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Preliminary Physics Topic 3

What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. SPEED and VELOCITY 2. FORCE and ACCELERATION 3. WORK and KINETIC ENERGY 4. MOMENTUM and IMPULSE 5. SAFETY DEVICES in VEHICLES

...all in the context of moving vehicles.

but first, lets revise...

Speed refers to how fast you are going. You already know that mathematically: SPEED = distance travelled time taken In this topic, you will extend your understanding of speed to include VELOCITY, which is just a special case of speed.

Energy is what causes changes.... change in temperature (Heat energy) change in speed (Kinetic energy) change in height (gravitational Potential energy) change in chemical structure (chemical P.E.) ...and so on. In this topic the most important energy form you will study is the one associated with moving vehicles...

A FORCE is a PUSH or a PULL. Some forces, like gravity and electric/magnetic fields, can exert forces without actually touching things. In this topic you will deal mainly with CONTACT FORCES, which push or pull objects by direct contact.



Overview of Topic:
ENGINE provides ENERGY (from chemical energy in petrol) FORCE acts over a distance... WORK done

Tyres PUSH on road... FORCE acts...

FORCE causes

In the context of moving vehicles, the most important force is FRICTION. Friction allows a cars tyres to grip the road to get moving, and for the brakes to stop it again. Without friction the car couldnt get going, and couldnt stop if it did!
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Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.

Average & Instantaneous Speed

Motion Graphs Forces Vectors & Scalars. Speed & Velocity Acceleration Adding Vectors Mass & Weight

Speed & Velocity

Measuring Motion

Force & Acceleration

Newtons 2nd Law

Centripetal Force


Work & Kinetic Energy

Energy Transformations Equivalence of Work & Energy Law of Conservation of Energy Momentum

Safety Devices in Vehicles

Momentum & Impulse

Physics of Safety Devices

Inertia & Newtons 1st Law

Newtons 3rd Law Conservation of Momentum in Collisions


Impulse of a Force

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Average Speed for a Journey
If you travelled by car a distance of 300 km in exactly 4 hours, then your average speed was: average speed = distance travelled time taken = 300 4 = 75 km/hr (

However, this does not mean that you actually travelled at a speed of 75 km/hr the whole way. You probably went faster at times, slower at other times, and may have stopped for a rest at some point.

Distance-Time Graphs
Perhaps your journey was similar to this graph. Start at the bottom-left of the graph and consider each section A, B, C and D. Graph section D Travelled 150km in 1.5 hr: Speed = 100 km/hr Graph section C Travelled 50 km in 1.0 hr: Speed=50 km/hr Graph section B Zero distance moved in 0.5 hr: Speed= zero. Graph section A Travelled 100 km in 1.0 hour: Speed =100 km/hr
300 Distance-T Time Graph gradient = distance time = speed

Speed-Time Graphs
The same journey could also be represented by a different graph, showing the SPEED at different times: Study this graph carefully and compared it with the other... You must not confuse the 2 types of graph and how to interpret them.
D 100 A D Flat parts DO NOT mean stopped, but mean constant speed

DISTANCE TRAVELLED (km) 100 150 200 250



gradient = zero i.e. stopped

These graphs represent the same journey

SPEED (km/hr) 40 60 80

2 3 TIME (hours)

B 0 1

Stopped. Speed scale reads zero. 2 TIME (hr) 3 4

So although the average speed for the entire journey was 75km/hr, in fact you never actually moved at that speed. This raises the idea of INSTANTANEOUS SPEED: the speed at a particular instant of time. The speedometer in your car gives you a moment-by-moment reading of your current speed... this is your instantaneous speed. On the graph, the GRADIENT at any given point is equal to INSTANTANEOUS SPEED.

This graph is very unrealistic in one way. It shows the speed changing INSTANTLY from (say) 100 km/hr to zero (stopped), without any time to slow down. It also shows the car travelling at exactly 100 km/hr for an hour at a time... very unlikely with hills, curves, traffic etc. Changes of speed (ACCELERATION) will be dealt with in the next section. For now were Keeping It Simple!

show the SPEED of a moving object at each TIME. The speed at any time can be read from the vertical scale of the graph. A horizontal section means that the object was moving at constant speed.

show the DISTANCE (from the starting point) at each TIME. The GRADIENT at any point equals INSTANTANEOUS SPEED. A horizontal section means that the object was not moving
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Scalars & Vectors

A Scalar quantity is something that has a size (magnitude) but no particular direction. A Vector quantity has both size (magnitude) AND DIRECTION. So far we have dealt with only distances & speeds... these are Scalar quantities, since they do not have any special direction associated. Now you must learn the vector equivalents: Displacement = distance in a given direction, and Velocity = speed in a given direction. Consider this journey: drove 60 km EAST in 1 hour START then drove 30 km WEST in 0.5 hour. As a SCALAR journey: travelled a total 90 km distance in 1.5 hours, average speed = 90/1.5 = 60 km/hr BUT, consider the NET journey: at the end of the journey you end up 30 km EAST of the starting point. So, your final displacement is 30 km east. The VECTOR journey was: travelled 30 km east displacement in 1.5 hours. average velocity = 30/1.5 = 20 km/hr east. Notice that both displacement and velocity have a direction (east) specified.... they are VECTORS! To make better sense (mathematically) of the journey, the directions east & west could have (+) or ( - ) signs attached. Let east be (+) and west be ( - ). Then the total Average = Displacement journey Velocity time displacement was Vav = S t
(+60) + (-30) = +30 km.

Note: The symbol S is used for Displacement

MORE GRAPHS... Displacement - Time

Refer to the previous Distance-Time graph.
What if the 300km journey had been 150 km north (sections A, B, C) then 150 km south (section D)?

...and the corresponding Velocity - Time Graph:

100 A Positive values mean north-b bound velocity

north 50

The Displacement - Time Graph would be:

Downsloping line means travelling SOUTH
nt die Gra


C Displacement NORTH (km) 0 50 100 B

po sit ive

Velocity (km/hr)

B 1 Zero velocity: means stopped 2 3

TIME (hrs) 4

south -5 50

Gr ad ien t

ve ati neg

2 TIME (hours)

In vector terms; displacement north is positive (+) displacement south is negative ( - )

The velocity values for each part of this graph are equal to the gradients of the corresponding parts of the Displacement - Time Graph. Note: Since the journey ends back at the starting point, total displacement = zero and average velocity = zero for the whole trip. However, this simply points out how little information the average gives you. The instant-by-instant Physics of the journey is in the graph details. 4
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In section D: displacement = -150 km (south) velocity = displacement time = -150 /1.5 = -100 km/hr (i.e. 100km/hr southward)
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-1 100

Back at starting point. (Displacement = 0 )

Negative value: south-b bound velocity D

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Prac Work: You will probably experience one or more of these commonly used ways to measure motion in the laboratory.

Measuring Motion

You might do some measurements as suggested by this diagram

Time to travel from A to B measured by stopwatch

Landmark A

Distance between landmarks measured with sports tape

Landmark B

Tape Measure & Stopwatch

The simplest method of all: measure the distance or displacement involved, and the time taken. Then use speed (velocity) = distance (displacement) time Typical Results Distance Time Velocity (m) (s) (ms-1) Car Bicycle 87 87 6.2 22.4 14.0 3.9

The Ticker-Timer
Every time the hammer hits the moving strip of paper it leaves a dot. The string of dots can be analysed to study the motion of the trolley.

Moving lab. trolley drags a strip of paper behind it

Ticker-t timer device has a small hammer which vibrates up and down every 0.02 sec.

However, this can only give you the AVERAGE speed or velocity. In Physics we often need to consider INSTANTANEOUS velocity.

Although this method is very out-dated, it is still commonly used as a way for students to learn how to measure instantaneous velocity. A moving object drags a paper strip on which dots get printed (usually every 0.02 second) as it goes. The gap between dots is a record of displacement and time. This allows you to calculate the velocity over every 0.02 s. Its still an average, but over such small time intervals it approximates the instantaneous velocity.

Electronic or Computer Timing

You may use devices that use either Light Gates or SONAR to record displacements and times for you. Once again, any velocities calculated are averages, but the time intervals are so short (e.g. as small as 0.001 s) that the velocity calculated is essentially instantaneous.
Moving trolley equipped with a sonar reflector. (An aluminium pie dish will do)

Sonar transponder gives out pulses of ultra-s sound and picks up any returning echoes

To computer for analysis

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Worksheet 1

Speed & Velocity

Student Name........................................... On a displacement-time graph, movement south would result in the graph sloping m)................................... to the right and having a negative n)............................................ The vector equivalent of speed is o).................................... The average velocity is equal to p)............................... divided by q)....................... Instantaneous velocity refers to r).................................................................. Laboratory methods for measuring motion include using a tape measure and stopwatch. This allows calculation of s).................... ............................ only. Ticker-timers record both t)............................... and .......................... on a paper tape. Average velocity can be calculated for short time intervals which are approximately equal to u)............................................ velocity. Electronic or Computer-based devices often use v)........................ or ......................................... to gather displacement, time and velocity data at very short time intervals.

Fill in the blank spaces. The average speed of a moving object is equal to the a)............................ travelled, divided by b)....................... taken. On a Distance-Time graph, the c)........................ of the graph is equal to speed. A horizontal graph means d)................................. ............................... On a Speed-Time graph, constant speed is shown by e).......................................... on the graph. This does NOT mean stopped, unless the graph section is lined up with f)............................. Speed and distance are both g).............................. quantities, because the direction doesnt matter. Often in Physics we deal with h)............................ quantities, which have both i)............................... and ....................................... The vector equivalent of distance is called j)................................., and refers to distance in a particular k).............................. For example, if displacement was being measured in the north direction, then a distance southward would be considered as l).............................. displacement.

Worksheet 2 Motion Graphs

Practice Problems
Student Name........................................... 7. Use your graph to find: i) average velocity for the first 3 hours.

A car travelled 200 km north in 3.0 hours, then stopped for 1.0 hr, and finally travelled south 100 km in 1.0 hr. 1. What was the total distance travelled?

ii) velocity during the 4th hour. 2. What was the total displacement? iii) velocity during the last hour. 3. What was the total time for the whole journey? 4. Calculate the average speed for the whole journey. 8. Construct a Velocity- Time Graph for this trip.

Velocity (km/hr)

5. Calculate the average velocity for the whole journey.



Time (hr)
1 2 3 4 5

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-1 100


6. Construct a Displacement - Time Graph for this trip.


-5 50

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Worksheet 3 Practice Problems Motion Graphs & Calculations

Displacement north (km)

Student Name...........................................

1. An aircraft took off from town P and flew due north to town Q where it stopped to re-fuel. It then flew due south to town R. The trip is summarised by the graph.





So far all examples have used the familiar km/hr for speed or velocity. The correct S.I. units are metres per second (ms-1). You need to be able to work in both, and convert from one to the other..... heres how: 1 km/hr = 1,000 metres/hr = 1,000m/(60x60) seconds = 1,000/3,600 m/s = 1/3.6 So, to convert km/hr ms-1 divide by 3.6 to convert ms-1 km/hr multiply by 3.6
2. A car is travelling at 100 km/hr. a) What is this in ms-1? b) The driver has a micro-sleep for 5.00 s. How far will the car travel in this time? c) At this velocity, how long does it take (in seconds) to travel 1.00km (1,000m)?

Time (hr)
1 2 3 4 5 6

-4 400 -2 200

a) How far is it from towns P to Q? b) How long did the flight P to Q take? c) Calculate the average velocity for the flight from P to Q (include direction)

d) What is the value of the gradient of the graph from t=3 hr, to t=6 hr.? e) What part of the journey does this represent? f) Where is town R located compared to town P?

3. For this question consider north as (+), south as ( - ). A truck is travelling at a velocity of +20.5 ms-1 as it passes a car travelling at -24.5 ms-1. a) What are these velocities in km/hr? (including directions?)

g) What was the aircrafts position and velocity (including direction) at t=5 hr? h) What was the: i) total distance ii) average speed iii) total displacement iv) average velocity (for the entire 6 hr journey)

b) What is the displacement (in m) of each vehicle in 30.0 s?

c) How long would it take each vehicle to travel 100 m?

4. Where does this aircraft end up in relation to its starting point? Flight details: First flew west for 2.50 hr at 460 km/hr. Next, flew east at 105 ms-1 for 50.0 minutes. Next, flew west for 3.25 hours at 325 km/hr.
Time (hr)
1 2 3 4 5 6

Velocity (km/hr) North

i) Construct a Velocity- Time Graph for the flight.




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-3 300


-1 100

Finally flew east for 5.50 hours at velocity 125 ms-1.

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Change of Velocity = Acceleration
Any change in velocity is an acceleration. Mathematically,
acceleration = velocity change = final vel. - initial velocity time taken time taken

Graphs of Accelerating Vehicles

You may have done laboratory work to study the motion of an accelerating trolley. If you used a Ticker-timer, the paper tape records would look something like this:
Tape of trolley moving at constant velocity (for comparison)

a = v t a=v-u t

(Greek letter delta) refers to a change in a quantity

Tape of trolley accelerating... dots get further apart

v = final velocity u = initial velocity t = time involved

Trolley decelerating (negative acceleration)... dots get closer

Units: if velocities are in ms-1, and time in seconds, then acceleration is measured in metres/sec/sec (ms-2).
Explanation: Imagine a car that accelerates at 1 ms-2: Start v =0 1 sec. later v = 1 ms-1 1 sec.later v=2 ms-1 1sec.later v=3ms-1

The graphs that result from acceleration are as follows:

Remember, Gradient equals Velocity


Gradients decreasing (curve flattens out)
ing rat ele c De


Every second, its velocity increases by 1 ms-1. Therefore, the rate at which velocity is changing is 1 ms-1 per second, or simply 1 ms-2. Acceleration is a vector, so direction counts.

Co Ve nsta loc nt ity


Ac ce le ra tin g


Gradient constant (straight line)

Gradients increasing (curve gets steeper)



Constant Velocity

Deceleration (or negative acceleration) simply means that the direction of acceleration is opposite to the current motion... the vehicle will slow down rather than speed up.

A common error is to think that this means the object is moving backwards. Wrong! It is moving forward, but slowing down.

Example Problem 1

Ac ce ler at in g

A motorcycle travelling at 10.0 ms-1, accelerated for 5.00s to a final velocity of 30.0 ms-1. What was its acceleration rate? Solution: a = v - u = 30.0-10.0/5.00 = 20.0/5.00 t = 4.00 ms-2.

Velocity increasing

Velocity decreasing

g in at ler ce De

Velocity = 0 Stopped!

Example Problem 2

A car moving at 25.0 ms-1 applied its brakes producing an acceleration of -1.50 ms-2 (i.e. deceleration) lasting for 12.0 s. What was its final velocity? Solution: a = v - u, t so v = u + at = 25.0 + (-1.50) x 12.0 = 25.0 - 18.0 = 7.00 ms-1. Gradient positive

Time Gradient negative

On a Velocity-T Time Graph Gradient = Acceleration

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Force Causes Acceleration

A simple definition of Force is a push or a pull. However, in the context of moving vehicles,


Vertical forces are balanced, and cancel Thrust Force Increased Weight

Force is what causes velocity to change.

Note that a change of velocity could mean: speeding up slowing down changing direction (velocity is a vector) To actually result in a change of velocity, the force must be External and Unbalanced (Net) Force

Friction & Air Resistance small forces

Horizontal forces UNBALANCED

Reaction Force

This car will SPEED UP


Forward & Back Forces are balanced and cancel Vertical forces are balanced, and cancel

For example, if you were inside a moving car and kicked the dashboard, this force would have NO EFFECT on the cars motion... This is an Internal Force and cannot cause acceleration.

WEIGHT FORCE Car pushes on Earth Thrust Friction and Air Resistance from Engine REACTION FORCE Earth pushes back

(Thrust Force from Engine is equal to Friction forces) Sideways Forces become UNBALANCED (These would be equal if wheel not turned)

This car will turn a corner at constant speed (but this is a changed velocity since the direction changed)

BALANCED & UNBALANCED FORCES The car above has a number of forces acting on it, but they are BALANCED... those acting in the same line are equal and opposite, and cancel each other out. This car will not alter its velocity or direction; it will not accelerate. It is either travelling at a constant velocity, or it is stationary. EXAMPLES OF BALANCED UNBALANCED FORCE FORCES SITUATION GOING UP A HILL (without increasing engine thrust)
Weight (still vertical) Friction still the same

Engine Thrust still the same

Part of the Weight Force acts downhill to cancel some of the thrust

Reaction Force is not vertical, and no longer cancels the weight completely... UNBALANCED FORCE


Opposite Forces are BALANCED and cancel Weight

This bike will SLOW DOWN. (Going down a hill, it will speed up)


Virtually no Thrust Force because tyres cant grip on ice This car will continue in a straight line, at a constant velocity... whether the driver wants to or not... Reaction Force cancels Weight Car is out of control; Cant stop... Cant turn... Virtually no Friction on Ice Vertical forces are balanced, and cancel Thrust Force decreases as accelerator is released Horizontal forces are UNBALANCED Weight Friction Increases as Brakes are applied

Reaction Force

This car will SLOW DOWN (Decelerate)

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Newtons 2nd Law of Motion

Whoa! Why not start with his 1st Law? Newtons 2nd Law is all about what happens when a force acts, and so is appropriate to study here. His 1st Law is all about what happens when a force does NOT act... it will be covered later in the topic. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) figured out the role of forces in causing acceleration:
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the external, unbalanced (net) force acting on it, and inversely proportional to its mass.

Mass & Weight

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object. In terms of force and acceleration, mass is the stuff that tries to prevent acceleration... the more mass there is, the less acceleration an applied force will produce. The mass of an object is the same wherever it might be. Weight however, changes according to gravity conditions.

Weight is a Force (measured in N) due to

gravity. Gravity causes objects near the Earth to accelerate at (approximately) g = 10ms -2 (actually 9.81ms-2, but K.I.S.S.). F = m a, so Weight = mg
Example: consider an astronaut with a mass of 80kg Mass (kg) Weight (N) Astronaut on Earth 80 800 Astronaut in orbit 80 zero Astronaut on Moon 80 133

a= F m



Mass must be measured in kilograms (kg) Acceleration in metres/sec/sec (ms-2) Force will then be in newtons (N) 1N of force would cause a 1kg mass to accelerate at 1ms-2

Study this information to get the idea.

The confusion about mass and weight has been caused by the unfortunate choice by society to talk about the weight of things, but then measure it in kilograms... it should be in Newtons!!

Verifying 2nd Law

You may have done laboratory work similar to this:
Power Pack Extra masses on trolley

The acceleration of the trolley is determined by analysing the displacement & time data from the ticker tape record. This is repeated several times, tranferring some of the extra masses from trolley to the hanging weight each time. This means, for each trial the total mass of the entire system stays constant, but the force causing the acceleration (weight on the string) is different each time.
Force v Acceleration Graph Force (weight on string) (N)

Tickertimer device Paper tape Lab.Trolley Weight on string causes trolley to accelerate

Weight = mg

The results are analysed by graphing the Force (weight on string) against the acceleration produced.

Final Results and Conclusions

Within experimental error, the graph shows a straight line. This proves there is a direct relationship between the force applied, and the acceleration produced. The gradient of the graph will be found to be equal to the mass of the total system (i.e. trolley + masses) in kilograms: Gradient = Force = Mass Acceleration F =m a and therefore, F=ma
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Find Gradient of line





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2) (ms-2

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Adding Vectors
Force is a vector quantity, the same as velocity and acceleration. To fully describe a force, you must state the direction of the force. Often, there are situations where 2 (or more) forces act on the same object at the same time. To find the NET FORCE acting you need to add the vectors together to find their combined effect. Its very easy if their vector directions are in the same line: Example:
Force A 20N east Force B 30N west

Vectors in Equilibrium
It is often the case that 2 or more vectors might all cancel each other out so the resultant is zero. In fact this is always the case when a vehicle is moving in a straight line with a constant velocity. Since it is NOT accelerating, then the net force acting must be zero. Since there are forces acting, then it follows they must be cancelling each other out.
Example: an aircraft flying straight and level at constant velocity. Lift Force (on wings) Thrust from engines

The sum of these 2 vectors is a single force:

Resultant 10N west Air Resistance Drag The vector diagram for this plane must be: Thrust Weight Force

Mathematically, you should assign (+ve) and (-ve) signs to the opposite directions, then simply add the values: e.g. let East be (+ve), and West (-ve) Then, Force A = +20 and Force B = -30 So the Resultant = +20 +(-30) = -10N (i.e. 10N west)



However, if the forces are acting in totally different directions, the problem is more complicated. Example:
Force A 20N east A = 20 Force B 30N south

Drag The vectors all cancel out... the resultant is zero... no acceleration will occur.

First, sketch these vectors head-to-tail.

You may have done laboratory work to measure some vectors and their sum. A common experiment is shown in the photo:
Three Force Vectors in Equilibrium

B = 30
nt lta su Re

Next, connect the beginning to the end, to from a right-angled triangle. The 3rd side is the Resultant vector.


Tension Forces in strings A & B measured by Spring Balances

The angles between strings A, B & C need to be measured.

Use Pythagoruss Theorem to find the size of the Resultant force: R2 = A2 + B2 = 202 + 302 = 400 + 900 = 1300 R = Sq.Root(1300) 36N (approximately) and find the angle ( ) by Trigonometry: Tan = opp/adj = 30/20 = 1.5 56o So, the resultant force R = 36N, direction 56o S of E (bearing from north=146o)
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F=mg B C A

The 3 vectors can then be analysed

The vectors can be analysed either by accurate scale drawing, or by mathematics (e.g. Sine Rule in a triangle). It will be found (within experimental error) that these vectos add to zero. They are in equilibrium.


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More Examples of Vectors

So far, all the examples given of vectors have been forces. Vector addition could involve any vector quantity, of course... displacement, velocity, acceleration or force.

Displacement Vectors
An aircraft flies 200km east, then 100km south. Where is it in relation to its starting point?

Velocity Vectors
A ship is travelling due east at velocity 5.0ms-1. The tide is flowing from the south at 1.8ms-1. What is the ships actual velocity?


nt ulta Reslocity Ve

Di Res sp ul lac tan em t en t



5.0 R2 = 5.02 + 1.82 = 28.24 R = Sq.Root (28.24) 1 = 5.3ms-1 Tan = 1.8/5.0 = 0.36 20o N of E (this angle is 70o clockwise from north, bearing = 70o)

R2 = 2002 + 1002 = 50,000 R = Sq.Root (50,000) = 224 km

Tan = 100/200 = 0.500 27o 27o

Final displacement = 224 km, direction S of E (bearing from north = 117o)

Actual Velocity = 5.3ms-1, on bearing 70o

A Special Force: Friction

Often in Physics problems we ignore friction to keep things simple (KISS Principle). In reality, when anything moves on or near the Earth, there is always friction... you need to know about it. Friction (including air resistance) is a force which always acts in the opposite direction to the motion of any object. Generally, you may consider the force of friction as a negative value, assuming that the direction of motion is considered positive. An example of dealing with friction:

This 500kg car is accelerating at The thrust force from the engine is 1,700N. What is the force of friction acting against it? Solution: The net, unbalanced force causes acceleration. This net force must be F=ma = 500 x 2.5 = 1,250N
Thrust Force


Friction Force

This net force is the vector sum of all forces acting: Net Force = Engine thrust + Friction 1,250 = 1,700 + FF FF = 1,250 - 1,700 Friction = -450N (the negative value simply means that friction is in the opposite direction to the cars motion)

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Another Force to Know About: Tension

Tension refers to the force which acts in a rope, wire, chain or other coupling, which attaches two objects together. The tricky thing about tension is that it pulls in both directions at once. Consider these 2 examples:

Two Masses Hanging on Strings

Tension force in top string must hold up both weights, so T1 = (5+2) = 7N Tension force T1 simultaneously pulls down on the top support (assumed immovable) and pulls the round object upwards. Tension in the bottom string only holds up the 200g mass, so T2 = 2N Tension force T2 simultaneously pulls down on the round object and pulls the rectangular object upwards. Nothing is moving, so all forces must be in equilibrium. i.e. Net Force = zero, but can we prove it? Consider all forces acting on each mass: (let up be (+ve), down (-ve)
Round Object Force T1 is pulling it upwards, while its weight and T2 pull it downwards. F = T1 + T2 + mg = (+7) + (-2) + (-5) = zero Rectangular Object Force T2 pulls it up, while its weight pulls downwards. F = T2 + mg = (+2) + (-2) = zero

T1 T1 500g (0.5kg) T2

Tension forces acts in both directions in each string

Object 1 Weight Force mg = 0.5 x 10 = 5N

weight = mg

T2 200g (0.2kg)

Acceleration due to gravity has been taken as 10ms-2 for simplicity (KISS Principle) Object 2 Weight Force mg = 0.2 x 10 = 2N
weight = mg

It all works! If you undertstand the tension forces acting, you can explain that this system is not moving because the net forces add up to zero.
Engine 20,000kg Carriage 5,000kg

Example 2

Tension Under Acceleration

This train engine produces 35,000N net thrust force. Problem a) What is the acceleration? b) What tension force acts in the coupling between engine and carriage? c) What is the net force acting on the engine alone?


Solution: The net force must accelerate the entire mass of 25,000kg. a) F= m a a= F/m = 35,000/25,000 2 = 1.4 ms-2 b) Tension in coupling must cause the carriage to accelerate. F=ma = 5,000 x 1.4 = 7,000N Engine thrust = 35,000N
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2 c) Since the engine is accelerating at 1.4 ms -2 the net force on the engine must be: F = ma = 20,000 x 1.4 = 28,000 N

Does this make sense? Yes, it does, when you consider the forces acting on the engine alone...

Tension in coupling = 7,000N


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Turning Corners - Circular Motion

For any vehicle to turn a corner, it must change direction and therefore, must accelerate. This means it is being acted on by an unbalanced force. To keep things as simple as possible (K.I.S.S.) lets assume that all the corners being turned are circular. The velocity vectors at any instant are tangents to the circle. V V

So, where does the centripetal force come from to push a moving vehicle, such as a car, around the corner? In the example of a car, the centripetal force comes from the frictional grip of the tyres on the road. Turning the steering wheel creates new friction forces which are directed to the centre of an imaginary circle.
Wheel turned


F Path of a vehicle turning a circular corner

The force causing the turning is always toward the centre of the circle. This is called Centripetal force

l eta trip n e C ce For

Even though the speed may be constant, the vehicle is constantly accelerating because its direction is constantly changing. The force causing this acceleration is called Centripetal Force and is always directed to the centre of the circle. The acceleration vector is also pointed at the centre of the circle. The velocity vector is constantly changing, but at any instant it is a tangent to the circle, and therefore, at right angles to the acceleration and force vectors.

Instantaneous Velocity vector straight ahead

Path car will take

So long as the frictional forces are strong enough, the vehicle will follow a circular path around the corner. If the centripetal force required for a particular corner exceeds the friction grip of the tyres, then the vehicle will not make it, and may spin out and crash. This can happen because: speed is too high for the radius of the curve. (i.e. the radius is too small compared to velocity) loss of friction between tyres and road. (e.g. road is wet, or tyres are worn smooth) Example Problem 1 A 900kg car turns a corner at 30ms-1. The radius of the curve is 50 metres. What is the centripetal force acting on the car? Solution Fc = m v2 = 900 x 302 / 50 R = 16,200N

Centripetal Acceleration Centripetal Force

ac =


Fc = mv2 R

R = radius of the circle (in metres) V = instantaneous velocity (ms-1) (also called orbital speed) m = mass of vehicle (in kg)

Example Problem 2 The maximum frictional force possible from each tyre of this 750kg car is 5,000N. What is the maximum speed that the car can go around a curve with a radius of curvature of 40m? Solution: Max. Force possible from 4 tyres = 4x 5,000 =20,000N Centripetal Force cannot exceed this value. 14
Fc = m v2 / R, so v2 = FcR /m = 20,000 x 40 /750 v2 = 1067 v = Sq.Root(1067) 33ms-1 (This is almost 120 km/hr)

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Worksheet 4

Force & Acceleration

Student Name...........................................

Fill in the blank spaces. Acceleration is a change in a)................................ This could mean speeding up, or b)............... ...................., or even changing c).......................... at constant speed. Acceleration is a d).......................... (vector/scalar). Deceleration simply means e).............................. acceleration. The unit of measurement is f)................................. On a Displacement-Time graph, acceleration appears as a g)........................ On a Velocity-Time graph, accelerations appear as h)....................................... (compared to constant velocity, which shows as a i)................................ line). The j).................................. of the line equals the rate of acceleration. A deceleration would have a k)..................................... gradient. Acceleration is caused by the action of a l)........................ The force must be m).................., and it is only an n).................................. (or net) force which causes an acceleration. Newtons o)......... Law of Motion states that the acceleration of an object is proportional to the p).......................... and q)...................................... proportional to its mass. The unit of force is the r)........................., so long as mass is in s)................. and acceleration in t)......................... Mass is a measure of the amount of u).......................... in an object, while weight is the v).................... due to w)................................... acting on the mass.

Vector quantities can only be added together in a simple arithmetic way if they act x)........................ ......................... If vectors are in different directions, they must be added using a vector diagram (in which vectors are joined y)...................... to .............................). This diagram can then be analysed mathematically using z)............................ and/or trigonometry to find the aa)................................ vector. The complete answer must contain both the magnitude and ab)...................... of the resultant. If 2 or more force vectors cancel each other out, they are said to be in ac)........................................ In such a case there is no ad)............................ force and so the object or vehicle will continue to move ae)................................ ..................................... with no af)...................................................... Friction is a force which always ag)......................... the motion being considered. ah).......................... is the force acting in a rope, chain or wire connecting objects together. It acts in ai)...................... directions within the coupling. When a vehicle turns a corner it is accelerating, because the aj)........................... keeps changing. The force causing this is called ak)....................................... force, and is directed at the al)................................ of a circle. The instantaneous velocity vector is a am)...................................... to the circle.


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Worksheet 5 Acceleration

Practice Problems
Student Name...........................................
ms-1 a) Find the rate of acceleration of the racer.

1. Starting from rest (i.e. u=0) a car reaches 22.5 in 8.20 s. What is the rate of acceleration?

2. A truck decelerated at -2.60 ms-2. It came to a stop (v = 0) in 4.80 s. How fast was it going when the brakes were applied? 3. A car was travelling at 12.0ms-1. How long would it take for it to reach 22.5ms-1, if it accelerated at 1.75ms-2? 4. A spacecraft was travelling in space at 850ms-1 when its retro rockets began to fire, producing a constant deceleration of 50.0ms-2 (i.e. acceleration of -50.0ms-2) The engines fire for 20.0s. What is the spacecrafts final velocity at the end of this time? Interpret the meaning of the mathematical answer. 5. The graph shows the motion of a drag race car.
1) Velocity (ms-1 40 60

b) Find the maximum speed it achieved in km/hr. c) What distance (in metres) did it travel between t=5.0s and t=8.0s?

d) At which TWO times was the car stationary? e) Describe the cars motion after t=8.0s.

f) Find the rate of acceleration at time t=10s.

g) Sketch a graph of displacement-time for this motion. Values on the graph axes are NOT required.


Time (s)



Worksheet 6 Newtons 2nd Law

Practice Problems
Student Name...........................................
5. A truck with mass 8.00x103kg is travelling at 22.5ms-1 when the brakes are applied. It comes to a complete stop in 4.50s. a) What is its average rate of acceleration?

1. What force is required to cause a 600kg car to accelerate at 2.65ms-2?

2. A 120kg motorcycle and its 60kg rider are accelerating at 4.50ms-2. What net force must be acting?

b) What net force is acting during this deceleration?

3. A 500N force acts on a truck with mass 3,500kg. What acceleration is produced?

6. A 60kg cyclist exerts a net force of 100N pedalling his 15kg bike for 10.0 seconds. Ignoring any friction; a) what acceleration will be produced?

4. What is the mass of a vehicle which accelerates at 3.20ms-2 when a force of 1.25x103N acts on it?

b) From a standing start, what velocity will bike and rider reach in the 10s?

c) What is the final velocity in km/hr?

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Worksheet 7 Mass & Weight

Practice Problems
Student Name...........................................
2. b) What is the total mass to be accelerated? c) What acceleration will occur?

1. A space capsule, ready for launch has a mass of 25,000kg. Of this, 80% is fuel. By the time it reaches Earth orbit it has burned three-quarters of the fuel. Later, it proceeds to the Moon and lands, with fuel tanks empty. (on Earth, assume gravity g=10ms-2. In orbit g=zero. On Moon, g=1.7ms-2) a) What is the capsules weight on Earth? b) In orbit, what is its i) mass? ii) weight?

3. An extra-terrestrial has a weight of 1.80x104N on his/her/its home planet where g=22.5ms-2. a) What is this creatures mass? b) What will he/she/it weigh on Earth, where g=9.81ms-2? c) The creatures personal propulsion device can exert a net force of 5.00x103N. What acceleration can the alien achieve while wearing the device? (Assume no friction, and that the device itself has neglible mass)

c) When it gets to the Moon, what is its i) mass? ii) weight? 2. In a laboratory experiment, a 500g trolley is attached by a string to a 250g mass hanging vertically over the bench. (Take g=10ms-2 , assume no friction) a) What is the size of the force which will cause acceleration?

Worksheet 8 Adding Vectors

Practice Problems
Student Name...........................................
4. A ship sailed 300km due east, then 200km due south, then 150km west. Where is it in relation to the starting point?

1. Find the resultant force, if a 25N force pushes eastward, and a 40N force pushes northward. (Remember to find magnitude AND direction)

2. If a 10N force pushes westward, and a 20N force pushes southward, and a 50N force pushes northward, what is the magnitude and direction of the resultant?

5. An object is being simultaneously pushed by 3 forces: Force A = 5.25N towards north Force B = 3.85N towards west Force C unknown. The object is NOT accelerating. Find the magnitude and direction of Force C.

3. An aircraft is flying at a velocity of 200ms-1 pointed due north, but there is a cross-wind blowing from the east at 20ms-1. What is the planes true velocity?

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Worksheet 9 Practice Problems Friction, Tension & Turning Corners

1. The engine of an 850kg car is producing a thrust force of 2.25x103N at the wheels. The car is accelerating at 2.15ms-2. What frictional force is acting?

Student Name...........................................

3. A 3,000kg aircraft is flying at 300 km/hr in level flight, and begins a circular turn with radius 500m. What centripetal force is needed to effect this turn? (Hint: first convert velocity to m/s)

2. A 1,200kg car is towing a 300kg caravan. a) If there was no friction, what force would the engine need to produce for the car and van to accelerate at 3.50ms-2?

4. a) The maximum grip force of each tyre on a 1,000kg car is 4,500N. What is the tightest turn (in terms of radius of curve) the car can negotiate at 90 km/hr? (Hint: velocity units?)

b) In this case, what tension force would act in the tow-bar? b) The same car comes to a curve with double this radius, (ie a much gentler curve) but it is travelling at double the speed. Can it make it? c) In fact, friction DOES act. Both car and van are subjected to a frictional force of magnitude 450N. (ie total 900N) What acceleration is achieved when the engine produces the force calculated in (a)?

d) What tension force acts in the tow-bar? (Hint: Tension must overcome the friction on the van AND cause acceleration... careful!)

5. The tension force in the coupling between this 25,000kg engine and the 10,000kg carriage is 1.5x103N. a) Calculate the acceleration of the whole train.

b) Find the force produced by the engine.

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Worksheet 10 Test Questions Multiple Choice


sections 1 & 2

Student Name...........................................

1. Which part of this graph (A, B, C or D) indicates an object moving, but with a lower velocity than elsewhere? 2. On this grid, one unit on the scales represents 1 metre & 1 sec. The average speed over the first 3 seconds (in ms-1) is: A. 0.75 B. 1.3 C. 2.0 This Velocity-Time graph refers to Q3, 4 and 5.
Velocity North


9. A laboratory trolley is found to have 5 different forces acting on it. The trolley is motionless. Four of them are known: 0.75N weight force, vertically down 0.75N reaction force, vertically up 3.2N east 2.5N east The 5th force must be: A. 7.2N in all directions B. 0.7N west C. 5.7N west D. 0.7N east


D. 1.0

10. In an experiment, a 700gram trolley was found to accelerate at 1.70ms-2. What net force must have acted on it? A. 1190N B. 1.19N C. 412N D. 2.4N 11. A car is turning a clockwise, circular curve at a constant speed. At a particular instant, its velocity vector is directed east. At that instant its acceleration vector is directed: A. north B. south C. east D. west


It shows the motion of an object travelling north.

3. In section D of this graph, the 0 1 2 objects motion is Time (sec) best described as: A. moving southward at constant velocity. B. moving southward, and decelerating. C. moving northward, and decelerating. D. moving northward at constant velocity.

Longer Response Questions

3 4

Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space. 12. (7 marks) A light aircraft flew 150km due north in 2.00 hours, then turned and flew 100km west in 1.00 hour. a) Calculate the average speed (in km/hr) for the whole flight.

4. In the first 3 seconds of this motion, the time when the object was stationary was: A. graph section A B. graph section B C. time = 2.5s D. time = zero 5. An instant of time when the acceleration is zero is: A. t = 1.25s B. t = 2.0s C. t = 4.0s D. never 6. The arrows represent 2 vectors. The numbers show the magnitudes of each vector. 12 The resultant of these 2 vectors would be a single vector with a magnitude closest to: A. 16 B. 160 C. 8 D. 13 4

b) Find its final displacement from the starting point, including direction.

c) Calculate its average velocity for the whole flight.

13. (5 marks) An aircraft is being simultaneously affected by 4 forces: Lift, acting vertically upwards Weight, acting vertically downwards Thrust, acting horizontally forwards Drag, acting horizontally backwards Sketch the vector diagram of these forces to show any resultant net force acting when: a) the plane is in level flight at constant velocity.

7. A aircraft taking off accelerated along the runway from rest to 150ms-1 in 30s. The acceleration rate (in ms-2)is A. 4,500 B. 5.0 C. 50 D. 120 8. An astronaut, who on Earth ( g10ms-2 ) has a weight of 800N, lands on a moon of Jupiter where the gravity g=1.50ms-2. His weight on this moon would be A. 120N B. 1200N C. 80kg D. 800N

b) the aircraft is speeding up AND gaining height. (No numerical values are required)

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Worksheet 10 (Continued)
14. (4 marks) The following Displacement-Time graph shows a journey in a north-south line. Displacement south (-v ve) north (+ve)

Student Name...........................................
17. (6 marks) A broken-down car is being towed as shown. 400kg 750kg Friction = -2 200N

D Time A B C

2 a = 1.50ms-2

Both cars are accelerating at 1.50ms-2. Someone accidentally left the hand brake on in the car being towed, causing a friction force of 200N to act as shown. Other friction forces are minor and may be ignored. a) What is the net force acting on the entire system? b) What thrust force is being provided by the front car? c) Calculate the tension force in the tow-cable.

Sketch the corresponding Velocity-Time graph for the same journey. There is no need to show any numerical values on the axes, but sections A, B, C, D should be clearly labelled.

15. (4 marks) a) Calculate the net force acting on a 2.50kg trolley that accelerates from rest to 3.50ms-1 in 5.00s. b) The trolley is being pulled by a string. The tension in the string is found to be 2.20N. What force of friction is acting?

18. (6 marks) This car is turning a corner to the drivers left, at constant speed. a) Mark clearly on the diagram (and label) vectors to represent i) instantaneous velocity ii) acceleration iii) any net, unbalanced force The radius of the curve is 25.0m. The cars speed is 22.0ms-1, and mass is 500kg. b) Calculate the centripetal force acting between the tyres and the road.

16. (7 marks) In a laboratory experiment, a trolley of fixed mass was accelerated by different forces. The acceleration was measured in each case. Results:Force Applied (N) Acceleration (ms-2) 1.5 1.2 2.5 1.9 3.0 2.3 4.5 3.6 a) Graph these results appropriately. b) State your interpretation of the graph.

c) The maximum grip possible from each tyre is 2,500N. Explain what will happen, and why, if the curve becomes tighter... e.g. radius decreases to 23.0m. 19. (6 marks) An alien creature has a weight of 5.50x103N on his/her/its home planet where g=15.3ms-2. a) What is this creatures mass? b) What will he/she/it weigh on Earth, where g=9.81ms-2? c) The creatures personal propulsion device can exert a net force of 2.50x104N. What acceleration can the alien achieve while wearing the device? (Assume no friction, and that the device itself has neglible mass)

c) Use your graph to find the mass of the trolley.


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Energy of a Moving Vehicle
You will be already aware that any moving object possesses Kinetic Energy. The bigger the object, and the faster it moves, the more energy it has. In fact, the amount of energy due to an objects motion is calculated as follows: Kinetic Energy

The Concept of Work

In Physics, work doesnt mean employment for money. Work has a very specific mathematical meaning. If a force acts over a displacement, then Work is done. Work

Ek = 1 mv2 2
Ek = Kinetic Energy, in joules ( J ) m = mass of the object, in kg v = velocity, in ms-1

W = F.S
F is Force in newtons (N) S is displacement (in metres)

Note that Energy is a Scalar. Energy has no direction associated with it. Northbound energy does NOT cancel southbound energy. If 2 vehicles collide head-on, their opposite directions do not cancel their energies at all... thats why so much damage can be done in a collision!

From this equation you would expect that the units of work would be newton-metres (Nm). You can use newton-metres as the unit, but it turns out that a newton-metre is equivalent to a joule of energy... Work & Energy are Equivalent WORK = ENERGY This means, for example, if a vehicles engine exerts a FORCE, we can now calculate the effects of the force in various ways:
Initial velocity u=0

Effect of Mass & Velocity on Kinetic Energy

Some simple example calculations can make an important point:
Mass 1,000kg Velocity 1 10ms-1

m= 500kg

F = 1,000N
Force from Engine acts this way

Force is applied over a distance of 100m. Time taken = 10 s.

Calculation 1 How much Ek does this vehicle have? Ek = 0.5mv2 = 0.5 x 1,000 x = 50,000 J (or 50 kJ) 10 2

Force causes acceleration F = ma 1,000 = 500 x a 2 a = 2.0 ms-2 The acceleration goes on for 10s v = u + at = 0 + 2 x 10 1 v = 20 ms-1 Notice how 2 totally different calculations give the same result... ..dont you just love it when things work?!

Force acting over a distance does work which increases the cars Kinetic Energy (and velocity) Work, W= F.S = 1,000 x100 = 100,000 J Work = Gain of Ek Done Ek = 0.5 m v2 100,000 =0.5x500x v2 v2 = 400 1 v = 20 ms-1

Calculation 2 What if you double the mass? (same velocity) Ek = = 0.5 x 2,000x 102 = 100,000 J (or 100 kJ) So, 2X the mass gives 2X the Kinetic Energy. 0.5mv2

Calculation 3 What if you double the velocity? (same mass) Ek = 0.5mv2 = 0.5 x 1,000 x 20 2 = 200,000 J (or 200 kJ) So, 2X the velocity gives 4X the Kinetic Energy !!!

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Work is Done to Slow Down, Too

In the previous example, the force applied by the cars engine was used to increase the cars Kinetic Energy and velocity. What about when the car slows down?
mass=500kg BRAKES APPLIED Initial Velocity 1 u = 30 ms-1
Displacement = 100m during braking

Final Velocity 1 v = 10 ms-1

What Change of Energy Occurred?

Change in Kinetic Energy = Final Ek - Initial Ek

Interpretation: What do the negative quantities mean? Negative Ek means that the car has LOST Kinetic Energy. Negatve Force means that the force of braking was in the opposite direction to the motion.
You could also calculate the acceleration: F=ma -2 2000 = 500 x a 2 a = -4 4.0 ms-2 The negative shows that this is a deceleration.

Ek = 0.5mv2 - 0.5mu2 = 0.5x500x102-0 0.5x500x302 = 25,000 - 225,000 Ek = -2 200,000 J

This energy change must equal the WORK DONE by the brakes to slow the car down.
W = F.S -2 200,000 = F x 100 F = -2 2,000N The brakes applied a force of -2 2,000N Work

Energy Transformations
Energy can be changed from one form into another, and does so frequently.
Electricity Sound

Energy Transformation When Accelerating

When the car engine does Work to accelerate the car, the energy transformation is: CHEMICAL POTENTIAL ENERGY (in petrol) KINETIC ENERGY



We find electricity very useful because it can be easily transformed into many other types of energy.

Note: this transformation is really quite inefficient, and only a fraction of the energy in the petrol actually ends up as motion of the car. Most is lost as heat energy from the engine, gearbox, wheel bearings, etc.

Energy Transformation When Braking

When the brakes do Work to slow the truck down, the main energy transformation is:

Law of Conservation of Energy

This is a very grand-sounding title for a very simple concept:

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but only changed in form

Whenever you think energy has been used up and is gone, what has really happened is that it has changed into another form which might not be obvious any longer.
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This heat seems gone because it dissipates into the surroundings... but the energy still exists. 22
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Energy Transformations in a Collision

When a bouncy ball collides with a wall it will bounce off again. A lot of its original Kinetic Energy is conserved, meaning that after the collision, it is still in the form of Kinetic Energy. A collision in which 100% of the Ek is conserved is said to be an Elastic Collision. True elastic collisions occur only at the atomic level, such as the particles in a gas bouncing off each other. Even a really bouncy ball will lose some of its Ek with each bounce, and so is not truly elastic. The energy itself is not lost, but transformed into other energy types, such as heat. When a moving vehicle has an accident, there is rarely much bounce involved. The collision is almost totally Inelastic, in that all of the Ek of the moving vehicle is rapidly transformed into heat, sound and the damage done to vehicles and people.

The Law of Conservation of Energy demands that the Kinetic Energy of a moving vehicle cannot just disappear when the vehicle collides with something and stops suddenly. There is some heat and sound energy produced at the instant of the collision, but this is only a tiny fraction of the Ek to be accounted for. Most of the energy is transformed as the Work done on the vehicle and the people involved. Remember, that work means a force acts over a distance. In a sudden collision, this often means a very large force acting over a short distance, to permanently distort, damage and destroy the vehicle and the people. And remember... double the speed means 4 times as much energy to be converted into death and destruction! As they say, Speed Kills.

Vehicle distorted by the energy transformation

Sound & Heat produced

Example Calculation: Energy, Work & Force in a Collision

Calculate the force which acted on this car The driver of this 820kg car lost control at 140km/hr and hit a solid rock embankment. The vehicles structure was badly distorted. It is estimated that the work done on the car was due to a force which acted over a distance of only about 2.50m, in a fraction of a second.
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Velocity =140 km/hr = 140/3.6 1 v = 38.9 ms-1 Kinetic Energy Ek = 0.5m v2 = 0.5 x 820 x 38.9 2 = 6.20 x 105J During the collision, this energy transformed into the work done on the car, causing the damage. Work W = F.S 6.20x105 = F x 2.50 F = 6.20x105/2.50 = 2.48x105N i.e. a force of 248,000N This is equivalent to being underneath a 25 Tonne weight !! Usage & copying is permitted according to the Site Licence Conditions only


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Worksheet 11

Work & Kinetic Energy

Student Name...........................................

Fill in the blank spaces. Any moving object possesses a)............................ energy. The 2 factors which determine how much energy a moving object has, are its b).................... and its c)............................. Their effects are not equal however; if the mass is doubled, then the Ek is d)........................., but if velocity is doubled then the Ek is e)........................... Energy is a f)..................... (vector/scalar) and the unit is the g)............................ Work is done when a h)........................ acts over a i)..................................... If the effect of the force is to speed up or slow down a vehicle, then the work done is equal to the change in j)....................... ................................

The Law of k)........................... of Energy states that Energy cannot be l)............................ nor.............................., but can be m)............................................ The important energy transformation in an accelerating vehicle is n)........................................ energy (in the petrol) is converted into o)...................... .......................... energy. When braking, the p).................................. energy of the vehicle is mostly converted into q)........................... energy in the brakes. In a collision, most of the Ek possessed by the moving vehicle is used to do work and cause r).................................... to the vehicle and its occupants.

Worksheet 12 Work & Kinetic Energy

Practice Problems
Student Name...........................................
6. The engine of a 900kg car provides a force of 1,200N. If this force acts to accelerate the car from rest (u=zero) over a 75.0m displacement, a) how much work is done on the car? b) How much kinetic energy does it gain? c) What is the cars final velocity? d) Find the acceleration of the car, using F=ma. e) How long did it accelerate for? 7. A fully laden truck with mass 10,000kg is travelling at 25.0ms-1 when the engine is switched off and it is allowed to coast on a level road. Over a distance of 250m it gradually slows down to a new velocity of 8.50ms-1. a) How much kinetic energy does it lose? b) What is the average force acting on it as it slows down? c) What is the nature of the force acting? d) Use F=ma to find its average rate of deceleration, and hence find the time period involved. 8. The rider of a bicycle strapped a rocket engine on the bike, in an attempt on the World Stupidity Record. The combined mass of bike+rocket+rider was 250kg. When fired, the rocket provided 8,000N of thrust for just 5.20s. a) Use F=ma to calculate the acceleration produced. b) From a=(v-u)/t, find the final velocity. (u=0) achieved, ignoring any air resistance or friction. c) Find the gain in Kinetic Energy. d) Since this equals the work done by the rocket, calculate the distance covered during the acceleration.

1. Calculate the Ek possessed by a) a 200kg motorbike & rider, moving at 10ms-1. b) the same bike and rider, travelling at 30ms-1. c) Between parts (a) & (b) the velocity increased by a factor of 3. By what factor did the Ek increase? 2. A car with mass 800kg has 160,000J (160kJ) of kinetic energy. What is its velocity i) in ms-1? ii) in km/hr? 3. A 600kg vehicle accelerates from 12.5ms-1 to 30.0ms-1. What is the change in its kinetic energy? 4. A 5,500kg truck was travelling at 20.0ms-1, but then slowed down, losing 5.00x105J of kinetic energy as it did so. What was its new velocity? 5. How much work is done in each case? a) A 50N force acts on an object over a distance of 4.5m. b) A 4.0kg mass accelerates at 1.5ms-2, over a displacement of 3.2m. c) Over a 50m distance, a 30N force acts on a 6.0kg mass.
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Momentum is a vector quantity (i.e. direction counts) which measures the combined effect of a moving objects mass and velocity.
Momentum = mass x velocity

Conservation of Momentum in a Collision

Kinetic Energy can only be conserved in an elastic collision, which only happens at the atomic scale. In real-life vehicle collisions most of the kinetic energy is transformed into heat and distortion to the vehicles. Unlike kinetic energy, momentum is always conserved. When 2 vehicles collide: Total Momentum = Total Momentum before Collision after Collision
Car A Car B

The symbol used for momentum ( Greek letter rho.

) is the

Unit of momentum = kilogram-m metre/sec 1) (kgms-1

Kinetic Energy also depends upon both mass and velocity, but Momentum measures a totally different property of a moving object. Momentum is a vector, whereas Ek is scalar. Ek is never conserved in a collision, but Momentum always is.
MASS 100kg

Mass = mA Initial Velocity = uA

Mass = mB Initial Velocity = uB

Total Momentum before collision

i = mA.uA + mB.uB

Example Compare the Momentum of these Two Vehicles Bicycle

Note: Since momentum is a vector, you must assign (+ve) and ( -ve) signs to show that these cars are travelling in opposite directions.

Velocity 1 east 1.50ms-1

Now the vehicles collide. Lets imagine that the wrecked cars re-bound from each other, each with a new, final velocity.
Final Velocity = vA Final Velocity = vB

=mv = 100 x 1.50 1 east = 150 kgms-1

Total Momentum after collision

f = mA.vA + mB.vB

(Again, the same (+ve) and ( -ve) signs as before need to be assigned for opposite directions) 600kg


1 v = 25.0ms-1 south

Conservation of Momentum means that when you do the calculation you will find that


= 600 x 25.0 = 15,000 kgms-1 south

Total Momentum = Total Momentum before Collision after Collision

Comparison The car has 100 times more momentum than the bike, because the car is much more massive, and it is travelling at a higher velocity. The momentum vectors are also in totally different directions.

mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB

Conservation of Momentum

STUDY THE EXAMPLES next page. WORKSHEET at the end of this section

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Example 1

Example 3

Collision with a Stationary Vehicle

Car A Car B

Collision with an Immovable Object

e.g. Rock Cliff

Mass = mA = 500kg Initial Velocity = uA 1 = 20.0ms-1

Mass = mB = 750kg Initial Velocity = uB = 0 Final Velocity vB Car A stops, Car B moves. What is Car Bs velocity?

Mass = mA = 500kg Initial Velocity = uA 1 = 20.0ms-1

Stops Final Velocity = vA = 0

Cars Final Velocity = 0 Car stops. Cliff does not move. Where has the momentum gone?

i = f mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB

500x20.0 + 750x0 = 500x0 + 750x vB 10,000 + 0 = 0 + 750 vB vB = 10,000/750 = 13.3ms-1 Car B moves forward at 13.3 ms-1

Momentum must be conserved, so the intitial momentum (10,000kgms-1) still exists. It has been absorbed by the Earth, so the Earths rotation has been changed. However, the immense mass of the Earth means that its velocity has been altered by such a tiny amount that it is not measurable.
Conservation of Momentum often goes against common sense. After a vehicle collision, things usually stop moving almost immediately. This is because of friction acting on damaged vehicles with broken axles dragging on the ground, etc. In the instant after the collision however, the momentum HAS been conserved.

In every example, the Momentum is conserved. If you calculate the Total Kinetic Energy before and after each collision, you will see that it is NOT conserved in any of the cases. The missing energy is used to damage and destroy the vehicles.

Examples of Conservation of Momentum in Collisions

Example 4

(+ve) and ( -v ve) signs must be assigned

Collision with a Vehicle Moving in the Same Direction

Car B

Example 2 Head-on Collision. Vehicles lock together.

Car A east-b bound (+ve) Car B west-b bound ( -v ve)

Car A

Mass = mA = 500kg Initial Velocity = uA 1 = 20.0ms-1 Cars lock together

Mass = mB = 750kg Initial Velocity = uB 1 = (-) )25.0ms-1 What is Final Velocity?

Mass = mA = 500kg Initial Velocity = uA 1 = 20.0ms-1

Mass = mB = 750kg Initial Velocity = uB 1 = 10.0ms-1

A keeps moving, but slower

B is jolted forward

1 Car B is jolted forward at new velocity =15.0ms-1 What is Car As final velocity?

i = f mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB Since the cars lock together, their final velocity is the same
500x20.0 + 750x (-25.0) = (500 + 750) x v 10,000 - 18,750 = 1250 v v = -8,750/1250 = -7.00ms-1 Both cars move at 7.00ms-1 west 26

i = f mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB

500x20.0 + 750x10.0 = 500.vA + 750x15.0 10,000 + 7,500 = 500vA + 11,250 17,500 - 11,250 = 500vA vA = 6,250/500 = 12.5ms-1 Car A continues to moves forward, but at slower velocity of 12.5 ms-1
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Newtons 3rd Law of Motion

It was Sir Isaac Newton who figured out WHY momentum must be conserved in a collision. It is because, when one object collides with another, it exerts a force on the other object, and that one pushes back! For Every Action Force there is an Equal, but Opposite Reaction Force Newtons 3rd Law explains quite a few things...
Reaction Action Reaction
Action force blasts the exhaust gases backwards. Reaction force thrusts the rocket forward.

Impulse of a Force
The Impulse of a force is defined as the product of force and the time for which the force acts.
Impulse = Force x Time

I = F.t
If Force is in newtons (N), and time is in seconds (s) Then the units for Impulse seconds (N.s) will be newton-s

So what? Well, study the maths... Start with Newtons 2nd Law, F = ma

When a cannon fires, there is always a recoil or kick-b back.


a= v-u t


F = m(v - u) t F.t = m(v - u) F.t = mv - mu

Walking would be impossible without Newtons 3rd Law. You push on the ground, and the ground pushes back. Reaction Action

Multiply both sides by t


Change in Momentum Impulse = Change in Momentum

... including Conservation of Momentum.

F.t = mv - mu
This means that the unit of Impulse (N.s) must be the same as the 1) unit of Momentum ( These units are inter-c changeable

Why Momentum is Conserved

In a collision between moving Car A and stationary Car B

Action Force A pushes on B

Reaction Force B pushes back on A with equal force

This turns out to be a very useful relationship.

Example A car driver applied the brakes for 6.00s and 1 down slowed his 800kg vehicle from 25.0ms-1 1. to 10.0ms-1 What was the average force applied by the brakes? Solution Impulse = Change in Momentum F.t = mv - mu = m(v - u) F x 6.00 = 800 (10.0 - 25.0) F = -1 12,000 / 6.00 = -2 2,000N

When A pushes on B, this force accelerates car B according to F=ma. This causes car B to accelerate and gain momentum. Meanwhile, car Bs reaction force pushes back on A, with an exactly equal, but opposite force. This causes A to decelerate and lose momentum. and momentum = momentum lost by A gained by B

Since the momentum lost by one is equal to that gained by the other, it follows that the total amount of momentum has not changed, and therefore that

Momentum has been Conserved!

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The braking force was -2 2,000N Note that the answer is negative, indicating that the force is acting against the motion, causing deceleration.


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Worksheet 13
Fill in the blank spaces.

Momentum & Impulse

Student Name........................................... Newtons 3rd Law states that k)............................................................................. ................................................. This explains rocket propulsion, and why guns l)............................. when fired. It also explains Conservation of m)................................. The n)................................. of a force is defined as force multiplied by the o)...................... for which the force acts. The units are p)....................................... The impulse of a force is equal to the change in q)................................................. which it causes. COMPLETED WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

Momentum is the product of a)............................. multiplied by b)............................... It is a c)............................. quantity (vector/scalar) with units d).................................... In any collision, momentum is e)............................................ This means that the total momentum before the collision is equal to the f)......................................................................... This is not always apparent and in agreement with common sense. For example, after a car collision everything g)............................ very rapidly. It would seem that all momentum has been h)......................... However, this is because of i).......................... acting on the wreckage. In fact, in the instant following the collision, momentum has been j).........................................

Worksheet 14 Momentum

Practice Problems
Student Name........................................... 6. A 600kg car is travelling at 27.0ms-1, when it collides with a stationary 1,500kg utility. The vehicles lock together on impact. Find the velocity of the wreckage immediately after impact.

1. Calculate the momentum of: a) a 120kg bicycle (including rider) travelling at 5.25ms-1. b) a 480kg car travelling at 22.5ms-1. c) a 9,500kg truck travelling at 32.0ms-1. 2. A 750kg car has momentum of 1.15x104 kgms-1. What is its velocity?

7. Two identical 700kg cars are travelling in the same direction, but at different speeds. One is moving with a velocity of 24.5ms-1 and fails to notice the other in front doing just 8.50ms-1. The rear-end collision stops the back car instantly. Find the velocity of the front car immediately after the collision.

3. A passenger bus is travelling at 80.0km/hr. Its momentum is 1.40x105kgms-1. What is its mass?

4. The bus in Q3 slowed down from 90.0km/hr to 50.0km/hr. What was its change in momentum?

8. A truck is heading north at 15.0ms-1 when it has a head-on collision with a 900kg car, which was heading south at 35.0ms-1. On impact the 2 vehicles lock together and move north at 6.25ms-1. Find the mass of the truck.

5. A motorcycle (total mass 180kg) is heading north at 35.0ms-1. Meanwhile a 630kg car is heading south at 10.0ms-1. Compare the momentum of these 2 vehicles.

9. In a head-on collision, both vehicles are brought to a stop. (i..e. final momentum = zero) a) Explain how this is possible. b) If one vehicle was twice the mass of the other, what was true about their velocities?

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Worksheet 15 Impulse
1. Find the Impulse in each case: a) A 20N force acted for 4.0s.

Practice Problems
Student Name........................................... 4. During braking, a car with mass 850kg slowed to a stop from a speed of 50km/hr (13.9ms-1). The average braking force had a magnitude of 3,900N. How long did it take to stop?

b) 150N of force was applied for 1 minute.

c) For 22.5s a 900N force acted. 5. In a rear-end collision, the stationary car is jolted forward with a new velocity of 8.50ms-1 in the instant after collision. The cars mass is 750kg. a) How much momentum did the vehicle gain?

2. a) A force acted for 19.0s and resulted in 380Ns of Impulse. What was the size of the force?

b) To achieve 2,650Ns of impulse, for how long must a 100N force be applied?

b) In the actual collision, the cars were in contact for just 0.350s. What force acted on the struck vehicle?

c) How much force is needed to achieve 1240Ns of impulse in a time of 32.5s? c) How much momentum was lost by the other vehicle?

3. A 400kg car accelerated from 10.0ms-1 to 25.0ms-1 in 8.25s. a) Calculate its change in momentum. d) What force acted on it?

b) What is the impulse? e) The moving vehicle had a mass of 1,450kg and was moving at 10.5ms-1 before the collision. What was its velocity immediately after collision?

c) What average acceleration?





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Worksheet 16 Test Questions Multiple Choice

sections 3&4

Student Name...........................................

Longer Response Questions

Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space. 7. (5 marks) A 600kg car braked from a velocity of 25.0ms-1 to 8.50ms-1 over a distance of 50.0m. a) What force was applied by the brakes to achieve this?

1. A vehicle has mass M and velocity V. Another vehicle has mass 2M and velocity 2V. The ratio between their kinetic energies would be: A. 8:1 B. 4:1 C. 2:1 D. 1:1 2. The work done on a vehicle is equivalent to the A. acceleration of the vehicle B. change in momentum of the vehicle C. change in kinetic energy of the vehicle D. force multiplied by time for which it acts 3. Which vehicle has the least momentum? A. 200kg motorcycle, at velocity 50ms-1. B. 800kg car, at velocity 3ms-1. C. 400kg mini-van, at velocity 2ms-1. D. 120kg bicycle and rider, at velocity 10ms-1. 4. Just before a head-on collision, the momentum vectors of 2 cars could be represented as follows: car P car Q 15,000kgms-1 5,000kgms-1 In the instant after the collision, car Qs velocity is zero. Which of the following shows car Ps momentum vector just after the collision? A. 20,000kgms-1 B. 10,000kgms-1 C. 10,000kgms-1 D. 15,000kgms-1

b) What is meant by the Law of Conservation of Energy?

c) Considering your answer to (b), explain what happened to this cars Kinetic Energy as it slowed down.

8. (4 marks) A 600kg car, heading north at 15.0ms-1 collided headon with a 500kg car heading south at 10.0ms-1. The vehicles locked together in the collision. Find the velocity (including direction) of the wreckage immediately after the collision.

9. ( 5 marks) For the same collision described in Q8: a) Calculate the change in Momentum of the northbound car.

5. TheConservation of Momentum in a collision is a consequence of: A. Law of Conservation of Energy B. Newtons 1st Law of Motion C. Newtons 2nd Law of Motion D. Newtons 3rd Law of Motion 6. Which of the following shows a correct relationship? A. Change in Momentum = Impulse B. Change in Kinetic Energy = Impulse C. Change in Momentum = Work done D. Change in Kinetic Energy = Change in Momentum

b) Given that the collision occurred in a time of 0.200s, find the average force that acted on the northbound car.

10. (6 marks) For the same collision described in Q8 (again!): a) Calculate the total Kinetic Energy of both cars combined before the collision.

(Ignore directions... energy is a scalar, remember) b) Calculate the Kinetic Energy of the combined wreckage after the collision. (use your answer to Q8)

c) Explain any difference in the amount of energy before and after the collision.

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Newtons 1st Law of Motion
Finally, we get to 1st Law! The 2nd and 3rd Laws are all about the things that happen when forces act, but 1st Law is about what happens when forces DONT act. A body will continue to travel in a straight line, at a constant velocity, unless a net force acts upon it. If at rest, it will remain at rest until a net force acts. Essentially 1st Law means that, if no net force occurs, then motion cannot change... no acceleration, no change in momentum is possible. Newtons 1st Law is probably the most difficult to understand because it seems to conflict with common sense. For example, if a moving car is allowed to coast without engine power, on a level road, it gradually slows down and stops. Doesnt 1st Law say that it should keep going at constant velocity if no force is acting? The explanation is, of course, FRICTION and air resistance. In all everyday situations there is always some friction acting against the motion.
Weight force W = mg Sudden Deceleration We feel thrown forward Net force on car

Inertia is defined as the tendency of any object to resist any change in its motion. This means that moving things have a tendency to keep moving, and stationary things tend to remain at rest - unless a net force acts on them. Newtons 1st Law is often called the Law of Inertia. Inertia is linked to the concept of mass... you could say that mass is the stuff that possesses inertia, or that inertia is a property of mass. You know from 2nd Law that it is mass that resists accelerations... the bigger the mass, the less acceleration occurs. Now we can say that this is because of inertia. In a moving vehicle, inertia causes many of the familiar things we observe:
Sudden Acceleration Forward We feel pressed-b back in the seat Net force on car Loose objects seem to fly backwards In fact, our bodies, and the loose objects, are simply trying to stay where they were, while the car accelerates forward. Loose objects seem to fly forwards In fact, our bodies, and the loose objects, are simply trying to remain in motion, while the car decelerates around us. Bike stops suddenly

Engine off... car coasting

Friction FORCES UNBALANCED. NET FORCE CAUSES DECELERATION retards motion Reaction force equals weight

We are used to the fact that to maintain a constant speed forward, the engine must supply a force.

The ultimate in inertia effects occur in collisions.

Engine pushing car with force equal to Friction FORCES BALANCED. NO NET FORCE, VELOCITY CONSTANT

Weight force W = mg Friction

Reaction force equals weight

The unfortunate rider has NOT really been thrown forward. His inertia has simply kept him in motion after his bike stopped moving suddenly.

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The Physics of Safety Devices

In a vehicle collision, most of the injuries to people are caused by inertia. Typically, when a car hits something there is a rapid deceleration. The car comes to a sudden halt, but the inertia of the driver and passengers causes them to keep moving forward, with tragic results: can be thrown through the windscreen. can sufferinjuries by hitting the dashboard. drivers can be impaled on the steering wheel. rear seat passengers can hit front seat passengers with lethal force.
CRUMPLE ZONE in Car Body In a collision, the car structure collapses, one section after the other

Energy & Momentum in Collisions

In this topic you have learned that, in a collision: Kinetic Energy is converted to distortion & destruction, and this is equal to the WORK DONE = Force x distance and Momentum changes as the vehicle changes speed, and this is equal to IMPULSE = Force x time The effect of most safety devices is to maximise the time and distance over which these changes occur, because this will minimise the force.

Example Calculation 1

In a collision at 50km/hr (approx 14ms-1), a 75kg passenger is brought to rest (on the dashboard) in a time of 0.25s What force acts on the persons body? Solution Impulse = Change in Momentum F.t = m(v - u) F x 0.25 = 75 (0 - 14) F = - 4,200 N Lethal Force! (The negative simply means the force was acting against the motion)

This distortion absorbs the kinetic energy and increases the time to come to rest

Seat Belts restrain people, and prevent their inertia from throwing them into the dash, or through the windscreen. The belt has a little give, and stretches to increase the time of momentum change... less force acts!

Example 2
Same person, same collision, but because of a crumple zone in the car body, air bag and seat belt, the time for them to stop moving is increased to 1.25s. What force acts on the person this time? Solution Impulse = Change in Momentum F.t = m(v - u) F x 1.25 = 75 (0 - 14) F = - 840 N Survivable! CONCLUSION

Safety Devices Increase the Time & Distance of Collision. This Decreases the Forces Acting on People

Other Strategies... Reducing the Speed

Crumple Zones, Seatbelts and Air Bags all help to reduce the effects of a collision. Another strategy is to reduce vehicle speed, so that vehicles generally have less Kinetic Energy and less Momentum to lose in a collision. It also gives drivers more time to react to danger and perhaps avoid the collision.

Air bags are triggered by inertia, and set off a chemical explosion that releases a gas to inflate the bag. This cushions the person (especially their head) and slows down their change of momentum... less force acts!
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How to force lower speeds, especially in residential areas: 50km/hr speed limits in residential streets. Speed humps and chicanes force drivers to slow down 32
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Worksheet 17
Fill in the blank spaces.

Physics of Safety
Student Name........................................... In a sudden stop you feel as if you are q).................... ..................................., but really your inertia is trying to r).................... ............................... while the car s)................................... around you. In a collision, most injuries are due to t)......................... When a car stops abruptly in a collision, the pasengers inertia keeps them moving into the dash, or through the u)........................ Most safety devices such as v)............................ and ..................................... work by increasing the w).......................... over which the person stops moving. This helps by reducing the x)........................... acting on their body. Since Impulse equals change in y)................................, then for any given amount of momentum, the larger the z)........................ involved, the aa)......................... the force acting. Another strategy to minimise the effects of vehicle accidents is to reduce driving speeds, because less speed means less ab)......................... energy and ac)......................... to be lost in a collision. Strategies to slow traffic down include lower speed limits in ad)....................................... and the installation of ae).......................... and .................................... Student Name...........................................

Newtons 1st Law of motion is all about what happens when forces a)........................................ The Law states that a body in motion will b)........................................................ unless c)...........................................If it is at rest, it will d)........................... until e)....................................... Observation of everyday events seems to contradict 1st Law. For example, we observe that vehicles need to be powered to maintain f)....................................., and that they slow down and stop when no forces seem to be acting. This is because we dont see g).................................... acting. To maintain a constant speed, a cars engine must supply force equal to h)................................ Then, and only then, are the forces i)....................................... and there is there NO net force: 1st Law is obeyed. j)............................. is the tendency of any object to resist any k).......................................... Inertia is a property associated with l).........................., the stuff that resists m)........................................ when a force acts. When a car accelerates forward, it feels as if you are being n)..................................... In reality, your o)......................... is trying to keep you stationary, while the car p).................................. around you.

Worksheet 18 Test Questions Multiple Choice

section 5

Longer Response Questions

Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. Answer on reverse if insufficient space. 3. ( 3 marks) State Newtons 1st Law of Motion, and use it to explain why an unrestrained passenger may go through a car windscreen during a collision.

1. Most safety devices in modern cars are designed to reduce the effects of a collision by:
A. B. C. D. reducing the time duration of the collision. increasing the change of momentum involved. decreasing the distance over which the forces act. increasing the time duration of the collision.

2. As the car accelerated when the traffic lights changed, a book on the dashboard jumped back into Sallys lap. She immediately thought of several possible explanations for the motion of the book. Which one is correct? A. The book was pushed by a backward, 3rd Law reaction force. B. The book stayed still as the car accelerated forward. C. The book was pushed by centripetal force. D. As the car moved forward, the book moved back, to conserve momentum.

4. (3 marks) One of the important safety features of modern motor vehicles is the crumple zone built into the front and rear. a) Describe what happens to this crumple zone in a collision. b) Explain how this reduces the forces which act on people in the car during a collision.

5. (4 marks) a) Explain, with reference to how velocity contributes to kinetic energy, why government agencies might seek ways to slow traffic down. b) List 2 strategies that local governments use to force traffic to slow down.

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Answer Section Worksheet 1

a) distance c) gradient e) horizontal line g) scalar i) magnitude & direction k) direction m) down o) velocity q) time r) velocity at a particular s) average velocity u) instantaneous b) time d) stationary, not moving f) zero on the speed scale h) vector j) displacement l) negative n) gradient p) displacement instant of time t) displacement and time v) sonar or light gates

2. a) 100/3.6 27.8ms-1. b) V = S/t, so S = V.t = 27.8x5.00 139m. c) V = S/t, so t = S/V = 1,000/27.8 36.0s. 3. a) 20.5ms-1 = 73.8km/hr (north) -24.5ms-1 = -88.2km/hr (south) b) S = V.t = 20.5x30,0 = 615m north -24.5x30.0 = -735m ( 735m south) c) t = S/V = 100/20.5 = 4.88s 100/24.5 = 4.08s 4. 1st leg: S = V.t = 460x2.50 = 1,150km west 2nd leg: = 105x(50x60) =315,000m =315km east 3rd leg: = 325x3.25 1,056km west 4th leg: = 125x(5.50x60x60) = 2,475,000m = 2,475km east Let east be (+ve), west be ( -ve) Final displacement = -1,150 + 315 -1,056 + 2,475 = +575 km (east) of starting point.

Worksheet 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 200+100 = 300km +200 + (-100) = 100km north 5hr Speed = dist/time = 300/5 = 60km/hr V = S/t = 100/5 = 20km/hr 6. graph
Displacement North (km)
100 200

Velocity (km/hr) South North

7. from graph: i) gradient = 200/3 67 km/hr ii) gradient = zero iii) gradient = -100/1 = -100km/hr (i.e. 100km/hr south) 8. graph

Worksheet 4
0 1 2

Time (hr)

Time (hr)
1 2 3 4 5

Worksheet 3
1. a) 600km b) 1.5hr c) V = S/t = 600/1.5 = 400km/hr north d) gradient = -900/3 = -300 e) Flight from Q to R f) R is 300km south of P g) Position = over town P. Velocity = 300km/hr south h) i) distance = 1,500km ii) Speed = 1,500/6 = 250km/hr iii) Final displacement = 300 km south iv) V = S/t = 300/6 = 50km/hr south i) graph
400 300

a) velocity b) slowing down c) direction d) vector e) negative f) ms-2 g) curve h) sloping, straight line i) horizontal j) gradient k) negative l) force m) external n) unbalanced o) 2nd p) net force applied q) inversely r) newton s) kg t) ms-2 u) matter v) force w) gravity x) in the same line y) head to tail z) Pythagoruss Theorem aa) Resultant ab) direction ac) equilibrium ad) net force ae) in a straight line at constant velocity af) acceleration ag) opposes ah) Tension ai) both aj) direction ak) centripetal al) centre am) tangent



Worksheet 5

1. a = (v - u)/t = (22.5-0)/8.20 = 2.74ms-2 2. u = v - at = 0-( -2.60x4.80) = 12.5ms-1 3. a = (v - u)/t \ t = (v - u)/a = (22.5 - 12.0)/1.75 = 6.00s 4. v = u + at = 850 + (-50.0)x20.0 = -150ms-1 The final negative velocity means it is moving backwards, compared to its original direction.

Velocity (km/hr)



Time (hr)
1 2 3 4 5 6





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Worksheet 5 (cont)
5. a) in first 5.0 seconds, gradient = 70/5.0 = 14 acceleration = 14ms-2. -1 b) reached 70ms 70x3.6 = 252km/hr c) For these 3 seconds it was travelling at 70m/s S = V.t = 70x3 = 210m. d) Stationary at t = zero and at t = 13s. e) It was decelerating to a stop. f) Acceleration = gradient = -70/5.0 = -14.0ms-2. g) rough sketch Deceleration: curves down to horizontal Constant Velocity: straight line Acceleration: curves up from horizontal

Worksheet 8
1. R2 = 402 + 252 Tan = 25/40 = 32o R = sq.root(2,225) = 47N Resultant = 47N at 32o bearing 2. R2 = 302 + 102 R = sq.root(1,000) = 32 Tan = 30/10 = 72o

10 20

R = 32N, 72o north of west (bearing 342o).


Tan = 20/200 R2 = 2002 + 202 = 6o R = sq.root(40,400) = 201


Note: Although slowing down, the vehicle continues to move away from the start, so the DisplacementTime graph never shows a negative gradient.

Worksheet 6

1. F = ma = 600x2.65 = 1,590 = 1.59x103N. 2. F = ma = (120+60)x4.50 = 810 = 8.10x102N. 3. F=ma, so a=F/m = 500/3,500 = 0.1428...= 1.43x10-1N. 4. m=F/a =1.25x103/3.20 =390.6... = 391kg (3.91x102kg) 5. a) a=(v-u)/t = (0 -22.5)/4.50 = -5.00ms-2 (deceleration b) F=ma = 8.00x103x(-5.00) = -40,000N = -4.00x104N. (Negative force = opposing the motion) 6. a) a=F/m =100/(60+15) = b) a=(v - u)/t, so v=u+at = 0 + 1.33x10.0 = 13.3ms-1. c) 13.3x3.6 = 47.9km/hr. 1.33ms-2.

R = 201ms-1, 6o W of N (bearing 354o) Note the directions in these last 2 problems. One angle was N of W, another W of N. Study the vector diagrams to see why. Bearings (clockwise from north) are best.

4. R2 = 1502 + 2002 R = sq.root(62,500) = 250 Tan = 200/150 = 53o R = 250km, 53o



S of E (bearing


Worksheet 7

1. a) W=mg = 25,000x10 = 250,000 = 2.5x105N. b) i) Take-off mass is 80% fuel=20,000kg of fuel + 5,000kg capsule. 3/4 is burned reaching orbit, so 5,000kg fuel + 5,000kg capsule remain. Mass in orbit = 10,000kg. ii) In orbit (free fall) weight = zero. c) i) No fuel left, so mass = 5,000kg. ii) W=mg = 5,000x1.7 =8,500N = 8.5x103N. 2. a) W=mg = 0.250x10 = 2.5N. b) 750g = 0.750kg. c) a=F/m = 2.5/0.750 = 3.3ms-2. 3. a) W=mg, so m=W/g = 1.80x104/22.5 = 800kg. b) W=mg = 800x9.81 = 7,848 = 7.85x103N. c) a=F/m = 5.00x103/800 = 6.25ms-2.

5. Not accelerating means there is NO net force, The 3 forces must be in equilibrium F2 = 5.252 + 3.852 F = sq.root(42.385) = 6.51 Tan = 5.25/3.85 = 54o


3rd Force = 6.51N, 54o S of E (bearing 144o).

Worksheet 9

1. Net Force: F= ma = 850x2.15 = 1.83x103N. Net Force = Thrust + Friction 1.83x103 = 2.25x103 + Friction Friction = -420N (-4.20x102N). (negative because it opposes the motion) 2. a) F=ma = (1,200+300)x3.50 = 5.25x103N. b) T=ma = 300x3.50 = 1.05x103N. c) Net force = Thrust + Friction = 5.25x103 + (-900) = 4.35x103N F=ma, so a=F/m = 4.35x103/1,500 = 2.90ms-2. d) Tension must overcome 450N of friction and accelerate the van at 2.90ms-2. So T=ma +450 = 300x2.90 + 450 = 1.32x103N. 3. v = 300/3.6 = 83.3ms-1. F = mv2/R = 3,000x83.32/500 = 4.16x104N.

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Worksheet 9 (cont)
4. a) v=90/3.6 = 25ms-1. Total grip from 4 tyres = 4,500x4 = 18,000N. F=mv2/R, so R=mv2/F = 1,000x252/18,000 = 34.72... = 35m. b) R=70m, v=50ms-1. Centripetal force needed: F=mv2/R = 1,000x502/70 = 35,714N Since the maximum grip of the tyres is only 18,000N, the tyres cannot provide the force needed to to turn this corner... car will spin out. 5. a) Tension in coupling will accelerate carriage: T=ma, so a=T/m = 1.5x103/10,000 = 0.15ms-2. (and entire train must accelerate at the same rate) b) Engine force must accelerate entire train: F=ma = (25,000+10,000)x0.15 = 5.3x103N.

15. a) F=ma and a = (v - u)/t, so F = m(v - u)/t = 2.50x(3.50 -0)/5.00 = 1.75N. b) Visualise with a vector diagram. Tension 2.20N Friction Net Force 1.75N Net Force = Tension + Friction 1.75 = 2.20 + F Friction = -0.45N. 16. a) b) Graph shows a direct relationship between force and acceleration. c) gradient = force/acceleration = 3.0/2.5 = 1.2 Trolley is approx. 1.2kg.
5 4

3.0 Force (N)



0 0

Worksheet 10
1. C 7. B 2. B 8. A 3. C 9. C 4. D 10. B 5. A 11. B 6. D 12. a) Total distance = 150 + 100 = 250km Total time = 2+1 = 3.00hr. Av.Speed = distance/time = 250/3.00 = 83.3km/hr. 100 b) vector diagram essential R2 = 1002 + 1502 R = sq.root(32,500) = 180km Tan = 100/150 R = 34o o Displacement = 180km, 34 W of N (bearing 326o) c) v = S/t =180/3.00 = 60km/hr, bearing 326o. 13. a) Forces in equilibrium means the vector diagram must close so there is no resultant. b) Since it is speeding up, then Thrust> Drag. Since it is climbing, then Lift > Weight.
Thrust Lift Drag Thrust increased Resultant Force Weight Drag Weight

2) Acceleration (ms-2


17. a) Since the net force causes acceleration: F= ma = (750+400)x1.50 = 1,725 = 1.73x103N. b) Vector diagram: Thrust Net force Friction Net F = Thrust + Friction 1.73x103 = Thrust + (-200) Thrust = 1.73x103 + 200 = 1.93x103N. c) Tension must accelerate the towed car AND overcome the friction. T = ma + 200 = 400x1.50 + 200 = 800N. 18. a) on diagram b) F = mv2/R = 500x22.02/25.0 = 9.68x103N.
i) V tangent to circle ii) a iii) F (toward centre of circle)

Lift increased

19. a) W=mg, so m=W/g = 5.50x103/15.3 = 359kg. b) W=mg = 359x9.81 = 3,522 = 3.52x103N. c) a=F/m = 2.50x104/359 = 69.6ms-2.

(+ve) C. accelerating time B. stopped zero velocity A. constant negative velocity

Velocity 0

D. constant positive velocity

Remember that for full marks in calculations, you need to show FORMULA, NUMERICAL SUBSTITUTION, APPROPRIATE PRECISION and UNITS

(-v ve)

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Worksheet 11
a) kinetic b) mass c) velocity d) doubled e) quadrupled (4X) f) scalar g) joule ( J) h) force i) distance j) kinetic energy k) Conservation l) created nor destroyed m) transformed (into other forms of energy) n) (chemical) potential o) kinetic p) kinetic q) heat r) distortion/damage

8. a) F=ma, a = F/m = 8,000/250 = 32.0ms-2. b) a = (v - u)/t, v = u + at = 0 + 32.0x5.20 = 166ms-1. c) Ek = 0.5mv2 - 0.5mu2 = 0.5x250x1662 - 0 = 3.44x106 J. Ek = Work = F.S, so S = W/F =3.44x106/8,000 d) = 431 m.

Worksheet 13
a) mass b) velocity c) vector d) e) conserved f) total momentum after collision g) stops moving h) lost i) friction j) conserved k) For every action force there is an equal, opposite reaction force. l) recoil (kick) m) momentum n) Impulse o) time p) newton-seconds (N.s) q) momentum

Worksheet 12
1. a) Ek = 0.5mv2 = 0.5x200x102 =10,000 =1.0x104 J. b) = 0.5x200x302 =90,000 =9.0x104 J. c) increased 9 times (i.e. 32) 2. a)Ek = 0.5mv2 , so v2=2xEk/m = 2x160,000/800 v2 = 400, so v = 20ms-1. b) v=20x3.6 = 72km/hr. 3. Ek = 0.5m(v2 - u2) = 0.5x600x(30.02-12.52) = 2.23x105 J. 4. Ek = 0.5mv2 - 0.5mu2 (-5.00x105) = 0.5x5,500xv2 - 0.5x5,500x20.02 Note: change in KE is negative, because energy was lost. (-5.00x105) = 2,750v2 - 1.10x106 v2 = (-5x105 + 1.1x106)/2,750 v = sq.root(218.18...) = 14.8ms-1.

Worksheet 14
1. a) = mv = 120x5.25 = 630kgms-1. b) = mv = 480x22.5 = 10,800 = 1.08x104kgms-1. c) = mv = 9,500x32.0 = 304,000 = 3.04x105kgms-1. 2. = mv, so v = /m = 1.15x104/750 = 15.3ms-1. 3. v = 80.0/3.6 = 22.2ms-1 = mv, so m =/v = 1.4x105/22.2 = 6.31x103kg. 4. u = 90.0/3.6 = 25.0ms-1. v = 50.0/3.6 = 13.9ms-1 = mv - mu = 6.31x103x(13.9-25.0) = -700 (negative, lost momentum) = -7.00x102kgms-1. 5. motorcycle: =mv =180x35.0 = 6.30x103kgms-1 north. car: = mv = 630x10.0 = 6.30x103kgms-1 south. Comparison: both vehicles have the same magnitude of momentum, but in opposite directions. (Remember, momentum is a vector) i = f mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB Since the cars lock together, final velocity is the same. 600x27.0 + 1,500x0 = (600+1,500)xV 2,100V = 16,200 v = 7.71ms-1. i = f 7. mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB 700x24.5 + 700x8.50 = 0 + 700x VB VB = (17,150+5,950)/700 = 33.0ms-1. i = f 8. mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB (let north be +ve, south -ve) mAx15.0 - 900x35.0 = mAx6.25 + 900x6.25 8.75xmA = 31,500 + 5,625 mA = 37,125/8.75 = 4.24x103kg. 9. a) If they had equal magnitudes of momentum, but opposite directions, then the sum of their momentum = zero. b) To have equal magnitudes of momentum, the product MxV must be the same for each (ignoring direction).If one has twice the mass, the other must have twice the velocity. 6.

5. a) W = F.S = 50x4.5 = 225 N.m (2.3x102 N.m) b) W = F.S and F = ma, so W = ma.S = 4.0x1.5x3.2 = 19 N.m c) W = F.S = 30x50 = 1500 = 1.5x103 N.m (mass not used) 6. a) W=F.S = 1,200x75.0 = 90,000 = 9.00x104 N.m. b) 9.00x104 N.m. (because Work = Ek) Ek = 0.5mv2 - 0.5mu2 c) 9.00x104 = 0.5x900xV2 - 0 v2 = 9.00x104/450 v = sq.root(200) = 14.1ms-1. d) F=ma, a=F/m = 1,200/900 = 1.33 ms-1 e) a=(v-u)/t, t=(v-u)/a = (14.1-0)/1.33 = 10.6s. 7. a) Ek = 0.5mv2 - 0.5mu2 = 0.5x10,000x(8.502 - 25.02) = -2.76x106J. (energy lost, so negative) b) Ek = Work = F.S, so F = W/S = -2.76x106/250 = -1.11x104N. (Negative force, because it acts against the motion) c) Friction d) F=ma, a=F/m = -1.11x104/10,000 = -1.11ms-2 (deceleration) a = (v - u)/t, so t = (v - u)/a =(8.50-25.0/-1.11 = 14.9s.
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Worksheet 15
1. a) I = F.t = 20x4.0 = 80Ns. b) I = F.t = 150x60 = 9x103Ns. c) I = F.t = 900x22.5 = 20,250 = 2.03x104Ns. 2. a) I=F.t, so F=I/t = 380/19.0 = 20.0N. b) I=F.t, so t = I/F = 2,650/100 = 26.5s. c) F=I/t = 1,240/32.5 = 38.2N. 3. a) = m(v - u) = 400x(25.0 - 10.0) = 6.00x103kgms-1. b) I = 6.00x103kgms-1. (Impulse = change in momentum) c) I=F.t, so F = I/t = 6,000/8.25 = 727N. 4. = m(v - u) = 850(0 - 13.9) = -11,815 = -1.18x104kgms-1. (negative because it lost momentum) Change in momentum = Impulse = F.t t=I/F = -1.18x104/-3,900 (negative force, opposing motion) = 3.03s. 5. a) = m(v - u) = 750x(8.50 - 0) = 6,375 = 6.38x103kgms-1. b) = Impulse = F.t, so F = I/t = 6.38x103/0.350 = 1.82x104N. c) Momentum is conserved, so momentum gained by one equals momentum lost by by the other. Momentum lost by the other vehicle =6.38x103kgms-1. d) F = -1.82x104N (by Newtons 3rd Law) = m(v - u) (momentum lost, so negative) e) -6.38x103 = 1,450x(v - 10.5) v = -4.4 + 10.5 = +6.10ms-1. (i.e. still moving forward, but slower)

9. a) = m(v - u) = 600x(3.64 - 15) = -6.82x103kgms-1. (negative, because the change in momentum was southward, or a loss of northward momentum) b) = Impulse = F.t = -6.82x103 F = -6.82x103/0.200 = -3.41x104N. 10. a) Ek = 0.5mv2 northbound car southbound car Ek = 0.5x600x15.02 Ek = 0.5x500x10.02 = 67,500 J = 25,000 J Total Ek = 92,500 = 9.25x104J. b) After collision, velocity = 3.64ms-1 Ek = 0.5x(600+500)x3.642 = 7.29x103 J. c) Over 90% of the original kinetic energy is gone. Some has been transformed into the sound and heat of the collision, but most has been used to distort and damage the vehicles.

Worksheet 17
a) do not act b) continue moving in a straight line, with constant velocity c) acted upon by net force d) remain at rest e) acted upon by net force f) constant speed g) friction/retarding forces h) friction i) balanced/in equilibrium j) Inertia k) change of motion l) mass m) acceleration n) pushed backwards o) inertia p) accelerates q) flung forward r) keep you moving forward s) decelerates t) inertia u) windscreen v) seatbelts, airbags & crumple zones w) time (and distance) x) Force y) momentum z) time aa) smaller ab) kinetic energy ac) momentum ad) residential areas ae) speed humps & chicanes

Worksheet 16
1. A 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. A 7. a) Work = change in kinetic energy F.S = 0.5m(v2 - u2)=0.5x600x(8.502 - 25.02)= -165,825 J F = -165,825/50.0 = -3.32x103N. (negative force, because opposing the motion) b) It means that energy cannot be created or destroyed... it never disappears or ceases to exist. It simply gets transformed from one type to another. c) The car lost kinetic energy, but this energy didnt disappear... it was transformed, mainly into heat, by the brakes. i = f mA.uA + mB.uB = mA.vA + mB.vB Let north be (+ve), south ( -ve) Since the cars lock together, their final velocity is the same 600x15.0 + 500x(-10.0) = (600 + 500)xV 9,000 - 5,000 = 1,100V V = 4,000/1,100 = 3.64ms-1 north (since answer is +ve) 8.

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Worksheet 18
1. D 2. B 3. 1st Law: A moving object will continue to move in a straight line at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a net force. If at rest it will remain at rest unless a force acts on it. In a collision in which a vehicle stops suddenly, an unrestrained passenger will continue to move according to 1st Law, and may go through the windscreen.

4. a) The car body is designed so that it collapses, one section after another, and crumples in like a concertina. b) This extends the time over which the car loses its momentum. Since change of momentum = Impulse = Force x time, then for any given amount of momentum, increasing the time involved reduces the force acting on the people in the vehicle, and decreases the risk of injury or death. 5. a) Kinetic energy depends upon both mass and velocity, but velocity has the biggest contribution, since Ek = 0.5mv2. This means doubling the velocity increases the energy by a factor of 4. Since velocity is so important, it means that reducing speeds can greatly reduce the energy involved in vehicle accidents, and reduce the incidence of death and injury. b) Build Speed humps & Chicanes in streets. Create low speed zones in residential areas, and around schools.

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