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The Sabbatian Movement in Turkey (1703-1708) and Reverberations in Northern Europe Author(s): Richard H. Popkin and Stephanie Chasin Source: The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 94, No. 2 (Spring, 2004), pp. 300-317 Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1455429 . Accessed: 31/03/2011 07:33
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Jacques Basnage.2 The information on the Sabbatian movement came from early eighteenth-century letters by Johannes Heyman. These letters were sent to the burgermeister of Deventer. who informed him of a former pupil of his. Vol.. Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah (Princeton. In his history of the Jews. 2 (Spring 2004) 300-317 The SabbatianMovement in Turkey (1703-1708) and Reverberationsin Northern Europe RICHARD H. for providing information about the status of the Sabbatian movement in Jewish communities in Turkey. living in Smyrna at that time. a Flemish pastor in Turkey.THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW.J. the study of some of Nostradamus's prophecies by the Sabbatian leader Abraham Miguel Cardozo. Basnage apparently cites from the actual letters rather than from any printed source. All rights reserved. HMstoiredes Jutif depuid Jesus-Christ jusqa'a present: Pour de Joseph (The Hague. POPKIN AND STEPHANIE CHASIN some hitherto unknown documents that recently came to our attention. Gijsbert Cuper. namely.' When we looked up the reference in the fifteen-volume 1715-16 edition of Basnage. Egypt. 145. No. especially. The phenomenal excitement generated by Sabbatai Zevi's prophetic announcements of 1665-66 led to the appearance of prophets all over Europe and the OttoWE DISCUSS IN THIS ESSAY We would like to thank Professor Matt Goldish of Ohio State University for his interest and encouragement and. 2. N. we found a much larger text concerning Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples. 94. the Dutch consul at Smyrna. and Palestine. 1973). Our investigation started from a simple examination as to whether Gershom Scholem had used Jacques Basnage's Hi#toire desJtuti in his book on Sabbatai Zevi. n. 1716). servir de continuation a l'HIMtoire The Jeuwis Quarterly Reviue (Spring 2004) Copyright (? 2004 Center for Advanced Judaic Studies. . 646. 1. and was destined to become Cardozo's successor as leader of the Sabbatian movement. Gershom Scholem. and Baron Daniel Jan de Hochepied. Basnage mentions Heyman's meeting with Cardozo. We found that Scholem cites one item from Basnage's work. Daniel Israel Bonafoux.
Gershom Scholem. Neither Scholem nor Heyd mention Daniel Israel. "Cardozo. his connection to Cardozo.3 After his death there were messianic claimants in Poland and various parts of the Middle East.Jews. See Michael Heyd. trans. he makes no historical connection between what was going on in London. or the interest shown in him by European millenarians in the Netherlands and Smyrna. of Judaim in EarlyModern adelphia. 5:164-65. 758. forthcoming 2004). naming Sabbatai Zevi as the most famous imposter. Hebrew Univ.and the Study ed. Abraham Miguel. 4. 5.). Scholem writes that Cardozo was part of a Sabbatian group that believed Sabbatai Zevi would return forty years after his conversion to Islam.h Messiahs (New York. Michael Heyd discusses the anonymous text "The Devil of Delphos.. Allison Coudert and Jeffrey Shoulson (PhilEurope. and in the Ottoman Empire. as Cardozo's successor. Daniel Israel claimed that Sabbatai Zevi was still living and would. ed. hence Daniel Israel. TheHistoryof the Jewsfrom Jesus Chrit to thePresentTime. Jozeph Michman (Jerusalem: Institute for Research on Aviv-Jeruwalem. Popkin. Cardozo probably represented the mainstream group of survivors. Jacques Basnage. 2:67-74. (He also refused to convert to Islam as Sabbatai had done.6 Since Sabbatai Zevi died in 1676 this would put his reappearance at 1721. 1708 ed. Rotterdam." which lists false messiahs and prophets. 168-97.) 6. 1998).7While Heyd identifies the text as a comparison of Sabbatianism and the French Prophets. "Two Unused Sources about Sabbatai Zevi and his Effect on European Communities. "The 'Jewish Quaker': Christian Perceptions of Sabbatai Zevi as an Enthusiast." HebraicaVeritas? Christian Hebraists. In his recent treatment of European reactions to the Sabbatai Zevi story. some declaring themselves to be the reincarnation of Sabbatai.5 Following Cardozo. return as promised to deliver his people from their suffering. Or. . 1972). Thomas Taylor (London.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 301 man Empire. see Harris Lenowitz. The Jewui. could call upon the significant following that was still loyal to Sabbatai Zevi through Cardozo's interpretations. after forty-five years in hiding. Dutch Jewry. 7.4 In his article on Cardozo for the Encyclopedia Judaica. See Richard H. 1989). For more information about some of these other messianic prophets after Sabbatai Zevi's death. the Prophets of Baal. From 1703 until 1709 Heyman and Hochepied in Smyrna engaged in a lively discussion with Cuper in the Netherlands about the Sabbatian 3." Encyclopedia Judaica(New York. Cardozo had been the leading figure in the Sabbatian movement after Sabbatai Zevi's death but seems not to have been completely accepted because he was a Spaniard and not a Turkish Jew." Dutch Jewish History 2: Proceedings of the FourthSymposium on the Historyof the Jews in the Netherlands.7-10 December -Tel1986.
There were also several letters to Cuper from the Flemish pastor Heyman and the consul Hochepied. became their contact with the outside world. both there and in Leiden. . When the persecutions in France became unbearable. and it was clear from their letters that Calvinism lay behind their interest in the Jewish community of the Ottoman Empire. hiding in the woods and caves. the Sabbatian movement. these Protestants also fled. and its principal figures so intrigue these men? Was there a conversionary and millenarian impulse stemming from the Reformed Church that provoked inquiries into the Sabbatian movement? Did the curiosity about the Jews in Smyrna have a connection with the millenarian impulses of the contemporary French Prophets movement in Europe? And what does all of this tell us about Basnage's major work. and G. Pierre Bayle.itoire des Juf11? Setting out to learn what we could about Gijsbert Cuper. who went to the Royal Library and copied the letters in which we were interested and carried on a further search for related materials. carrying on their religious beliefs in secret. who put it in the 1708 English edition of his history of the Jews. A remnant remained in France. W. Cuper then passed this information on to Jacques Basnage. and others coincided with the arrival in 1707 in England of the Huguenot refugees.302 JQR 94:3 (2004) movement and the state of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire. Pierre Jurieu. of which only a small part has been catalogued. Petrus Burman. We are most grateful to Mr. Hundreds of thousands of refugees poured into the Netherlands. including Johann Georg Graevius. Cuper was professor of classics and headmaster of the Athenaeum at Deventer. In England. they became known as the French Prophets on account of their mystical practices and prophetic revelations about the portent of their predicament. Germany. Each of these men was a member of either the Dutch or the French Reformed Church in the Netherlands. we found a massive trove of papers by this polymath at the Dutch Royal Library. Buys for his invaluable help in our research. 9. the leader of the French Reformed Church exiles in the Netherlands (and Basnage's brother-in-law). Leibniz. We thank Professor Wiep van Bunge of Erasmus University of Rotterdam for putting us in touch with a Dutch graduate student. Basnage. Hi. He corresponded regularly with some of the leading scholars both in the Netherlands and abroad. and England. Hochepied.8 Cuper's correspondence with Heyman. sending them sermons and receiving messages from them. This correspondence between Smyrna and the Netherlands generates a number of questions. Jean le Clerc. We thank Matt Goldish for pointing out this coincidence. Why did events concerning the Jews. In the first decade of 8. Ruben Buys.9 After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 it was no longer legal to be a Protestant in France.
although the dating proved to be flexible. see Paul Dibon. Protestant millenarians learned as much as possible about the Sabbatians and Jew10.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 303 the eighteenth century. After 1665. . followed by great persecutions. scholars like Newton were trying to figure out when the Messiah would appear from the prophecies in the books of Daniel and Revelation. just some. The last decade of the seventeenth century and the first of the eighteenth was a period of serious millenarian expectation. 191-220. In light of this. Isaac Newton's most important mathematical disciple. Hillel Schwartz. Many of its leaders trained at Herborn. the significance of the Sabbatian movement was of immediate theological concern. became one of the movement's leaders.'0 Both Jacques Basnage and Gijsbert Cuper were extremely interested in the French Prophets and in the possibility that this group was the harbinger of an imminent millenarian development. and mathematically how long it should take to get to the end point in time. "Le fonds neerlandais de la bibliotheque de Herborn. how many remained to be fulfilled. when Sabbatai Zevi made his announcement that the messianic age had begun. with many calculations centered on 1655-56. Some left England for the Netherlands and started millenarian ferment among the French Reformed and Dutch Reformed Church. a Calvinist seminary in Germany with millenarian tendencies. 170-71. the premillennial theory offered by Joseph Mede at Cambridge and Johann Heinrich Alsted at Herborn included the conversion of the Jews as one of its crucial steps. and various members of English nobility joined the group. In England. Such Calvinist scholars tried to ascertain the date when this conversion would occur. It was to the leaders of the movement in Rotterdam that Pierre Jurieu provided both shelter and money. which held the Jews to be of critical importance in the culmination of human history. There was some question whether all Jews would be expected to convert." Regards ar la Hollandeda siecle d'or (Naples. In his Boyle lectures. From the seventeenth century. The FrenchProphets:The History of a MillenarianGroupin England(Berkeley. they attracted much attention. Great expectations were generated. William Whiston showed how many of the prophecies had already been fulfilled. 1990). like Saul of Tarsus. 1980). the Dutch Reformed Church kept up its millenarian hopes." Some of them supported the contemporary Jews of Amsterdam and watched their activities both inside and outside the synagogue for signs that the crucial end events were about to begin. On the history of Herborn. in Mede's theory. Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. In the Netherlands. just one. Etqhteenth-Centary 11. or.
13. Amsterdam was one of the principal centers of Sabbatianism. Jetteke van Wijk. he regarded these people as having a special religious role in the divine drama and sent supportive messages to 12.'3 Similarly.'4 Basnage. The coverage not only informed the Dutch and other Europeans as to the events in Smyrna but also facilitated the success of Sabbatianism in Europe. in her interesting article on the spread of the Sabbatian movement in Europe. 14. He sent John Dury a copy of Sabbatai Zevi's letter to the Amsterdam synagogue. It would be interesting to know if Jurieu also received material on the continuation of the Sabbatian movement in the Ottoman Empire in the early eighteenth century. 1828-45). se sont modiJi/es. se sont iteintes dans Lesdiffirentes contresi diuglobe. See "The Rise and Fall of Shabbatai Zevi as Reflected in Contemporary Press Reports.304 JQR 94:3 (2004) ish developments in the Ottoman Empire. This seems to explain the contacts being established between Herborn and Smyrna and the shift from theorizing about the significance of the Sabbatian movement to traveling in the Ottoman Empire to learn about the state of the Jews first-hand. Between late 1665 and the beginning of 1667. apparently to satisfy the curiosity of non-Jews in the Netherlands. The first report about the Sabbatian movement in one of these more impartial Dutch newspapers appeared in the summer of 1665 and by the beginning of the following year the Oprechte Haerle. unlike his brother-in-law. Histotredea sectes religieudes: Qut sont nees. took an active interest in Jewish affairs. some of the French Reformed Church leaders in exile. had no patience for the ecstatic and mystical methods that the French Prophets used in their millenarian practices. outside the Ottoman Empire. Peter Serrarius testified that he rushed to the Amsterdam synagogue to find out what he could about the rumors that the Messiah had come in 1665. such as Jurieu. In Sabbatai Zevi's time. traces the role the emerging mass media played. the interest in Sabbatai Zevi and his movement was intense among Jews and Christians. a more objective newspaper journalism was developing. depums le commencement du st'ecle dernt'erjusqu'a l'epoque actuelle (Paris. The Dutch newspapers of the time contained numerous stories about Sabbatai Zevi. Jurieu was even given a pension by the Amsterdam synagogue for promoting the welfare of the Jews. The interest was not confined to the Netherlands and the Ottoman Empire. Nonetheless. See Gregoire.'2 Even though the proclaimed Messiah had never been seen or heard in the Netherlands.nseCourantwas covering the events in the Levant in great detail. In 1810 the Abbe Gregoire discussed the secret followers of Sabbatai Zevi in Turkey (the Donmeh). ." StudiaRosenthaliana 33:1 (1999): 7-27. thirty-nine articles in thirty editions of that particular newspaper dealt with Sabbatai Zevi and his movement. While reports in pamphlets were often not taken seriously. He ended his account by stating that in 1808 a follower of Sabbatai Zevi had appeared in Paris as a musician.
qui etoit en ce Paisla. doctor of theology and professor of Oriental languages and Church history. Most of them are in Dutch.15 In disentangling the various threads from Cuper's correspondence.. languages he did not know. We were also helped by a visiting Dutch professor. 15:1105: "en comptant les Annees lunaires a la maniere des Chaldeens. van der Aa. Basnage also made clear in his Hitoire des Juifj that he expected the messianic age to begin in the very near future and awaited the conversion of the Jews as a prelude to the Second Coming. The content of some of these letters clearly indicates that Hochepied was a correspondent with Cuper as well.Bayle could not read the most available sources -the account by Paul Rycault in John Evelyn's The ThreeImpostersand the account by the Dutch consul of the time. Popkin. Schediasma hidtorico de Judaeorum phi/ologicum pseudo-mess4il. see Richard H. but so far we have been unable to locate any of his letters. 17. 1867).THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 305 his beleaguered coreligionists trapped in France. The dissertation by Johannes a Lent includes material from both Rycault and Coenen. had about Sabbatai Zevi. See Pierre Bayle. Christine Sellin. 1715-16 ed. rushing to support them when they emerged in England and the Netherlands. Johannes a Lent. translated the material for us. 18.1740 ed. Thomas Coenen-since they were in English and Dutch.19 15. art. Pierre Bayle.17 Hochepied was appointed Dutch consul in Turkey in 1688. A graduate student at UCLA. A 1697 edition of this work is in the collection of the Center for Advanced Judaic Studies library at the University of Pennsylvania. and both studied under Johannes a Lent. Both were students at Herborn. which the 1715-16 edition predicted would occur in 1716. Hochepied also vowed to give protection to the Jews of the Ottoman Empire." Dictionnaire historique et critique. in Bayle's Dictionary. "Three English Tellings of the Sabbatai Zevi Story. 492. . Abraham J. The work was the only source of information that Basnage's good friend. Basnage." Jeuwdh Hictory 8:1-2 (1994): 43-54. who had published a work on Jewish messiahs in 1683 in which he discussed Sabbatai Zevi's career. On Rycault and Evelyn. Over the course of a couple of months we received packets of photocopies of the letters that were found for us in the Dutch Royal Library. very briefly. 19.." in which he writes "faux Messir Sabbathi Tzebbi qui avoit fait beaucoup de bruit en Turquie depuis peu de tems." 16. All the letters we received were between Cuper and Heyman or between Cuper and Basnage.16 it becomes evident that Heyman and Hochepied had developed a special interest in the Sabbatian movement. "Weile. cet Avenement doit s'accomplir l'An 1716. Elly van Gelderen. Biographcich derNederlanden uoordenboek (Haarlem. comme faisoit Daniel. who is mentioned just once. Paul Rycault had held the position of English consul during the time of Sabbatai Zevi. Hiitoire desJuf11. a community he considered to be oppressed.18With the same zeal with which he championed the interests of the Reformed Church in Smyrna.
and Hebrew. Heyman. Pierre Allix. Koninklijke Bibliotheek. seems to have led Heyman to investigate Jewish messianism among the Turkish Jews and to send a treatise to Cuper a few months later with the results of his research. Abraham Miguel Cardozo continued his teaching and prophetic activities on behalf of the movement. Daniel Israel Bonafoux. particularly in connection with the circle of Abraham Rovigo in Italy. sending them on different boats from different ports with instructions for their delivery to the Netherlands. and his chief prophet. Sabbatai Zevi had died in 1676. Nathan of Gaza. Arabic. This led Cuper later to recommend him to be in charge of language studies at the University of Leiden. among other languages. and he translated Turkish documents for the Dutch government. Cuper Collection. He learned Turkish. died in 1680. During the decade after Nathan's death. converted to Islam in his footsteps. This tract was sent via Hochepied. He saw visions of deceased Sabbatian figures and performed tricks with a globe of fire that appeared behind 20. . according to his interpretation of the book of Daniel. January 13.21 This. Cuper mentions in his letters that he has been reading a book by a Huguenot refugee. convinced of the imminent return of Sabbatai. The same period saw a wave of Sabbatian prophetic activity in Europe. a considerable number of Ottoman Jews. At the time Heyman and Hochpied were writing to their Dutch correspondents. attempting to learn as much as possible about the messianic Jewish activities in Smyrna and its environs. Gijsbert Cuper to Johannes Heyman. Heyman and Hochepied embarked on a series of reports to Cuper. Heyman made sure that his letters reached Cuper. who. 1703. his student and fellow prophet.20In 1703. This Muslim Sabbatian sect became known as the Donmeh. 21. In the Ottoman Empire. and over the next half century it slowly lost touch with the more conservative Sabbatians who remained within the Jewish fold. Heyman began acquiring the tools he needed to understand the many cultures around him.306 JQR 94:3 (2004) The second figure in our story. From the time he arrived in the Ottoman Empire in the summer of 1700. was possessed of a maggid. the Sabbatian movement itself was at something of a crossroads. as well as a request from Hochepied. predicts the messianic era will begin in 1720.a heavenly mentor who revealed secrets to him. was appointed to pastor to the Dutch merchants in Smyrna after his graduation from Herborn. The Hague. including various dates of messianic expectation. To date we have been unable to locate it but much of its content seems to be repeated in the letters.
as did many others who accompanied him. J. Movement Jubilee Sefunot14 (= TheBookof GreekJewvry Presented to Gershom ScholembyMeir Benayabu)(Jerusalem. in Aron Freimann. . Heyman explains that somebody was presenting himself as a prophet among the Jews in Tiria. (The local rabbis had long suspected Daniel. esp. When representatives of the he-Hasid circle came to Turkey in 17011702. they had the local qadi expel him from the city. 10-11. two leaders of the Ashkenazi believers. Judah he-Hasid died almost immediately upon their arrival. Heinrich derJudenvondenaltestenZeitenbkizur Gegenwart Graetz. Cardozo warned his disciples there not to get involved with them. and they were reinforced in 1702 by a new group led by Abraham Rovigo and Mordecai Ashkenazi. and ed. 1890). 1968).) On this occasion Cardozo gave Daniel a secret ceremony to perform that would reveal the true intentions of these visitors. Geschichte (Berlin. Judah he-Hasid and Hayim Malakh.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 307 him as a sign of his bona fides. Volume and n. 85 there. 23. 'InyeneShabtai Tsevi (Berlin. It should be noted. The background was this: In 1700. 243. however. It appeared that the enterprise would collapse as yet another failure of Sabbatian prophecy. Meir Benayahu. 757-59. A study hall was established with survivors from the original group as well as the newcomers. and he was forced to live in the suburb of Kasaba." Sefunot3-4 (1960): 133-82.22 When Heyman and Hochpied reported on Daniel Israel. "The 'Holy Brotherhood' of R. had organized and led a sizeable movement of Sabbatians to Jerusalem in expectation of Sabbatai's imminent reappearance. They soon returned to Jerusalem. but to unmask Daniel Israel as a fraud.. See also D. History of the Jews. Basnage. telling them that Sabbatai Zevi was still alive and would 22. that the he-Hasid group that came to Cardozo himself in Constantinople impressed him favorably and left on good terms. He was certain that the Jerusalem undertaking was doomed. 4: TheShab6atean in Greece. AbrahamMiguel Cardozo: 2001). 1971-77). 197. 248-49. Judah Hasid and their Settlement in Jerusalem. see Sefer merivatkode4h. He also insisted that the two he-Hasid representatives in Smyrna came not to learn certain secrets of Sabbatai's teachings from Cardozo's students as they claimed. Israel and Cardozo were in the middle of a deep imbroglio with other Sabbatians. but a number of the believers held out. He also received instructions from Cardozo on certain mystico-magical activities he was to perform.23 In his first letter on the subject of the Sabbatian movement. SelectedWritings (New York. Halperin.161-63. trans. 1912. Cardozo was deeply distrustful of the entire project. reprint: Jerusalem. On Daniel Israel Bonafoux.
Heyman describes the tricks and magic being used to convince the gullible Jews of this message. August 3. Palestina of het H. Syrien. see his Reizen door een gedee/te van Europa.27It appears that either Cardozo and Daniel had made peace with the he-Hasid/ Malakh group by this time and hoped to revive it. den berg Sinai. Although disdainful of the conjuring methods used by Daniel Israel.25 In the next several letters Heyman supplies more information about what the Jews are doing and believing and Cuper in turn raises questions.308 JQR 94:3 (2004) return as promised. 25. In 1705 Cuper writes to Heyman for more information about the everyday life of these Jews. who was in the valley of Magnesia. Heyman to Cuper. Daniel Israel. Land. apparently went to Jerusalem at a later date without Daniel Israel. ."' 3-4. Although he has learned much from Heyman and Hochepied about the Jews who still expect Sabbatai Zevi to return and celebrate his birthday (and also follow the prophet Daniel Israel). Heyman. Benayahu. 1704. certain that the Jews would at some point see the error of following these false messiahs or magicians and convert to Christianity. 1703 26. On Heyman's travels throughout the Middle East. or they sought an entirely separate movement to the Holy Land under their own auspices. Cuper is dubious about the reports concerning new prophets. April 13. and asks Heyman if this is close to Tiria or whether the professed prophet is moving from one place to another. Cuper keeps probing to find out if there are signs that anything is happening within the Jewish community that would indicate preparation for messianic events. kletn Asien. Cuper to Heyman. Heyman was sufficiently involved with the Sabbatians to plan a trip to Jerusalem in 1704 with the prophet. about which we learn from the Dutch correspondence. June 23.24Cuper replies a few months later that Hochepied had written to him about the same Jewish prophet. The entire movement was in crisis with the collapse of this mission of great hope for the believers. 1703. 27. Did they live in one community? Were they of one 24. verscheide eilanden van de archipel. but there is nothing in the material we have looked through that indicates they made such a joint voyage. southeast of Smyrna.26Daniel's desire to go to Palestine in 1704-5. 1757). Heyman asks Cuper if the latter could obtain funds for the impecunious Daniel Israel to make the trip. With scorn. Heyman to Cuper. is instructive. who wrote a book on his travels throughout Europe and the Middle East. The anti-Sabbatian camp in Jerusalem had finally asserted itself exactly at this point and had Hayim Malakh and his Sabbatian group expelled from the city. enz (Leiden. Many converted to Islam. Aegypten. "The 'Holy Brotherhood.
Abraham Miguel Cardozo."28 As cited in Basnage. he touched and thought were about a finger in length. 29. To indicate that he was in fact the Messiah. Henri II. 1706.29It was during this meeting that Cardozo told Heyman that Daniel Israel was his student and disciple and cited a quatrain from Nostradamus to indicate the approaching messianic event. Heyman to Cuper. Heyman to Cuper. Heyman writes to Cuper that Cardozo is about a hundred years old and has two wives. Cardozo then transmitted the prophecies of Nostradamus to the Jews in the Ottoman Empire. Heyman relates.32 Heyman remarks that a change occurs in the Sabbatian movement 28." HMtoryof European Ideas 5:2 (1984): 117-35. in 1706 Heyman met the leader of the Sabbatians. 32. one apparently young enough to have an infant. perhaps at Salamanca. December 19. which. September 27. Cardozo showed Heyman the pair of horns that he had behind his ears. Cuper was obviously unaware that Cardozo was a Spaniard. who otherwise would not have known of them. Heyman then felt behind his own ears and found the beginnings of little horns. in Cairo. of whom he says that he "is seen by that [Jewish] nation as a prophet. Elsewhere he clarifies this by claiming that he was a member of one of the lost tribes. Cuper expresses surprise that Cardozo would have known of Nostradamus. 1705.30Heyman confides that he is skeptical of Cardozo's claims to be a prophet.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 309 opinion? He asks Heyman to forward such reports to him." Cuper to Heyman. 1706: En l'an cincq cens octante plus et moins On attendra le siecle bien etrange En l'an sept cens et trois (cieux en temoins) Regner plusjeurs un a cinq feront change."'3' Heyman replies that Cardozo probably learned of the French seer while in studying in Spain. saying that his predictions of future events only proved his deceit." Cuper to Heyman. waer voor hy ook by veil Christenen weit gehouden. Nostradamus himself in his letter to the French king. the sooner the better. May 29. Heyman to Cuper. 1707. See Richard H. explained that his ability to foretell the future came from his forebears. so that he can be informed of this "unprecedented and scarcely believable business. May 29. January 29. Divining and Foretelling from Nostradamus to Hume. Nostradamus' teachings would have been more common in a Christian country than in the Muslim world. 31. "Predicting. Prophesying. . "dat by die natie weit aengesien als een prophet. 30. "wat van dese ongehoorde en haast ongelooflycke saake magh wesen. which he is also held to be by many Christians. Popkin. 1706. which he believed to be a sinister omen.
. At this point men would take up daggers and kill the Antichrist." Cuper to Heyman. were expecting the arrival of the Antichrist.33 Yet even as Daniel Israel lost some of his influence.34 In the following summer. and he carried on his work in silence. are so credulous. 1707. or other Oriental peoples. His power seemed to have ceased completely. a giant who could straddle hills half a mile apart and whose voice could be heard around the world. the Calvinists' interest in Sabbatianism and the Ottoman Empire's Jewish community did not diminish. Cuper writes. he did not perform his rapturous miracles as he had done previously. who had recently been in Constantinople. 34. although. and on the wings of angels be set down on the towers of the white mosque in Damascus. March 12. as Heyman writes. In 1707. Heyman and Hochepied gathered information about the attention given to the disciples of Sabbatai Zevi and any messianic activity. on the other hand. One of the Jews. The Jews.. to which the answer was no but that the child was sent by the Messiah. Heyman writes to Cuper that he had been taken by the Jews of Smyrna to a nearby village named Sjobar to see the synagogue that stood above the cave of the prophet Elijah. 1707." and that Jews are recounting how certain miracles and celestial signs appeared on the day of his birth. There the Dutch pastor spent the whole time disputing with his hosts and discussing the coming of the Messiah. related to Heyman that he had a letter in High German which told of the birth of a Jewish child in Baghdad who could speak eight days after his circumcision. Heyman 33. believe in them. Daniel Israel carried on the movement. Heyman learned. ende dat die natie. The Turks. Cuper writes to both Hochepied and Heyman that "from Aleppo to Marseilles. alles voor eenen Messias aenneemt. die Messias ende de AntiChrist genaemt wert. The Muslims expected that Jesus would then descend from heaven. Hearing his call. . Cuper comments that the belief in such things is so indecent that he cannot imagine how the grand master of Malta could be taken in by the reports. "Van Aleppo zyn tot Marseillen brieven vekoomen dewelke Schynen de Ick geboorte van een kindt.310 JQR 94:3 (2004) after Cardozo's murder by his nephew in the summer of 1706. January 29." Nevertheless. Cuper urges his correspondents in Smyrna to find out where these stories come from and whether Jews. kenne de lightgeloofdigheyt der Jooden. the Jews would then gather from all parts of the world.. letters have been received" that tell of the "birth of a child. called the messiah and the antichrist. that they "take everything for a messiah. Heyman to Cuper. Heyman asked whether the child was the Messiah. een exempel van Godts reghtveerdighe toorn.
The search for the lost tribes was intense during this period. the Jews would be returned to the Holy Land. but would be most meaningful. If the Jews were beginning to see the errors of their ways and beginning to convert.. dat den Antichrist soude zyn. he continues. Ick wensche nyt grond van my herd dat Christus eens belief de te beekeeren syne broederen nae het vleesch ende dat de volheyt der Heydenen al moghte ingegaen zyn in syn Coningryk. whereupon universal salva35. The Amsterdam Jewish community was free and the choice that the Jews would make would not be coerced.37 Another item of interest for these correspondents was the dispersal of Jews throughout the world. de Hochepid heeft my geschreven van het fabulens kind. dat het oordeel van Goot op haer leyt om dat een volk dat Christus niet kend of ten hooghsten maar aght een prophet te zyn haar soo qualyk handle daernoghtans gheen deel heeft aen den twist die tusschen de Christenen en haar is of den Messias gekoomen is of niet. Het gheen V-Eern [your honor] seydt van de kleynaghtinge die de Mahometaanen voor de Jooden hebben. is al mede een klaar teeken van haare verwerpinge en groote blintheyt. walk and speak within eight days after the circumcision. July 10.. [his honor] seydt niet. as it had been in Spain and Portugal.. I wish from the bottom of my heart. Heyman to Cuper. ende siet men daer nyt." The Jews. "this poor and unhappy folk believes everything that gives hope. it would be visible to their Christian friends. "suffer the judgment of God. 37. . dat dit een verdightsel is van de Venetiansse Jooden. as it had been since the previous century. commenting. en den waaren Messias maer syn Wel G.. ensprak is sekerlyk een verdightsel. converts his brothers of the flesh..35 Seemingly intrigued by these messages from Smyrna about the birth of a messiah. Cuper seems to share Basnage's view that it is up to the divine power to bring about the conversion of the Jews.. Cuper relates to Heyman that he had been informed by Hochepied about a "child that is supposed to be the Antichrist and the true messiah" and that this Jewish child "could eat.. The Amsterdam Jewish community was important in this regard. 1709. 1708. For both Jewish and Christian millenarians. Het Joods kind dat binnen 8 daghen nae de besnydenis wandelde. February 16. According to millenarian beliefs based on passages from the books of Daniel and Revelation."36In this." Cuper once more dismisses such reports as fiction. if it pleases him. 36..." Cuper to Heyman. after the fall of the world's empires. the ten tribes would reappear at the end of time. that Christ. "De H.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 311 concluded this section of his letter with the hope that he could go to Constantinople in the coming year to learn more. ende dit arm en ongeluckigh volk gelooft alles wat maer hoop geeft tot de komste van haaren noeyd sullende koome Messias. and that the plenitude of the heathens could enter into his kingdom. because [they are] a people that know not Christ.
Yosef Kaplan. 1994). and that they fought against Mohammed and his followers. and Richard H. the Jewish recapture would precede their return to the Holy Land and the messianic events that would then ensue. See Scholem. also led to speculations along these lines." Heyman informs Cuper. 185. a recurrent theme circulating in Europe since at least the 1640s." Journal of Jevidh Studies 37:2 (1986): 213-27. the Caraites and the English Millenarians. the contact with "judaized" Ethiopians. Weiner (Dordrecht. although for Christians the conversion of the Jews to Christianitywas a vital factor in bringing about the Second Coming. . and Rich- ard H. They were still exchanging information about this community in 1708. 40. each comprising a thousand men. Heyman noted that he had asked many people about them. "The Lost Tribes.40 In a letter to Cuper written in 1705. Popkin.E. Richard H. The opening up of commerce to India and China and the discovery of Jewish activities there led to rumors that the lost tribes were in Asia." AfenadsehBen Israel and Hid World. "Christian Jews and Jewish Christians in the Seventeenth Century. or Abyssinians. He discovered that in the time of Mohammed they had an army of twenty-four troops. Esperance d'idrad(Paris. R. that those Indiand are Judaitca1. possibly "because they were taken with the fanciful 38. even claim that Mecca had been conquered by the ten tribes of Israel and it was just a matter of days until other events would take place. 1979). Heyman mentioned a group of Arabs known as the Jews of Chaibar. Popkin and G.ed. See Clarke Garrett. introduction to Menasseh ben Israel.38Reports from explorers and colonizers gave rise to theories that the lost tribes were in both North and South America. Henri Mechoulan. 55-61. but when he asked the Jews about this community they told him that they were unaware of such a group and that only Arab Muslims were to be found in that land. or Probabilities. Sabbatai Sev4 335-36. 57-72. Popkin (Leiden. esp. H.312 JQR 94:3 (2004) tion would be achieved. The correspondence between Heyman and Cuper clearly reveals the interest in the millenariantheory of the lost tribes. was supposed to be a sign that the messianic age was about to begin. ed. 39. Similarly. who lived around Mecca. The conquest of Mecca by the ten tribes of Israel.39 A thousand or more years after Mohammed's conquest of Mecca in 630 C. M. Respectable Folly. 67. MZ/fllenartand and the French Revolution in Franceand England (Baltimore. detailed by Scholem. 1975). See Richard H. 1989). John Dury gives a picture of this in his introduction to Thomas Thorowgood's Jews in America. both he and Cuper attempted to determine the genealogy of this group. Popkin." Jewidh Christians and Christian Jewvs. Popkin. Henry M6choulan. "The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Indian Theory.. Some seventeenth-century reports. They were also called "Anas.
which he appended to various writings. 1708. took up where Josephus left off. a leading pastor and journalistic figure among the French refugees in the Netherlands.43 Basnage was very close to Pierre Bayle. As Cuper worked through the manuscript he realized there was no mention of Sabbatai Zevi." Heyman vowed to find out more about this. He included this venture in the list of books he intended to publish. such as the kabbalah.44Out of order and unconnected to the preceding material. evidencing a particular interest in the treatment of false messiahs in ancient and medieval times. Basnage's is the first attempt at a nontheological history. Heyman to Cuper. Judaidm and Enlihtenment (Cambridge. Menasseh ben Israel had said that he was going to undertake such a history. His was an attempt to be objective and to structure the material in a meaningful form. he recommended to Basnage that he read Johannes 'aLent and also forwarded him the materials he had been sent by Hochepied and Heyman. See Adam Sutcliffe. Subsequently. in friendship and in spirit. In this sense. He sought to encompass what happened in Jewish communities all over the world and to deal with important Jewish theories. Basnage sent a manuscript copy to Cuper in 1707 and. Josephus had provided an account of the history of the Jews up to the Roman destruction of the Temple in the first century. Cuper gave his opinion about various points. Basnage to Cuper. 1707. Basnage saw himself in the same historical camp as those writing the histories of various countries and movements. At this point. 43. This led Basnage to include some of the Sabbatai Zevi story and part of one of Heyman's letters on the last page of the English edition that appeared in 1708. in a series of letters. . in exile in the Netherlands. 44. 42. in terms that European intellectuals could appreciate. especially the chapter "The Limits of Erudition: Jacques Basnage and Pierre Bayle. October 8. and he used much the same historical and critical method.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 313 stories of the famous Sabbatian. was working on a second edition of his history." 79-99. July 10. The documents we have found from the Cuper collection show that Basnage did not know about the Sabbatai Zevi episode while he was writing the second edition. 2003). A series of letters between Cuper and Basnage in 1707 indicate that Basnage. there are accounts of Jewish developments in various parts of the world but no complete or comprehensive history.41 The letters from Hochepied and Heyman to Cuper are the reason Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples are to be found in Basnage's history of the Jews. He died before accomplishing the task.42 Basnage. it looked 41.
1708 ed. PolitiscandLettersat the Crossroads of European JacquesBadnage and the BayleanHuguenot Refugees in theDutch Civilization: Republic (Dordrecht. 1743).4 The Danish history by Ludvig Holberg was translated into German. turn'd Mahometan. 2 vols. however. 1726). thus transmitting Basnage's history. deed zich een andere beIsrad genaamd. 46. "You know. although it was never completed. appeared. die te Slnyrna het voorzangers-ambt bij zijne drieger op.314 JQR 94:3 (2004) like what it was: a last-minute addition. "Eenige jaren na den dood van SabbathaiZebi.45 Basnage's Hiitoire des Juifs was extremely influential. Theology. Amelander. 1812). . A Dutch version appeared in 1726 and Solomon Maimon embarked upon a Hebrew translation in the late eighteenth century. Historyof the Jewv.46 Histoire des Jtfs was used as a basis for two eighteenth-century histories of the Jews in Danish and Yiddish. Ludvig Holberg. Cerny. 1742). This account first appears in the 1708 English edition and is repeated in French in the 1715-16 edition. and thirty six or thirty seven Years ago. In the third edition the material was fully incorporated into the section on the Jews in the Ottoman Empire.9 Holberg took Basnage's comment 45. Cerny notes that Amelander's history was printed seven times in Yiddish and ten times in Hebrew translation. This version does not. Menahem Mann Amelander." Daniel Israel. JodiskehiAtorie fra verdens begyndelse. Amelander instead discusses Sabbatai Zevi's conversion to Islam and remarks that one year after the false messiah's death "another imposter. lost his Head by order of Sultan Mfahomet" (emphasis in original). derJoodsche 47. Hannah Adams also relied heavily upon the work in producing her own Hiitoly of the Jews (1812). Vervolg op Flavitus Josephusof Algemene Hidtorie Naatsie (Amsterdam. DaniffI geloofsgenooten vervulde" (emphasis in original). and that he abjur'd his Religion. Basnage. 1987).. At any rate. For unexplained reasons. See G. (Boston. She'erit Yidrael. 758. appear in Menahem Mann Amelander's Yiddish history of the Jews. that [Sabbatai Zevi] pretended to be the Messiah. Holberg accepted it at face value and reiterated it in his Dutch edition. 48. It was Professor Matt Goldish who first apprised us of the fact that Basnage did not discuss anything about Sabbatai Zevi until the English edition and that only in the third edition (1715-16) was the Sabbatian movement placed in historical context. fortsatt til didsetider (Copenhagen. She'eritYidrael (Amsterdam.8 We do not know whether Basnage heard this story from reports sent by Hochepied and Heyman to Cuper. Basnage reports that Sabbatai Zevi was beheaded by the Turkish authorities. throughout Europe. TheHidtoryof the Jewv from the Destruction of Jerusalem to theNineteenthCentury. 49. The first edition of 1706 was so successful that an abridged edition was actually appended to an edition of Josephus. and a somewhat modified version was put out in Catholic France. including his information about Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples. 185.
the Alumbrados. on the 18th of December. 51. Riverside for this information on Holberg. ostensibly from the tribes and the "Childrenof Moses. and believed that Sabbatai was still alive. . even though there is little evidence of direct interaction. . which was one of the most noteworthy happenings in Jewish history. The letters concerning Daniel Israel and the return of Sabbatai Zevi cease when Heyman returns to the Netherlands to take up his new post at Leiden in 1710. . as we show. non-Jewish millenarian movements in Europe. There does not seem to be any further discussion of the matter of Daniel Israel or Sabbatai Zevi. 197. indicating that the movement lasted at least until 1709.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 315 that Daniel Israel's influence subsided after Cardoza's death to mean that the movement came to a complete and final end with Daniel Israel in 1706. We were informed by Professor Yosef Kaplan that Amelander's description of the Sabbatai Zevi story is based on Thomas Coenen's book via the abridged Hebrew version published by Rabbi Jacob Emden in his anti-Sabbatian anthology... he confirmed this from a passage in the book of the Prophet Daniel. Matt Goldish. .50 However." Spirit Possession in Judaidm: Cases and Contexts from the Middle Ages to the Present. Quaker practice was some sort 438. Only a single Jew. scholars could determine what happened to the remnants of the Sabbatian movement. the year before Heyman's return to the Netherlands. ed. Daniel Israel. remarking that they all have similar spiritual activities. 85. so they celebrated his birthday . were his letters to be found. the French Prophets. This was the end of the impostorship of Sabathai Tzevi. Daniel had to leave the city.. said that he still lived and would emerge from hiding after 40 years . "no one thinks about [Sabbatai Zevi] anymore.51 Since Hochepied remained in Smyrna until his death in 1723. The material we have uncovered so far opens up a new chapter in the story of the Sabbatai Zevi movement and poses some interesting questions as to the links between the Sabbatians and other. The last we hear of Daniel Israel in Smyrna correlates well with the Dutch correspondence. 52. Matt Goldish (Detroit. Daniel Israel was producing a forged letter. 2003).2:647. the letters about the Sabbatians continued to arrive in the Netherlands from Smyrna. 50. it is possible that. n. 230-32. who lived in Smyrna." Holberg. Benayahu in Sefunot14. Matt Goldish identifies the similarities in spirit possession that occur among the Quakers. Just at the time Hochpied and Heyman were hearing reports about new messianic stirrings connected with the reappearance of the lost tribes. and the dervishes in the Ottoman Empire. "Vision and Possession: Nathan of Gaza's Earliest Prophecies in Historical Context.52Initially. Hidtoryof the Jewv. When they found out. We would like to thank Professor Chris Laursen at the University of California." announcing that the Messiah would come in 1710. Neither the Turks nor the Christians in Smyrna knew about this. . Many took him for a prophet.
and Cairo. as well as their possible conversion in the near future. like those undertaken by the Dutch consul and minister in Smyrna. whereby the practitioner tried to extinguish all desires and allow the soul to become completely absorbed in God. Alumbrados. appeared among the clergy that sought spiritual contact with the American Indians and the natives of various Asian communities. and the new colonies. Basnage's history provided the basic story of the Sabbatian movement for the next century. and its founder. This doctrine was very popular at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century. Similarly. sixteenth-century Spanish mystics who claimed to have direct communication with God. were conducted to discover the present state of Jewish existence in the Ottoman Empire and send reports back to the Netherlands. Tirana.316 JOR 94:3 (2004) of spiritualized Judaism. especially in northern Europe. Reports about the followers of Sabbatai Zevi from 1665 onward tell of similar behavior patterns. the Ottoman Empire. The letters in the Cuper archive document how an important European account of Sabbatianism. one major reason for his study was to inform a non-Jewish audience about the current state of the Jews. "To be a Jew externally is nothing. Hochepied and Heyman applied their millenarian Calvinist outlook to the situation of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire and especially the Sabbatian movement with its promise of an imminent messianic culmination. and predicted glorious future events. This fit with the general expectation of northern Protestants coming from works like those of Pierre Allix and from the emergence of the French Prophets on En- . came out of the reports by two Dutchmen who were in Turkey in the early eighteenth century. participated in inspirational spiritual possession. Other tasks. Undoubtedly. where travelers were able to witness public performances in which the dervishes' ecstatic activity induced a state of exhaustive intoxication and sometimes unconsciousness. The dervishes seem to have appeared in many centers of the Ottoman Empire. The French Prophets were first known through reports of their spiritual activities carried on secretly in France and then through the amazing reenactments in England and the Netherlands. that of Jacques Basnage's Hitoire des Jutfs. A more extreme form of this type of mysticism appeared in the preaching of Miguel de Molinos. crying out. George Fox." The Quakers were merchants all over Europe. All these groups produced believers who made prophecies. Projects like Basnage's were undertaken to provide an account of Judaism from the fall of the Temple to the present day. In his spiritual guide he advocated a form of devotion called Quietism. traveled around England. to be a Jew internally is everything. including Constantinople.
so what happened after his conversion to Islam became of great concern to those looking for signs of the end of days. The letters from Cuper. accepted Sabbatai Zevi. The Dutch Sephardic community had.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 317 glish and Dutch soil. . Sabbatianism. Perhaps further research into Dutch sources will throw more light on what happened to the Sabbatian movement in Turkey in the latter part of the eighteenth century. and Hochepied clearly indicate an ongoing and active interest by Jews who continued to follow Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples. stimulated by the millenarian and messianic fervor that existed in both Europe and the Ottoman Empire. with vestiges to be found only in the Donmeh sect. to a great extent. therefore. did not come to an abrupt end after the death of Sabbatai Zevi. Heyman.
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