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E>~f'l""~ . O....

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REPUBLIC

OF GHANA

GHANA METEOROLOGICAL SERVICESDEPARTMENT


DEPARTMENTAL

NOTE

No. 23

II

1\1AXI'MUM RAINFALt 'INTENSITY-DURATI'ON'.


)

FREQ.UENCIES. IN GHANA

by.,

J. B. DANKWA

Legon

1974

r:

REPUBUC

GHANA

MAXIMUM

OF

GHANA

METEOROLOGICAL

SERVICES DEPARTMENT

. DEPARTMENTAL

NOTE

No. 23

RAINFALL INTENSITY-DURATION
FREQUENCIES

IN GHANA

by

J. B. DANKWA,

I i( 'I'i\' .
,

Legon

1974

B. SC' M. Sc.
t

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The
all

people"

make
the

this

Author
too

wishes

numerous

publication

possible,

Hydrometeorological

Un iversity

ol

Science

his

and

the

Technology,

is made

diverse

t
ways

of members

many

students

Kumasi

who

from
computed

Senior

Special
mention
must also be made of Mr. S. E. Tandoh,
Meteorologist
in charge
of Climatological
Section
who
the

manuscript

vacation

appreciation
in

figures

read

their

deepest
helped

Mention

section
and

who

of the

gently

during

to express
to mention,

and

the
most

training.

offered

many

useful

suggestions.

to

the
dili

FOREWORD
TODAY
ted

that

water

it can

resources

almost

be called

Like

no ather

subject

it has

riety

of fields

notably

civil

national

planning

Water

quality

on the

This

for the
and

many

other

dertaken

to a better

investments

itself

scientists

from

regional

and

data

on the

one

into
the

cognizance

not only

relationship

hand

and

the

between
various

dathe

p Ic nn i n q

is designed
users
projects
resources

.c i vi l

to assist

to arrive
such

at suitable
as

engineers
design

dams,

bridges,

developments

that

may

as
criteria

culverts,
be

u n-

country.

that

the

planning

of the

water

judicious
of projects
resources

use

of this

publication

for large,oScale

and

w i I I
long.term

in Ghana.

F. A. A. ACQUAAH
DIRECTOR

va-

other.hand

of water

It is hoped
lead

in

hydrology,

takes

but also

engineering

in the

so sophistica-

discipline

together

engineering,

planning

interested

forms

become

economics

publication

as other

has

an academic

brought

themselves

of available

techniques

well

and

resources

ta requirements

planning

OF METEOROLOGICAL

SERVICES

INTRODUCTION
L 1
Suitable
hydrologic
design
criteria
are basic
problems
engineers
encounter
these

design

criteria

hydrologic

problems

storage

capacity

tures,

are

capacities

vement

schemes,

criteria

are

infrequent

include

sewer

etc,

design

criteria

cases
e.g

be tolerated.

disaster!

that

should

ever

filled

such

a great.economic
spillway

ana lysed

is required

over

toppling

dam'

would

design

These

extreme

und

techniques

are

as well

co nn

be such

,floods

arrived
as

entirely

must

largest

limits

in the

fail

criteria

the

by s p e c ial

the
the

cri-

dot

where

to pass

0-

on

design

frequency

of safety

d esi gn

damage

dams

Here,

analysis

Optimum
for larger

are

s t r u cimp

conditions,

be able

to occur.

c ic ] statistical

data

as optimum

channel

flood

degree

things

of repairing

analysis,

u high

earth

Under

cost

The

for concrete

etc

of providing

economic

derived
from precipitation
tech n iq u e s ,

In specific

likely

cost

such

design
culverts,

the

structures
Primarly,

considerations.

things

systems

against

for such

1.1.1

the

other

s p i IIway

by balancing

occasion

wnich are
stati stical

among

of chennels,

storm

obtained

And

on economic

of reservoirs,

carrying

teria.

based

for most river


the world over,

that

are

at by s p e-

physical

reason--

ning.
1.2

Apart

slides,

from

netural

meteorological

major

floods.

volve
resulting

this

estimates

tation"

and

verted

into

are

these

referred

flows

to as

"Probale
by any

Maximum

I andeffects
start

statistical

rainfall

Floods"

in-

case

Maximum

suitable

of
with

analyses

in which

"Probable

of the

causel

analyses

and

of storm

and

the

physical

physical

limits

become

flood

earthquakes

directly

such

The

of upper

as

are

reason

studies.

estimation

such

conditions

For

meteorological

causes

the

Precipi-

when

con-

conventional

me-

thods
1.3
feria
cal

It must

be pointed

for any

structure

considerations

qu i re d to permit
site

involves
our

job

in analysis

understanding

sis

and

2.1

past

ties

have

rainfall

shown

fa 11- in te n s ifi e s are


partment.
gether
into
effort
country.

few years,

an increasing

for drainage

design
scanty

the

this
and

importance

design

of

river

engineers
interest

facilities,.

and hove

and

note

even

and
flood

will

pra,ctices

politiAs

analysis

re

potential

of

contribute
in

Ghana

of hydrological

to
and

a n a

ly-

structures.

and
for the

other

i n te r e s t e d par-

frequency

Information

existed

cr i-

nature

data

of the

that

procedure

OF STUDIES:

the

moral

of design

of hydrologic

assessrnent

PURPOSES
Over

selection

is to provide

of the

efficient

final

economic,

It is hoped

to a better
in safe

the

to those

an intelligent

in question.

an improvement

that

in addition

hydrometeorologists,
the

out

in various

of

hea vy

on m o x im u m rainforms

in the de-

The need to collect


all these
pieces
of information
toone complete
form has never
been felt as now when every

is being

made

to resuscitate

the

shattered

economy

of

the

2.2

For

used

this

reason,

to analyse

of Ghana

all

with

one

common

the

available

sufficiently

long

derived
from these
analysis
p c ri s o n ,
And the purpose
these

data

in a form

statistical
rainfall

and

will

records

have a common
present
analysis

find

a ready

has

bee n

for the mcijor stations

accurate

would
of the

which

technique
data

so that

values

basis
for com.
is to
presen
t

use

for all

interested

parties.

BASIC DATA USED:


3.1

There

na.
nel

are

at present

(18)

The records
of autographic
s u Hl c l en tly long records

degree.
tions

with

and

over,

formed

Extreme

Synoptic

Stations

in

Gh e ,

thods

method

exist

for maximum

rainfall

Values

putee!

using

out

of five

years

duce

realistic

son,

stations

period

ten years;

of 5,

rigid

calculations
a minimum

results

one

maximum

value

within

higher

for

3.3.2

The

values

greater

100

were

c o m-

a value

years

that

with
will

on the

are
be e q-

aver

ag

10 years

return

fall

short

values
accor ding
of record
to
pr o-

values.

For

of 10 years

were

this

rea

discarded

a Iy s is.

Series:

value
these

than

method.
25,50,

amount

five

rnebel's

15,20,

context,

3.3.1
A series
of annual
maximum
value
ving one maximum
value
for each
successive
est

Gum

r e

stations

of return
period
of about
ten years

records

Partial Duration

only

10,

is the

in every

but

statistical

synoptic

In this

once

other

analysis

periods"
eighteen

that

of time.

whose

in th e pre s e n tan

of their

sto-

Fun c ti on s we

Value

and

for example

only

3.2.2
Statistical
to Gumbel,
require

been

for at least

It is recognized
intensity

method.

or exceeded
a long

3.3

synoptic

analysis.

simplicity

of the

Gumbel's

period

over

for its

for "return

for fourteen

ualled

at these

extending
present

on Extreme

e nc ly s l s .

years
turn

of the

of Gumbel

is preferred

3.2.1

basis

present

in the

method

the

guages

Value Analysis:

The
utilised

:3

eighteen

These
major stations
are manned
by meteorological
person.
hence
the accuracy
of elata can be guaranteed
to a rreasonable

the

partial

is given
years

highest

duration

than

series

Analysis

tion

series

would

give

lues

based

on annual

omitted,

values

a certain

occurence.

for each,

are

values
maximum

in other
on the

based
which
series

the second
although

threshold

on data

or third

s o-me

As
high

may

have

list

of all

years.

other

value
will

st-

is an array of data
12. months
period.

hand

is-a

regardless
from

normally

in magnitude

of the

a partial
exceed
and

the
an

time

duro.
va

extreme

value
analysis
series
for best
However,
such

should,
results,
a series

of observations

and

The

Gumbel

estimating

extreme

dealt

with

by

statistical

the ory

Frequency

Sx

Standard

Deviation

of values

For

were

values

tables
Extreme

Rainfnll

Years
in a series

of maximum

annual

values

n-l

each

particular

using

duration,

station,

the

an appropriate

v c lu e s for the

each

from

i == I

scaled

fall

annual

period

(xi-X)2

4. Analysis:
4.1

for a return

of Annual
in

read

Period

number

s,

n~

of maximum

factor

Return

is

to be estimated

of series

K (T

rainfall

means

are

readily

equation

is not

Theory

3 4

therefore,
be based
on partial
d u rat
ion
particularly
for short return
period
va lues
is difficult
to abstract
from long
per i o d s

various

there

are

daily

scale,

durations

autographic

thus

could

specified

the

easily

c hart

maximum
be obtained.

thre s ho ld s below

r a i n-

which

For

val

ues

discarded.

These

are:-

TABLE I

DURATION OF
PERIODS IN HOURS

0.2

0.4

0.7

1.0

2.0

3.0

6.0

12.0

24.0

THRESHOLD
VALUES INCHES

0.5

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.5

1.5

Thus

ani y values

counted

4.2

as

significant

Ne)(t,

for each

picked

to form

ti o n s were
tion
years

which

was

to 29

in this

duration

an annual

computed
then

applied

exceed

these

The

thresholds,

are

context.

the

series

by the

indicated

maximum
whose

usual

value

mean

methods,

length

years,

of records

and

for each

was

standard

Gumbel's
ranged

d e v l ce qua.
from

1 5

TABLE

II
NO.
OF
YEARS OF
RECORDS

STATION

NO.
OF
YEARS OF
RECORDS

HO

19

TAMALE

29

TAKORADI

19

ACCRA

24

SALTPOND

16

10

W A

15

11

YEN

DI

15

ADA

15

12

WENCHI

15

NAVRONGO

18

13

KUMASI

18

AXIM

16

14

AKUSE

19

STATION

Graphical Representation
Intensities.

of Maximum

4.3

4.3,1

The

by this

method

values

as

centric

general

distribution

were

plotted

ordinates

curves

and

were

of rainfall
on 10g.log

duration

obtained

17

KETE-KRACHI

as

intensities

graph

as

sheets

abscissa.

for return

Rainfall

with

obtained,
intensity

A series

periods

of

c on-

I'lf 5, 10,25,50

and

100 years.
4.3.2
Spatial
Yolugs,lsopluvial
24 hour
years.

of Rainfall
Intensity.F
r e que
n c y
drawn for maximum
rainfall
values
for

Representation
lines
were

durations
Figs.

and
(15)

for return

periods

of 5,

10, 25,

10, 25,

,Also-, amounts
for durations
of 3,6
and 12 h
50 and 100 years
return
period
were expressed

of the

24 hour

percentages
were

values
for the

averaged

and

determined.

the

return
percentage

were

then

periods

each

5.2

half.
from

was

forms.

-thu

Fi gs (6.8)

In the

southern

SW towards

NE

half

maxim

Far as

CiS

maximum
r a in.
country
than
i r.

Jm 24.hour

northern

parts

val

of the

ue s
Volto

from where
they increase
s eu th-e c s rwnrd s as far as to th e
coast
line,
There
is a low region
around
the
A c c r a
just below the Akwapim
Scarp.
See Figs.
(1.5),

There
middle

Far as

These
duration

duration

in map

100

u r 0 f th e 5,
in per cent

periods.

within

for each

presented

and

AND DISCUSSIONS

northern

Region
eastern
Plains

exte

various

return

Genera lIy speaking,


for all return
periods,
values
are greater
in the southern
half of the

decrease

the

corresponding

a mean

These

RESULTS
5.1
fall

for the

50,

the

nds

is

boundary
eastwards

s is t s throughout
year return
i n ch e s ,

also

section

period

a low area

of the

between
beyond
(Figs
map,

1.5)
the

endosed

country

by 4 inches

extending

northern
Tamale.
and

and

upper

Fig.

1.

by the

endosed

10

from

time

isohyete

isohyete

in

area

as

Sunyani
regions
This

one

and
low

reaches

has "increased

area
the

a Iso
per.
100.
to 6,0

5.3

This

nual

rainfall

general

trend

pattern,

where

N E in the

lower

from where
coast
line.

the

5.4.
they

amounts

fall

within

the

whole

found
are

fall

country

distribution

as

from

far as

of

northern

realised

within

Extensive
have

of the

and

between

3 hours

over

This

tropical

90%

90% fall

is in conformity

areas

where

figures

Volta

Region
eastern

Figs (6.8)
d u rat ion

maximum

24

75 to alomost

12 hours
with

the

The

corresponding

One

periods
the

but

the

usefulness

easily

figures

It would

have

return
would

general

tre nd

am

periods

notice

for Accra

been

desirable

nc n-un l Ie rm ity will


of these

figures

out

if so desired.

be worked

90%

th re u qh cu t

u nts

and

differe

nt

the

return

p e-

that

r io d s for Navrongo,
Wenchi,
Axim and Accra
differ
slightly
the others,
Kumasi,
Ho, Takoradi,
Akuse,
Saltpond
and
sho w return
periods
of 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years.
for Navrongo,
Wenchi
and Axim are 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100

100 years.

hour

(Riehl).

for various

included.

a r ds

to the

90% of precipitation

10% of the time

been

within

an

SW tow

south.eastwards

70 and

within
and

country.

durations

normal

decrease

decrease

between

6 hours,

in most

5.5

of the

isohyetes

speaking

rainfall

the

amounts

maps of ls evp er c en+c l maps are attached


the 3.hour,
the 6hour
and the 12hour

Three
represent

Generally

half'

follows

are

5, 10,

to have

in no way

and

50

uniform

detract

graphs.

25,

fro m
A d a
Tho s e
yea r S.

and
retur

anything

n
from

Extrapolations

can

SUMMARY:
6.1
The
established

maximum
rainfall
for 14 stations

records

for Ghana.

utilised

so that

6.2

For

return

A common

records

to fall

within

can

periods

mum amounts
expected
trayed.
In addition,
ted

intensity
duration
curv.es
with sufficiently
long and
method

easily

(Gumbel's

of 5, 10, 25,

12 hours

50 and

in divers

ways

especiall>:

have

been

for design

11

100 years

have been
of these

hoped
that these
curves
and various
maps
practical
uses among
consulting
engineers
parties

has

bee

be compared.

within
24 hou~s
mean per centages

3, 6 and

have
bee n
ace u ra t e

the

spatially
amounts

included.

will readily
and other
purposes.

mc x l ,
p or
expe c .
It

is

find ma n y
interested

REFERENCES:
1. U. Sp e rn s , 1963:

. 2. WMO No 233

3. Guide

Rainfall
ln ten s l ty-Du re tl cn Frequency
for Ontario

T.P.

Estimation
of
Note
No. 98

Maximum

Floods

to Hydrometeorological
PracticesW.M.O.No.
PP A9 A.14

4. ASCE:

5. Gum bel,

Manuals

of Engineering
Handbook

Eo J. 1958:

S tat

12

Practice
No. 28
PP. 17 19 i

tic

Ext

Maps

Technical

168

T.P82

H y d rology

rem

MAXIMUM

RAINFALL

INTENSITIES

(INTENSITIES

AND

RETURN

IN INCHES/HOURS)

NAVRONGO

YENDI

PERIon
YEARS
DURA
TION
~ HO~JRS

0.2

10

20

50

100

PERIOD
YEARS
DURA
TION
~ Ii.OURS

4.35

4.85

5,35

5,95

6.45

0,2

5,50

6.20

6.60

7.20

7.80

8.40

4,50

5,08

5,38

6,20

6.60

7.40

10

15

25

58

100

0.4

3.88

( 10

4 ..50

5.20

6.00

0,4

0.7

3.00

330

3,60

4.20

4,70

0.7

3,61

3,93

4.30

4.90

5,10

5,60

1.0

2.50

2,70

3,00

3,50

3,80

1,0

3.05

3.41

3,61

3.86 4.20

4,53

2.0

1.52

1.76

2,00

2,20

2.50

2,0

1,74

1,99 2,13

2,31 2.54

2,77

3.0

1.15

1.25

1040

1,65

1,80

3.0

1,20

1,36

i.ss

1,56

1.71

1.86

6.0

0.65

0,76

0,86

0,99

6,0

0.62

0.70

0.77

0,8.

089

0,96

12.0

0.36

0,42

0.56

0,61

12,0

0,33

0,37

0.39

0.41

0.44

0.47

24.0

0,19

0.30

24,0

0,18

0.21

0,22

0,20

0.26

PERIOD
YEARS

0.48

0,22

0.26

0,2

1,09

34

A
10

20

'II E N CHI

15

LJUH.,"
TIOI
~ HOURS

25

50

YEARS

100

DL'R A

10

20

50

100

TIO"

~HOlR:'5.90

6.35 7.10

7.65

4.80 5,08

5.43

5,90

3.70

4,40

8.35

9.10

0.2

5,20

S,gO

6.20

6.80

7 20

6,80

0.4

0,15

4.60

5,01

5 S3

5,93

5<00

0,7

3.10

3,'31

3,l0

419

4A9

3.50

4.00

1.0

2.47

2.73

2.95

3 26

JA8

2..43

1.75

1.90

2 10

1 3i

1,47

1 59

04

4.30

0.7

2.99 3.30

0.1

2,41

2.0

1,48

1.60

1.70

3.0

1.25

2.22
1,66

1.48

1.14

2.00
1.50

2.0

1.09

1.83

3,0

1,05

160
1. 18

6.0

0.59

0.64

0.70

0.83

0.92

1.02

6,0

5.57

0,63

0.69

0.76

0,86

12.0

0.32

0.34

0.40

0,44

0,50

0,52

12,0

0.29

0.33

Q,37

0.41

OA4

24.0

0.17

0.20

0.22

0.24

0.27

0,30

24.0

0.16

0.18

0.20

0,23

0.25

2.61

4.49
2.88

3.09

TAMALE
PERlOD
YEAR~
DURA
TION
~flOURS

PERIODS

KETE

10

15

25

50

PERIOD
YEAR,S
DURI\TION
~HOURS

100

KRACHI

10

15

25

50

100

0.2

5.10

5.65

6.00

6040 6,95

7,45

0,2

5,35

6.00

6,35

6.30

7.40

8,05

0.4

3.93

4.40

4.68

5.20

6,00

6.40

0.4

4.85

5.45

5.78

6.20

6.78

7.20

0.7

3.19

3.64

3.80

4.00

4.64

5.00

0,7

3,80

4,30 4 70 5.00

5,30

6,00

1.0

2,48

2.84

3,04

3,29

3,63

3,96

1,0

3,51

3.80

4.00

4,31

4,80

1.59

1]0

2.40

2,0

1,88

2 02 219

2 42

265

1.12

1,20

1.84 2.10
1040 1.41

3,00
1,62

1.70

3.0

1.16

1.33

1.43

1,61

1.72

1.87

6,0

0,65

0.73

0,77

0,83

0.94

0.98

0.43

0.47

0,51

0.2~

0,28

0.30

2.0
3.0

1.40
0.99

6.0

0.55

0.63

0.67

0.78

0.80

0.96

12,0

0.30

0.36

0.39

0.42

0047

0,51

12.0

0,34

0.38

0.40

24.0

0.16

0.18

0.20

0.22

0,24

0,27

24.0

0.19

0.22

0.23

13

1~1"""IJVIUI.1

",""'~I

""'L..L.

II"

(INTENSITIES

I '-.,,"".

II~~

I"\I"V

1'\,,-

UI'\-I"IIII

IN INCHES/HOURS)

A X I M

KUMASI

L
L
L

10

15

25

50

100

0.2

5.40

6.05

6.45

6.95

7.55

8.20

0.2

0.4

4.65
3,69

5,00

5.65

6.10 6,70

4.10

4.5D

4.84

5.31

3.04

3.30

3.71

4.01

1.80

2. 10

2,37

3.0

1.30

1,52

6.0

0.76

12.0

0.7
1.0
2.0

1-

I~
PERIOD
YEARS

PERIOI)
YEARS
DURAnON
~HOURS

24.0

DURATI0N.
HOURS

10

20

50

100

5.40

6.15

6.75

7.65

8.45

7.30

0.4

4.60

5.15

OJ

3.83

4.31

5.85
4.]9

6.55

5.79

5.39

7.23
5.84

4.41

4.81

1.0

3.16

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

2.55

2.90

3 19

2.0

2.15

2.43

262

3,00

3.~9

1.63

1.78

1.98

2.30

3.0

1.64

1.83

2.97

2,34

3.54

0,90

0.98

L08

1.21

1.35

6.0

0.96

1.96

1.17

1.31

1.44

0.41

0,49

0,54

0 e. 60

0.68

0.71

12.0

0.54

0.61

0.68

0.77

0.85

0021

0,.25

0.37

004.1

OA5

H
'PERIOD
YEARS

0.28

0.31

0.35

24,0

0.38

I~

0.29

PERIOD
YEARS
DURA
TION
~HOURS

10

15

25

50

100

0.2

5,30

5.50

5,95

6.55

6.80

7.40

0.2

4.95

004

4.32

4.90

4]0

5.22

5..62

6.00

0.4

4.48

5.20

0.7

3.30

3.65

3.50

4.11

4.44

4.78

0.7

3,64

1,0

2.58

2.88

2.BO 3.25

3.52

3.79

1.0

2.0

1.60

1.92

1.12 1.95 2.20

2.40
1.81
1.09

3.0
6,0
12,0
24.0

I 1. 15 1.31
I 0.66 0.77
0.34 0.38
0.18 0.21

RIOD
l1EARS

I1-

25

100

5J5 6.25 6.80

7.60

8.35

5.63

6,15

6,85

7.55

4.20

4.51

4.51

5,44

5.97

3.10

3.86

3,90

4.20

4.50

5.00

2.0

2.02

2.32

2.49

2.71

2.99

3.27

3.46

1,67

0.82
0.46

0.94

1.78 1.93
1.00 1.09

2.12
1.19

2.29.
1.30

0.52

0.56

0.26

0.30

0.33

0.61 0.68
O.3~ 0.40

0.74
0,45

25

100

1.30

1.50 1.65
0,83 0.99
0.46 0,51

0.55

3.0
6.0
12.0

0,23

0.25

0.30

24,0

SALTPOND
PERIOD
YEARS

DURATION
~HOURS

15

50

0.;'4
0.42

0.28

10

~ K USE

I
I
II

Ot33

TAKORADI

DURATlO~
~flOURS

,-

rL.I"IVU~

10

15

25

50

100

DURAnON
~flOIJRS

10

15

50

7.00

8.75

9.6

10.7( 12.20

13.70

7.30

0.2
0.4

5.60

6.93

7.6'3

8.60

9.85

11.10

5,10

5.70

0.7

4016

5.10

5.63

6.30

7.17

8.06

3.80

4.20

4.70

1.0

3,35

4.09

4.50

5.03

5.72

6.41

2,19

2.35

2.70

2.90

2.0

1.93

2.35

2.58

2.87

3.26

3.64

1.59

1.70

1.85

2.03

2.24

3,0

1.39

1.68

1.85 2.06

2.33

2.61

0]8

0.92

0.94

1.06

1.15

6.0

0.76

0.91

1.00

1.10

1.24

1.38

12,0

0,3

0,46

050

0.55

0,62

0.68

12.0

0.49

0.54

0.60

0.68

0.76

24.0

0,21

0.24

0.27

0.29 0.33

0.37

24.0

0.25

0.28

0,31

0.35

0,39

0,2

6.00

6,00

6.60

7,20

7.80

8,60

0.4

5.05

5,58

5.90

6,27

6.80

0.7

3,88

4.40

4.110

4.70

1. 0

3.06

3.39

3,57

2.0

1.84

2,06

3.0

1.38

6,0

1.26

14

0.41
0.21

MAXIMUM RAINFALL

INTENSITIES

(INTENSITIES

AND RETURN PERIODS

IN INCHES/HOURS)

100
A

A C C R A

8,45

17.23
1- 5.84
i

3.54

0.85

3.;29

1.44

OAS

100

PERIOD
YEARS

10

. 25

50

100

PERIOD
DURA- YEARS
nON
~ HOURS

TION
~HOURS

0.7

4.4'1 5.00 5.40 6.00 6.50 7.20

3.31

3.66

4.01

1,0

3.59 4.30 4.70

1.75

2.08

2.58

2,0

2.54 3,00 3.26 3.58 4.02

4.45

1.15

1.30

1.50

2.33
1,72

1.90

3,0

3.16

0.62
0.34
0.17

0.77
0.42
0.21

0,94
0.52
0.26

1.07
0,60
0.30

1.13

6.0
12.0
24.0

1.81 2,14
0.99 1.14
0,51 0.59
0.26 0,30

7,75

3.90

4.60

5.20

5.80

0.7

2.93

3.37

3.91

1.0

2.46

2,83

2.0

1.49

3.0
6.0
12.0
24.0

0.67
0,34

8.35

I 0.74

i.40

0.45

jf

100

, 13.70
11.10

'0

__

8.06
I

6,41

326 3.64
2.61

.24 1.38
'.1

J.J:)

100

4.74

7.10

3.27
'ol2 2.29
LQ 1.30

8!>

50

4.33

6.50

"->

25

6.40

5.5~

,50 5.00

15

5.55 6,20 6.60 7.05 7,~5 8.40

5.00

5.97

I.

10

0.2
0,4

0.2
0.4

,85 7.55

..

5.00

)J
J

OUR

D A

0.76
0.39
lS

5,10 5.70 6.00 6.50 7.20

8.20

5.20 5.80 6,40

2.32 2.55
1.26 1.34
0.63 0,69
0.32 0.35

2.86
1.49
0,76
0,38

1.63
0,84
0.42

I NTENSI TIES
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(Values in inches)

PERIOD

.,

".

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I;

:,

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II

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Fig.1

MAXIMUM 24-HOUR

RAINFALL 10- YEAR RETURN PERIOD


(Va,lues in inches)

..
v

-c

MAXIMUM

")
U' 0

24-HOUR

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)

RAINFALL 2S-YEAR
(Values in inches)

"'

..--/,

:!-./(

T.-r",
rUiill~-...,:r-

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579

Wa

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W.lew.le~

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RETURN

PERIOD

..
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./0_'

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5.18

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5.38

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.

24-HOUR

MAXIMUM

50-YEAR

RAINFALL

PERIOD

RETURN

(Values Jn inches)
)'

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0'

7.0

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5,82

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Wangasi-Turu

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s

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Fig.4

30'

MAXIMUM 24- HOUR RAINFALL 100- YEAR RETURN PERIOD


(Values in inches)
,.--,-,.
U

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PER

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