Ralphe Arundel matched with the heire of name: since which time. hath vp resign'd his breath. 5. for one Gentleman.Iohn the youngest. three Yeoman. as well in peace. whom liking chose. Seneshall of his houshold. hauing raised posterity sufficient. 3. for transplanting the name into many other quarters. 6. His sister maried Kendall. death which vs parts atwaine.] Iohn Earle of Huntingdon. E're long. and scapt his death. good conscience. were more tedious. one boy. 6. for a sea voyage. had fortune giuen scope. [8. H. as Durant. and allowed him entertaynment in his house. [5. as in warre. Iohn.] to Iohn Duke of Bedford. vnder his seale of Armes. Edward his vncle. renewed the intayle which his father Thomas had cut off. Thurlebear. res signifieth a rushing of fleeting away. by sundry like Inheritours. in life. He beareth A. stiling himselfe Lieutenant generall [8. H. you know already. on a Cheuron betweene three wings B. The same Earle. his issue hath there continued. reposeth his elder age. since we behind are staid. by vertue of these entayles. anciently. There was an indenture made. precious in hope. And thoughts with griefs. [146] Our tongues with praise preserue thy memory. Precisely to rip vp the whole pedigree. Earle of Deuon. Coswarth farewell. Leiutenant to the King. betweene Hugh Courtney. in defence of the Realme: and Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. their liuelyhood. Against you haue passed towards the West somewhat more then a mile. fiue Bezants. and in a single estate. Constable and Admirall of England. and from a ciuill Courtiers life in his younger yeers.] made Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. and the vniuersall loue of all that conuersed with him. offereth you the viewe of his costly and commodious buildings. By courage guided. and gratefull kindnesse. amongst his friends. which may serue (in part) to shew what place & regard they haue borne in the Common wealth. Trerice. He was Sherife of Cornwall. Loe. vpon iust cause.

H. and ieopardous enterprise. we doe not onely thanke you in our most effectuall wise. accordingly. to the best of our power. Iohn Arundel of Trerice Esquire. 8] he should giue his attendance at Canterbury. by which we perceyue the goodly. that by your seruant. The King wrote to Sir Iohn Ar. a Scot. and hath required vs instantly in his name. lately committed vnto him. to Sir Nic.Oct. this bearer.] a Prince. letting you wit. it hath pleased God of late to send you. to heare of the same. tenants. The King wrote to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. I thought it not amisse. The Queene. during our life. 8. which hee had arrested by vertue of his office. that [11. but also promise you. bringing with you the said Captiue. who is not a little ioyous and glad. or any other. and bolde enterprise in the premises: and by these our letters. concerning which. at which time. [147] By the Duke of Norf. by the taking of Duncane Camel & other Scots on the sea. . Written at Lambeth. that he should attend him in his warres against the French king.] his discharge from the Admiralty of the fleete. in our hearty wife we commend vs vnto you. to giue you thanks for your said valiant courage.wrote to the said Sir Iohn Arundel. with diligence in your owne person. as our Chronicle mentioneth. then Vice-admirall of Cornwall. that she was brought in child-bed of [12. of which enterprise we haue made relation vnto the Kings Highnesse. 8. touching [35. and the Master of the Scottish ship. in a fight at sea. for the same your so doing. tooke prisoner. by her letter. dated at Truru the 5. aduertised Iohn Arundel of [3. H.] Trerice Esquire. but also of vs to further any your reasonable pursuits vnto his Highnes. the 11. valiant.] Duncane Campbell. Right welbeloued. day of Aprill aforesaid. 7. Superscribed: To our right welbeloued seruant. of Trerice. Duke of Norfolke (to whom he then belonged) that you may see the stile of those dayes. day of this moneth of April. & to know his further pleasure therein. & that he should deliuer the ship which he sayled in. for the release of a ship. that you shall come and repaire to his Highnes. Iohn Arundell of Trerice. our said Soueraigne Lords pleasure is. H. H. you shall vnderstand. [14. wee will bee glad to aduaunce you to any preferment we can. that during our life. to insert a letter sent him from Tho. about the entertaynment of the Emperour. whose landing was then and there expected. The same yere the King wrote to him againe. you shall not onely be sure of his especiall thanks by mouth. Poynts. And ouer this. with his seruants. wee haue receyued your letters.

he would take no wrong. hee held a warie and charie care. but to keepe them in a readinesse for some other seruice. to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. nor on them any reuenge. the coheire of Beuill. praying and desiring him to the Court. Sir Iohn Arundell. that hee was Viceadmirall of the Kings [Ed. and quieting of the Countrie. the Quindene of Saint Hillarie next. & M. tenants. then deliuering: equally stout. and any other imployment. There are also letters.] Shee wrote to him (being then Sherife of Cornwall) touching the election of the Knights of the shire. married to Prideaux: Roger by his wife Trendenham left behind him a sonne. and others.] shippes. who knew him.] Shee likewise wrote to him. Mar. Briefely. wheresoeuer the King shall then bee within the Realme. and the Burgesses for the Parliament. was daughter to Erisy. of his enemies. who bare him Iohn. Mar] praying and requiring him. but soundnesse of iudgement. which all. and kind. whose date is not expressed. inclined to commiseration. that hee had the goods and lands of certaine Rebels. and much other faire reuenewes. not onely principall of the family. last mentioned. that those. to his seruant Iohn Arundel of Trerice Esquire. who touch him as neerely.] the instructions to the Iustices) hee should muster. in the West seas. These few notes I haue culled out of many others. and widdow to Gourlyn. had issue Roger. shall testifie with me: that. that (notwithstanding [P. Another. within his roomes and offices. readie to relieue. and furnish his seruants. not to repaire with his men. and to wayte in the rereward of his army. Ouer his kinred.and others. with his friends. [148] [2. [1. but a generall father to them all. and onely say this. well ordered. if he fortuned to land in Cornwall. 6. who for . without scruple or remnant of gall. The Queene wrote to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice. One. better conceiuing. with his friends and neighbours. Sir Iohns second wife. neither can I by any meanes hunt it out. especially horsemen. by his first wife. reputing himselfe. as Tacitus did Agricola) I will therefore bound the same within his desert. and by others. not vpon lightnesse of humour. withstanding of enemies. whose due commendation. and being once reconciled. vnder his rule and offices. by some of which it it appeareth. when occasion so required. directed to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice. with him. willing him. for his good seruice against them. from the Kings Counsell. as hee had commaunded him. [2. he outwent all shew of competence: spare. for the defence. because another might better deliuer then my selfe. giuen him. & 3. but discreet of speech. gaue place to the common good: as for franke. what force of horse and foote he could arme. which bountifully was expressed. so accomplished in vertue. and continuall hospitalitie. his succeeder in Trerice. Priuate respects euer. Other letters from the King there are. embraced them. that hee. and Katherine. who died in his fathers life time. as also to certifie. called Iohn. should see the Prince of Spaine most honourably entertained.

and. Neyther may I omit newe Kaye. and 2. and ill-fauouring substance. and is by them all. so called. the neighbours attempted. in making there a Kay. one Gidly. or picking bils. neere adioyning to this hill. and so each to other. and barreth his farder incroching that way. for the Rode of shipping. with a long liued profit. how no curious obseruation of theirs. when it meeteth with any crossing brooke. or in my selfe. 2. Their mother equalleth her husbands former children. the possessions of Littleton. with the relation of many more Gentlemen. began where his father left. and in the midst betweene them. an earthen Pot. hee succeeded and married Kendall. and generally all his kinred. By his first foreremembred wife. as well his loue. as his liuing. in Sabulo: for the light sand. the same (by a secret antipathy) restraineth. in preferment. the daughter of Sir Robert Denis. againe. Cosowarth. as a late sacrifice to repentance. in kind vsage. could euer descrie in him. and so offer vp degenerate teares. daughters: the elder. treadeth iust in his footesteps. sonnes. with her owne. Trenance added to his owne liuelyhood. their scarcle Eagle eyes sometimes mistake the shadow for the substance. euen from his young yeeres. some two foote and a halfe square. which conceyt they still retayne. in English. Cheapfull. betweene three Swords S. The younger brother followeth the Netherland wars. which (doubtlesse) was once the ashes of some notable person. wee haue spoken before. and his sonne Roscarrocke: hee beareth A. and time of seruice. that hee outgoeth his age. or the place. and the other none at all. to whome. learned to hate vntruth. digged downe a little hillocke. by his example. The neighbours haue obserued. albeit. & Denham: by his later. which I specially recited in my former booke. the one will foster fish. In the bottome of which he found three white stones. draue the Inhabitants to remooue their Church: howbeit. which too well brooketh his surname. Saint Agnes. In Withiell Parish of this Hundred. any one notorious vice. as sisters sonne. eyther through want of them. a place in the North coast of this Hundred. from the sea shore. Of Saint Peran. so acknowledged and respected. and marring the land adioynant. that hee inheriteth. There dwelleth also Master Tredenick. not many yeeres sithence. by his entrailes (like Prometheus) feedeth the Tynners pecking. daily continueth his couering. haue often deeply protested.many yeeres together wayted in neerest place about him. and generall heire. one of the high hils. to Carew. to supplie the defect of nature. and with so temperate a course. a Fesse. I cannot finish this Hundred. therewith to thicken his other ground. daughters married. because in former times. Summaster. triangle-wise (as pillers) supporting another flat one. halfe full of a blacke slymie. he had 4. and vnder it. by Art. called Borsneeuas. so as the distresse of this deluge. with so wel-liked a cariage. there committed to that maner of buriall. haue left the effect in Nubibus: and onely lent them the benefit of Lestercockes and fisher-boates. carried vp by the North wind. or [149] Borough. though want of means in themselues. that of two Lakes. who matched with the daughter .

obserue. of which Castle. then endamaging the same: for with the ebbe it is discouered. which Plymmouth cannot equall. and others. vntill I see some reason for my warrant: wherefore leauing that. a word or two touching the same in generall. not prouidence. and his father. where king Henrie the eighth. It should seeme. with steepe: which maketh that. by myracle. escaped one) raysed a new fort with a Garrison. if I forbeare to deriue Kerier herefrom. the fortifier made his aduantage of the commoditie. Another. Now to the parts. Likewise as Plymmouth vaunteth richer and fairer townes. Mawes then erected in the other side. Kerier Hundred. affoorded by the ground. Againe. and no one of them see the others top. but different in sight. I will weaue on my former webbe of Falmouth hauen. and first. On the West side. A. or rather a sharper sight to this later. and greater plentie of fish then Falmouth: so Falmouth braggeth. For the rest. from his Catwater. as quickned through the enemies diuers pretences against these places (whereof Falmouth. and the mastering of Pirates. of Marow. the more safe for riding. for saylers [150] bound to the Westwards. they say that Falmouth lyeth farther out in the trade way. added an increase of fortification and souldiers . ere I descend to the yet vndescribed West side in particular. from sodaine attempts of little Fleetes. KEry in Cornish. then Falmouth. hath the precedence (Milford onely excepted) of all other hauens in England. falling here.of Viuian. three Buckes heads cabased A. that a hundred sayle may Anker within his circuite. such as compare Plymmouth and Falmouth together. when hee tooke order for fortifying the Sea coasts. somewhat like thereto in plot. I haue spoken heretofore. and from Hamoase for those that would fare to the East. called Pendenis. caused a Castle to bee builded. this. with some little helpe of the Countrie. on a bend S. and better to annoy shipping: but Pendenis standeth higher. In the very entrance of the harbour lyeth a rocke. Falmouth. who beareth O. the more delightfull for prospect. Saint Mawes lieth lower. and at her great charges. And thus much of the whole. and some small store of Ordinance. signifieth bearing: and yet you must beare with me. Escalops O. the worst of them. at the verie comming in. on a bend S. there riseth a hill. was s. and so offreth a sooner oportunity to wind-driuen shipping. into the seas wide-gaping mouth. As also Langherne B. Howsoeuer they agree for competence among themselues. rather disgracing. Burlace. then Plymmouth. at Saint Mawes. and shot rather at a safe preferuing the Harbour. But her Maiestie casting an equall eye to both. two hands tearing in sunder a horse-shooe of the field. marked by a pole purposely fixed thereupon. and at the flood. or maigne inuasion. that Plymmouth creekes are mostly coasted with plaine shoares. a Cheuron betweene 3. then to withstand any great Nauie. vpon the Hawe at Plymmouth. The riuer Fala. but that Plymmouth hath a better outlet. by most mens iudgements. and stronger to defend it selfe. with allowance of a pettie Garrison. hath endowed it with that name.

Frettie. as it yeeldeth a ready passage out. Vpon the left hand from hence. With any memorable act or accident. Godolphin. and yeeldeth a seuerall Ankering [151] place on eche side thereof. Trefuses point diuideth the harbour. and Totnes. founded [1256. the Gouernour. his owner. in all which.to Pendenis. and beareth A. buildings. his father of Killigrew. who demeaning himselfe. on which the house abbutteth. and her Highnesse seruice: hee beareth B. with a pleasing view: for the same standeth so farre within the Hauens mouth. Somewhat aboue Arwenacke. no lesse kindly. the one called Carrack rode. and. Bishops of Excester [1327. and so a speedyer and larger vent of their commodities. Arch-duke of Austriche. who matched with Woluerstone: the stocke is ancient. at the top of a creek. and heire to her mother [blank] and was sonne to Sir Iohn Killigrew. a Cheuron betweene 3. Wil. by their greater desert: their Armes are A. touching diuers other townes. by his authoritie. therethrough commaundeth. who married the daughter of Monck. his graundfather of Erisy. for the present. in this sort: A. giueth three Fusils for his coat. Besides the Cliffe. as Salcomb. I cannot acquaint you. Vpon another creeke on the same side. and valiantly. to liue and die in his assistance. not onely their bodies. saue onely. Carclew hath (after the Cornish maner) welneere metamorphosed the name of Master Bonithon. that it is protected from the sea stormes. into his owne. and Excester: amongst which. affoord therethrough. by his loue. it giueth Truro the preeminence: the like whereof I obserue. rather passable. and frankly towards his neighbours. It is owed by Master Iohn Killigrew. Perin towne hath taken vp his seat. then hee did resolutely. Dartmouth. After the declining hill hath deliuered you downe from this Castle. in Deuon. those that stand highest vp in the Countrey. which See possesseth faire reuenues thereabouts. and the ground about it. concerning this hauen. against the enemie when he followed the warres. late yonger brother to Sir FraunciS. then welcome . Topsham. for wealth. and M. & benefited by Iohn Graundson. that Philip. and yet so neere thereunto. S.] by Walter Brounscomb. He maried the daughter of Viuian.]. her other sister. a Cheuron betweene three Fusils S. He maried the coheire of Gaurigan. of the same situation. and Kings bridge. before my parting therefrom. who suitably to his name. plaine and large enough for vse and recreation. In Perin was Glasney Colledge. Kings rode. in calling and liuely-hood. a fitter oportunity of accesse. is steepe enough to shoulder off the waues. from all quarters. the other. Floures de luce. though neere the hauens mouth. Howbeit. This Promontory is possessed and inhabited by a Gentleman of that name. receyued a more royall. Arwenacke entertaineth you. during his voyage from Netherland towards Spayne (his wiues Kingdome) was weather-driuen into Weymouth. but also their hearts. his greatest strength consisteth in Sir Nicholas Parker. a Fesse O. and diuers of the branches (as I haue elsewhere remembred) growne to great aduancement. an Eagle with two heads displayed within a bordure Bezanty S. and A. with a kinde constraint. and Inhabitants. for their common preseruation. then noteable.

Coynage places. thus descrybeth the same. from which hee could not free himself. Or proofe of Giants might: Worthlesse and ragged though thou shew. and this at vnfortifyed Hailford. is thwarted by a sandy banke. and. in Cornish. how I was once carried to see one hereabouts. BE thou thy mother natures worke. wel worth the viewing. which ebbeth and floweth as the sea. and yet. indeed. in former times. with an eye in their backs. with the rest. Hellaz. His shores affoord commodious seates. I meane. and beareth B. secundum vsum. with so equall a counterpeyze. it not vnproperly brooketh his more common terme of Helford. so as the same seemed. Hailford. to the dwellings of Reskimer. to thwart him any second incumbrance. as approoued. aduaunced vpon some others of a meaner size. More certaine. at the hands of King Henrie the 7. if elsewhere placed. signifieth Ambrose. who matched with Kendal: his sonne with Erisy. & to it there belonged a couer. but as it now standeth. And if your eares be not already cloyed with relation of wonders. when I came thither. that so by the shortest cut. Yet art thou worth the sight. but by redeeming his libertie. whose guilty brests. But to remooue it. And a great rocke the same is. which forceth the same to quurt back a great way. This accomplished. and beareth B. armed and langued G. his top deepned to a hollownesse. It is (forsooth) a [152] great rock. ere they will aduenture to enter. Falmouths ouer-neere neighbourhood lesseneth his vse. Helston. the tyde was halfe out. . but far exceeding in proportion the long halfe of an egge. By it there stands a Chappell. in English. much lesse thrust it vpon you. looke warily how they may goe out. lying vpon the ground. though lesse wonderfull. will sensibly moue it too and fro: but farther to remooue it. This (they say) holdeth water. and the pit halfe empty. would carry the reputation of a good harbour. not much vnlike in fashion. many strengths Shall all like feeble prooue.entertainment. priuiledged. Abin. This hugy rock. one fingers force Apparently will moue. the vnited forces of many shoulders are ouer-weake. amber. as quitting it onely to the worst sort of Seafarers. with De la Pooles captiuity. in cheife a Wolfe passant of the first: and Tregose. The name thereof is. to cary some regard. But I haue heard credible persons so discredit this woonder. who maried S. and darkeneth his reputation. the greene hall. cannot be controlled: in which regard. of the fordible riuer Haill. two barres Gemewes in cheife a Lyon passant O. is a well seated and peopled towne. is a rocke. is Mainamber: Mayne. 3. that the push of a finger. barres A. hee might leaue least power in fortune. and the nick-name of Stealfoord. so called. whose passage into the sea. Hanterdauis. Wherefore the Cornish wonder-gatherer. that I dare not offer it you. for the strangenesse. I will let you vnderstand. as probable. and one of the 4. as some say. Vnder it runneth the riuer Lo. he made choyce to take ship again at Falmouth. which (turning d to t) signifieth halfe a tongue. Pirats.

enriched 6. whose very name (besides the conquest roll) deduceth his first auncestours out of Fraunce. Militon. 5. Viuians house. The foreremembred bank serueth as a bridge. lie Trelawarren M. to the other side. 4. at whose foote standeth a house of the same name. and descended. if it take any passenger tardy.of the field. Hee beareth O. with a compendious passage. a Cheuron. but comming short of those that frequent the salt. Not farre from thence. howbeit. to the Gent. to Bonithon. and away goeth a great deale of the sand. and Sir Nicholas Parker. Griffons Sergreant O. whose sonne being lost in his trauaile beyond the seas. now in ward.and so to make a poole of some miles in compasse. dischargeth the place which he beareth in his Countrey. Pengueraz. betweene 3. and Erisy. one of Militons coheires. to Lanine. and many others experience of these matters. distafs with his inheritance. His graundfather married Greinuile: his father. Captaine of the Mount. out breaketh the vpper part of the poole. Himselfe tooke to wife the daughter of Mallet. Bendes S. and husband to Godolphin. water. some deduce the Etymon of Pengersick. charged with 9. liberall. exercised a kinde. seated in 2. He maried the daughter of Rashleigh: he beareth A. not vnworthy of a seuerance. His father married Carew: his graundsire. to Erisy. which signifieth. to Abbot. fiue Bezaunts. betweene three . and fish: which instant. ended the course of her long and well commended widdowhood. doe enclose betweene them. or hill. Penrose his house. with the increasing riuers waight. to Trenwith. 3. by a long ranke of ancestours. an Eagle displayed with two heads. rising not farre asunder. riuers of Haill and Lo. 2. to deliuer wayfarers. so washed downe by the waues. sometimes with more haste then good speed: for now and then. in an vnfruitfull soyle. and a portion of the vtter sand. 3. Those 2. Saintabin. particularized with the name of Meneag: and in regard of his fruitfulnesse. of that name. on a crosse G. Clowance (deriued from Cloow. It breedeth a peculiar kind of bastard Trought. from which. one of Whittingtons coheires: which later couple. Arundel. a fayre house. [153] Within this circuit. and with ripe knowledge and sound iudgement. sometimes the inhabitance of M. in Cornish importeth a head to help. To this poole adioyneth M. in a long and peaceable date of yeeres. and neuer discontinued hospitality. though lately declined (with a milder accent) to Godolphin: in Cornish. restes. shrewdly endangereth him. to flit for company: and some haue so miscarried. whose kind entertainment hath giuen mee. to Trefuses. it is so pressed on the inside. 6. as they runne into the sea. parishes. who ouerliuing her husband. in bignesse and goodnes exceeding such as liue in the fresh water. it signifieth. to heare) is the possession and dwelling of M. and Hearle. in becomming Lady to Sir Nicholas Parker. They were bestowed in mariage (but by me not orderly marshalled) as followeth: 1. a white Eagle: and such armes they carry in this sort: G. a neck of land. that at a sudden. The Enzies beare S. and so intitling his owner. riseth Godolghan-ball. and Tregodeck.

who beareth S. thousand pound. The name.]) made foule hauocke. who giueth hope. Penwith. a Cheuron betweene three Escalops. but increasing of the reputation of his family. with [blank] and his two daughters and heires apparent. apparently shew themselues. with large meanes accruing from their Tynne-works. and so the West part of England. Hee matched with Killigrew. and beareth S. He succeeded to the inheritance [154] of his vnkle Sir William Godolphin. vprightnesse in iustice. for diuers descents. while the Countrie was better stored of Timber. and perchaunce not to be matched againe by any of his sort and condition in the whole Realme. and assumed this: he married Sir Iohn Arundels daughter of Trerice: and beareth A. the head of Ashen trees. and sometimes to much more. bountifull mindes. towards the latter end of the reigne of King Henry the 8. his Graund-father with Glynne. are so sufficiently knowne to those of highest place. in English. or other such noyse. O. the husband of Kekewitch. as Cornwall it selfe. for some such eminent marke. together with his seruices to her Maiestie. three hundred persons or thereabouts. not onely the whole Countrey hath felt a generall benefit. lieth Nants. who beareth A. and you shall see great store them. the Seales haunt a Caue. as my testimony can adde little light thereunto: but by his labours and inuentions in Tynne matters. and beareth B. a Cheuron betweene three Flowers de luce A. as Lanyne. of Trengoue.Floures de luce A. This hill hath. supplyed those Gent. . but her Maiesty hath also receyued encrease of her customes by the same. for closing vp this wearisome Suruey. prouidence in gouernment. with Penwith Hundred. as hath bene said before. MY last labour. a crosse haumed S. Nansperyan coupled in matrimonie. and is now possessed by Sir Frauncis Godolphin Knight. to one thousand pound at the least. and houseth a Gent. his father married Militon. at the sound of any lowde musicke. in those works which are of his owne particular inheritance. is bounded. who tooke to wife the daughter of Nants. in English signifieth. not onely of the sustaining. who therethrough. Hundred. which importeth a valley. Lagherne. in Devon and-Cornwall. Pernwarne. hee continually keepeth at work. and Mathew.the Smithes towne. communibus annis. amounteth. so as the seuerall owners haue thereby gotten very great profit out of such refuse works. whose zeale in religion. The Danes sayling about Penwith Steort (saith Houeden [997. Moreouer. and plentifull housekeeping. haue wonne him a very great and reuerent reputation in his Countrey: and these vertues. and approch verie neere the shore. his father with Bonython. A matter very remorceable. hath worne out his former name. During summer season. A. who. Vpon the North sea. Diuers other Gentlemen there dwell in this Hundred. ouer the same a Faulcon houerin with bels O. as they before had giuen ouer for vnprofitable. that matched with the coheire of Tencreek. a Castle. belike. standing in waues B. & the yerely benefit. that out of those his works accrueth to her Maiestie. with Prideaux. & is like to leaue the same to another Sir William his sonne. three Losenges S. in the Cliffe thereby. demeaned himselfe verie valiantly in a charge which hee bare at Boloigne. at least to the value of 10.

then any man durst yet aduenture to discouer. The hoare rocke in the wood. and that at the top. for bettering the Road. or impossibilitie. to whom William the Conquerour his vncle. and attempts made. alias. some what daungerous. . and therefore holy for the aduenture. and port of S. there is a bad seat in a craggy place. that a Sergeant at armes of the Kings. is entertayned by an open greene. came to their auncestour. the mount seemeth to haue serued onely for religion. Vntill Richard the firsts raigne. which import a shew of Copper: and Copper mynes are found. farder vp. who surprized it. on foote. of some largenesse. (and often. make a somewhat different relation of this accident: for they affirme. for the greatest part. on the flood. but eyther want. with boat. we arriue at the towne. Pomeroy. when hee became ascertained of his Soueraignes enlargement. was gratified with a liberall reward: in counter-change whereof. while folke endured their merits. passable. in Deuon. reuealing his long concealed errand. Michaels mount looketh so aloft. was surrendred to the Archbishop of Canterbury. his father Coffyn : he beareth O. plentie of fish is here taken. in the Kings behalfe. This latter. called S. Ptolomey termeth it Ocrinum. Stepping ouer to the South-sea. flatly arresteth his hoaste. and wrought in the grounds adioyning. a Canton Er. which finishing where the hill beginneth. Your arriuall on the farther side. the olde cell and new fort. receyued kind entertaynment for certaine dayes together. Earle of Morton. A little without the Castle. three Piles in point G. Cara Cowz in Clowze. yet. not so much satisfying vse. and expulsed the Monks: howbeit soone after. to good and necessarie purpose) succouring distressed shipping. Michaels Chaire. and no sooner. leaues you to the conduction of a winding and craggy path. They haue a tye pit. as it brooketh no concurrent. as relieuing necessitie. but a step) S. and at his departure. by farre trauailing. and the Cliffes thereabouts muster long strakes of a glittering hiew.Beyond Nants. for accesse. the Cornish men. builded by Will. that neere hereunto. M. at his Castle of Bery Pomeroy. But the descendents from this Pomeray. Ies: both of meane plight. for answering a capitall crime. at the ebbe. Thus Houeden reporteth. with a difference. Order hath bene taken. (for the distaunce [155] is in comparison. The same is sundred from the mayne land. with their best meanes. the sea floweth into a large Caue. and greatly haunted. or slacknesse. Basset possesseth Tehiddy. mencioned by Orosius. that is. stood the watch-towre. & keeping still the North coast. As you row to the Westwards from hence. M. and (during his imprisonment) to haue bene first fortified by Henry de la Pomeray. the very feare of ensuing harme wrought in him a present effect of the vttermost that any harme could bring. his death: whereon. gaue much lands in those quarters. namely. by a fort of the olde making. It compriseth lodgings for the Captayne and his garrison. and sold verie cheape. and oppositely placed to such another in Galitia. by a sandy playne. occupied. he then. and a Chappell for deuotion. who married Godolphin. And so. with a Peere. hitherto withhold the effect: the whiles. leauing these priuate Inhabitances. for the highest place. to make his immediate appearance before the King. of a slight shoot in breadth. Camden obserueth. deliuereth you into a little plaine.

restrayned from murdering the principall persons.] at Barnet field. nothing guilty of that effeminate vertue. diuers Gent. he abandones his home. party. Ouer-against the Mount. all hope of pardon foreclosed. they could make but slender resistance: for no sooner should any one within. [156] A like surprize. but he became an open marke to a whole showre of arrowes. Heere also [13. 31. for lesser vessels to lie at: and betweene it and the Westerne shoare. sauing vpon some winds. and one of the principall on the weaker side. disguised himselfe. Vnder the mount extendeth a bay. spoyled their goods. commaunded. atchieued. for redeeming his soule: and lastly. E.].]. or attempt. of petty fortune. fronteth a towne. forced a surrender to those Rakehels mercy. very graciously welcomed. of Marhas diow. what time his returne out of Fraunce. raigne. in English. first wynning the plaine at the hils foote. thus politikely wonne. arriued heere by shipping. and conueyed to the King. and Iland. the 8. and then. but of later date. with their wiues and families.Which vnexpected and il-carryed message. ouer those inflanked wals. Daubney. Perkin Warbeck) taken by the L. 4. and seyzed the place. gets to a sister of his abiding in this mount. therethrough got entrance. Both fort. tooke in such despite. to blench the defendants sight. the 6. the euen ground on the top. hee as valiantly kept. and kept a long time defended against the Kings power. purpose. The Pilgrims holy vaunt: Both land. for then it vseth this traffike. Who knowes not Mighels mount and chaire. by Froissarts report. causeth himselfe to be let bloud vnto death. twise a day. At the beginning of K. as with his dagger hee stabbed the messenger to the heart: and then well knowing in so suparlatiue an offence. and dead their shot. the 3. the 4. Which. then the Temple of peace. when the water was out. where the Rebels besieged them. called the Mounts bay: where. for leauing the remainder to his heire: from which time forward. During the last Cornish commotion. by Ed. imprisoned their bodies. & decrease of victuals. H. together with the womens dismay. by carrying vp great trusses of hay before them. Iohn Earle of Oxford. 7. this place continued rather a schoole of Mars. and were rather by Gods gracious prouidence. Lib. vntill reasonable conditions swayed him to a surrender. with some of his followers. Of this. Ed. and port of haunt. mastred the garrison. pertinently named Marcaiew. by assault. For shortly after the discomfiture of H. in Normandy. the Gent. peepe out his head. Vol. Sir Robert Knolles landed. was by K. [11. bequetheth a large portion of his land to the religious people there. was the Lady Katherine Gordon (an vnfit yoke-fellow for that counterfeit Prince. After which. and for his valiant exployts there. there is an indifferent good road for shipping. touching the like named and seated mount. I read in Popeliniere [2. This disaduantage. fled to the protection of this place. who. the Thursdaies market. it felt the Frenchmens . as the last wonder. then any want of will. in Pilgrims habits. H. who had made one.

three in a ranke. [157] and there In a faire Bay. on the West side of Pensance. to retire into Pensance. ouer-against Mousehole. vnto the stragled houses of the countrie. sending about two rankes of soldiers. and imbattelled in the slope of a hill. and in Latin. Mousehole. pikes and shot. hastened thither: Who foorthwith sent to all the Captaines of those parts. met with Sir Francis Godolphin on a greene. vp to the top of the hill. about halfe a mile compasse or more. by interpretation. The Saints head. the force of the fire being such. certayne Tynners. through a little Iland placed before it.fiery indignation. called Newlyn. Gallies of the enemy presented themselues vpon the coast. aduising them to looke to themselues. wherein were about thirtie or fortie shot. found Speare heads. the rest marched as a gard for defence of these firers. and little impayred through their long lying. consisting of their basest people. is named Porternis. who foorthwith sent their forlorne hope. and also sent by Poast to Sir Francis Drake. and presently remooued them farther into the Bay. Holinshed telleth vs. But while they were marching towards them. But the smoke of those poore houses. sayle. Portus Insulae. insisted to march against the enemies. soone after the Sun was risen. though scarce one third of them were seruiceable. but also the Parish Church of Paul. not onely the houses they went by. and had chased a fogge. is a market towne. that neere heereunto. and houses. not many yeeres sithence. the Spaniards returned aboord their Gallyes. and from the hils espying the fires in that towne. about foure hundred pikes and shot. made the place ouer hote for the enemies any longer abode. by whome were burned. vntill the comming of the Countrie forces that hee had sent for. But they finding themselues in number something aboue a hundred. 1595. Church. to repell them from farther spoyles of their houses. Pensans. The Inhabitants being feared with the Spaniards landing and burning. who that forenoone comming from his house. where they anchored againe. fled from their dwellings. what succours by sea or land they could spare. 4. who landed there with 30. and so called. to discouer what forces or ambushes of the Countrey might lye in view: who espying none but those that were returned with Sir Frauncis . which before kept the sea out of sight. and swords of Copper. wrapped in lynnen clouts. and Sir Iohn Hawkins (then at Plymmouth with a fleete bound for the Indies) aduertisement of the arriuall of these foure Gallies. and of their burnings. before and neere a lesser fisher towne. if there were any greater fleete of the enemies at Sea. There againe with all speede they landed. Then Sir Francis Godolphin aduised that weake assembly. the Iland hauen. and to prepare it for defence. as memorable for his late accident of the Spaniards firing. as it vtterly ruined all the great stonie pillers thereof: others of them in that time. landed about two hundred men. and verie meanely weaponed. not so regardable for his substance. which fell out in this maner: The three & twentieth of July. to wit. burned that fisher towne Mowsehole. M. in Cornish. for pacifying some controuersies in those Western parts. calling in the country to the rescusse. and to send West with all haste. for their speedie repaire with their companies. as they were working. both importing one sense. Battel-axes.

mens infamous cowardise. sauing the shew on his doublet of the bullets sliding by his back. surprised with feare. Sir H. Vpon their moouing. the suddennesse of the attempt. & those Captaines to the camp. they returned againe to their Gallies. By this time.Godolphin. Of which shot. and some ten or twelue others that followed him. with very fayre and cleare weather. Sir Frauncis Godolphin moued also. who were sent by the Generals from Plymmouth to the campe: As some of her Maiesties ships were also sent. most of them his owne seruants. yet resolute to resist. neere to the towne of Markesew and S. The next day the enemy made showe to land againe on the West side of the bay. with mist and rayne. which (were there any cause) by many reasons. he found at the said market place but onely two resolute shot. the enemies beginning their fire some houses behinde him. came thither Sir Nic. from their forementioned fruitlesse march. a plot is layd for intercepting the enemy by ambush. he was then forced to depart. the Cornish forces encreased in nomber. but away pack the Gallies with all the hast they could. yet many in fearefull manner. himselfe [158] staying hindmost. to haue impeached the Gallies returne. as busily as they could. who stood at his commaund. though none were hurt. gaue notice thereof to their imbatteled company. that they should make their stand at the market place. the opennesse of the towne. and the enemies entred the towne in three parts. viz. but onely a Constable vnhorsed without any harme. Which done. The towne thus fired. Wherevpon they forthwith marched towards Penzance. whereto necessity must soone haue pressed him. nor threatning with his rapier drawne. they were forced to remoue them farther off. . to enter Penzance before them: and assoone as that weake number were entred into the open greene being of three quarters of a mile length. Michaels Mount. the rest. and which way they would make their approach. they desisted from their enterprize: and besides. Finding himselfe thus abandoned. some fell flat to the ground. suddenly changed into the Northwest. for renuing his consumed store of fresh water: but within one houre after the arriuall of these Captaines. as if God had a purpose to preserue these his rods for a longer time. and certaine other Captaines. who being come as farre as the Lizard head. finding themselues annoyed by the shooting of bullets and arrowes into their Gallies where they roade at anchor. as. fled. to obserue the enemies order. encamped themselues on the greene. The winde no sooner came good. Thus haue you a and the Cornish I could qualify the narrownesse summary report of the Spaniards glorious enterprise. and amended in heart. for defence thereof. the Gallyes ceased not to ply them all that way with their ordinance from their prowes. towards the euening. though few in number. but seeing the people. and there spent out the night. hee could recall. whom. Clifford. Sir Frauncis sent after those that were entred Penzance before him. on the 25. which was vntill then strong at Southeast. of July in the morning. as also the forementioned little fisher towne Newlyn. Soone after. neither with his perswasions. matters there goe on in prouident and orderly sort. the winde. of the country. and others ranne away. Power. if he thrust on shore againe.

not onely of their Indies. who. who is so witlesse. then may tend. and more dammage then disgrace. the lower towne of the Groigne. in founding a Colledge of Priests. such nap-taking assaults. and Cales wil testify. so is the rocke called. where the enemy first stept on shore. and yet. to build any vaunt hereon: for oftentimes small troups of ours. Cartagena. Domingo. there is a little village. during his younger age. and a Castle on a greene hill is giuen by the Gent. against farre greater forces of theirs. Penecha. excuse themselues by destiny. spoylings. and within memory (as I haue beene informed) certayne workemen searching for Tynne. euen with a handfull. or at sea. discouered a long square vault. The prophesy is this: Ewra teyre a war meane Merlyn Ara Lesky Pawle Pensanz ha Newlyn. . beyond all exception. a head fortresse. and yet. beene very common. to reuenge their losse at the next encounter. that the Cornish people should vndergo this misfortune: for an ancient prophecy. haue in our forefathers daies. or that experience. which contayned the bones of an excessiue bigge carkas. But our Countrymen leauing reason & example. Moscho. and preparance. So might I likewise say. and firings. haue wonne. & at that very time. through our long continued peace. in English. who e're the next day made resistance. lib. those that would burn Pauls Church. wealth. in a quiet single life. and actor of this Tra-gedy take. wherewith a long course of yeeres hath sithence enriched him.the aduantage of the Gallies ordinance on a people vnprepared against such accidents. would hardly haue produced much better effects. and verified this Etimology of the name. in their owne language. And indeed. was burned by the roguing Tartars. eyther in their Tynne-workes. King Athelstane accomplished his vowe.]. betweene vs and Fraunce. Verily such sudden surprizes worke more indignity [159] then dammage. and entred a vowed resolution. and like benefit to the Incumbent. possessed. for shifting them out of sight. for the most part. Chiwarton signifyeth. called Trebegean. was taken by slaues and outlawes. if the enemy had landed againe. The towne of the Giants graue: neere whereunto. a head Citie in a populous dominion. At Saint Buriens. the suburbs of Lisbone. what time he had conquered the Sillane Ilands. 292. and haue so beene euer construed. how there should land vpon the rock of Merlin. who therefore exalteth the Tartars valiancy. aboue their masters? Besides. and Inhabitants. a house on the greene lay. captiued. in a populous Citie. But I will not seeke to thrust my Countrymen into any other folkes company. a parish of great circuit. The Capitoll. synged. and Newlyn. 3. of that name. yea (sometimes) after forewarning. hath long run amongst them. Not farre from the lands ende. or the Romanes slaues & outlawes. and carried away the townes. Which Nombre de dios. ransacked. Pensants. as to twite eyther of both. In fatis they say (& not in fatuis) it was. maketh no farther vse of his knowledge gotten in the lawes. aboue the Moschouite. S. anno domini 1572 [Liu. anno vrbis. for the same? But least hold can the author. but of Portugall and Spaine it selfe. that all these circumstances meeting in any other quarter of the Realme.

With the like comfort. Special. Temperature. my friends (quoth hee) wee are come to harbour. Helenium: by the Cornish. in an vnlike resemblance. Earth vnder.in the 2. V. reporting her | Inhabitants. The Table of the first Booke. ibid. standing on a hill. riuers. called Bolerium: by Diodorus. growing. 6. April. . Commodities of the situation. or. springs. Precious. qualitie. | The Suruey of | Cornwal contai| neth a description | | | Accidents. The lands end) because we are arriued. Water fresh. Things of life. Deo gloria: mihi gratia. Elements. to the aduauncement of publike iustice. Mela. finding at last the voyde paper. 5. 3. that now your iourney endeth with the land. Accidents. 5. I will refresh [160] you who haue vouchsafed to trauaile in the rugged and wearyfome path of mine ill-pleasing stile. length and breadth. generall. Earth aboue. Pearle. 1. 2. non sum informatus. Hee beareth A. Diogenes. ponds. Discommodities. Velerium: by Volaterane. wherein are deliuered the name & shape. 4. I will heere sit mee downe and rest. forme. to whose Promontory (by Pomp. | Topographical. 1602. ibid. 23. Bee glad. Pedn an laaz: and by the English. sine strepitu. to the aduisement of his priuate acquaintance. &c. Borders. The quantitie.book. and Agats. and feeling. touching whom I must plead. in the first | Elements.sine lucro. a Castle S. Fol. Mynerals. booke. Climat. after he had tired his Scholers with a long Lecture. 26. 7. Sundry other Gentlemen people that remote quarter as Lauelis. Diamonds. containing matters | Historicall.

| Aduentures. Colour. ibid. drying. Addits. Warden. things liuelesse: liuing. Siluer and Gold.yme. Blowing. 8. | Labourers. Fewel. crazing. ibid. Orders. Gaylour. pauing. Mats. ibid. Iuries: great. 30. . expressing the persons : | Captaine. 20. | dressing. The taking. windowes. Conueyance by water. tooles. | kindes. 7. | vse. 12. Kindes. Things of life. Tynne-works. growing. | meat. Birds. ibid. 21. fish. Hearbs. couering. foule. ibid. 18. . Charter. 6. Sea. ibid. bignesse. 18. timber. Mettals : Tynne : Copper. Things of life. 28. Iurisdiction. petty. Stones for walling. rockes. Trees for fruit. 24. Corne. Loose earth. Officers supreme : L. Minerals. 6. Tynne-dressing. Wormes. 11. 10. ibid. 19. finding. 7. 17. ibid. | Venery. Maner. ibid. washing.Therein the fish. Working. 23. engines. Beasts. Witnesses. Breaking. ibid. feeling. 21. stamping. Vice-warden. 16. ibid. Inferior: Stewards. 22.

Foule : eatable. 62. 59. ibid. Fish. 33. 60. Poore. 13. Coynage | | and their | times. 58. 17. Names. | | places. 66. Shels and Nuts. doales. Seuerall. 53. Statemen. | Post. | | Officers. ibid. Price by free sale. Degrees : | Townsmen. ibid. . 72. white. | Nobility and Gentlemen. Therein the fashion. Sea : things liuing. Mechanicall. Sand. Entercourse: bridges. 57. measure. | Husbandmen. holinesse. partaker of the fresh. shelly. Phisicians. Within hauen. ibid. health. 30. hauens. Ciuilians. Inhabitants : estate real. 31. 67. high wayes. 30. Preemption. 36. Disposition later. Orewoods. Sea : things liuelesse. Ilands. ibid. 35. fayres Wayghts and measures. round. Their taking. 13. ibid. Priuate: grounds. of bodies: strength: Actiuity. Shipping. houses. Sciences: Diuines. 68. 63. 27. Haruest. Places: Wastrel.Sharing. Vsury in Tynne: black. of mindes. ibid. ibid. 15. Church-ale. Recreations Feasts: Saints. 54. Pastimes of the minde : songs. 65. generall and particular. not eatable. 54. Traffike : markets. Inhabitants : estate personall. Briny. Free schooles. |in time. Language. Disposition later. flat. 14. 29. 12. Sauing and venting. 28. 26. Salt-mils. 61. Bounds. ibid. Vpon the coast. 69. Number. Disposition ancient. Martiall. 55.

74. ibid. S. Peculiars. 86. Nicholas Iland. ibid. 99. Spiritual: Arch-bishop. 102. 101. Hamose. Lerchdeacon. Forts. | Gouernours. ibid. Table of the fecond Booke. 71. ibid. Germanes Chauncel. Gouernment. 111. Insworke. 109. Antony. 100. ibid. 81. Gaylour. Agnes Cornish. Orders. 90. Milbrook. Bishop. 83. Historical Edgecumb. Banqueting house. 82. Moyle. 76. Plymmouth hauen. Trematon besieged. Crafthole. Proportions: places to meete. Ciuill Ministers: Constables. 108. Franchises. 103. Gouernment. Games. Wrastling. 73. S. Vice-admirall. Pastimes of the body: shooting. Hurling to | countrey. 75. 90. Temporal: | | Forces. Iustices. ibid. her strange escape from drowning. ibid. Baylifs. Rame head. 109. Poasts. Carew. Clarke of the market. 107. 114. The bridge. Gouernment. Mount-Edgecumb. 86. ibid. 88. Germanes. ibid. ibid. Ciuill Magistrates: Iudges. Coroners. ibid. 85. 87. rates. . Bond. ibid. Fleets from Plymmouth hauen. ibid. 102. Danney. 107. Arch-deacon. 113. Parliaments. Sheuiock. as a part of | Martial | Commaunders. ibid. East Hundred. 104. Causam bay. 96. 110. Corporations. ibid. Lyner riuer. 99. Kekewitch. Beggers Iland. Topographicall. West Stonehouse. Saltwater pond. 84. S. 85. The end of the first Table. 108. ibid.Guaries. 89. 72. S. Cuddenbeake. 98. COrnwall in generall. 79. | goales. Langdon. ibid. Richaurd Adams strange child-birth. ibid. Carack burned. as an entire State: | Royalties. Beacons. Germanes Priory. the Realme. 98. ibid. Limits: Hundreds. parishes. as a part of the Realme. Smith.

126. Rouse. Bodmyn. 123. speach 113. Hengsten. 111. Carnsew. Liskerd. 117. 113. 114. S. East and West Loo. Lesnewith Hundred. Sir Anthony Kingston. 117. Wotton. 112. 131 Wideslade. Porter. S. Perkin Warbeck. Beuill.Seaton. Henpoynt. S. 116. A charitable dogge. Arscot. Dosmery poole. Treffry. Iohn Northampton. ibid. 130. Saltash. ibid. Wrey. ibid. ibid. Treuice. Iohn Size. Camelford. Harris. 124. 112. Powder Hundred. ibid. King Arthur. 136. ibid. 134. 118. Georges Iland. ibid. Roscarrock. Scarlets well. 116. 123. 132. 134. Lanceston. 130. ibid. Lawhitton. 136. 132. 133. Halgauer Court. Earle Richard of Cornwall. Glyn. 119. Trewardreth. ibid. Trematon Castle. ibid. ibid. Kendall. Arundel. Straton towne. 127. Murth. 122. 134. ibid. ibid. Tintogel. ibid. 119. Earl of Deuons fagot. 118. Ash torre. ibid. Hall walke. . Bousening. Rempthorne. 110. ibid. 115. ibid. Mary Wike. 120. Polpera. 131. West Hundred. 129. ibid. 137. ibid. Trigge Hundred. 135. a strange eater. Bottreaux Caftle. Temple. ibid. 112. Mohun. ibid. Grisling vnderstanding by sight. Cargreene. ibid. Stratton Hundred. ibid. ibid. Lostwithiel. Nicholas of Foy. 126. Wadham. Fining house. ibid. Foy hauen and towne. Treasure non troue. Childrens forhalfening. ibid. Corington. ibid. Lower. S. Thomasin Bonauenture. ibid. ibid. Grenuile. Bude. Neot. Carybullock. 127. 117. Chamond. 128. Kaines well. ibid. 127. ibid. Trelawney.

Roche. ibid. 139. Militon. Michaels mount. ibid. 153. Agnes Hill. ibid. 144. Nants. Ies. ibid. Tregny. Killigrew. 156. Wade bridge. ibid. ibid. Erisy. ibid. 150. ibid. Buriens. 154. Trauanion. Truro. ibid. S. A graue found. 141. Mainamber. 143. Vere. 150. 143. Trefuses. Penrose. S. 154. F I N I S . Mawes Castle. ibid. 150. Trebegean. 137. Cosowarth. S. Hailford hauen. 135. ibid. Nants well halfening. Hauterdauis. 140. deafe and dumb. ibid. New kay. Roseland. ibid. 154. 144. ibid. Bone. Pider Hundred. ibid. ibid. Padstowe. ibid. S. Meneag. Pensants burning.Restormel Castle. Pomeray. Colombs. Castellan Denis. 138. ibid. Peran in Sabulo. Carclew. ibid. Lo poole. 159. Pendenis. Nine sisters. ibid. ibid. Penwith Hundred. Saintabyn. 136. 159. 149. Grampond. Falmouth. The tyde well spring. Lands end. Probus. Trenance. Rashleigh. Lostwithiel custome. 156. Mounts bay. ibid. S. Parker. Lanhadron. ibid. 152. 151. 148. Bors neeuas. 141. 143. S. 149. 137. ibid. 155. 151. ibid. ibid. Dudman. Chiuerton. The Caue. Bodrugan. ibid. 145. Helston. Tredenick. Kerier Hundred. 149. ibid. Godolphin. 152. Hill. 144. Tremaine. ibid. 140. 142. 148. Pensants. Hainborough. Gallants of Foy. Perin. ibid. Trerice. ibid. Prideaux. S.

AN E P I S T L E OF Richard Carew Esq; CONCERNING The EXCELLENCIES of the English Tongue. ------------LONDON, Printed in the Year M.DCC.XXIII.

An Epistle concerning the Excellencies of the Engliih Tongue. IT were more fitting (in respect of discretion) that men should first weigh Matters with Iudgment, and then incline their Affection where the greatest Reason swayeth. But ordinarily it falleth out to the contrarie; for by Custom we first settle our Affection, and then afterwards draw in those Arguments to approve it, which should have forgone to perswade ourselves. In this preposterous Course (seeing that antiquity from our Elders and uniuersalitie of our Neighbours do entitle with a Right) I hold myself the more freely warranted delirare, not onely cum vulgo, but also cum sapientibus, in seeking out with what Commendations I may attire our English Language, as Stephanus hath done for the French, and diuers of other Nations, for theirs. Locutio is defined Animi sensus per vocem expressio. On which ground I build these consequences, That the first and principal point sought in euerie Language, is that we may expres the Meaning of our Minds aptly to each other. Next, that we may do it readily and without more adoe. Then fully, so as others may thoroughly conceiue us. And last of all, handsomely, that those to whom we speak may take pleasure in hearing us: So that whateuer Tongue will gain the Race of Perfection must run upon these four wheeles, SIGNIFICANCIE, EASINESS, COPIOUSNESS, and SWEETNESS; of which the two former import a Necessitie, the two latter a Delight. Now if I can proove, That our English Language for all or the most part is comparable if not preferable to any other in use at this day, I hope the assent of any impartial Reader will pass on my side. And how I indeavor to performe the same, this short labor shall manifest.

I. To begin then with the SIGNIFICANCIE of the English Tongue, it consisteth in the Letters, Words, and Phrases. And because the Greeke and Latine have ever borne away the prerogatiue from all other Tongues, they shall serue as the Touchstones whereby to make our Tryall. For LETTERS, we haue C more then the Greekes, K and Y more then the Latines, and W more then them both, or then the French and Italians. In those common to them and us, we have the use of the Greek B in our V, of our B they haue none; so have we of their [uppercase lambda] and [uppercase theta] in our Th, which in the wordes that and things expresseth both; but of our D they haue none. Likewise their T we turn to another use in yield, than they can; and as for E,G, and J, neither Greekes nor Latines can make use of them as we doe in these Words, each, edge, joy. True it is, that we in pronouncing the Latine use them also after this manner; but the same, in regard of the ancient and right Romane deliuerie, altogether abusively; as may appear by Scaliger, Sir Thomas Smith, Lipsius, and others. Now, for the Significance of WORDS, as every Indiuiduum is but one, so in our native English-Saxon Language, we find many of them suitably expressed by one Sillable: Those consisting of more are borrowed from other Nations; the Examples are infinite, and therefore I will omit them as sufficiently notorious. Again, for expressing our Passions, our Interjections are very apt and forcible; as, finding ourselves somewhat agrieued, we crie, Ah! if more deeply, Oh! if we pity, Alas! when we bemoan, Alacke! neither of them so effeminate as the Italian Deh, or the French Helas: In detestation we say Phy ! (as if therewithall we should spit) in attention, Haa; in calling, Whowpe ; in hollowing, Wahalowe: all which (in my Ear) seem to be deriued from the very Natures of those severall Affections. Grow from hence to the Composition of Words, and therein our Language hath a peculiar Grace, a like Significancie, and more short then the Greekes, for example, in Moldwarpe we express the Nature of the Animal; in Handkercher the thing and the use; in the word upright, that Virtue by a Metaphore; in Wisdome and Doomesday, so many Sentences as Words; and so of the rest: for I give only a Taste, that may direct others to a fuller Observation of what my sudden Memorie can represent unto me. It may pass also the Masters in this Significancie, that all the proper Names of our People do in a manner import somewhat, which from a peculiar Note at first of some of the Progenitors, in process of time inverted itself in a possession of the Posterity, even as wee see the like often befall to those whose Fathers bare some uncouth Christian Names. Yet for the most part we avoid the blemish given to the Romanes in like Cases, who distinguished their People by the Imperfections of their Bodies; from whence grew their Nasones, Labeones, Frontones, Dentones, and such like; however, Macrobius coloureth the same: Yea, so significant are our Words, that amongst them sundry single ones serve to express divers things; as by the word Bill is meant a Weapon, a Scrowle, and a Bird's beake; by Grave may be understood, sober, burial-place, and to carve; and so by Light, marke, match, file, sore, and pray, the Semblables.

Again, some SENTENCES, in the same words carrie a divers Sence, as till, desert Ground; some signifie one thing forward and another backward, as Feeler I was, noe Foe; which to return with it is, Of one saw I releef. Some signifie one thing forward and another thing backward, as this, Eye, did Madam erre; Some carrie a contrarie Sence backward to that they do forward, as I did level ere vew, Vew ere level did I. Some deliver a contrarie Sence by the divers pointing, as the Epistle in Dr. Wilsons Rhetorick, and many such like, which a curious Head, Leisure, and Time might pick out. Neither may I omit the Significancie of our Proverbs, concise in Words, but plentiful in Number, briefly pointing at many great Matters and under a Circle of a few Sillables prescribing sundrie available Caveats. Lastly, our Speech doth not consist onely of Words, but in a sort even of Deeds; as when we express a Matter by Metaphores, wherein the English is verie fruitful and forcible. And so much for the Significancie of our Language in meaning. II. Now for his EASINESS in learning; the same also shooteth out into Branches, the one, of others learning our Language, the second, of our learning that of others. For the first, The most part of our Words, (as I have touched) are Monasillables, and so the fewer in Tale and the sooner reduced to Memorie. Nither are we loaded with those Declensions, Flexions, and Variations which are incident to many other Tongues, but a few Articles govern all our Verbs and Nownes, and so we read a verie short Grammar. For easie learning of other Languages by ours, let these serve as Proofes; there are many Italian words which the Frenchmen cannot pronounce, accio, for which he saith ashio; many of the French which the Italian can hardly dispence withall; as Bailler, Chagrin, Postillon; many in ours which neither of them can utter, as Hedge, Water, &c. So that a Stranger, tho never so long conversant amongst us, carrieth evermore a Watch-word upon his Tongue, to descrie him by; but turn an Englishman at any time of his Age into what Country soever, allowing him due respite, and you shall see him profit so well, that the imitation of his Utterance will in nothing differ from the Pattern of that native Language. The want of which towardness cost the Ephramites their Skinns: Nither doth this cross my former Assertion of others easie learning our Language. For I mean of the Sense and Words, and not touching the Pronunciation. III. But I must now enter into the large Field of our Tongues COPIOUSNESS, and perhaps long wander up and down, without finding easie way of issue, and yet leaue many parts thereof unsurveyed. My first Proofe of our Plenty, I borrow from the choise which is given us by the use of divers Languages. The Ground of our owne appertaineth to the old Saxon, little differing from the low Dutch, because they more than any of their Neighbours, have hitherto preserved that Speech from any great Forrein Mixture: here amongst, the Britons have left divers of their Words interspersed, as it were thereby making a continual claim to their possession. We may also trace the Footsteps of the Danish bitter (though not long during)

the Roman. to crosse. as. to aire. rent. in Greeke. &c. and also in the adverbes. Seeing then we borrow (and that not shamefully) from the Dutch. bearded. which yet in their owne Country are not marchantable. to flame. that such patching maketh Littletons Hotch-pot of our Tongue. and English. carpingly. a Capon. and such like. Dutch. a Barrow Hog. Then even as the Italian Potentates of these Dayes make no difference in their Pedigrees and Successions. Our Neighbours the French have been likewise contented we should take up by retail. the Italian. slavish. and Spaniard. and make good English. subtil Factors. in other Languages there fall out defects. faultie. actively. a Weather. that this Theft of Words is no less warranted by the Priviledge of a Prescription ancient and universall. whereas you see our Abilitie extendeth thereunto. (which filching. Supplication. pray. &c. hourely. prest. as Cuiacius noteth (*). that we raise a profit of new words from the same Stock. Magesty in Palace hath tryumphant Throne. as in these verbes. ayring. the Britaine. that in their Original are Latine. untoward. point. Sceptre. in Cholericke Temprature. Againe. or rather we retaine yet but some Remnant of that which once here bare all the Sway. Advocates notaries practize. precisenesse. and in effect. while they want means to deliver that which another Tongue expresseth. in Temple Cloistre. and their Derivations. and the Roman also imparted unto us of his Latine Riches with no sparing Hand. we employ the borrowed Ware so farre to our advantage. No more can you expresse to STAND in French. Clisters Purgation is pestelent. ceremonious persons. For our owne parts. nor KNAVE in Latin. as the dint of his Sword. and yet (save some smal variance in their Terminations) fall out al one with the French. Papers Libells. the Latines the Greeks. Regent. ayred. closenesse. and daily renew the Store. than was that of Goods among the Lacedemonians by an enacted Law: for so the Greekes robbed the Hebrewes. Divers words we derive also out of the Latine at second hand by the French. (for Nebulo is a cloudy Fellow) or in Irish (**). to TYE in Cornish. glosingly. how can our Stock be other than exceeding plentifull? It may be objected. For evidence hereof many Sentences may be produced consisting of words. &c. Regiment. where either an utterward or a better desert doth force or entice them thereunto: so may the consenting practise of these Nations passe for a just Legitimation of these bastard Words. unapt. to which that soile affordeth no growth. CAPO. as also closer. VERVEX. which either Necessitie or Convenience hath induced them to adopt. than any one entire Language. the Dane. In like sort we grasse upon French words those Buds. the French. unfit. to beard. Pulers preservative. tho' both Latine and French haue their hands closed in that behalfe. brings the same rather to a Babelish Confusion. Clear candles flamme. yea even we seek to make our Good of our late Spanish Enimie. as well their Terms as their Fashions. between'the Bed lawfull or unlawfull. Vassels. paze. Cicero with a large Discourse in his Books de Oratore defendeth) and (in a manner) all other Christian Nations the Latine. chiefly. closely. we deduce divers words from the Latine. Neither PORCUS. . which (so that their Conditions crept not in withall) were the more tollerable. Registers. bearding. colourably. and feare as little the hurt of his Tongue. as (by Cicero's Observation) you cannot interpret INEPTUS. For example. majesticall. which in the Latine itselfe cannot be yeelded: as the verbs. majestically.Soveraigntie in these parts. bearder. Offer prelate preest. So have our Italian Travellers brought us acquainted with their sweete relished Phrases. currantly. It may again be answered. as Ley.

the full Sound of Words to the French. adventrous. we use to say. the Varietie of Terminations to the Spanish. desired. of all sorts of Verses affoorded by any other Language. 55] Moreover. as a still fleeting Water. and leave the Dregs to themselves. they may all be lively and exactly represented in ours. a ship of salt for you. invited. and divers more have made use how farre we are within compasse of a fore-imagined possibilitie in that behalfe. and currantnesse with staidnesse. or manly. which shall appeare the more plainely if we match it with our Neighboures. Adde hereunto. Catullus? SHAKSPEARE. we have Northerne and Southerne. IV. Lucan? SPENCER. the long wordes that we borrow being intermingled with the short of our owne store. when we would be rid of one. the Copiousnesse of our Language appeareth in the diversitie of our Dialects. doughty. and BARLOWES Fragment. but also in many words. gather the Honey of their good Properties. (**) See the Survey of Cornwall fol. sent for. you are next the doore. the Dutch manlike. make up a perfect Harmonie. Ovid? DANIEL. the Ionicke? Sir THOMAS MOORE. And thus when substantialnesse combineth with delightfullnesse. Will you have Plato's Veine? read Sir THOMAS SMITH. in Eccho's and Agnominations. to close up these proofs of our Copiousnesse. and others. and so. Varro? CHAUCER. and the mollifying of more Vowels to the Dutch. Will you read Virgil? take the Earle of SURRY. and expresse the same thinges in divers sorts. And in a word. in what sort you please. and terrible like the Devill in a Play. for feare of marring her Countenance. willed. valiant. for we have Court and we have Countrie English. in Tropes or Metaphors. scarce daring to open her Lippes. there is no body holdeth you. seemlinesse with portlinesse. the doore is open for you. that whatsoever Grace any other Language carrieth in Verse or Prose. Martial? Sir JOHN DAVIES. &c. M. and phrases. &c. but withall very harsh. more or lesse. Be going. M. and by Proverbes and Metaphors: for example. I come now to the last and sweetest point. look into our imitations. intreated. Demosthenes? Sir JOHN CHEEKE (*). . we may sinonymize after all these fashions. come againe when I bid you. trudge. and you shall finde that Sir PHILIP SIDNEY. both plainly. like Bees. Now we. save your credite. the French delicate. but even nice as a Woman. STANIHURST. as one ready at every word to picke a quarrel. grosse and ordinarie. pleasant. termes. lets see your backe. deliver a Matter with more Variety than ours. Cicero's? ASCHAM. who hath comprised all the Figures of Rhetoricke. Rather your Roome than your Companie. give the Strength of Consonants to the Italian. when you are called. away shift. as I am perswaded. but fulsome. in borrowing from them. fullnesse with finenesse.(*) Ad Tit. how can the Language which consisteth of all these sound other than most full of Sweetnesse? Againe. PUTTENHAM. de verb signif. Likewise this word FORTIS. couragious. of the SWEETNESSE of our Tongue. hardy. majesticall. yet all right English alike. no body teares your sleeve. stout. another in your stead. which differ each from the other not onely in the Terminations. by culling from out which Mixture (with judgment) you may frame your Speech according to the Matter you must worke on. Neither can any Tongue. and by Circumlocution. running too much on the v. delicate. spare us your place. The Italian is pleasante. the Spanish Majestical. but without Sinews. bee faring hence. packe.

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