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The Sabbatian Movement in Turkey (1703-1708) and Reverberations in Northern Europe Author(s): Richard H. Popkin and Stephanie Chasin Source: The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 94, No. 2 (Spring, 2004), pp. 300-317 Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1455429 . Accessed: 31/03/2011 07:33
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No. Jacques Basnage. a Flemish pastor in Turkey. who informed him of a former pupil of his. Basnage apparently cites from the actual letters rather than from any printed source. 1. 1973). the study of some of Nostradamus's prophecies by the Sabbatian leader Abraham Miguel Cardozo. POPKIN AND STEPHANIE CHASIN some hitherto unknown documents that recently came to our attention. and Palestine.J. The phenomenal excitement generated by Sabbatai Zevi's prophetic announcements of 1665-66 led to the appearance of prophets all over Europe and the OttoWE DISCUSS IN THIS ESSAY We would like to thank Professor Matt Goldish of Ohio State University for his interest and encouragement and. 94. Gijsbert Cuper. we found a much larger text concerning Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples. namely. . 646. especially. In his history of the Jews. n. 2. and Baron Daniel Jan de Hochepied.2 The information on the Sabbatian movement came from early eighteenth-century letters by Johannes Heyman. Egypt. We found that Scholem cites one item from Basnage's work. for providing information about the status of the Sabbatian movement in Jewish communities in Turkey. Daniel Israel Bonafoux. and was destined to become Cardozo's successor as leader of the Sabbatian movement. N. 2 (Spring 2004) 300-317 The SabbatianMovement in Turkey (1703-1708) and Reverberationsin Northern Europe RICHARD H. Vol.THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW. servir de continuation a l'HIMtoire The Jeuwis Quarterly Reviue (Spring 2004) Copyright (? 2004 Center for Advanced Judaic Studies. the Dutch consul at Smyrna. All rights reserved.' When we looked up the reference in the fifteen-volume 1715-16 edition of Basnage. HMstoiredes Jutif depuid Jesus-Christ jusqa'a present: Pour de Joseph (The Hague. Gershom Scholem.. Our investigation started from a simple examination as to whether Gershom Scholem had used Jacques Basnage's Hi#toire desJtuti in his book on Sabbatai Zevi. living in Smyrna at that time. 1716). 145. Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah (Princeton. Basnage mentions Heyman's meeting with Cardozo. These letters were sent to the burgermeister of Deventer.
Scholem writes that Cardozo was part of a Sabbatian group that believed Sabbatai Zevi would return forty years after his conversion to Islam. The Jewui. naming Sabbatai Zevi as the most famous imposter. Daniel Israel claimed that Sabbatai Zevi was still living and would. Michael Heyd discusses the anonymous text "The Devil of Delphos. 5:164-65.). "The 'Jewish Quaker': Christian Perceptions of Sabbatai Zevi as an Enthusiast. 5. TheHistoryof the Jewsfrom Jesus Chrit to thePresentTime. Cardozo probably represented the mainstream group of survivors. Jozeph Michman (Jerusalem: Institute for Research on Aviv-Jeruwalem. the Prophets of Baal. his connection to Cardozo. Or. (He also refused to convert to Islam as Sabbatai had done. of Judaim in EarlyModern adelphia.7While Heyd identifies the text as a comparison of Sabbatianism and the French Prophets. as Cardozo's successor. or the interest shown in him by European millenarians in the Netherlands and Smyrna. 4. 1972).) 6.6 Since Sabbatai Zevi died in 1676 this would put his reappearance at 1721. hence Daniel Israel." which lists false messiahs and prophets.5 Following Cardozo.. 2:67-74. return as promised to deliver his people from their suffering. In his recent treatment of European reactions to the Sabbatai Zevi story. Hebrew Univ. From 1703 until 1709 Heyman and Hochepied in Smyrna engaged in a lively discussion with Cuper in the Netherlands about the Sabbatian 3.and the Study ed. 1708 ed. and in the Ottoman Empire. Abraham Miguel. forthcoming 2004). Popkin. 758. See Michael Heyd. Jacques Basnage. 168-97. could call upon the significant following that was still loyal to Sabbatai Zevi through Cardozo's interpretations. "Two Unused Sources about Sabbatai Zevi and his Effect on European Communities. he makes no historical connection between what was going on in London.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 301 man Empire. after forty-five years in hiding. 1998). Gershom Scholem.h Messiahs (New York. For more information about some of these other messianic prophets after Sabbatai Zevi's death." HebraicaVeritas? Christian Hebraists. Neither Scholem nor Heyd mention Daniel Israel. Thomas Taylor (London.7-10 December -Tel1986. some declaring themselves to be the reincarnation of Sabbatai. "Cardozo. Cardozo had been the leading figure in the Sabbatian movement after Sabbatai Zevi's death but seems not to have been completely accepted because he was a Spaniard and not a Turkish Jew. .3 After his death there were messianic claimants in Poland and various parts of the Middle East.Jews. Allison Coudert and Jeffrey Shoulson (PhilEurope. See Richard H.4 In his article on Cardozo for the Encyclopedia Judaica. Rotterdam. 7. Dutch Jewry." Encyclopedia Judaica(New York. trans. 1989). ed. see Harris Lenowitz." Dutch Jewish History 2: Proceedings of the FourthSymposium on the Historyof the Jews in the Netherlands.
carrying on their religious beliefs in secret. who put it in the 1708 English edition of his history of the Jews. they became known as the French Prophets on account of their mystical practices and prophetic revelations about the portent of their predicament. who went to the Royal Library and copied the letters in which we were interested and carried on a further search for related materials. hiding in the woods and caves. both there and in Leiden. the leader of the French Reformed Church exiles in the Netherlands (and Basnage's brother-in-law). . We are most grateful to Mr.itoire des Juf11? Setting out to learn what we could about Gijsbert Cuper. A remnant remained in France. and England. including Johann Georg Graevius. Leibniz. Cuper was professor of classics and headmaster of the Athenaeum at Deventer. We thank Professor Wiep van Bunge of Erasmus University of Rotterdam for putting us in touch with a Dutch graduate student.302 JQR 94:3 (2004) movement and the state of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire. Pierre Jurieu. and G. Petrus Burman. Hundreds of thousands of refugees poured into the Netherlands. This correspondence between Smyrna and the Netherlands generates a number of questions. and its principal figures so intrigue these men? Was there a conversionary and millenarian impulse stemming from the Reformed Church that provoked inquiries into the Sabbatian movement? Did the curiosity about the Jews in Smyrna have a connection with the millenarian impulses of the contemporary French Prophets movement in Europe? And what does all of this tell us about Basnage's major work. we found a massive trove of papers by this polymath at the Dutch Royal Library. these Protestants also fled. There were also several letters to Cuper from the Flemish pastor Heyman and the consul Hochepied. Why did events concerning the Jews. Germany. Cuper then passed this information on to Jacques Basnage. When the persecutions in France became unbearable. W. Basnage.9 After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 it was no longer legal to be a Protestant in France. sending them sermons and receiving messages from them. In the first decade of 8.8 Cuper's correspondence with Heyman. and others coincided with the arrival in 1707 in England of the Huguenot refugees. Hochepied. Pierre Bayle. of which only a small part has been catalogued. Each of these men was a member of either the Dutch or the French Reformed Church in the Netherlands. the Sabbatian movement. Ruben Buys. In England. became their contact with the outside world. and it was clear from their letters that Calvinism lay behind their interest in the Jewish community of the Ottoman Empire. Hi. Jean le Clerc. 9. We thank Matt Goldish for pointing out this coincidence. He corresponded regularly with some of the leading scholars both in the Netherlands and abroad. Buys for his invaluable help in our research.
170-71. with many calculations centered on 1655-56. see Paul Dibon. just some. There was some question whether all Jews would be expected to convert. Isaac Newton's most important mathematical disciple. just one.'0 Both Jacques Basnage and Gijsbert Cuper were extremely interested in the French Prophets and in the possibility that this group was the harbinger of an imminent millenarian development. Etqhteenth-Centary 11. Such Calvinist scholars tried to ascertain the date when this conversion would occur. which held the Jews to be of critical importance in the culmination of human history. The last decade of the seventeenth century and the first of the eighteenth was a period of serious millenarian expectation. and various members of English nobility joined the group. or. how many remained to be fulfilled. In light of this. In the Netherlands. scholars like Newton were trying to figure out when the Messiah would appear from the prophecies in the books of Daniel and Revelation. the premillennial theory offered by Joseph Mede at Cambridge and Johann Heinrich Alsted at Herborn included the conversion of the Jews as one of its crucial steps. From the seventeenth century." Regards ar la Hollandeda siecle d'or (Naples. a Calvinist seminary in Germany with millenarian tendencies. 1990). In his Boyle lectures. On the history of Herborn. William Whiston showed how many of the prophecies had already been fulfilled. "Le fonds neerlandais de la bibliotheque de Herborn. In England. and mathematically how long it should take to get to the end point in time. 1980). followed by great persecutions.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 303 the eighteenth century. Great expectations were generated. Protestant millenarians learned as much as possible about the Sabbatians and Jew10. they attracted much attention. like Saul of Tarsus. It was to the leaders of the movement in Rotterdam that Pierre Jurieu provided both shelter and money. Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. 191-220. although the dating proved to be flexible. Many of its leaders trained at Herborn. After 1665. The FrenchProphets:The History of a MillenarianGroupin England(Berkeley. the significance of the Sabbatian movement was of immediate theological concern. in Mede's theory." Some of them supported the contemporary Jews of Amsterdam and watched their activities both inside and outside the synagogue for signs that the crucial end events were about to begin. the Dutch Reformed Church kept up its millenarian hopes. Hillel Schwartz. when Sabbatai Zevi made his announcement that the messianic age had begun. . became one of the movement's leaders. Some left England for the Netherlands and started millenarian ferment among the French Reformed and Dutch Reformed Church.
Nonetheless. in her interesting article on the spread of the Sabbatian movement in Europe. Amsterdam was one of the principal centers of Sabbatianism." StudiaRosenthaliana 33:1 (1999): 7-27.'3 Similarly. the interest in Sabbatai Zevi and his movement was intense among Jews and Christians.304 JQR 94:3 (2004) ish developments in the Ottoman Empire. traces the role the emerging mass media played. thirty-nine articles in thirty editions of that particular newspaper dealt with Sabbatai Zevi and his movement. such as Jurieu. unlike his brother-in-law. In Sabbatai Zevi's time. had no patience for the ecstatic and mystical methods that the French Prophets used in their millenarian practices. The interest was not confined to the Netherlands and the Ottoman Empire. Jurieu was even given a pension by the Amsterdam synagogue for promoting the welfare of the Jews. The coverage not only informed the Dutch and other Europeans as to the events in Smyrna but also facilitated the success of Sabbatianism in Europe. The first report about the Sabbatian movement in one of these more impartial Dutch newspapers appeared in the summer of 1665 and by the beginning of the following year the Oprechte Haerle. depums le commencement du st'ecle dernt'erjusqu'a l'epoque actuelle (Paris. . some of the French Reformed Church leaders in exile. he regarded these people as having a special religious role in the divine drama and sent supportive messages to 12. Histotredea sectes religieudes: Qut sont nees. While reports in pamphlets were often not taken seriously. Jetteke van Wijk. apparently to satisfy the curiosity of non-Jews in the Netherlands. It would be interesting to know if Jurieu also received material on the continuation of the Sabbatian movement in the Ottoman Empire in the early eighteenth century. 13. The Dutch newspapers of the time contained numerous stories about Sabbatai Zevi.'2 Even though the proclaimed Messiah had never been seen or heard in the Netherlands. outside the Ottoman Empire.'4 Basnage. 14. See "The Rise and Fall of Shabbatai Zevi as Reflected in Contemporary Press Reports. se sont modiJi/es. He sent John Dury a copy of Sabbatai Zevi's letter to the Amsterdam synagogue. Peter Serrarius testified that he rushed to the Amsterdam synagogue to find out what he could about the rumors that the Messiah had come in 1665. See Gregoire.nseCourantwas covering the events in the Levant in great detail. took an active interest in Jewish affairs. 1828-45). In 1810 the Abbe Gregoire discussed the secret followers of Sabbatai Zevi in Turkey (the Donmeh). se sont iteintes dans Lesdiffirentes contresi diuglobe. He ended his account by stating that in 1808 a follower of Sabbatai Zevi had appeared in Paris as a musician. a more objective newspaper journalism was developing. This seems to explain the contacts being established between Herborn and Smyrna and the shift from theorizing about the significance of the Sabbatian movement to traveling in the Ottoman Empire to learn about the state of the Jews first-hand. Between late 1665 and the beginning of 1667.
15 In disentangling the various threads from Cuper's correspondence. "Weile. A graduate student at UCLA. 19.16 it becomes evident that Heyman and Hochepied had developed a special interest in the Sabbatian movement. Both were students at Herborn. The work was the only source of information that Basnage's good friend. translated the material for us. who is mentioned just once. Biographcich derNederlanden uoordenboek (Haarlem. in Bayle's Dictionary. On Rycault and Evelyn. 17. Schediasma hidtorico de Judaeorum phi/ologicum pseudo-mess4il. Christine Sellin. The content of some of these letters clearly indicates that Hochepied was a correspondent with Cuper as well. qui etoit en ce Paisla. van der Aa. 15:1105: "en comptant les Annees lunaires a la maniere des Chaldeens. See Pierre Bayle." in which he writes "faux Messir Sabbathi Tzebbi qui avoit fait beaucoup de bruit en Turquie depuis peu de tems. A 1697 edition of this work is in the collection of the Center for Advanced Judaic Studies library at the University of Pennsylvania.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 305 his beleaguered coreligionists trapped in France. 1715-16 ed. who had published a work on Jewish messiahs in 1683 in which he discussed Sabbatai Zevi's career. a community he considered to be oppressed. Hochepied also vowed to give protection to the Jews of the Ottoman Empire. 492. but so far we have been unable to locate any of his letters. All the letters we received were between Cuper and Heyman or between Cuper and Basnage. Over the course of a couple of months we received packets of photocopies of the letters that were found for us in the Dutch Royal Library. Popkin." 16. "Three English Tellings of the Sabbatai Zevi Story. Basnage. . Paul Rycault had held the position of English consul during the time of Sabbatai Zevi. 1867). Pierre Bayle.." Dictionnaire historique et critique. The dissertation by Johannes a Lent includes material from both Rycault and Coenen.17 Hochepied was appointed Dutch consul in Turkey in 1688. doctor of theology and professor of Oriental languages and Church history. We were also helped by a visiting Dutch professor. Abraham J. and both studied under Johannes a Lent. Elly van Gelderen.19 15. languages he did not know. Thomas Coenen-since they were in English and Dutch. Hiitoire desJuf11. comme faisoit Daniel.Bayle could not read the most available sources -the account by Paul Rycault in John Evelyn's The ThreeImpostersand the account by the Dutch consul of the time.18With the same zeal with which he championed the interests of the Reformed Church in Smyrna. 18. Basnage also made clear in his Hitoire des Juifj that he expected the messianic age to begin in the very near future and awaited the conversion of the Jews as a prelude to the Second Coming. see Richard H. rushing to support them when they emerged in England and the Netherlands. Johannes a Lent. art.." Jeuwdh Hictory 8:1-2 (1994): 43-54.1740 ed. which the 1715-16 edition predicted would occur in 1716. very briefly. had about Sabbatai Zevi. Most of them are in Dutch. cet Avenement doit s'accomplir l'An 1716.
attempting to learn as much as possible about the messianic Jewish activities in Smyrna and its environs. died in 1680. 1703.306 JQR 94:3 (2004) The second figure in our story. a considerable number of Ottoman Jews. and he translated Turkish documents for the Dutch government. 21. He learned Turkish. Heyman and Hochepied embarked on a series of reports to Cuper. was appointed to pastor to the Dutch merchants in Smyrna after his graduation from Herborn. the Sabbatian movement itself was at something of a crossroads. sending them on different boats from different ports with instructions for their delivery to the Netherlands. The same period saw a wave of Sabbatian prophetic activity in Europe. among other languages. including various dates of messianic expectation. converted to Islam in his footsteps. Sabbatai Zevi had died in 1676. Pierre Allix. Heyman began acquiring the tools he needed to understand the many cultures around him. This tract was sent via Hochepied. January 13. Cuper mentions in his letters that he has been reading a book by a Huguenot refugee. convinced of the imminent return of Sabbatai. From the time he arrived in the Ottoman Empire in the summer of 1700. Nathan of Gaza. Arabic. predicts the messianic era will begin in 1720. Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Gijsbert Cuper to Johannes Heyman.20In 1703. seems to have led Heyman to investigate Jewish messianism among the Turkish Jews and to send a treatise to Cuper a few months later with the results of his research. Heyman. He saw visions of deceased Sabbatian figures and performed tricks with a globe of fire that appeared behind 20. In the Ottoman Empire. Daniel Israel Bonafoux. At the time Heyman and Hochpied were writing to their Dutch correspondents. Heyman made sure that his letters reached Cuper. and his chief prophet. Abraham Miguel Cardozo continued his teaching and prophetic activities on behalf of the movement.21 This. was possessed of a maggid. according to his interpretation of the book of Daniel. and over the next half century it slowly lost touch with the more conservative Sabbatians who remained within the Jewish fold. This led Cuper later to recommend him to be in charge of language studies at the University of Leiden. and Hebrew.a heavenly mentor who revealed secrets to him. who. as well as a request from Hochepied. To date we have been unable to locate it but much of its content seems to be repeated in the letters. During the decade after Nathan's death. particularly in connection with the circle of Abraham Rovigo in Italy. . This Muslim Sabbatian sect became known as the Donmeh. The Hague. Cuper Collection. his student and fellow prophet.
1912. 1968). 248-49. and ed. Judah Hasid and their Settlement in Jerusalem. (The local rabbis had long suspected Daniel. 243. Israel and Cardozo were in the middle of a deep imbroglio with other Sabbatians. See also D.23 In his first letter on the subject of the Sabbatian movement. Cardozo was deeply distrustful of the entire project. 85 there. had organized and led a sizeable movement of Sabbatians to Jerusalem in expectation of Sabbatai's imminent reappearance. Geschichte (Berlin. Judah he-Hasid died almost immediately upon their arrival. and he was forced to live in the suburb of Kasaba. They soon returned to Jerusalem. reprint: Jerusalem. trans. He was certain that the Jerusalem undertaking was doomed.161-63. It should be noted. On Daniel Israel Bonafoux. see Sefer merivatkode4h. J. they had the local qadi expel him from the city. that the he-Hasid group that came to Cardozo himself in Constantinople impressed him favorably and left on good terms. telling them that Sabbatai Zevi was still alive and would 22. When representatives of the he-Hasid circle came to Turkey in 17011702. Heinrich derJudenvondenaltestenZeitenbkizur Gegenwart Graetz. 10-11. Basnage. esp. 757-59. but a number of the believers held out.. Judah he-Hasid and Hayim Malakh. Movement Jubilee Sefunot14 (= TheBookof GreekJewvry Presented to Gershom ScholembyMeir Benayabu)(Jerusalem. . and they were reinforced in 1702 by a new group led by Abraham Rovigo and Mordecai Ashkenazi. 1890). History of the Jews. Meir Benayahu. Cardozo warned his disciples there not to get involved with them. in Aron Freimann. SelectedWritings (New York. He also received instructions from Cardozo on certain mystico-magical activities he was to perform. He also insisted that the two he-Hasid representatives in Smyrna came not to learn certain secrets of Sabbatai's teachings from Cardozo's students as they claimed. 1971-77). A study hall was established with survivors from the original group as well as the newcomers. "The 'Holy Brotherhood' of R. 4: TheShab6atean in Greece. AbrahamMiguel Cardozo: 2001). but to unmask Daniel Israel as a fraud.) On this occasion Cardozo gave Daniel a secret ceremony to perform that would reveal the true intentions of these visitors. however.22 When Heyman and Hochpied reported on Daniel Israel. It appeared that the enterprise would collapse as yet another failure of Sabbatian prophecy.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 307 him as a sign of his bona fides. Heyman explains that somebody was presenting himself as a prophet among the Jews in Tiria. 'InyeneShabtai Tsevi (Berlin. 23. two leaders of the Ashkenazi believers. as did many others who accompanied him. 197." Sefunot3-4 (1960): 133-82. Halperin. Volume and n. The background was this: In 1700.
apparently went to Jerusalem at a later date without Daniel Israel. kletn Asien.308 JQR 94:3 (2004) return as promised.24Cuper replies a few months later that Hochepied had written to him about the same Jewish prophet. The entire movement was in crisis with the collapse of this mission of great hope for the believers. see his Reizen door een gedee/te van Europa. 1703. Cuper keeps probing to find out if there are signs that anything is happening within the Jewish community that would indicate preparation for messianic events. verscheide eilanden van de archipel. 1703 26. In 1705 Cuper writes to Heyman for more information about the everyday life of these Jews. Land. certain that the Jews would at some point see the error of following these false messiahs or magicians and convert to Christianity. 1757). who wrote a book on his travels throughout Europe and the Middle East. Heyman describes the tricks and magic being used to convince the gullible Jews of this message. Heyman to Cuper. about which we learn from the Dutch correspondence. August 3. Daniel Israel. June 23. Heyman asks Cuper if the latter could obtain funds for the impecunious Daniel Israel to make the trip. den berg Sinai."' 3-4. but there is nothing in the material we have looked through that indicates they made such a joint voyage. Although disdainful of the conjuring methods used by Daniel Israel. 1704.25 In the next several letters Heyman supplies more information about what the Jews are doing and believing and Cuper in turn raises questions. Although he has learned much from Heyman and Hochepied about the Jews who still expect Sabbatai Zevi to return and celebrate his birthday (and also follow the prophet Daniel Israel). "The 'Holy Brotherhood. On Heyman's travels throughout the Middle East.26Daniel's desire to go to Palestine in 1704-5. Cuper to Heyman. 25. southeast of Smyrna. enz (Leiden. Heyman to Cuper. Many converted to Islam. Aegypten. and asks Heyman if this is close to Tiria or whether the professed prophet is moving from one place to another. Benayahu. Syrien. April 13. With scorn. Heyman. Heyman was sufficiently involved with the Sabbatians to plan a trip to Jerusalem in 1704 with the prophet. . who was in the valley of Magnesia. 27. Did they live in one community? Were they of one 24. The anti-Sabbatian camp in Jerusalem had finally asserted itself exactly at this point and had Hayim Malakh and his Sabbatian group expelled from the city.27It appears that either Cardozo and Daniel had made peace with the he-Hasid/ Malakh group by this time and hoped to revive it. Palestina of het H. is instructive. Cuper is dubious about the reports concerning new prophets. or they sought an entirely separate movement to the Holy Land under their own auspices.
30. which." Cuper to Heyman. Popkin. which he believed to be a sinister omen. Heyman to Cuper. perhaps at Salamanca. 1706: En l'an cincq cens octante plus et moins On attendra le siecle bien etrange En l'an sept cens et trois (cieux en temoins) Regner plusjeurs un a cinq feront change. Cardozo showed Heyman the pair of horns that he had behind his ears. See Richard H. "dat by die natie weit aengesien als een prophet. one apparently young enough to have an infant. Heyman then felt behind his own ears and found the beginnings of little horns. 1706. 1705. he touched and thought were about a finger in length. Elsewhere he clarifies this by claiming that he was a member of one of the lost tribes. January 29." HMtoryof European Ideas 5:2 (1984): 117-35. the sooner the better. 32. May 29. 29.32 Heyman remarks that a change occurs in the Sabbatian movement 28. Nostradamus' teachings would have been more common in a Christian country than in the Muslim world. . Cuper expresses surprise that Cardozo would have known of Nostradamus. Henri II.29It was during this meeting that Cardozo told Heyman that Daniel Israel was his student and disciple and cited a quatrain from Nostradamus to indicate the approaching messianic event. in 1706 Heyman met the leader of the Sabbatians. September 27. "wat van dese ongehoorde en haast ongelooflycke saake magh wesen. Nostradamus himself in his letter to the French king.30Heyman confides that he is skeptical of Cardozo's claims to be a prophet."'3' Heyman replies that Cardozo probably learned of the French seer while in studying in Spain. Divining and Foretelling from Nostradamus to Hume. explained that his ability to foretell the future came from his forebears. May 29. who otherwise would not have known of them. "Predicting. waer voor hy ook by veil Christenen weit gehouden. 1707. Cuper was obviously unaware that Cardozo was a Spaniard. in Cairo. which he is also held to be by many Christians. Abraham Miguel Cardozo. 31. Prophesying. Heyman writes to Cuper that Cardozo is about a hundred years old and has two wives. of whom he says that he "is seen by that [Jewish] nation as a prophet.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 309 opinion? He asks Heyman to forward such reports to him. Heyman to Cuper." Cuper to Heyman. Heyman relates. so that he can be informed of this "unprecedented and scarcely believable business. 1706. Cardozo then transmitted the prophecies of Nostradamus to the Jews in the Ottoman Empire."28 As cited in Basnage. saying that his predictions of future events only proved his deceit. To indicate that he was in fact the Messiah. December 19. Heyman to Cuper.
Cuper writes to both Hochepied and Heyman that "from Aleppo to Marseilles. on the other hand. believe in them. he did not perform his rapturous miracles as he had done previously. Heyman writes to Cuper that he had been taken by the Jews of Smyrna to a nearby village named Sjobar to see the synagogue that stood above the cave of the prophet Elijah. Heyman asked whether the child was the Messiah. kenne de lightgeloofdigheyt der Jooden. were expecting the arrival of the Antichrist. called the messiah and the antichrist.33 Yet even as Daniel Israel lost some of his influence.34 In the following summer. March 12. are so credulous. 1707. Heyman to Cuper. In 1707.. 34. die Messias ende de AntiChrist genaemt wert. although. Daniel Israel carried on the movement. At this point men would take up daggers and kill the Antichrist. The Muslims expected that Jesus would then descend from heaven. Heyman and Hochepied gathered information about the attention given to the disciples of Sabbatai Zevi and any messianic activity. and he carried on his work in silence. alles voor eenen Messias aenneemt. There the Dutch pastor spent the whole time disputing with his hosts and discussing the coming of the Messiah.310 JQR 94:3 (2004) after Cardozo's murder by his nephew in the summer of 1706. The Jews." Nevertheless. January 29. Cuper urges his correspondents in Smyrna to find out where these stories come from and whether Jews. that they "take everything for a messiah. Cuper writes.. een exempel van Godts reghtveerdighe toorn." Cuper to Heyman. Heyman 33. One of the Jews. The Turks. and on the wings of angels be set down on the towers of the white mosque in Damascus.. "Van Aleppo zyn tot Marseillen brieven vekoomen dewelke Schynen de Ick geboorte van een kindt. the Jews would then gather from all parts of the world." and that Jews are recounting how certain miracles and celestial signs appeared on the day of his birth. as Heyman writes. Heyman learned. who had recently been in Constantinople. His power seemed to have ceased completely. . a giant who could straddle hills half a mile apart and whose voice could be heard around the world. the Calvinists' interest in Sabbatianism and the Ottoman Empire's Jewish community did not diminish. letters have been received" that tell of the "birth of a child. Hearing his call. 1707. or other Oriental peoples. to which the answer was no but that the child was sent by the Messiah. related to Heyman that he had a letter in High German which told of the birth of a Jewish child in Baghdad who could speak eight days after his circumcision. ende dat die natie. Cuper comments that the belief in such things is so indecent that he cannot imagine how the grand master of Malta could be taken in by the reports.
. dat het oordeel van Goot op haer leyt om dat een volk dat Christus niet kend of ten hooghsten maar aght een prophet te zyn haar soo qualyk handle daernoghtans gheen deel heeft aen den twist die tusschen de Christenen en haar is of den Messias gekoomen is of niet. February 16. Het Joods kind dat binnen 8 daghen nae de besnydenis wandelde. The Amsterdam Jewish community was free and the choice that the Jews would make would not be coerced. 36.. after the fall of the world's empires. it would be visible to their Christian friends. I wish from the bottom of my heart. dat den Antichrist soude zyn. converts his brothers of the flesh. walk and speak within eight days after the circumcision. 37. Ick wensche nyt grond van my herd dat Christus eens belief de te beekeeren syne broederen nae het vleesch ende dat de volheyt der Heydenen al moghte ingegaen zyn in syn Coningryk. For both Jewish and Christian millenarians.37 Another item of interest for these correspondents was the dispersal of Jews throughout the world. ende dit arm en ongeluckigh volk gelooft alles wat maer hoop geeft tot de komste van haaren noeyd sullende koome Messias. 1708. the Jews would be returned to the Holy Land. According to millenarian beliefs based on passages from the books of Daniel and Revelation.. The search for the lost tribes was intense during this period.. ensprak is sekerlyk een verdightsel.. "suffer the judgment of God. [his honor] seydt niet. whereupon universal salva35. If the Jews were beginning to see the errors of their ways and beginning to convert.. but would be most meaningful.35 Seemingly intrigued by these messages from Smyrna about the birth of a messiah. de Hochepid heeft my geschreven van het fabulens kind. July 10. as it had been since the previous century.." The Jews. because [they are] a people that know not Christ." Cuper once more dismisses such reports as fiction. Cuper relates to Heyman that he had been informed by Hochepied about a "child that is supposed to be the Antichrist and the true messiah" and that this Jewish child "could eat. "De H. is al mede een klaar teeken van haare verwerpinge en groote blintheyt." Cuper to Heyman. Het gheen V-Eern [your honor] seydt van de kleynaghtinge die de Mahometaanen voor de Jooden hebben."36In this.. the ten tribes would reappear at the end of time. "this poor and unhappy folk believes everything that gives hope. that Christ. if it pleases him. commenting.. and that the plenitude of the heathens could enter into his kingdom. he continues. ende siet men daer nyt. as it had been in Spain and Portugal. Cuper seems to share Basnage's view that it is up to the divine power to bring about the conversion of the Jews. en den waaren Messias maer syn Wel G. dat dit een verdightsel is van de Venetiansse Jooden.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 311 concluded this section of his letter with the hope that he could go to Constantinople in the coming year to learn more. Heyman to Cuper. 1709. The Amsterdam Jewish community was important in this regard. .
the Caraites and the English Millenarians." Journal of Jevidh Studies 37:2 (1986): 213-27. He discovered that in the time of Mohammed they had an army of twenty-four troops. Popkin (Leiden. although for Christians the conversion of the Jews to Christianitywas a vital factor in bringing about the Second Coming. Henry M6choulan. "Christian Jews and Jewish Christians in the Seventeenth Century. each comprising a thousand men. "The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Indian Theory. and Rich- ard H. who lived around Mecca.38Reports from explorers and colonizers gave rise to theories that the lost tribes were in both North and South America. Popkin. Some seventeenth-century reports. Popkin. the contact with "judaized" Ethiopians. 55-61. 1975). M. Heyman mentioned a group of Arabs known as the Jews of Chaibar. and that they fought against Mohammed and his followers.39 A thousand or more years after Mohammed's conquest of Mecca in 630 C.ed. They were still exchanging information about this community in 1708. introduction to Menasseh ben Israel. The opening up of commerce to India and China and the discovery of Jewish activities there led to rumors that the lost tribes were in Asia. that those Indiand are Judaitca1. "The Lost Tribes.40 In a letter to Cuper written in 1705. detailed by Scholem. H. 1979). The conquest of Mecca by the ten tribes of Israel. but when he asked the Jews about this community they told him that they were unaware of such a group and that only Arab Muslims were to be found in that land. ed. both he and Cuper attempted to determine the genealogy of this group. See Richard H. or Probabilities. Weiner (Dordrecht." Heyman informs Cuper. They were also called "Anas. or Abyssinians. See Scholem. Esperance d'idrad(Paris." Jewidh Christians and Christian Jewvs. was supposed to be a sign that the messianic age was about to begin. Yosef Kaplan. 185.. possibly "because they were taken with the fanciful 38. Heyman noted that he had asked many people about them. R. Richard H. John Dury gives a picture of this in his introduction to Thomas Thorowgood's Jews in America. and Richard H. MZ/fllenartand and the French Revolution in Franceand England (Baltimore. 1994).E. the Jewish recapture would precede their return to the Holy Land and the messianic events that would then ensue. Respectable Folly.312 JQR 94:3 (2004) tion would be achieved. Popkin. Similarly. 1989). a recurrent theme circulating in Europe since at least the 1640s. 57-72. . The correspondence between Heyman and Cuper clearly reveals the interest in the millenariantheory of the lost tribes. Henri Mechoulan." AfenadsehBen Israel and Hid World. Popkin and G. also led to speculations along these lines. even claim that Mecca had been conquered by the ten tribes of Israel and it was just a matter of days until other events would take place. esp. Sabbatai Sev4 335-36. See Clarke Garrett. 67. 39. 40.
He sought to encompass what happened in Jewish communities all over the world and to deal with important Jewish theories. Josephus had provided an account of the history of the Jews up to the Roman destruction of the Temple in the first century. October 8.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 313 stories of the famous Sabbatian. . it looked 41. was working on a second edition of his history. especially the chapter "The Limits of Erudition: Jacques Basnage and Pierre Bayle. Basnage to Cuper. in exile in the Netherlands. A series of letters between Cuper and Basnage in 1707 indicate that Basnage. At this point. He died before accomplishing the task. which he appended to various writings. Subsequently. Menasseh ben Israel had said that he was going to undertake such a history. Basnage's is the first attempt at a nontheological history. July 10. See Adam Sutcliffe. 43. 2003). He included this venture in the list of books he intended to publish. 1708. Judaidm and Enlihtenment (Cambridge. a leading pastor and journalistic figure among the French refugees in the Netherlands. in friendship and in spirit. His was an attempt to be objective and to structure the material in a meaningful form. he recommended to Basnage that he read Johannes 'aLent and also forwarded him the materials he had been sent by Hochepied and Heyman. 42. such as the kabbalah. in terms that European intellectuals could appreciate. 1707. Heyman to Cuper.41 The letters from Hochepied and Heyman to Cuper are the reason Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples are to be found in Basnage's history of the Jews." 79-99. 44. In this sense. Basnage sent a manuscript copy to Cuper in 1707 and. Basnage saw himself in the same historical camp as those writing the histories of various countries and movements. took up where Josephus left off.44Out of order and unconnected to the preceding material. Cuper gave his opinion about various points. The documents we have found from the Cuper collection show that Basnage did not know about the Sabbatai Zevi episode while he was writing the second edition. in a series of letters. and he used much the same historical and critical method." Heyman vowed to find out more about this. there are accounts of Jewish developments in various parts of the world but no complete or comprehensive history. As Cuper worked through the manuscript he realized there was no mention of Sabbatai Zevi. This led Basnage to include some of the Sabbatai Zevi story and part of one of Heyman's letters on the last page of the English edition that appeared in 1708.42 Basnage. evidencing a particular interest in the treatment of false messiahs in ancient and medieval times.43 Basnage was very close to Pierre Bayle.
A Dutch version appeared in 1726 and Solomon Maimon embarked upon a Hebrew translation in the late eighteenth century.45 Basnage's Hiitoire des Juifs was extremely influential. Cerny. Holberg accepted it at face value and reiterated it in his Dutch edition. and thirty six or thirty seven Years ago. DaniffI geloofsgenooten vervulde" (emphasis in original). She'erit Yidrael. Cerny notes that Amelander's history was printed seven times in Yiddish and ten times in Hebrew translation. PolitiscandLettersat the Crossroads of European JacquesBadnage and the BayleanHuguenot Refugees in theDutch Civilization: Republic (Dordrecht. Amelander instead discusses Sabbatai Zevi's conversion to Islam and remarks that one year after the false messiah's death "another imposter. The first edition of 1706 was so successful that an abridged edition was actually appended to an edition of Josephus. 48. Vervolg op Flavitus Josephusof Algemene Hidtorie Naatsie (Amsterdam. Basnage reports that Sabbatai Zevi was beheaded by the Turkish authorities.. This account first appears in the 1708 English edition and is repeated in French in the 1715-16 edition. JodiskehiAtorie fra verdens begyndelse. "You know." Daniel Israel. lost his Head by order of Sultan Mfahomet" (emphasis in original). deed zich een andere beIsrad genaamd. 1726). 1812). appeared. turn'd Mahometan. . Basnage. Ludvig Holberg. 2 vols. and a somewhat modified version was put out in Catholic France. 46. It was Professor Matt Goldish who first apprised us of the fact that Basnage did not discuss anything about Sabbatai Zevi until the English edition and that only in the third edition (1715-16) was the Sabbatian movement placed in historical context. She'eritYidrael (Amsterdam. fortsatt til didsetider (Copenhagen. although it was never completed. TheHidtoryof the Jewv from the Destruction of Jerusalem to theNineteenthCentury. that [Sabbatai Zevi] pretended to be the Messiah. (Boston. Hannah Adams also relied heavily upon the work in producing her own Hiitoly of the Jews (1812).4 The Danish history by Ludvig Holberg was translated into German. Historyof the Jewv. 1742). Menahem Mann Amelander.314 JQR 94:3 (2004) like what it was: a last-minute addition. however. Theology. 758. 1743). 1987). This version does not. including his information about Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples. At any rate. appear in Menahem Mann Amelander's Yiddish history of the Jews.46 Histoire des Jtfs was used as a basis for two eighteenth-century histories of the Jews in Danish and Yiddish.9 Holberg took Basnage's comment 45. 49. Amelander. 185. derJoodsche 47. die te Slnyrna het voorzangers-ambt bij zijne drieger op. and that he abjur'd his Religion. thus transmitting Basnage's history. For unexplained reasons.8 We do not know whether Basnage heard this story from reports sent by Hochepied and Heyman to Cuper.1708 ed. See G. In the third edition the material was fully incorporated into the section on the Jews in the Ottoman Empire. throughout Europe. "Eenige jaren na den dood van SabbathaiZebi.
the Alumbrados. ed. said that he still lived and would emerge from hiding after 40 years . and the dervishes in the Ottoman Empire.50 However. We would like to thank Professor Chris Laursen at the University of California. The last we hear of Daniel Israel in Smyrna correlates well with the Dutch correspondence. even though there is little evidence of direct interaction. indicating that the movement lasted at least until 1709. . as we show." announcing that the Messiah would come in 1710. The material we have uncovered so far opens up a new chapter in the story of the Sabbatai Zevi movement and poses some interesting questions as to the links between the Sabbatians and other. Daniel Israel was producing a forged letter. There does not seem to be any further discussion of the matter of Daniel Israel or Sabbatai Zevi. 2003). remarking that they all have similar spiritual activities." Holberg. Hidtoryof the Jewv. "no one thinks about [Sabbatai Zevi] anymore. ostensibly from the tribes and the "Childrenof Moses. 52. .2:647. When they found out. .. 85. and believed that Sabbatai was still alive. Daniel Israel. . the year before Heyman's return to the Netherlands.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 315 that Daniel Israel's influence subsided after Cardoza's death to mean that the movement came to a complete and final end with Daniel Israel in 1706. 51. 230-32. . scholars could determine what happened to the remnants of the Sabbatian movement. Neither the Turks nor the Christians in Smyrna knew about this. This was the end of the impostorship of Sabathai Tzevi. Matt Goldish identifies the similarities in spirit possession that occur among the Quakers.." Spirit Possession in Judaidm: Cases and Contexts from the Middle Ages to the Present. Matt Goldish (Detroit. 50. non-Jewish millenarian movements in Europe.51 Since Hochepied remained in Smyrna until his death in 1723. he confirmed this from a passage in the book of the Prophet Daniel. Benayahu in Sefunot14. "Vision and Possession: Nathan of Gaza's Earliest Prophecies in Historical Context. Riverside for this information on Holberg.. Daniel had to leave the city. Matt Goldish. We were informed by Professor Yosef Kaplan that Amelander's description of the Sabbatai Zevi story is based on Thomas Coenen's book via the abridged Hebrew version published by Rabbi Jacob Emden in his anti-Sabbatian anthology. so they celebrated his birthday . n. Only a single Jew. who lived in Smyrna.52Initially. which was one of the most noteworthy happenings in Jewish history. the French Prophets. Many took him for a prophet. on the 18th of December. Quaker practice was some sort 438. Just at the time Hochpied and Heyman were hearing reports about new messianic stirrings connected with the reappearance of the lost tribes. were his letters to be found. the letters about the Sabbatians continued to arrive in the Netherlands from Smyrna. 197. The letters concerning Daniel Israel and the return of Sabbatai Zevi cease when Heyman returns to the Netherlands to take up his new post at Leiden in 1710. it is possible that.
A more extreme form of this type of mysticism appeared in the preaching of Miguel de Molinos. like those undertaken by the Dutch consul and minister in Smyrna. traveled around England. and the new colonies. The letters in the Cuper archive document how an important European account of Sabbatianism. as well as their possible conversion in the near future. crying out. The dervishes seem to have appeared in many centers of the Ottoman Empire. Reports about the followers of Sabbatai Zevi from 1665 onward tell of similar behavior patterns. the Ottoman Empire." The Quakers were merchants all over Europe. sixteenth-century Spanish mystics who claimed to have direct communication with God. Undoubtedly. "To be a Jew externally is nothing. In his spiritual guide he advocated a form of devotion called Quietism. especially in northern Europe. This doctrine was very popular at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century. Projects like Basnage's were undertaken to provide an account of Judaism from the fall of the Temple to the present day. appeared among the clergy that sought spiritual contact with the American Indians and the natives of various Asian communities. Tirana. The French Prophets were first known through reports of their spiritual activities carried on secretly in France and then through the amazing reenactments in England and the Netherlands. where travelers were able to witness public performances in which the dervishes' ecstatic activity induced a state of exhaustive intoxication and sometimes unconsciousness. were conducted to discover the present state of Jewish existence in the Ottoman Empire and send reports back to the Netherlands. and predicted glorious future events. participated in inspirational spiritual possession.316 JOR 94:3 (2004) of spiritualized Judaism. Similarly. and its founder. including Constantinople. Other tasks. Basnage's history provided the basic story of the Sabbatian movement for the next century. to be a Jew internally is everything. whereby the practitioner tried to extinguish all desires and allow the soul to become completely absorbed in God. and Cairo. All these groups produced believers who made prophecies. This fit with the general expectation of northern Protestants coming from works like those of Pierre Allix and from the emergence of the French Prophets on En- . Hochepied and Heyman applied their millenarian Calvinist outlook to the situation of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire and especially the Sabbatian movement with its promise of an imminent messianic culmination. that of Jacques Basnage's Hitoire des Jutfs. George Fox. Alumbrados. one major reason for his study was to inform a non-Jewish audience about the current state of the Jews. came out of the reports by two Dutchmen who were in Turkey in the early eighteenth century.
did not come to an abrupt end after the death of Sabbatai Zevi. The letters from Cuper. Sabbatianism. The Dutch Sephardic community had. . accepted Sabbatai Zevi. and Hochepied clearly indicate an ongoing and active interest by Jews who continued to follow Sabbatai Zevi and his disciples. to a great extent. so what happened after his conversion to Islam became of great concern to those looking for signs of the end of days. therefore.THE SABBATIAN MOVEMENT-POPKIN AND CHASIN 317 glish and Dutch soil. Heyman. stimulated by the millenarian and messianic fervor that existed in both Europe and the Ottoman Empire. Perhaps further research into Dutch sources will throw more light on what happened to the Sabbatian movement in Turkey in the latter part of the eighteenth century. with vestiges to be found only in the Donmeh sect.
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