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Preliminary Physics Topic 1

THE WORLD COMMUNICATES What is this topic about?


To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. THE NATURE OF WAVES 2. THE PROPERTIES OF SOUND WAVES 3. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 4. REFLECTION & REFRACTION 5. DIGITAL COMMUNICATION & DATA STORAGE ...in the context of communications

but first, lets revise...


ENERGY
Energy is what causes changes and does work. The familiar forms of energy include: HEAT ELECTRICITY KINETIC (energy in a moving object) POTENTIAL (energy stored, such as the chemical energy in petrol). Some forms of energy move around as WAVES . A wave is a carrier of energy. In a wave, energy moves, but matter does not.
This causes the air to vibrate too. Waves of vibration spread out through the air... sound waves. The air vibrates, but does not go anywhere.

TYPES of WAVES
Examples of energy which moves around as waves include SOUND LIGHT RADIO SIGNALS WATER WAVES X-RAYS MICROWAVES ... and many more

The strings vibrate.

ENERGY CONVERSIONS
Energy can be converted from one form to another. In your mobile phone the SOUND WAVES of your voice are converted to ELECTRICAL signals then transmitted as RADIO WAVES to your friend, whose phone converts it back again. SOUND ELECTRICAL RADIO

Water waves carry energy across the surface of a pond. The water vibrates up & down, but goes nowhere.

Waves Carry Energy Without the Transfer of Matter


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In this topic you will learn about waves and their properties and features, and how they they are used for communication.
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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.

Types of Waves

Wavelength, Amplitude, Frequency & Period

Wave Equation Graphing Waves

Nature of Sound Waves Velocity, Pitch & Loudness

The Nature of Waves Properties of Sound Waves

Principle of Superposition

THE WORLD COMMUNICATES

Electromagnetic Waves

The EM Spectrum

Inverse Square Law

Production, Detection & Dangers of EM Waves EM Waves in Communication

Digital Communication & Data Storage

Reflection & Refraction


Law of Reflection Refraction. Snells Law, Lenses & Total Internal Reflection Light & Mirrors. Reflection in Communication

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1. THE NATURE OF WAVES Waves Carry Energy


Waves carry energy, without the transfer of matter. This can occur in 1 dimension:
Pulses moving along a slinky spring

Describing Waves
A wave is a vibration. In a mechanical wave, the particles (atoms & molecules) in the medium vibrate to transmit the wave energy. In EM waves the vibration occurs in electric and magnetic fields. Consider a wave in a rope which has been given a single up-and-down twitch:

Compressed sections in the spring move along it like a Mexican Wave... energy is transferred, but the coils merely oscillate back and forth and do not actually go anywhere.

A PULSE WAVE

CREST

part of the rope (medium) vibrates up & down rope TROUGH

Energy moves along the rope

... or in 2 dimensions: Ripples spreading on the surface of a pond.

Energy moves along the rope, but the rope itself doesnt go anywhere. Particles of the medium (the rope fibres) vibrate up-and-down as the energy moves across. This form of a wave, where the medium vibrates at right angles to the direction that the energy moves, is called a Transverse wave. If the rope is wiggled constantly up-and-down, you get not just one pulse, but a periodic wave with one pulse following another.
A PERIODIC, TRANSVERSE WAVE Energy moves CREST

...or in 3 dimensions, such as when light radiates in all directions from a glowing object.

Rope vibrates up and down

TROUGH

MECHANICAL WAVES
require a medium to travel through.

Waves & Mediums


Mechanical waves are those which need a medium to travel through. For example, a water wave must have water to travel in. Sound waves need air, or water, or some substance to move in. They CANNOT travel in a vacuum. Electromagnetic (EM) waves do NOT need a medium... they can travel through a vacuum, and in fact travel fastest in a vacuum. EM waves include light, radio waves, ultra-violet and other types, and are studied in detail in a later section.
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PERIODIC WAVES
contain a series of pulses, with a continuous set of crests and troughs.

TRANSVERSE WAVES
vibrate at right angles to the direction that the energy is moving. Energy flow Vibration in medium 3
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Longitudinal waves

are when the particles of the medium vibrate back-and-forth in the same line as the energy moves. For example, when a series of compressions and rarefactions are sent along a slinky spring.
LONGITUDINAL WAVE IN A SPRING Energy moves Spring vibrates

LONGITUDINAL WAVES The vibration of the medium is in the same direction as the energy flow.

Earthquake Shock Waves


compression in spring rarefaction (where spring is stretched)

Wave Measurements
All periodic waves, whether Longitudinal or Transverse, Mechanical or Electromagnetic, can be described and measured by their:-

Wavelength = the distance from one crest to the next. (or from one trough to the next, or from one compression to the next) The S.I. unit is the metre (m).
The Greek letter lambda

Period

(T) = the time (in seconds) for one complete vibration to occur. Note that there is a simple relationship between Frequency and Period... they are reciprocals.

is used as a symbol for wavelength. (a or A) = the distance that a particle in the medium is displaced from its rest position at a crest or trough. i.e. the maximum displacement distance.

T= 1 f

and f = 1 T

Amplitude

Velocity

(v) = the speed of the wave, in metres/sec.(ms-1) There is a simple relationship between Velocity, Wavelength and Frequency:

Frequency (f) = the rate at which the wave is


vibrating. The number of waves that pass a given point in 1 second, or the number of complete vibrations per second. S.I. unit is the hertz (Hz) 1 Hz = 1 wave/sec.

THE WAVE EQUATION


Velocity = Frequency x Wavelength

WAVELENGTH

V = f

Wave cycles per second is FREQUENCY

AMPLITUDE

WORKSHEET at end of section

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Graphing Waves
A good way to represent a wave is by using a graph. Imagine a floating cork bobbing up and down as a series of ripples move across the water surface (i.e. a periodic wave).
Ripples

Graphing a Longitudinal Wave


You might think these Displacement-Time graphs wouldnt work for a Longitudinal wave where the particles vibrate back-and-forth rather than up-and-down. However, the graph of a longitudinal be exactly the same... you just have that the displacement is displacement from the equilibrium instead of up-down. wave can to realise sideways position,

Cork bobs up and down

If you graph the (up-down) displacement of the cork against time, the graph will look something like this:
Displacement (cm) +3

Amplitude, Period and Frequency can all be determined in exactly the same way.

One period = 0.8 s 0 0.2 -3 3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Time (s) 1.2

Relationship Between Wavelength & Frequency


You may have carried out a First Hand Investigation in class to see how a change in Frequency (at constant velocity) affects the wavelength. Maybe you used a slinky spring, or watched the water waves in a ripple tank. You would have found... INCREASING the FREQUENCY and DECREASING the FREQUENCY INCREASE in WAVELENGTH DECREASE in WAVELENGTH

Be careful! The graph is shaped like a wave, so its tempting to try to read the wavelength from the horizontal scale... but the horizontal scale is TIME, not length.

What you CAN read from a Displacement-Time graph: Amplitude The vertical scale measures the displacement of the cork from the equilibrium position (i.e. the flat water surface). So, at 0 sec, the cork was in the equilibrium position. at 0.2 sec, it was 3cm upwards... at 0.4 sec, it was back at equilibrium... and so on. Its maximum displacement was 3cm either above or below (d= -3cm) equilibrium, so the Amplitude = 3cm (0.03m) Period
Since the horizontal scale is time, you can easily read from the graph how long it takes for one complete up-and-down cycle. On this graph T = 0.8s From Period, calculate Frequency: f=1/T = 1 / 0.8 = 1.25Hz If the speed of the wave was known, then you could calculate the wavelength, or vice versa. e.g. if the ripples are 0.45m apart: (i.e. = 0.45m)

(If VELOCITY is the same)

Longer Wavelength

Lower Frequency

Shorter Wavelength

Higher Frequency

V=fx

So, velocity

= 1.25 x 0.45 = 0.56 ms-1

WORKSHEET at end of section


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To have the same speed, the shorter waves must vibrate at a higher frequency
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Worksheet 1

The Nature of Waves


Student Name........................................... Frequency is the number of l)................................ per second. The SI unit is the m)................. (........) n).............................. is the time for one complete vibration. This is the o).................................... of frequency. Velocity is the speed of the wave and is equal to p)....................... multiplied by q)........................... On the graph of a wave, showing Displacement v Time, the vertical scale shows the r)..................................... of the wave, while the horizontal allows you to read the value of the s).................................. and then easily calculate the t)...................................................... For waves travelling at the same velocity, increasing the frequency would u)............................... (increase/decrease) the v)................................., and vice-versa.

Fill in the blank spaces. Waves carry a)................................... without the transfer of b)................................ Mechanical waves require a c)............................. to travel in. Examples are d)...................... and ............................ Electromagnetic waves do not need a medium and can travel in a e)....................... Examples include f).................... and ................................ A g).......................... wave is when the vibration and the movement of energy are h)................. ....................................... In a Longitudinal Wave, the vibration and the energy movement are i)....................... ........................................... j)................................. is the distance from crest to crest. Amplitude is the k)................................................ .................................................

Worksheet 2 Practice Problems Wave Equation 1


Example Problem 1 A water wave in the ocean has a wavelength of 85m, and a velocity of 4.5ms-1. a) Find the frequency. b) What is the period? Solution a) V= f 4.5 = f x 85 f = 4.5 / 85 = 0.053 Hz (5.3 x 10-2 Hz)
(i.e. only a small fraction of a wave passes by each second.)

Student Name........................................... TRY THESE 1. a) Find the velocity of a sound wave in water if it vibrates 280 times per second and has a wavelength of 5.20m. b)What is the period of this wave? 2. An earthquake shockwave travels through rock at a velocity of 2,500 ms-1. Its frequency is 0.400 Hz. What is the wavelength?

b)

T=1/f = 1 / 0.053 = 19 s 3. What is the wavelength of a sound wave with frequency 1200Hz? Sound travels in air at 330ms-1.

(i.e. it takes 19 seconds for 1 complete wave, crest to crest, to pass by)

Example Problem 2 A sound wave has a period of 2.00x10-3s. (= 0.002s) Sound travels in air at a velocity of 330ms-1. a) What is the frequency of the wave? b) Find the wavelength. Solution a) f =1/T = 1 / 0.002 = 500Hz (i.e. 500 vibrations per sec.) b) V=f 330 = 500 x = 330 / 500 = 0.66m (i.e. 66cm from crest to crest) 6

4. An ocean water wave in deep water travels at a velocity of 6.50ms-1. Its period is 16.0s. a) What is the frequency? b) Wavelength?

c) As the wave enters shallower water it keeps the same frequency but slows down to only 2.20 ms-1. What happens to the wavelength?
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Worksheet 3 Practice Problems More Wave Equation


1. a) Red light has a wavelength of 7.00x10-7m, and travels at 3.00x108ms-1. What is the frequency? b) Blue light has a wavelength of 3.00x10-7m and travels at the same speed. What is the frequency? 2. Radio signals travel at the speed of light. (3.00x108ms-1) A radio station has a frequency of 530 kHz (=530,000Hz). a) What is the period of the waves? b) What is the wavelength?

Student Name........................................... 4. When a guitar string is plucked, a wave vibration runs back and forth through the string. The string is 0.96m long and it is found that exactly 8 complete wavelengths fit along the string at a time. The vibration frequency is 384Hz. How fast do the waves travel through the string?

5. X-rays are very short wavelength EM waves which travel at the speed of light. If the wavelength is 1.50x10-11 metre, a) find the frequency.

b What is the period of the X-rays? 3. Compare the frequency of a radio wave 2.50m long, with one 2.50cm long. (Assume they both travel at the speed of light)

Remember that for full marks in calculations, you need to show FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION, APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

Worksheet 4 Practice Problems Reading Wave Graphs Answer on reverse

Student Name...........................................

The graph shows 3 different waves P, Q and R. For each wave; i) What is the Amplitude? ii) State the (approx) displacement at time t=0.03s iii) What is the Period of each wave? iv) What is the Frequency of each wave? v) Given that wave P has a wavelength of 0.50m, calculate its velocity. vi) Waves Q & R both travel with a velocity of 9.5ms-1. Find their wavelengths.

P
(m) 0.1

Q
Time (s)

Displacement

0.05

0.1

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-0 0.1

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Worksheet 5 Test Questions Multiple Choice


1. A sound wave is best described as: A. mechanical and transverse. B. electromagnetic and transverse. C. mechanical and longitudinal. D. electromagnetic and longitudinal. 2. Which measurement in this diagram (A,B,C or D) correctly shows the amplitude of the wave?
B D

section 1

Student Name...........................................

Longer Response Questions


Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.

7. (3 marks) List the energy transformations that occur from when you speak into your mobile phone to when the message is received at the local cell receiver.

A C

8. (4 marks) Differentiate between: a) mechanical and EM waves. b) transverse and longitudinal waves.

3. In a Transverse wave, the particles of the medium: A. vibrate perpendicular to the direction of energy flow. B. move randomly in all directions. C. vibrate parallel to the direction of energy flow. D. move with the energy from one place to another. 4. If the period of a wave is 4 seconds, then its frequency is: A. 0.25 Hz B. 0.4 Hz C. 4.0 Hz D. 1/16 Hz 5. The period of this wave is: A. 0.8s B 1.6s C. 3 mm D. 6 mm
3 displacement (mm)

9. (5 marks) A sound wave with frequency 400Hz travels through water at 1,500 ms-1. Show working: a) calculate the wavelength.

b) calculate the waves period.

displacement (m)

1.0

time (s)

10. (5 marks) The graph describes a wave in the ocean.

3 time (s) 10 20

-3

6. If a sound wave has a velocity of 330ms-1, and its frequency is 660Hz, then its wavelength must be: A. 990 m B. 2.0m C. 0.5m D. 330m

a) What is the -3 3 frequency of the wave? Explain your answer.

b) Given that the wave travels at 12.5ms-1, find the wavelength. Show your working.

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2. THE PROPERTIES OF SOUND WAVES


Sound Waves
Sound waves are Mechanical (they need a medium) and Longitudinal (vibrate back-and-forth
in the line of the energy flow)

Velocity of Sound
Sound travels at different speeds in different mediums. In air, sound travels at about 330-350 ms-1, (about 1,200 km/hr) depending on temperature and density. The denser the air, the slower the speed of sound. In liquids and solids, sound travels much faster... ...about 1,500ms-1 in water ...about 5,000ms-1 in most metals.

SOUND WAVES

Energy moves Particles vibrate

Instead of crests and troughs, a series of compressions and rarefactions pass through the medium as a sound travels. The atoms and molecules are alternately squashed together and then stretched apart as the energy flows through.
Sound Travels

FREQUENCY = PITCH
Compression Rarefaction Compression Rarefaction

When you hear sounds of different pitch that is the way your brain interprets sound waves of different frequency. Low Frequency = Low Pitch High Frequency = High Pitch

In a compression the air pressure is higher, and lower in a rarefaction. The back-and-forth vibration of the medium produces a typical wave shape if graphed.
Compressions. Displacement from the equilibrium Higher air pressure

AMPLITUDE = LOUDNESS or VOLUME


Sound waves with different amplitudes are interpreted by your brain as sounds of different loudness or volume. Larger Amplitude = Louder Sound Smaller Amplitude = Quieter Sound
USES OF SONAR

Time

Rarefaction.

Lower pressure

ECHOES ...ECHOES ...ECHOES Like all waves, sound can travel through a medium like air, strike another medium (say, a brick wall) and bounce back. The REFLECTED wave will be heard as an echo.
SONAR SOund Navigation And Ranging

The time delay between sending a sound ping and receiving the echo, gives depth and distance

BAT

Echoes from i nsect

Anti-s submarine Warfare Depth Sounding

Squeaks of sound

Some animals can send out sound waves and pick up the echoes to help locate their prey, or to navigate, in environments where they cant see very well, such as murky water (dolphin), or in darkness (bat).
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Humans have invented SONAR technologies for things such as depth sounding and detecting underwater objects... fish or submarines, it all works the same way. 9
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The Principle of Superposition


All waves have the ability to pass through other waves without being affected. For example, you could shine a red spotlight across a beam of blue light, and each colour and beam will emerge on the other side exactly the same. However, for the instant that the 2 waves are superimposed upon each other, they do interact and interfer with each other.
Displacement

However, if the waves are out of phase (for example, if compression coincided with rarefaction) then there is destructive interference... the opposite amplitudes may cancel each other out.
Add positive & negative displacements at the circled points

wave A Resultant wave B

resultant A+B
Displacement

wave A wave B
To find a resultant, add the displacements of A&B at convenient points (circled)

Very simply, the displacement of the two waves add together at every point where the waves coincide. In this case, the waves A&B were in phase (crest co-incided with crest, trough with trough) so the result was constructive interference... the resultant has an amplitude which is the sum of A+B.

Theoretically, if 2 sound waves had the same amplitude and were perfectly out of phase they could cancel out totally... imagine having 2 sounds that add up to SILENCE! (or 2 lights that combine to form DARKNESS!) In practice, this only happens over short distances or time periods to give interference patterns and beat sounds.

Worksheet 6 Superposition of Waves

Student Name...........................................

Find the resultant of these 2 waves by adding the displacements at the circled points, then join the sum points with an even curve.
+ve -v ve Displacement

IF THESE ARE SOUND WAVES, DESCRIBE WHAT YOU WOULD HEAR.

Surfing Trivia
Technically, a breaking wave is not a wave at all. Once it breaks, the water begins moving forward (which allows you to catch it) and so both energy and matter are flowing forward... this is NOT a wave! True water waves are the swells which you cannot catch.
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Worksheet 7 Sound Waves


Fill in the blank spaces. Sound waves are a)................................. and b).................................... A sound wave consists of a series of high pressure c)................................ and lower pressure d)........................................ travelling through the medium. In air, the speed of sound is about e).......... ms-1, but it is much f)............................... (higher/lower) in water or in solids such as metals. The pitch of a sound is related to the g)............................... of the wave. The amplitude of the wave determines the h)............................. of the sound we hear. Student Name........................................... Echoes occur when sounds i).................................. Some animals use echoes for j)................................ Humans use the technology of k)........................ for depth sounding and l).............................................. When 2 or more waves coincide, they will interfere with each other. The m)............................ wave can be found by adding together the separate wave n).............................................. COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Worksheet 8 Test Questions Multiple Choice


1.

section 2

Student Name...........................................

Longer Response Questions


Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.

If you heard a sound wave with small amplitude and high frequency, you would describe it as: A. low volume and low pitch. B. low volume and high pitch C. high volume (loud) and low pitch D. high volume and high pitch. 2. Two pulses are travelling towards each other in a rope.

4. (3 marks) Use the Principle of Superposition to sketch the resultant of the 3 waves shown.

displacement

time

When they meet at point X, : A. they will interfer destructively and cancel out. B. they will reflect off each other and bounce back. C. constructive interference will increase the amplitude. D. all wave motion will stop at point X. 3. The navigation of a bat in the dark, and the depth sounding from a boat, both work on the principle of: A. Reflection B. Refraction. C. Resonance D. Interference

5. (4 marks) With a water wave, a crest is where water has displaced upwards, and a trough where it displaced downwards, as the wave moves through. Explain, in similar terms, what happens to air particles as a sound wave passes.

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3. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES EM Waves


Electromagnetic waves are Transverse waves which do NOT require a medium to travel through. They travel through a vacuum at 3.00x108ms-1, the speed of light. They can travel through many other substances at slightly slower speed. For example, light can travel through glass or water at speeds of around 2.5x108ms-1. In air, the speed is so close to the speed in a vacuum that, for simplicity, (K.I.S.S. Principle) we take it to be the same. EM radiation does not require a medium because the waves propagate as vibrations of electric and magnetic fields, not as vibrating particles.

Detection & Reception of EM Waves


Just as all EM waves are produced in the same basic way, they are all received or detected in the same basic way too... by a phenomenon called Resonance. When waves strike something and are absorbed, they may cause sympathetic vibrations within it.

MEMBERS OF THE EM SPECTRUM


v.long low

When the fat lady sings...

Radio (and TV) waves


Wavelength decreasing Frequency increasing

In cartoons and the movies (not in real life) the opera singer hits a high note and all the wine glasses begin to vibrate and then shatter... a fictional example of resonance. Some real examples... When radio waves hit a suitable aerial wire or antenna, they cause some electrons in the metal to oscillate back-and-forth in sympathy with the wave. These oscillations are amplified electronically and the signal converted to sound in the speaker, allowing you to listen to the radio.
Antenna

microwaves infra-red (heat radiation) visible LIGHT ultra-violet X-rays


very short

Gamma rays

Although we tend to think of these as 7 different types of radiation, you must realise that they are really all the same thing, just at different wavelengths and frequencies.

very high

Production of EM Waves
All EM waves are produced in basically the same way: vibration or oscillation of electrically charged particles. For example.... Radio waves are produced by electric currents running back-and-forth in a conducting wire.
Infra-red waves are made by molecules vibrating rapidly because of the heat energy they contain. Light is emitted when electrons rapidly jump down from a higher to a lower orbit around an atom.

When infra-red waves hit your skin they cause certain molecules to begin to resonate and vibrate. This sets off nerve messages to the brain and you feel warmth or heat on your skin. In a film camera the light causes resonance in chemicals in the film. Chemical reactions occur which permanently alter the film so that an image appears when developed later. Different film can be sensitive to infra-red, (photos in the dark) or Xrays for medical uses. 12
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Gamma waves come from the vibrations of charged particles within an atomic nucleus, during a nuclear reaction in the atom.
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Danger of High Frequency EM Waves


High frequency EM waves (ultra-violet, X-ray & gamma) can be very dangerous to living things. A little UV gives you a suntan, but long-term exposure leads to skin damage, premature skin ageing, and is a major cause of deadly melanoma skin cancer. The Sun produces dangerous quantities of UV radiation, but luckily most of it is absorbed by the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Ozone is a form Oxygen O2 does not of oxygen which Absorb UV has 3 atoms per molecule (O3) instead of the normal 2 (O2). The ozone molecules resonate well at the frequency of UV and so absorb it strongly.
Ozone O3 Absorbs UV UV Rays

Sun

ray & gamma X-r

UV
rad io

some reflected

e on inf oz rar ed &l igh t

r ye la

The Sun only produces small amounts of the even more dangerous X-rays and gamma radiation. Once again, most is absorbed in the upper atmosphere, this time by ordinary oxygen and nitrogen gases.
Earths surface

upper atmosphere

Infra-red and light radiation penetrate well, (although about 30% is reflected) and while some radio frequencies get through, many get absorbed or reflected.

The Inverse Square Law


As any form of radiation spreads out from its source its intensity gets less. For example, a sound becomes quieter if youre further from the source, or a light is not so bright as you move further from it. Mathematically, the relationship is that the intensity (I) (such as brightness of light) is inversely proportional to the SQUARE of the distance (d) from which it is viewed. At distance d from the light source, some light energy falls on an area of x2 units. At twice that distance (2d) the same amount of light would fall on an area of 4x2. The brightness of the light must be only 1/4 as much (since the same amount of light is falling on 4 times the area.) So, twice the distance 3 times the distance 10 times the distance
1/4 as 1/9

Intensity I

1 (distance)2 1 d2

means proportional to

bright

as bright as bright

This diagram explains why:

1/100

d e 2 anc dist
x light source
dista nce d

Square Area x2

Square with sides twice as long. 2x Area = 4x2 Same amount of light falls on 4 times the area

...or if you move closer it will getter brighter: at half the distance, 4 times brighter. at 1/3 the distance, 9 times brighter ...and so on. Notice how the brightness (intensity) changes in proportion to the distance squared, in each case.

WORKSHEET at end of section


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EM Waves & Communication


Humans rely on sound waves for communicating by direct speech, but all our modern communication technologies rely on EM waves.

Radio & Microwaves carry radio and TV


broadcasts, telephone long-distance links, mobile phone networks, and satellite links for telephone (including internet) and TV. If you have Satellite TV, the dish on your roof is an antenna to receive microwaves directly from an orbiting satellite. Add to that, 2-way radio for military uses, CB amateurs and boating, shipping and aircraft communications, and you begin to realise how many radio waves are zapping around.

Whats special about LASER LIGHT? It is one, pure frequency of light. The waves are all in phase and so they interfere constructively to form a very intense, tight beam. A laser beam will stay inside an optical fibre and not leak out or dissipate for long distances. A laser can be turned on & off very rapidly, so its perfect for high speed digital communication.

Light
is being increasingly used in the form of LASER beams carried in optical fibres for telephone and internet communication.

How a Wave Carries Information


How can a voice or piece of music be carried by a wave? The key feature is Modulation of the wave. There are 3 common ways to modulate the wave to carry information...
WAVE MODULATION

Frequency Modulation (FM)


The amplitude stays constant while the frequency (and wavelength) vary within a fixed range. The information (voice, music etc) is coded in the variations of frequency. FM radio gives much better fidelity and is superior, compared to AM, for the quality of sound (eg for music) received.

Amplitude Modulation (AM) The frequency (and wavelength) of the wave stays constant while the amplitude varies.
The changing amplitude codes for the information being carried... whether voice or music, or whatever.

AM, FM & Digital Modulation


on the same carrier wave

This diagram compares the effect of

Pulse Modulation
(Digital) To carry information in digital form the wave must switch rapidly between 2 different states, representing the 1 and 0 of digital codes. The wave can be switched rapidly on and off (as in the diagram) or switched back-and-forth between different phase states... phase modulation. 14

Carrier wave

No information carried

Optical Fibres carry Pulse Modulated laser beams

AM signal

Amplitude changes. Frequency constant Freq. changes. Amp.constant

FM signal

Digital signal Digital data 1 0 1 1 0 1

Wave pulses on and off

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Case Study: MOBILE (CELL) PHONES


When you use a mobile phone, the sound of your voice goes into a microphone and almost instantly pops out the other end into your friends ear. What happens in between? 1. The SOUND energy of your voice is converted to ELECTRICAL signals by the microphone. The electrical signal is used to digitally modulate a RADIO wave.

2. The digital RADIO signal is transmitted by your phone and received by the local cell antenna.

5. Your friends phone receives the RADIO signal, amplifies it as an ELECTRICAL signal and this is converted to SOUND waves in their earphone.

4. In the other cell area, the signal is converted back to a modulated RADIO signal and transmitted.
ENERGY Y CHANGES

3. If your call is going to a person in another location (a different cell) the signal is converted into a modulated MICROWAVE and beamed, via hilltop relay towers, to the correct area. (Alternatively, it might be sent as a modulated Laser LIGHT beam through optical fibres).

SOUND

ELECTRICITY

RADIO

MICROWAVE (or LASER LIGHT)

RADIO

SOUND

Discussion: LIMITATIONS OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELS


Modern communication systems have developed rapidly and new features and capabilities seem to come out every day. It seems that the entire system is unlimited and that it can continue to expand and improve forever. Well perhaps it can, but NOT while continuing to use the radio end of the EMR spectrum. Each station or channel must operate on a different frequency or else signals can jam or interfere with each other. The simple fact is that there are now so many radio & TV stations, mobile phone networks, aircraft and shipping channels, military, police and emergency service channels, etc. etc. all using the RF (Radio Frequency) part of the EMR spectrum, that it is becoming difficult to keep expanding services without interfering with existing channels.
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In the future we will need to switch more communications to use the laser light / optical fibre method wherever possible, and to make better use of the RF bands. For example, it is possible to use the same frequency channel for several different purposes as long as the different signals are modulated differently and as long as the radio receivers are sophisticated enough to pick out only the desired signal and ignore the others. One thing is for sure... humans will keep communicating and the need for new services will keep expanding. So far, our technology has always managed to keep up, and it will probably continue to do so.

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Worksheet 9

EM Waves
Student Name........................................... EM waves are very important in modern communications. The wave types used are mainly t)............................. and ............................., but light is being used more and more in the form of u)................................ carried inside v)............................. fibres. Waves carry information by the process of w).................................. This can be done in 3 ways: AM stands for x)................................. ................................, in which the information is carried as fluctuations in the y)............................. of the wave. FM stands for z)....................................... ......................................., in which the signal is carried by variations in aa)................................. of the wave. Digital signals are carried by ab)................................ modulation in which the carrier wave rapidly switches between 2 states (e.g. on and off). The energy changes occurring in a mobile phone call are as follows: Sound waves of your voice are converted to an ac)................................ signal. This is used to modulate a ad)..................................... wave transmitted to the local cell antenna. Next, the signal is sent via ae)......................................... link, or LASER beam to another cell station. Here it is transmitted again as a af)...................................... signal. The receiving phone converts this to an ag)................................... signal and finally it is converted back to sound waves.

Fill in the blank spaces. Electromagnetic waves are a)................................... waves which b)............... (do/do not) require a c)............................ to travel in. They all move at the speed of light, which is d)................... ms-1 in a vacuum. The members of the EM spectrum (in order of increasing frequency) are: e)......................, f)......................., g)......................, h)..................., i)......................., j)..........................., and k)......................... All EM waves are produced when electrical charges l)......................... They are all detected/received by the process of m).................................. This is when the wave is absorbed by a substance and causes electrons or molecules to n)............................. in sympathy with the wave. High frequency EM waves, such as o).............................. is dangerous to life. Luckily, the p).............................. layer of the atmosphere absorbs most of the dangerous q)........................... rays from the Sun. All forms of radiation decrease in intensity in proportion to the r).......................................... from the source, so if distance is doubled, the intensity will drop to s)...................... (fraction) COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Worksheet 10 Practice Problems Inverse Square Law


Example Problem: At a distance of 5m the brightness of a light is measured to be 36 units. How bright would it be if viewed from 15m? Answer: Since the distance is 3x further, then intensity will be 1/9. So new brightness = 36/9 = 4units. TRY THESE: 1. At a distance of 10m from a light, the brightness (intensity) is 48 units. What intensity would it have at distance: a) 20m? b) 40m?

Student Name........................................... 2. How much stronger would a radio signal be if you moved from 100km, to 25km distance from the transmitter? 3. At 2m from a flame the brightness is 32 units. At what distance would the brightness be 2 units?

c) 100m?

d) 5m?

4. One light bulb (at a certain distance) gives I units of light intensity. To get the same light intensity at double the distance, how many identical bulbs need to be switched on?

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Worksheet 11 Test Questions Multiple Choice


1.

section 3

Student Name...........................................

Longer Response Questions


Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.

Compared to visible light: A. Infra-red has shorter wavelength & lower frequency. B. Ultra-violet has shorter wavelength and lower frequency. C. X-rays have longer wavelength and lower frequency. D. Microwaves have longer wavelength & lower frequency. 2. The radiation from the Sun least likely to reach the Earths surface is: A. Infra-red B. visible light C. Ultra-violet D. radio waves. 3. The brightness of a light viewed from 40 metres, compared to viewing from 10 metres would be: A. 1/4 as bright B. 4 times brighter C. 1/16 as bright D. 16 times brighter. 4. The diagrams show a carrier wave, and the modulated wave carrying a signal or message.
Carrier wave

5. (3 marks) Re-arrange these members of the EM spectrum, placing them in order from lowest to highest frequency. Radio, infra-red, gamma, light, microwaves, Xray, ultra-violet.

6. (3 marks) Identify a method for detecting each of these EM types: (choose a different method for each) a) visible light b) X-ray c) infra-red

7. (3 marks) A lighthouse is viewed from 10km and its light intensity (brightness) measured to be 0.1 units. How bright would it appear if viewed from 1 km? Explain your answer.

Modulated wave

The method of modulation used is: A. AM B. FM C. Pulse D. Digital.

8. (3 marks) Discuss briefly a limitation on the use of EMR for communication.

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4. REFLECTION & REFRACTION


When a Wave Hits a Boundary
When a wave is travelling through one medium and then strikes a different medium, one of 3 things can happen at the boundary:
Example: Light waves travelling in air, then hitting glass.
ABSORPTION of the energy Absorbed energy becomes heat

Reflection of Light from Curved Mirrors


Concave mirrors (go in like a CAVE) reflect light to a Focus, or focal point.

REFLECTION (bounces off) TRANSMISSION into the new medium, with possible REFRACTION (change of direction)

Focus

It is quite possible that all 3 things can happen at once. For example, if a beam of light is travelling through air, and then strikes a glass window: the glass ABSORBS some of the light. some REFLECTS off the glass some is TRANSMITTED through the glass.

Reflection
The Law of Reflection is very simple: Whatever angle a ray of light hits the surface, it will bounce off again at the same angle. OR, more technically: Angle of = Angle of Incidence Reflection
In cid en tr ay

Concave mirrors can give ENLARGED images if viewed from the right distance, such as a household shaving mirror or make-up mirror, which gives a magnified reflection of your face. This is also the basis of a reflecting telescope. Convex mirrors reflect light so the rays diverge outwards, as if coming from a focus behind the mirror.

Normal line

io

io

ro

ed ct fle y e R ra

ro

Reflective surface such as a mirror

The trickiest bit is how the angles are measured. They must be measured between the rays and the NORMAL... an imaginary line at right angles to the surface.

Virtual Focus

What if the Surface Isnt Flat?


The Law of Reflection is still obeyed, as shown:
The Incident rays P,Q & R are parallel. Each obeys the Law of Reflection, but the reflected rays go in different directions. The Normal for each ray is shown as a dotted line smaller Convex mirrors produce (diminished) images, but give a widerangle view. An example of use is the side mirrors on a car which give you a wide-angle view into the drivers blindThis is why uneven, rough surfaces spot. (BUT things look smaller. This can confuse a P Q R

dont give shiny reflections. Light is scattered in all directions.

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Reflections in Communications
Wave reflection from the ionosphere can help with long distance radio communications. It works best with the longer wavelength AM signals.
Ion os p lay here er

Another example involves how Microwaves are transmitted and received. Microwaves are used to relay TV programs to regional transmitters and to relay long distance phone calls (including internet) from city to city. At the transmission end, a curved reflector keeps the waves in a tight beam aimed at the next relay station. The receiver has a similar dish to focus the waves into the receiving antenna.
Microwave Reflector Dishes
Microwave beam travels between relay stations Transmitter dish Receiver dish

EARTH Receiver Transmitter

The Ionosphere is a zone in the upper atmosphere where the air molecules are partly ionised (electrically charged) by radiations from the Sun. The ionised gases act as a reflective surface to radio waves of certain wavelengths. TV signals and FM (shorter wavelengths) radio do not reflect so well and generally you need to be in line of sight from the transmitter to get good reception.

Your satellite TV dish is a reflector too

Refraction
Refraction occurs when waves enter a new medium. The waves change their speed and their wavelength and, depending on the angle of incidence, may change direction. All waves can undergo refraction, but here we will concentrate entirely on light waves. When a light wave enters a more dense medium: (Example: going from air into glass) The velocity slows. The wavelength gets shorter. The beam changes direction towards the normal.
Incident Ray
normal

When going from a more dense, to a less dense medium the opposite changes occur. The velocity increases: wave speeds up The wavelength gets longer. Wave refracts away from the normal.
Refracted Ray
ro
normal

io

io

>

ro
Air Angle of Refraction

ro

io
Incident Ray Glass

Refracted Ray Glass

Air

Angle of Incidence

In this case,

io < ro

When a light ray refracts, its wavelength changes, but frequency stays the same. Since COLOUR is determined by frequency, there is no colour change during refraction.
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Snells Law
You may have carried out an investigation in class using a Ray Box Kit to measure angles of incidence and angles of refraction. When you graph the angles the result is a curve.
Angle of incidence, io

Refractive Index
When waves enter a new medium, and then exit it again, the refractions that occur on the way in, are the opposite of what happens on the way out. For example, this light ray goes from air, into glass and out into air again.
glass 45o Refraction air -> > glass normal

28o

Refraction glass -> > air 28o 45o

Angle of refraction,

ro

This is not much use for defining any relationship that may exist. In 1621, Willebrord Snell discovered that if you graph the Sine ratios of the angles, the points lie in a straight line. You may have done the same with your experimental data.

Refractive index (air -> glass) and Refractive index (glass -> air)

ng = sin45 / sin28 = 1.5

na = sin28 / sin45 = 0.66

i Sin r = Sin e ris = run t ien ad Gr

These 2 values are RECIPROCALS !! ...and this will always be the case... the index of refraction going in is the reciprocal of the index coming out.
1

Sin io

n2

=1
2

n1

WORKSHEET at end of section


Sin ro

The fact that its a straight line means there is a direct relationship between Sin i and Sin r. The gradient of the line is not only the ratio between the Sine of the angles, but is also equal to the ratio of velocities of the wave in the 2 mediums involved.
3 beams of light being refracted through a perspex block.

This special ratio is known as the REFRACTIVE INDEX (n)


This is now called Snells Law:
Sine (angle incidence) = velocity (medium 1) = n Sine (angle refraction) velocity(medium 2) Sin i = V1 = Sin r V2
1n2

The spoon appears broken at the surface of the tea due to refraction of the light by which we see it.

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Total Internal Reflection & the Critical Angle


Consider the situation when waves are going from a more dense medium into a less dense medium, such as light going from glass into air. The waves refract away from the normal. Now think about increasing the incident angle as shown in this series of diagrams.
1 air glass ro

... But What Happens Beyond the Critical Angle?


At incident angles larger than c, the ray reflects back inside the glass... this is called TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
4 Ray reflects inside glass io>co

If io > co the ray cannot get out, but reflects back inside the glass

io

2 bigger i, bigger r ro io 3

This has one very important application in communication technology... Optical fibres are thin strands of very pure glass that can carry communications signals in the form of laser light beams. The laser beams stay within the fibres because of total internal reflection.
ro= 90o io=co

Critical Angle

Each fibre is a core strand of glass, with another layer wrapped around it. The outer layer has a lower refractive index than the core, so even where the fibre bends around a corner, the laser light will generally strike the boundary at an incident angle greater than the critical angle. Whenever the laser beam hits the boundary between the 2 layers, the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle, (io > co) so Total Internal Reflection occurs and the beam stays totally within the fibres over long distances.
Optical fibre
laser b eam

There comes an angle (called the Critical Angle, (c)) where the angle of refraction = 90o. At this point the refracted ray runs along the edge of the glass, but does not cross the boundary. So, when the angle of incidence equals the critical angle, the angle of refraction is a right angle. If io = co, then ro= 90o Remember that so at the critical angle and sin 90o = 1, so... Sin i = Sin r Sin c = Sin 90
gna

na

Core. high index

lower index outer layer

Sin c = 1

gna

= 1 ang

The laser light bounces around corners by total internal reflection

This means that the Sine ratio of the critical angle C is equal to the reciprocal of the refractive index of the glass. WORKSHEET at end of section
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Worksheet 12
Fill in the blank spaces.

Reflection & Refraction


Student Name...........................................

When a wave meets the boundary between one medium and another, any of 3 things can occur: the waves energy can be absorbed, or the wave can be a)............................... or ............................ The Law of Reflection simply states that the angle of b)..................... equals the angle of c)........................... The angles must be measured from the wave ray to the d)................................. This is an imaginary line which is e)................................. to the boundary. Concave mirrors reflect light into a f)........................ point and can produce enlarged images, such as in a reflecting telescope. A g)........................ mirror reflects light outwards. This produces images which are h)..........................., but have a wider field of view. A practical use for this mirror is i).................................................. In communications, reflection is useful for long-distance radio reception. Some radio wavelengths reflect from the j)................................ layer in the upper atmosphere, and are bounced around the curvature of the Earth. Satellite dishes and k).................................... antennas use reflection to focus wave signals into the receiver. Refraction occurs when waves go from one medium into another. The waves may change in l)........................, and ........................... and .................................
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For example, when light goes from air into glass its speed m)......................, and its n)............................... gets shorter (although o)................................... does not change). It also changes direction, going p)............................. the normal. Snells Law describes the direct relationship between the Sine ratios of the angles of q).......................... and ................................... This ratio is called the r).......................... ...................... It is also equal to the ratio between the s)............................. of the wave in the 2 different mediums. The index for the wave entering the medium, and the index for the wave exiting the medium are always t)..................................... of each other. When a light ray is going from a slower medium into a faster one, the ray will refract u)............................ the normal. As the angle of incidence increases, so will the angle of refraction, until the refracted ray v).............................................. of the boundary. The angle of incidence at which this happens is called the w)............................... angle. At angles of incidence greater than this angle, x).............................................. .............. occurs, and the ray stays within the slower medium. This property is used in optical fibre technology to ensure that y).................................. beams stay within the fibres.

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COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Test Questions for this section are at the end of section 5

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Worksheet 13 Refraction
Snells Law

Practice Problems
Student Name...........................................
5. Window glass has a refractive index of 1.50. a) Find the velocity of light in this glass. b) If a light ray strikes the glass surface at right angles (i.e. along the normal line) what is the value of the angle of incidence? c) Calculate the angle of refraction for this situation. d) How do you interpret this result?

Sin i = V1 = 1n2 Sin r V2 Example Problem A beam of light goes from air into a glass block with a refractive index of 1.50. The angle of incidence is 35o. a) Find the angle of refraction. b) If light travels in air at 3.00x108 ms-1, find the velocity in the glass. Solution:
a) Sin i = n Sin r sin 35 / sin r = 1.50 sin r = sin 35 /1.50 = 0.38238 therefore, angle of refraction, r = 22.5o b) V1 = n V2 3.00x108 / V2 = 1.50

Reciprocal Indices

n2

=1
2

n1

6. Refer to the information and answers to Q1. a) What is the refractive index for light coming out of the plastic into air? b) If a light ray in the plastic struck the boundary at an angle of incidence of 20o, at what angle of refraction will it enter the air? 7. Refer to Q3. a) What is the refractive index for light travelling from water into air? b) If a light ray emerged from water into air at an angle of refraction of 37o, what must have been the angle of incidence? 8. In a type of lead-crystal glass, a light ray exits from the glass into air. At the interface, the angles were i = 15o, and r = 25o. a) What is the refractive index glassnair? b) What is the index airnglass? c) At what velocity does light travel in this glass? Critical Angle Sin c =
g

V2 = 3.00x108 / 1.50 therefore, velocity in glass, V = 2.00x108 ms-1

TRY THESE 1. In an experiment, a student sent a beam of light into a block of clear plastic. The angle of incidence was measured as 50o. The angle of refraction was 33o. a) Find the refractive index of the plastic. b) If light travels in air at 3.0x108ms-1, find its velocity in the plastic. 2. Light travels through a diamond at only 1.25x108ms-1. a) Find the refractive index of diamond. b) If a ray of light strikes a diamond surface at an angle of 40o from the normal, find the angle of refraction as the ray enters the diamond. 3. Using a laser beam and a fish tank filled with water, the refractive index of the water was found to be 1.33. a) At what incident angle must the beam strike the water to produce an angle of refraction of 32.5o? b) At what velocity does the laser beam travel in water? 4. Several different angles of incidence and refraction were measured for a light ray going from air into a high density crystal glass block. a) For each pair of angles, calculate a refractive index value. b) Find the average value for the refractive index. c) Use the average value to find the velocity of light in the crystal glass. DATA Angle of Incidence 50.0 42.0 30.0 65.0 Angle of Refraction 25.0 21.0 17.0 31.0

na =
a

ng

9. a) Use the information in Q2 to find the critical angle for light travelling inside a diamond. b) Describe what would occur (no calculation required) if light inside a diamond hit the boundary at an angle of incidence of: i) 20o ii) 30o 10. a) What is the critical angle for glass with ang = 1.50? b) Describe (no calculation) what happens when light inside the glass strikes the boundary at angle of incidence: i) 40o ii) 41.8oiii) 45o 11. Light travelling inside a plastic block strikes the boundary at an angle of incidence = 48.6o. The refracted ray is seen to run exactly along the boundary between plastic and air. a) What is the critical angle? b) What is the value of anp? c) At what velocity does light travel in this plastic? 23
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5. DIGITAL COMMUNICATION & DATA STORAGE Digital Technology


In the past 20-30 years our society has become more and more digitised. Because of the speed, storage capacity and processing ability of computers, almost every aspect of our society has gone digital. This simply means that all information (data) whether it be a persons voice, written words, numbers, music, photos, etc. is converted into digital code for processing, storage or transmission and communication. A simple list of some technologies involved is: CDs & DVDs, Mobile phones, Digital cameras, Computers & Internet, MP3 music, ATMs GPS Increasingly, WAVES are involved in these technologies, especially when data is moved around... of the

TECHNOLOGY CASE STUDY: GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)


GPS is a system that allows a ship, aircraft, car or bushwalker, to locate their exact position anywhere on Earth instantly and continuously. The system was developed for miltary uses, but then made available to anyone. The military version is thought to be accurate to within a metre, the civilian version to within about 10 m. The system is based on a fleet of 32 satellites (controlled by the US Air Force) positioned in orbit so that from anywhere on Earth, at any moment, several satellites are in line of sight.

Satellite 1

Satellite orbits

GPS receiver

Earth
Satellite 3

COMMUNICATION.

Satellite 2

GPS

Each satellite constantly sends out microwave signals identifying itself, its orbit details and the precise time the signal was sent. When your portable GPS receiver picks up the signal, it can calculate your exact distance from the satellite, from the time delay since the signal was sent. By doing the same for 2 other satellites, the GPS unit rapidly triangulates the signals from 3 satellites to pin-point your location on the Earths surface. (Aircraft need a 4th signal to get their altitude) GPS systems for cars show your position on a screen overlaid onto a road map of the area. As you drive around, the system constantly shows your changing position, and can advise you where to turn to reach your destination. 24
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Worksheet 14 Test Questions Multiple Choice

sections 4&5

Student Name...........................................

Longer Response Questions


Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space.

1. An example of REFLECTION being helpful in communication is: A. Radio waves bouncing off the ionosphere. B. A convex dish antenna collects satellite TV signals. C. Using a concave shaving mirror. D. A convex side mirror on a car sees into the blind spot. 2. Which of the following does NOT change when a wave undergoes refraction? A. Velocity B. Direction C. Wavelength D. Frequency 3. If a light ray passed from air into one of the following substances, (each at the same angle of incidence) which one would show the least amount of refraction? A. Water (refractive index = 1.3) B. Diamond (refractive index = 2.4) C. Glass (refractive index = 1.5) D. Perspex (refractive index = 1.4) 4. Light travels in air at 3.0x108ms-1. If the refractive index of glass = 1.5, then the velocity of light within the glass is: A. 3.0 x108ms-1. B. 2.0 x108ms-1. C. 4.5 x108ms-1. D. 1.5 x108ms-1. 5. The refractive index of water = 1.33.The Critical Angle for water would be closest to: B. 45o C. 49o D. 53o A. 38o 6. Long distance communication using laser light and optical fibres is made practical because of: A. Refraction inside the optical fibre. B. Reflection from the ionosphere C. Total internal reflection in the optical fibre. D. Focusing of the light by a concave mirror. 7. The Global Positioning System (GPS) works on: A. laser beams carried in optical fibres. B. radio signals from local cell transmitters. C. radio beams focused by dish antennas. D. microwave signals from satellites.

8. (3 marks) Complete each diagram to show the expected path of each reflected light ray P, Q and R.
P Q R

9. (6 marks) In an experiment, angles of incidence and refraction were measured as shown.

33o

25o

a) Find the refractive index of the plastic. air Show working.

plastic

b) At what speed does light travel in this plastic? Show working.

10. (4 marks) plastic. Predict the path of this light ray n = 1.40 after it strikes the boundary. Explain your reasoning, and show any working.

30o air

11. (3 marks) Outline briefly the underlying principles used in one application of physics related to waves used in communication.

Remember that for full marks in calculations, you need to show FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION, APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. Practise on this blank version.

THE WORLD COMMUNICATES

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Answer Section Worksheet 1


a) energy b) matter c) medium d) sound & water waves e) vacuum f) radio, light, UV, etc g) Transverse h) at right angles i) in the same line j) Wavelength k) maximum displacement, from equilibrium position l) waves / complete vibrations m) Hertz (Hz) n) The Period o) reciprocal p) frequency q) wavelength r) amplitude s) period t) frequency u) decrease v) wavelength

Worksheet 4
i) A = ii) d= iii)T= iv) f= wave P 0.15 m 0.1 m 0.08 s 12.5 Hz Q 0.10 m -0.1 m 0.16 s 6.25 Hz R 0.05 m -0.05 m 0.04 s 25 Hz

v) V= f = 12.5 x 0.50 = 6.25 ms-1 vii) = V / f wave Q: = 9.5 / 6.25 wave R; =9.5 / 25 = 1.5 m = 0.38 m

Worksheet 5
1. C 2. D 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. SOUND --> ELECTRICAL --> RADIO

Worksheet 2
1. a)

V= f = 280 x 5.20 = 1460 m.

2. V= f 2,500 = 0.400 x l= 2,500 / 0.400 = 6,250 m (6.25 x103 m) 3. 330 V= f = 1200 x l= 330 / 1200 = 0.275 m (2.75 x 10-1m)

b) T = 1 / f = 1 / 280 = 0.00357 s (3.57 x10-3 s)

8. a) Mechanical waves require a medium substance to travel in. EM waves do not, and so can travel in vacuum. b) Transverse waves vibrate at right angles to the direction of energy movement. In a longitudinal wave, the vibration is back-and-forth in the same direction as the energy flow. 9. a) V=f 1,500 = 400 x = 1,500 / 400 = 3.75 m. b) T = 1/f = 1/400 = 0.0025 = 2.5x10-3 Hz 10. a) from graph, T = 16 s. and f = 1/T = 1/16 = 6.25x10-2 Hz b) V = f 12.5 = 6.25x10-2 x = 12.5 / 6.25x10-2 = 200 m.

4 a) f = 1 / T f = 1 / 16 = 6.25x10-2 Hz b) V= f 6.50= 6.25x10-2 x l = 6.50 / 6.25x10-2 = 104 m c) V= f 2.20 = 6.25x10-2 x = 2.20 / 6.25x10-2 = 35.2 m Wavelength has become a lot shorter as the wave entered shallower water.

Worksheet 3
1. a) V= f ,

b) f = V / = 3.00x108 / 3.00x10-7 = 1.00x1015 Hz

f = V / = 3.00x108 / 7.00x10-7 = 4.29x1014 Hz

Worksheet 6
Using the sum of displacements at the circled points, the resultant looks approximately like the solid curve shown.

2.a) T= 1 / f = 1/ 53,000 =1.89x10-5 s. b) = V / f = 3.00x108 / 53,000 =5.66x103 m. (over 5 km!) 3. 2.50 m wave: f = V / = 3x108 / 2.50 = 1.20x108 Hz 2.50 cm wave: f = V / = 3x108 / 0.0250 = 1.20x1010 Hz comparison: The frequency of the 2.5cm wave is 100 times higher than the 2.5m wave. (Makes sense: 100X shorter wavelength --> 100X higher frequency) 4. Since 8 complete wavelengths fit in 0.96m, then = 0.12 m V= f = 384 x 0.12 = 46 ms-1 = 3.00x108 / 1.50x10-11 = 2.00 x 1019 Hz b) T = 1 / f = 1 / 2x1019 = 5.00x10-20 s. 5. a) f = V /

Note that the amplitude of the resultant starts large and becomes smaller. You would hear the sound volume decrease.

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Worksheet 7
Part A a) mechanical b) longitudinal c) compressions d) rarefactions e) 330 f) higher g) frequency h) loudness / volume i) reflect j) navigation / hunting prey k) SONAR l) detecting fish / submarines m) resultant n) amplitudes

Worksheet 10
1. a) 12 units (1/4 as bright) b) 3 units (1/16) c) 0.48 units (1/100) d) 192 units (4x brighter) 2. Moved to 1/4 the distance, therefore 16X more intense. 3. Intensity dropped from 32 units to 2 units.... 1/16. Therefore must be 4X further away.... answer = 8 m. 4. At double distance, intensity = 1/4. Therefore need to turn on 4 identical bulbs to get same amount of light.

Worksheet 8
1. B 2. C 3. A 4. summing displacements at circled points:

Worksheet 11
1. D 2. C 3. C 4. B 5. (lowest) Radio, microwaves, infra-red, light, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma (highest)

displacement

time

6. a) human eye. b) X-ray sensitive photo film. c) receptors in human skin. 7. At 1/10 the distance it will be 100X brighter. 0.1 x 100 = 10 units.

5. With a sound wave, a compression is where air particles are pushed together, and a rarefaction is where they are spread apart more, as the wave moves through.

resultant (approx)

8. There are so many radio & TV stations, mobile phone systems and users, as well as 2-way radio for aircraft, shipping, military, taxis, etc, that the available radio bands are becoming congested. There is a limit to how many systems and stations can operate without overlapping in frequencies and causing interference to each other.

Worksheet 9
a) transverse c) medium e) radio g) infra-red i) ultra-violet k) gamma rays m) resonance o) UV / X-rays / gamma q) UV s) one quarter u) laser beams w) modulation y) amplitude aa) frequency ac) electrical ae) microwave ag) electrical b) do not d) 3 x 108 f) microwaves h) visible light j) X-ray l) vibrate / oscillate n) vibrate p) ozone r) square of distance t) radio & microwaves v) optical x) Amplitude Modulation z) Frequency Modulation ab) Pulse ad) radio af) radio

Worksheet 12
a) reflected or refracted b) incidence c) reflection d) normal e) perpendicular f) focal g) convex h) smaller/diminished i) drivers side mirror j) ionosphere k) microwave l) direction, wavelength & velocity m) slows down n) wavelength o) frequency p) towards q) incidence & refraction r) refractive index s) velocities t) reciprocals u) away from v) goes along the edge w) critical x) Total Internal Reflection y) laser

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Worksheet 13

8. c)

Snells Law Problems


1.a) n = Sin i / Sin r = sin50 / sin 33 n=1.4 (no units) b) n= V1 / V2 1.4 = 3.0x108 / V2 V2= 3.0x108 / 1.4 = 2.1 x 108 ms-1 2. a) n=V1 / V2 = 3.00x108 / 1.25x108 = 2.40 b) n = Sin i / Sin r 2.40 = sin40 / Sin r Sin r = sin40 / 2.40 = 0.2678... r = 15.5o 3. a) n = Sin i / Sin r 1.33 = Sin i / sin32.5 Sin i = 1.33 x sin32.5 = 0.7146... i = 45.6o b) n = V1 / V2 1.33= 3.00x108 / V2 V2 = 3.00x108 / 1.33 = 2.26x108 ms-1. 4. a) Angle Angle Incidence Refraction 50.0 25.0 42.0 21.0 30.0 17.0 65.0 31.0 b) Average =7.15/4 = 1.79 c) n = V1 / V2 1.79 = 3.00x108 / V2 V2 = 3.00x108 / 1.79 = 1.68x108 ms-1. Refractive Index 1.81 1.87 1.71 1.76

n = V1 / V2 1.6 = 3.0x108 / V2 V2 = 3.0x108 / 1.6 V(glass) = 1.9x108 ms-1 Sin c =


dna

Critical Angle & T.I.R.


9. a) = 1 and Sin c = 1 / 2.40 = 4.1666.... c = 24.6o b) i) Would refract out into the air. ii) i > c, so ray would undergo total internal reflection back inside the diamond. 10. a) Sin c = 1 / n = 1 / 1.50 = 0.6666... c = 41.8o b) i) Refracts out into air ii) Refracts and runs along the glass edge iii) i > c, total internal reflection. 11. a) 48.6o (by definition of what happens at crit. angle) b) Sin c = 1 / n n= 1 / Sin c = 1 /sin48.6 = 1/0.7501... n = 1.33 c) n = V1 / V2 1.33= 3.00x108 / V2 V2= 3.00x108 / 1.33 = 2.26x108 ms-1.

Worksheet 14
1. A 8. 2. D
P

3. A

4. B
Q

5. C

6. C

7. D

5. a) n = V1 / V2 1.50 = 3.00x108 / V2 V2 = 3.00x108 / 1.50 = 2.00x108 ms-1. b) 0o c) n = Sin i / Sin r 1.50 = sin0 / Sin r Sin r = sin0 / 1.50 = 0 r = 0o d) The ray does NOT change direction. (However, it would still change velocity and wavelength)

n = Sin i / Sin r = sin33 / sin25 = 1.3 (no units) b) n = V1 / V2 (given velocity in air =3.0x108) 1.3= 3.0x108 / V2 V2= 3.0x108/1.3 V (in plastic)= 2.3x108 ms-1. 10. Note that the angle given is not the correct angle of incidence. (Angle of incidence must be measured from the normal) So, i = 60o Next, check if io is greater than co: Sin c = 1 / n = 1 / 1.4 = 0.7142 So, c = 46o. Therefore, i > c so ray will undergo total internal reflection, and reflect back inside the plastic block. (at angle of reflection = 60o) 11. Underlying principles of GPS: GPS involves a small, portable receiver picking up microwave signals from a fleet of satellites in orbit. Each satellite sends a coded message identifying itself and the precise time that the signal was sent. By comparing the signals from (at least) 3 different satellites, the GPS receiver can triangulate to find its position with a high degree of accuracy... within a few metres in some cases.

9. a)

Reciprocal Indices Problems


6. a)
1n2 = 1 2n1

= 1 / 1.4 = 0.71 (no units)

b)

n = Sin i / Sin r (must use the index for 0.71= sin20 / Sin r plastic --> air) Sin r = sin20 / 0.71 = 0.4817... r = 29o

7. a) 1n2 = 1 / 2n1 = 1 / 1.33 = 0.752 (no units) b) n = Sin i / Sin r (must use the index for 0.752 = Sin i / sin37 water --> air) Sin i = 0.752 x sin37 = 0.4525... So, i = 27o 8. a) n = Sin i / Sin r = sin15 / sin25 n= 0.61 (for glass --> air) b) n (air ->glass) = 1 / 0.61 = 1.6 (no units)

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