TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive research (Statistical research)  Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and

characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied.  But it can only describe the "who, what, when, where and how" of a situation  Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.  It provides the number of times something occurs, or frequency, lends itself to statistical calculations such as determining the average number of occurrences or central tendencies.  There are three main types of descriptive methods: observational methods (With the observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal and human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation), case-study methods (Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena) and survey methods (In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given)  For example, what age group is buying a particular brand, a product’s market share within a certain industry, how many competitors a company faces, etc Exploratory research  Exploratory research is a form of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It allows the researcher to familiarize him/herself with the problem or concept to be studied, and perhaps generate hypotheses (definition of hypothesis) to be tested. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects.  Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies

a marketer has heard news reports about a new Internet technology that is helping competitors but the marketer is not familiar with the technology and needs to do research to learn more. In other words. i.  There are two research methods for exploring the cause and effect relationship between variables: Experimentation (highly controlled method allows the researcher to manipulate a specific independent variable in order to determine what effect this manipulation would have on other dependent variables. It usually concerns itself with cause–effect relationships among variables. causal research is a way of seeing how actions now will affect a business in the future. There are often much deeper psychological considerations that even the respondent may not be aware of. it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many".  This type of research is very complex and the researcher can never be completely certain that there are not other factors influencing the causal relationship. and subjects would be assigned randomly to either group)and Simulation (A sophisticated set of mathematical formula are used to simulate or imitate a real life situation. it is possible to determine the effect on the other variables in the equation)  For example. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why". When gaining insight (i.  To summarize. affects another variable. they are not representative of the whole population being studied. whether there is a cause and effect relationship between variables. especially when dealing with people’s attitudes and motivations. the results can neither be generalized. causal research can measure the impact of the company changing the product design to the colour white. called the independent variable.e. The . "how" and "when" something occurs. if a clothing company currently sells blue denim jeans.e. The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decisionmaking by themselves. but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. the marketer is conducting an experiment. called the dependent variable. Experimentation also calls for a control group as well as an experimentation group. exploratory research is used. discovery) on an issue is the primary goal.. By changing one variable in the equation.  For instance. In essence. Causal Research:  In this form of research the marketer tries to determine if the manipulation of one variable. Analytical research  Analytical research attempts to explain why and how. causal research must be undertaken.

 Many scientists believe that basic research lays the foundation for the applied research that follows. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research. not to create or invent something.  Conceptual analysis is the preferred method of analysis in social sciences and philosophy.  This method of analysis has gained immense popularity. Here. Conceptual Research  Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. in spite of that. analysis. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge.researcher has to use facts or information that is already available and attempts to analyze the situation and make critical evaluation.  An example of applied research could be a study to find out how the school feeding programme has affected school enrolment rates in drought-prone districts. much basic research has been conducted with animals to determine principles of reinforcement and their effect on learning. Basic Research  Basic (aka fundamental or pure) research is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. Applied Research:  Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition. there is a lot of criticism against it. a researcher breaks down a theorem or concept into its constituent parts to gain a better understanding of the deeper philosophical issue concerning the theorem. and the interpretation of results.  Action implies that the practitioner is involved in the collection of data.  For example. rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. Applied Research has tested these principles to determine their effectiveness in improving learning. . Most researchers will agree that conceptual analysis is a very accurate and useful method for analysis. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. He or she is also involved in implementing results of the research and is thus well placed to judge the effectiveness of the interventions. but should be used along with other analysis methods to get results that are more accurate.

which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. often without due regard for system and theory. The defining feature of a crosssectional study is that it can compare different population groups at a single point in time. We . and actively to go about doing certain things to usually stimulate the production of the desired information. Such research is conducted to test a hypothesis. if you say "Computer games sharpen children's minds" expresses a belief about a causal relationship at a conceptual level. For example. They may be used to describe some feature of the population.  In such a research it is necessary to get at facts at the firsthand.  Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. In such a research. We can also call it as ‘experimental type of research. or advise daily walkers to modify their behaviour. at one specific point in time. or a representative subset. We would not influence non-walkers to take up that activity. Empirical Research  Empirical Research can be defined as "research based on experimentation or observation (evidence)". the researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results.  Researchers record information about their subjects without manipulating the study environment.  Cross-sectional studies are descriptive studies (neither longitudinal nor experimental) not causal. with analyses coming up with conclusions. we’d try not to interfere. It is a data-based research. at their source.  Examples of Empirical Research Questions: Do gun control laws reduce violent crimes?. we would simply measure the cholesterol levels of daily walkers and non-walkers along with any other characteristics that might be of interest to us.  The benefit of a cross-sectional study design is that it allows researchers to compare many different variables at the same time. Findings are drawn from whatever fits into the frame. He then works to get enough facts (data) to prove or disprove his hypothesis.  In our study. Think of it in terms of taking a snapshot. In short.  Empirical research relies on experience or involves observation alone. Are police officers compensated for working in higherrisk environments? Cross-sectional study  Form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population.

count them. gender. and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. The key here is that longitudinal studies extend beyond a single moment in time. . Longitudinal study  A longitudinal study. Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for. Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for. The longitudinal study design would account for cholesterol levels at the onset of a walking regime and as the walking behaviour continued over time. like a cross-sectional one. detailed description. we can’t know for sure if our daily walkers had low cholesterol levels before taking up their exercise regimes. Therefore. Qualitative & Quantitative Research Qualitative "All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding" . for example.Donald Campbell The aim is a complete. As a result. Quantitative "There's no such thing as qualitative data. cross-sectional studies may not provide definite information about cause-and-effect relationships. Therefore. a longitudinal study is more likely to suggest cause-and-effect relationships than a cross-sectional study by virtue of its scope. researchers conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time. they do not consider what happens before or after the snapshot is taken.  However.  The benefit of a longitudinal study is that researchers are able to detect developments or changes in the characteristics of the target population at both the group and the individual level. However. is observational. in a longitudinal study. researchers do not interfere with their subjects. This is because such studies offer a snapshot of a single moment in time. we might choose to look at the change in cholesterol levels among women over 40 who walk daily for a period of 20 years. look at age.Fred Kerlinger The aim is to classify features.could. income and educational level in relation to walking and cholesterol levels. once again. sometimes lasting many years.  To return to our example. or if the behaviour of daily walking helped to reduce cholesterol levels that previously were high. Everything is either 1 or 0" . So. they can establish sequences of events. with little or no additional cost.

The design emerges as the study unfolds. uses participant observation.. Researcher is the data gathering instrument.e. Objective � seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts. able to test hypotheses. uses surveys. in-depth interviews etc. Data is in the form of words.Recommended during earlier phases of research projects.g. Subjective individuals� interpretation of events is important . . time consuming. such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. Recommended during latter phases of research projects. and less able to be generalized. e. Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter. questionnaires etc. but may miss contextual detail. pictures or objects.. Quantitative data is more efficient. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics. Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Qualitative data is more 'rich'.g. Researcher uses tools.

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