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GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning
3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning
All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 1

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Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 2

Objectives
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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By the end of the course, participants know:
GPRS Session Management, TBF Management, Location Management, System Information Management, Cell Selection and Re-selection, Power Control and RLC Measurements, Coding Scheme and Link Adaptation, Radio Resources Re-allocation, (E)GPRS Planning Principles, (E)GPRS Network Planning, Network Evolution Scenarios, (E)GPRS QoS Enhancement Features, (E)GPRS with GSM Capacity Enhancement Features

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 3

Objectives
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 4

Table of Contents
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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Switch to notes view!
1 Basics 1.1 Service Overview GPRS 1.2 Service Overview EGPRS 1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes 1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 1.4 Dual Transfer Mode 1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes 1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture 1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture 1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane) 1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support 1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS 1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects 1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure 1.13 GPRS Channel Coding 1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding 1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview 1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) 1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism 1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS 1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS 1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept 1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe 1.22 Logical Channels EVOLIUM BSS -(E)GPRS GPRS and EGPRS 1.23 Master/Slave PDCH concept All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Radio Network Planning 1.24 Temporary Block Flow 1.25 Resources Sharing 1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination 1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS 1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS 1.29 Attach procedure 1.30 PDP context activation 1.31 Location management 1.32 Routing Area 1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 1.34 TBF establishment 1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access 1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access 1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH 1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH 1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH 1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects 1.40 TRX Classes Concept 1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS 2 B9 features 2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs) 2.1.1 Radio Network Impact 2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode 2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink 2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

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Table of Contents [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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Switch to notes view!
2.5.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.6 2G/3G Inter-working 2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing 2.7.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation 2.8.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management 2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements 2.10.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements 2.11.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.1 Cell Reselection Overview 3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established 3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established 3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM 3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode 3.6 GPRS redirection 3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview 3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements 3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm 3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control 3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control 3.12 adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics EVOLIUM BSS -Link GPRS and EGPRS All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control Radio Network Planning 3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision 3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up 3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic 3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview 3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state 3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs 3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs 3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation 3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH 3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access 4 General (E)GPRS planning principels 4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level) 4.2 Packet data throughput 4.3 Reference performance point 4.4 Saturation effect 4.5 Cell area and throughput 4.6 Throughput <-> C/I 5 (E)GPRS Network intoduction 5.1 GPRS network planning 5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning 5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis 5.4 GPRS traffic calculationand PS traffic 5.5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile 5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications 5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior 5.8 Customer questionnaire 5.9 Traffic Model (Example) 5.10 User mapping 5.11 Multi-Service

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Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 7 .5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing 7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption 7.13 GPRS traffic calculation 5.GPRS and EGPRS All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 7.15 GPRS traffic calculation result 6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic 11.8 GPRS Power Control Radio Network Planning 7.12 QoS per User Application 5.1 E-GPRS main differences 11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.8.3 Dual Band 9.8.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies 6.Table of Contents [cont.1 General 6.3 Throughput 6.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic 11.8.4 Link budget 6.2 µ-cell 9.3 Non-DRX feature 8 GPRS introduction into oerational GSM network 8.4 User multiplexing 7.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) 11.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation 7.9 LA and RA planning 6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service 6.4 Concentric cell 10 E-GPRS 10.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods 5.1 General 9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS 9.] Radio Network Planning .5 Network capacity calculation 11.1 Optimization campaign on parameters 7.2 Frequency planning 6.10 Quality of Service 7 Considerabele features to react (E)GPRS target 7.1 Frequency Hopping 9.2 MPDCH 7.6 Traffic dimensioning Page 206 207 212 217 218 219 222 224 225 228 229 230 231 235 245 248 249 250 251 254 255 256 257 259 260 262 263 264 266 267 268 269 275 276 278 280 283 284 285 288 289 291 292 293 297 301 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Delayed DL TBF release 7.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies 6.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process 7.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 7 Switch to notes view! 5.1 General 7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release 7.8 Reselection EVOLIUM BSSCell .2 User and area distribution determination 11.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation 7.8 GPRS Analysis 6.

Blank Page Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 8 EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning This page is left blank intentionally All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 8 .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 9 1 Basics EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 9 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 10 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 10 GPRS “General Packet Radio Service” GPRS is a GSM feature It has been introduced to provide end-to-end packet-switched (PS) data transmission between MS users and fixed packet data networks GPRS provides efficient utilization of the radio resources: multislot operation flexible sharing of radio resources between MS resources are allocated only when data are transmitted Charging is mainly based on data volume transmitted and not on the connection time EVOLIUM BSS .1 Service Overview GPRS Radio Network Planning .1 Basics 1.

but one symbol represents now 3 bits instead of 1 bit in GMSK increased data rates EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 11 EDGE “Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution” ETSI standardized solution and can be introduced in two ways: CS enhancement: Enhanced circuit-switched data or ECSD PS enhancement for GPRS EGPRS EGPRS relies on the introduction of 8-PSK (Eight Phase Shift Keying) modulation technique: Same qualities in terms of generating interference on an adjacent channel as GMSK makes possible to integrate EDGE channels into existing frequency plan 8-PSK Symbol rate = GMSK Symbol rate.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 11 .2 Service Overview EGPRS Radio Network Planning .

• R97/98 QoS should be also taken into account (OP12) if PFC is not supported by the MS or the SGSN in order to handle interactive traffics or some specific applications as PoC (Push over Cellular). Applications that make use of this class might be e-mail downloading. Video streaming or PoC (Push to tak over Celullar) are typical applications for the streaming traffic class. or even ftp downloading. The interactive class corresponds to mainly to traditional Internet applications like web browsing. the BSS and the SGSN.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes Radio Network Planning . The interest of PFC is to differentiate on the radio interface the conversational and streaming traffics and to reserve resources for these traffics. Without the PFC.1 Basics 1. SMS. It allows the BSS B9 to handle streaming and interactive traffics and also to negotiate the QoS parameters. the BSS only knows the R97/98 QoS parameters (correspond to the interactive and background R99 QoS classes). The background class is typically corresponding to Best Effort services. • R99 QoS is taken into account if the PFC (Packet Flow Context) procedures are supported by the MS. EVOLIUM BSS . Speech and video conferencing tools are some examples of such applications The streaming class corresponds to a real-time stream and enforces mainly constraints on jitter. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 12 . It enables to perform admission control and QoS based resource allocation in the BSS. All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 PFC procedure • Packet Flow Context (PFC) is a concept introduced starting with R99 3GPP release to ensure that the BSS is involved in the R99 QoS negotiation. Some differentiation can be done between two services by using the traffic handling priority attribute.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 12 Four QoS classes (or traffic classes) are defined: The conversational class will be very likely dedicated to real-time conversation.

1 Basics 1.2. resources for (CS and) PS calls. • Activate_Secundary_PDP_Context_Accept. The PFI is not used for contention resolution but is included to indicate to the network which PFC shall initially be associated with the uplink TBF. . PFC_FEATURE_MODE is included in the MS_Network_Capability I.„ • b) RLC/MAC/… messages impacts: .1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .PI bit (PFI indicator) is created. PSI13 and PSI14) and indicates to the MSs if the network supports the PFC feature. EVOLIUM BSS . RLC/MAC messages impacted are: • Packet Resource Request : PFI field is added • (EGPRS) Packet DL ACK/NACK: PFI field is added (if a Channel Request Description is also present) • UL (EGPRS) RLC data blocks : PFI field is added after the TLLI field (see 44.060 § 10.PFC_FEATURE_MODE: this 1 bit field is a part of the R99 extensions in the GPRS_Cell_Options. Here a traffic capacity gain is expected (higher traffic levels can be handled with feature activated than without). in a selective manner. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 13 . All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Radio interface impact • a) Support of PFC feature by RLC/MAC : .2). PFI is included in the following SM messages : • Activate_PDP_Context_Accept.The PFC impact on the one phase access: "If the PFC_FEATURE_MODE is set in the system information and if a PFC exists for the LLC data to be transferred then the PFI shall be transmitted along with the TLLI of the mobile station in the RLC extended header during contention resolution. • Modify_PDP_Context_Request (sent by the network) and • Modify_PDP_Context_Accept (in case the request to modify is sent by the MS). it indicates the presence of the optional PFI field: › 0 PFI is not present › 1 PFI is present if TI field indicates presence of TLLI › The PFI field indicates a PFI coded as it is defined in TS 44. It is broadcasted on BCCH (SI13) or PBCCH (PSI1. They will define the actual traffic shape in the cell by allocating.3.E. not by the coverage per site).2 and 10.3a. (which is sent in the Attach_Request and RA_Update_Request GMM messages).GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 13 QoS subfeatures are of great interest in traffic-driven networks (number of sites determined by the traffic to be carried.018.

the Gs interface is required to support DTM to ensure CS paging co-ordination. Only multislot operation DTM MSs are supported. It avoids defining new TBF re-allocation triggers.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. While in dual transfer mode. EVOLIUM BSS .4 Dual Transfer Mode Radio Network Planning . The dynamic Abis feature allows to simplify the radio resource allocations. In Alcatel’s implementation. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 14 . It avoids the BSS to ensure the paging co-ordination.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 14 !!!!! B10 FEATURE ONLY !!!! This feature allows a dual transfer mode capable MS to use a radio resource for CS traffic and simultaneously one or several radio resources for PS traffic.1 Basics 1. the BSS only allocates full rate PDCH to the MS. Single slot operation DTM MSs are not supported in Alcatel BSS because the implementation of these MSs is difficult compared to the throughput expected in PS services.

Therefore.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.4. Inter-cell handovers The number of inter-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls. EVOLIUM BSS .1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning . as an inter-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session. as an intra-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session.GPRS and EGPRS !!!!! B10 FEATURE ONLY !!!! 1 — 1 — 15 Some restrictions towards BSS in deploying DTM exist. Hierarchical networks As (E)GPRS are preferentially offered in macro cells. It means that the BSS shall allow a PDCH used by a MS operating in DTM mode to be shared by other (E)GPRS MS. the BSS shall ensure that at least one PDCH can be used in micro cells to re-direct the MS towards the macro cells. handover causes having a low priority should be inhibited for the time the MS is operating in DTM.1 Basics 1. Intra-cell handovers The number of intra-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 15 . They are presented below: Half rate Support of half rate configurations (one single timeslot encompassing one half rate circuit channel + one half rate packet channel) was not considered in the first implementation of DTM.

n. but they do not need to be contiguous. The maximum number of transmitted time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The maximum number of transmitted and received time slots (without Mx) per TDMA frame. EGPRS multislot class < GPRS multislot class E. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 16 . The transmitted TS shall be allocated within the window of size Tx.a. the multislot class of the mobile can be 3 RXs + 2 TXs (class 6) in pure GPRS mode and 2 RXs + 1 TX (class 2) in pure EGPRS mode Type 1: class 1-12. • For DUPLEX MS (type 2): .a. Type 2 are duplex MSs.Ttb is the minimum time (in time slot) necessary between the Rx and Tx windows.1 Basic 1.e.Tra is the minimum time necessary between 2 Rx windows belonging to different frames in order to be able to open a measurement window.a.a.n.a. For SIMPLEX MS.n. without duplexer: they are not able to transmit and receive at the same time • Rx • The maximum number of received time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. For SIMPLEX MS.n. Tra et Trb changes regarding MS types.n. allocation is limited to max.n.a. no received TS shall occur between transmit TS within a TDMA frame.Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.n.n. This does not take into account the measurement window (Mx). The receive TS shall be allocated within window of size Rx...n.n.e. no transmitted TSs shall occur between receive TS within a TDMA frame. .a.a. 5+5 timeslots Multislot Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 4 2 5 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 4 6 6 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 4 8 6 8 8 RX Timeslots 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 TX Timeslots 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 Sum of Timeslots 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 n.Ttb is the minimum time necessary between 2 Tx windows belonging to different frames.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 MS type • Type 1 are simplex MSs.Tra is the minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of the next TDMA in order to be able to open a measurement window. with duplexer: they are able to transmit and receive at the same time Tx • SUM • The meaning of Ttb. class 19-29 recognized as class 10 Type 2: class 13-18. All Rights Reserved © 2007.a.a.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes Radio Network Planning . but they do not need to be contiguous.n. • For SIMPLEX MS (type 1): .a. i.a.n.Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.n.a.a.a.n.g. .n.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 16 EGPRS MS is characterized by two multislot classes: GPRS multislot class EGPRS multislot class Typically. . . i.a.a. EVOLIUM BSS .n.

but defines a fixed network (GPRS backbone) which is different from the NSS. which allows service subscriber to send and receive data in an end-to-end packet transfer mode (E)GPRS uses the BSS architecture. for GPRS (Gb interface) one or more 64 kbit/s channels on one or more 2 Mbit/s links Gb interface: Layer 1 specified in GSM 08. GSM 03. and which links the BSS to PDNs (packet data networks). The BSS is used for both circuit-switched and (E)GPRS services The BSS has 2 clients: the MSC.1 Basics 1. for circuit-switched services (A interface) the GPRS backbone network.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.14 The protocol stack defined in the stage 2. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 17 . with radio access.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 17 (E)GPRS defines a network architecture dedicated to packet service domain.60 EVOLIUM BSS .

Gc: for Network-Requested PDP contexts Activation (the GGSN asks the HLR for SGSN Routing Information). • GTP/UDP/IP on Gn.] Radio Network Planning . All the elements connected to this backbone have private permanent IP addresses. Gr: exchange of Subscription Information at Attachment Phase. Signaling protocols: • MAP/TCAP/SCCP/MTP on Gr.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 18 . Gs: defines the Network Mode of Operation I.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 GPRS network = IP network • Note: Additional IP routers might be used to route the information between the GSNs (intra-PLMN backbone network). All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1. Additional interfaces: • Gf (to the EIR). Gd and Gc (through the SGSN for the latter). • Gd to deliver the SMS to the mobiles via the GPRS network (SGSN option and subscriber feature).GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 18 (E)GPRS general architecture A Interface MSC/VLR PSTN Circuit Switched services domain BSS Gb Interface GPRS backbone Gi PDN Packet Switched services domain EVOLIUM BSS . It allows to perform LA + RA combined Location Update. • GMM/SM/LLC on Gb/Um. and PS and CS Paging Coordination. BSSAP+/SCCP/MTP on Gs.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 19 Packet Control Unit (PCU) function is defined by the GSM standard: controls the (E)GPRS activity in a cell handles RLC/MAC functions may be either implemented in the BTS. ALCATEL chose the MFS integration in order to offer a faster implementation inside the BSS as well as an easier maintenance and supervision.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The standard specifies that the PCU function shall be implemented in one of the 3 following entities: • BTS. BSC or the SGSN Alcatel choice: PCU implemented in a new network element. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 19 . MFS: Multi BSS Fast packet Server. • after the BSC (in the SGSN for instance) The implementation of the PCU functions determines the position of the Gb interface. A 9135 MFS (Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server) smooth and cost effective introduction of the GPRS EVOLIUM BSS . All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture Radio Network Planning . • BSC.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 20 Alcatel packet-switched service domain architecture: Packet domain Gp Other PLMN BTS Abis BSC Ater MFS Gb SGSN Gn GGSN Firewall Gi Internet/ Intranet MS EVOLIUM BSS .7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 20 .] Radio Network Planning .

1 Basics 1. It keeps track of the individual MS’s location and performs security functions and access control Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 21 . which is linked to one or several data networks.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 21 GPRS backbone is an IP network and is composed of routers: Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). which is linked to several BSSs. at the same hierarchical level as the MSC. provides interworking with external packet-switched networks and is connected with SGSNs via an IP-based GPRS backbone network EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.

for the arbitration between multiple mobile stations simultaneously attempting to access the shared transmission medium.16 Ethernet FR Frame Relay Ethernet FR Frame Relay Physical Link Layer Physical RF Layer relay Physical L2-GCH Layer 2 GPRS Link Layer Channel Physical RF Layer Um or: or: L2-GCH Layer 2 GPRS Channel ATM L1bis Layer 1bis GSM 08. please refer to “Introduction to GPRS & E-GPRS Quality of Service Monitoring” It can be said from this protocol stacks diagram that after allocation of a GCH by the BSC to the MFS.14 Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode L1-GCH Layer 1 GPRS Channel L1-GCH Layer 1 GPRS Channel L1bis Layer 1bis GSM 08. the RLC function may provide Incremental Redundancy (IR).. use several time slots within the TDMA frame.e. which may consist of several physical channels.64 UDP or: User Datagram Protocol RFC 768 UDP or: User Datagram Protocol RFC 768 TCP RLC Radio Link Control GSM 04. The RLC function provides also link adaptation.16 NS Network Service GSM 08.18 BSSGP BSS GPRS Protocol GSM 08. The function may allow a mobile station to use several physical channels in parallel.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 22 Application example www World Wide Web http Hypertext Transfer Protocol TCP Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793 IP Internet Protocol RFC 791 IP Internet Protocol RFC 791 relay SNDCP Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol GSM 04. The RLC function defines the procedures for segmentation and reassemble of LLC PDUs into RLC/MAC blocks and.60 BSSGP BSS GPRS Protocol GSM 08. the RLC function preserves the order of higher layer PDUs provided to it.65 GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol GSM 09. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 22 . In EGPRS in RLC acknowledged mode of operation. including the contention resolution procedures.704 E1 (PCM30) G. For the mobile station originating access.60 TCP Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793 relay RLC Radio Link Control GSM 04. in RLC acknowledged mode of operation. i.704 MS BTS Abis / Ater MFS Gb SGSN Gn GGSN Gi EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 For the exact purposes of the tracing. All Rights Reserved © 2007. the MAC function provides the procedures.60 NS Network Service GSM 08. The MAC function defines the procedures that enable multiple mobile stations to share a common transmission medium.18 Transmission Control Protocol RFC 793 IP Internet Protocol RFC 791 IP Internet Protocol RFC 791 MAC Medium Access Control GSM 04.1 Basics 1. For the mobile station terminating access. the MAC function provides the procedures for queuing and scheduling of access attempts.65 SNDCP Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol GSM 04. the data carried over the GCH are transparent for the BSC.64 LLC Logical Link Control GSM 04.60 GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol GSM 09.703 / G.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane) Radio Network Planning . In RLC acknowledged mode of operation.703 / G.14 and/or: and/or: E1 (PCM30) G.60 LLC Logical Link Control GSM 04. for the Backward Error Correction (BEC) procedures enabling the selective retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks.60 MAC Medium Access Control GSM 04.

5 EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1. MCS 1-9 micro BTS: support of EDGE in micro BTS A9110-E Micro BTS A9110 (M4M): GPRS only.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support Radio Network Planning . CS 1-4 A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution (G4): (E)GPRS. CS 1-4 Micro A9110-E (M5M): (E)GPRS. MCS 1-9 BSC A9120 (G2) MFS A9135 TC A9125 (Transcoder) G2 and G2.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 23 BTS: Support of EGPRS (EDGE) in all BTS A9100 EVOLIUM™ Evolution equipped with TRA transceiver: G1 MK2 and G2 with DRFU: GPRS only. CS 1-4.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 23 . CS 1-4. CS-1 and CS-2 only A9100 EVOLIUM (G3): GPRS only.

• An 8-PSK burst is composed of 156. Part of the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time An 8PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path which allows to tripled the data transmission rates Q 110 Q 100 101 Q 011 111 111 011 t I Q 010 000 001 011 010 110 010 001 000 dB I 000 100 001 101 I 0 111 I 101 100 110 PN -20 (147 bits) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 GMSK = the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying belongs to a subset of phase modulations 8-PSK = 8-state Phase Shift Keying • 8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. one symbol corresponds to three bits (3GPP TS 05. A normal burst has a duration of 3/5.04) • A GMSK burst is composed of 156.75 bits) / (3/5.35 symbol periods.2 seconds) = 810 Kbit/s GMSK Modulation type Channel spacing Gross bit rate per carrier Carrier envelope Packet radio service Frequency modulation 200 KHz 270 Kbit/s constant GPRS / EGPRS All Rights Reserved © 2007.2 seconds) = 270 Kbit/s For 8-PSK modulation.02).35 bits) / (3/5. Modulation gross bit rate • The normal burst is divided into 156.25 guard period (bits)) • Modulation gross bit rate = (156. Part of the information is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time. • Modulation gross bit rate = (468.75 bits (18 tail bits + 78 training sequence bits + 348 encrypted bits + 24. a symbol is equivalent to a bit (3GPP TS 05.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 24 8-PSK = Phase Shift Keying 8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. (3GPP TS 05.04). • An 8-PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path.75 guard period (bits)).35 bits (6 tail bits + 26 training sequence bits + 116 encrypted bits + 8. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 24 8-PSK Phase modulation 200 KHz 810 Kbit/s Amplitude varies EGPRS .2 seconds (577 µs).35 x 3 = 468. which allows to triple the data transmission rates.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS Radio Network Planning . • For GMSK modulation.1 Basics 1.

4 dBm 60 W / 47.5 dBm 35 W / 45. The TRA sensitivity is as follows : • GMSK : .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 25 Nominal output power (PN) of the transmitter represents the average power during the active burst GMSK average power is identical to GMSK peak power 8-PSK peak power is equal to GMSK peak power but the 8-PSK average power is lower than the peak power 8-PSK power < GMSK power the difference is called average power decrease (APD) or power back off TRA 900 MP 900 HP 1800 MP 1800 HP 900 EDGE+ 1800 EDGE+ GMSK output power 45 W / 46.4 dBm 8-PSK output power 15 W / 41. • 8-PSK : .8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm 12 W / 40.8 dBm 30W / 44.108 dBm for MCS5.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects Radio Network Planning . All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1.99 dBm for MCS9.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm 30 W / 44.8 dBm 35 W / 45.8 dBm EVOLIUM BSS . Only G4 TREs (also called TRA) are EDGE capable.111 dBm. .8 dBm 45 W / 46.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 G3 TREs are not able to handle the 8-PSK modulation.5 dBm 60 W / 47. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 25 .

• When a GCH channel is activated. • As a consequence power amplifiers can not be used at their maximum power. the BTS sends the 8-PSK delta power to the MFS. a TRE is called “High Power” or “Medium Power”. .an Average Power Decrease which is the difference between the 8-PSK output power and the GMSK output power after having taken into account BS_TXPWR_MAX. • According to the 8-PSK delta power value. takes into account the BS_TXPWR_MAX and consequently the Effective GMSK Sector Power Always 8 PSK pwr ≤ GMSK pwr APD = 0 if 8 PSK pwr > GMSK pwr Used by Link Adaptation process 8-PSK TRE 2 HP TRE 1 MP TRE 1 HP TRE 1 MP TRE 2 Case 1 LEGEND GMSK LEVELING GMSK POWER 8-PSK POWER ATTENUATION BS_TXPWR_MAX ∆ 8-PSK APD Case 2 8-PSK Delta power (∆ 8-PSK) considers only the GMSK sector power without the BS_TXPWR_MAX 8-PSK ∆ ≤ 3 dB indicates that is a high power TRE EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 26 OUTPUT PWR @ BTS ant. connector Unbalanced BTS configuration ∆-8PSK = APD ∆-8PSK = APD APD = 0 Case 1: BS_TXPWR_MAX=0 Case 2: BS_TXPWR_MAX<>0 SECTOR GMSK 8-PSK TRE 1 APD.a possible attenuation (BS_TX_PWR) for the 8-PSK DL RLC block emission. the 8-PSK delta power allows the MFS to determine: . • On a TRE. All Rights Reserved © 2007. the attenuation is BS_TXPWR_MAX). • An O&M parameter (BS_TXPWR_MAX) allows a static power reduction of the maximum GMSK output power of the sector.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 APD: Average Power Decrease • The back-off between average GMSK and 8-PSK output power comes from physics since 8-PSK is a non constant envelope modulation unlike GMSK. the difference between the 8-PSK output power of the TRE and the GMSK output power of the sector (8-PSK delta power). Together with BS_TXPWR_MAX (static power reduction). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 26 .1 Basics 1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont. • The TRE transmit power in 8-PSK shall not exceed the GMSK transmit power in the sector. in order not to exceed the GMSK power of the sector (for GMSK DL RLC block. Output power handling • The BTS sets all the TRE which transmit GMSK output powers at the same level which is the minimum value among the maximum TRE output power in a sector and in a given band. The Average Power Decrease is taken into account in the link adaptation tables. This results in a difference between mean output powers for GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. the maximum GMSK output power is higher than the maximum 8-PSK output power. • The BTS determines for each TRE.

] Radio Network Planning .4 GMSK = 42.4 dBm 2nd step: LEVELING (BTS automatic GMSK power balancing): TRE 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 27 .1 Basics 1.1 dBm.4 GMSK = 42..1 dBm (Sector GMSK power) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 27 Example: GSM 900..6 dBm TRE 2.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.4: 45W GMSK (15W in 8-PSK) BS_TXPWR_MAX = 2 dB..11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont. RESULTS: 1st step: Output power at BTS antenna connector (after combiner and duplexer stage): TRE 1 GMSK = 43. 8-PSK = 39.4 dBm. 8-PSK = 37. a mix BTS sector configuration is considered: ANc combined with 4 TRA (TRAs = EGPRS capable TRE): TRE 1 (BCCH): 60W GMSK (25W in 8-PSK) TRE 2.

A tolerance has been introduced with 8-PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed If APD is greater than 2 dB.6 = 0. • PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is a flag at cell level which indicates whether the operator wishes to allocate packet on the BCCH TRX with highest priority. The drawback is that CS and GPRS service may be affected by the GMSK output power reduction.1 – 37.1 Basics 1. This frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level.4 = 40.08 has defined a constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency. in case of a BTS (e.1 dBm ≥ 39.6 dBm ≥ 37. Depending on the configuration in the BTS..1 – 39.4 dBm no reduction of 8-PSK power 6th step: APD computation APD TRE 1 (BCCH) = 40. it may happen that the difference between GMSK and 8-PSK power on the BCCH TRX is greater than 2dB.6 = 0. APD should be considered in the A9155 planning tool for the throughput estimation (based on interference calculation per pixel approach) and also to determine the 8-PSK coverage. 05.4 = 42. • 3GPP Rec. A possible solution for this constraint. since 40. in order to ensure higher C/I conditions and offer better throughputs.5 dB APD TRE 2. All Rights Reserved © 2007. a static power attenuation should be applied or EGPRS capability should not be activated on the BCCH TRE EVOLIUM BSS . However the activation of EDGE on the BCCH TRX should be performed cautiously. the non-hopping TRX may benefit from a special radio planning with higher reuse cluster size.5 dB which respects the ETSI constraint.4 GMSK = 42. 3 dB can be taken for the average IR gain.1 dBm (Effective GMSK Sector Power) 5th step: GMSK power ≥ 8-PSK power ? YES..1 – 39. the system is allocating a higher priority for the packet-switched traffic for non-hopping TRX in a cell. both for GPRS and EDGE.1 – 37.7 dB 3GPP 05.5 dB < 3 dB recognized as HP TRE ∆ TRE 2. Actually.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Radio Network Planning Impact • Frequency hopping is not recommended for E-GPRS (MCS-1 to MCS-9) • Therefore.08 constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency: BCCH frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level.1 – 2 = 40.7 dBm recognized as MP TREs 4th step: static attenuation (only on GMSK power) TRE 1. A tolerance has been introduced with 8PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed.] Radio Network Planning .6 = 2.g.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 28 3rd step: 8-PSK Delta computation ∆ TRE 1 = 42. ANc combined) equipped only with MP TRX (most of the cases) is presented below: The BCCH MP TRX will be replaced by a HP TRX (to take also advantage from 8-PSK 25W power and ∆<3dB) BS_TXPWR_MAX will be set to 2 dB The difference between GMSK and 8-PSK power on BCCH TRX will be: (42.1 – 2) – 39. • The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput estimation. • In addition.4 = 2. is recommended to activate GPRS/EDGE traffic on the BCCH TRX due to its high RCS.. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 28 .11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.4 = 4.

12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure Radio Network Planning . inside a block there is no multiplexing of different users possible the whole information belonging to one radio block is transmitted upon channel coding. in a certain timeslot over 4 consecutive TDMA frames the data amount carried in one (E)GPRS radio block is: 456 bits in GPRS (GMSK modulation) 464 bits in EGPRS (GMSK modulation) 1392 bits in EGPRS (8-PSK modulation) EVOLIUM BSS . called (E)GPRS radio blocks Radio block characteristics: a block is the smallest data unit assigned to an user one radio block is always entirely assigned to one user.1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. the LLC data is segmented at RLC layer into packets.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 29 In order to be transmitted over the air interface. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 29 .

12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 30 GPRS Radio Block (data transfer) MAC header RLC header RLC data block BCS MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions RLC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions RLC Data Block: bytes from one or more LLC PDUs Block Check Sequence (BCS): used for error detection EGPRS Radio Block (data transfer) RLC/MAC header HCS RLC data block 1 RLC data block 2 only MCS-7/8/9 BCS RLC/MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions RLC Data Field: LLC PDUs bytes.] Radio Network Planning .1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 30 . contains one or two RLC data blocks Block Check Sequence (BCS): for error detection of the data part Header Check Sequence (HCS): for error detection of the header part EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 31 .1 Basics 1.13 GPRS Channel Coding Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 31 Channel coding provides error detection and error correction Essential for managing the impairments on the air interface Data rates in GPRS on the air interface The useful data rates on the air interface depend on the channel coding procedure For (E)GPRS. different channel coding levels are applied depending on the actual radio conditions EVOLIUM BSS .

the second step consists of pre-coding USF (except for CS-1).1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. and are applied depending from the actual radio conditions The first step of the channel coding procedure is to add a Block Check Sequence (BCS) for error detection For CS-1 to CS-3.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont. are defined for the GPRS Radio Blocks carrying RLC data.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 32 Four different coding schemes. adding four tail bits and a half rate convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give the desired coding rate For CS-4 there is no coding for error correction The most protected mode is CS-1 which is therefore always used for GPRS signaling (even for EGPRS) EVOLIUM BSS . CS-1 to CS-4. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 32 .] Radio Network Planning .

0 8. punctured Half rate convolutional coding Code rate 1.] Radio Network Planning .4 puncturing CS-4 Maximum User Payload [kbps] 456 bits Interleaving of GPRS Radio Block over 4 consecutive TDMAs (4 PDCH) Scheme Modulation schemes GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK Coding schemes for RLC data block No coding Half rate convolutional coding.66 0. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 33 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 33 GPRS RADIO BLOCK USF BCS 8 GMSK modulation CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 20 rate 1/2 convolutional coding 12 14.00 0.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.0 CS-4 Release B8 CS-3 CS-2 CS-1 EVOLIUM BSS .50 Header + Protection Maximum data rate per TS (RLC payload) [kbps] 20.75 0.0 14.1 Basics 1. punctured Half rate convolutional coding.4 12.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.

is to add a Block Check Sequence (BCS) to each RLC data block. MCS-4. P2. when the receiver receives two versions of the same RLC block sent with two different puncturing schemes. MCS-1: P1 and P2 are possible EVOLIUM BSS . Depending on the considered puncturing scheme. Therefore. MCS-3: are possible P1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 34 . it obtains additional information leading to an increased decoding probability.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The puncturing process consists of transmitting only some of the coded bits obtained after the rate 1/3 convolutional coding. MCS-8.1 Basics 1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding Radio Network Planning . All Rights Reserved © 2007. and P3 MCS-6. MCS-2. for error detection Second step consists of adding six tail bits (TB) and a 1/3 rate convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give the desired coding rate The Pi (puncturing schemes) for each MCS correspond to different puncturing schemes achieving the same coding rate Puncturing is a technique of removing bits in predetermined locations of the data block after the block has been channel coded MCS-9. MCS-7.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 34 Nine different coding schemes are defined: MCS-1 to MCS-9 First step of the EGPRS coding procedure. MCS-5. different coded bits are transmitted.

are added to the data bytes Within a family different throughputs are achieved by transmitting a different number of basic payload units within one block impact on retransmission Offset the GPRS disadvantage on retransmission EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 35 . A’.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 35 MCSs are divided into 4 different families: A. B and C Each family has a different basic payload unit: 37 34 28 22 bytes: family bytes: family bytes: family bytes: family A A’ (padding) B C When switching to MCS-3 or MCS-6 from MCS-8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1. 3 or 6 padding bytes.

these are split into 2 separate RLC blocks (i.8 padding (MCS-3/6) 54.2 x 4 = 44. it is not possible via the Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) mechanism to retransmit with another CS.4 14.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 36 8.8 8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The main GPRS imperfections are linked to: • the design of the GPRS coding schemes which were designed independently from the others with their own data unit.e. • the fact that once the information contained in an radio block has been transmitted with a certain CS. it is possible to re-send the same information in two radio blocks with MCS-3 (more protection). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 36 .14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.6 11.This could lead to the release of the TBF and to the establishment of a new one in order to transmit the LLC frame. All Rights Reserved © 2007. .6 MCS-3 34 +3 octets 34 +3 octets Family A’ MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 MCS-1 Maximum User Payload [kbit/s] Header + Protection MCS-2 MCS-6 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets padding MCS-8 8-PSK 11. • The level of protection applied (MCS usage) in case of retransmissions is in line with the radio conditions.2 x 2 = 22.2 Family B 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets MCS-5 MCS-7 Family C 22 octets 22 octets MCS-4 EVOLIUM BSS .Example: if one MCS-6 radio block has not been received correctly by the receiver and if radio conditions have degraded in the meantime.] Radio Network Planning . When 4 payload units are transmitted.2 MCS-3 MCS-1 Family A MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets MCS-6 MCS-9 GMSK 14. • This allows the re-segmentation of the RLC data blocks when changing of modulation and coding schemes (within the same family). Four MCS families have been created with for each of them a basic unit of payload.8 x 2 = 17..8 x 4 = 59. .4 14. EGPRS coding schemes have been designed to offset this problem.1 Basics 1. with separate sequence numbers). The different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units within one radio block.8 11.8 x 2 = 29.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 37 MCS-9 Example: EGPRS MCS-9 RADIO BLOCK 3 bits USF 45 bits RLC/MAC header HCS E FBI 612 bits RLC Data Block = 592 bits BCS TB E FBI 612 bits RLC Data Block = 592 bits BCS TB Rate 1/3 convolutional coding Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 135 bits puncturing 1836 bits puncturing 1836 bits puncturing SB=8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 1392 bits Interleaving of the EGPRS Radio Block over 4 consecutive TDMAs MCS-9 basic payload unit = 37 bytes = 296 bits MCS-9 RLC data block = 2 x basic payload unit =2* 296 bits = 592 bits MCS-9 RLC payload throughput= 592 bits / 10 ms = 59.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 37 .2 Kbps EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1.

6 22.53 Uplink & Downlink transfer MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 EVOLIUM BSS .2 54.49 0.4 17. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.8 11.8 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional coding.00 0.1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 38 Scheme Modulation schemes Coding schemes for RLC data block Code rate Maximum data rate per TS (RLC payload) [kbps] 59. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.8 29. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.80 0. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.66 0. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 38 . punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.92 0.76 0. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.4 44.2 8.6 14. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding. punctured 1/3 rate convolutional coding.37 1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.00 0.] Radio Network Planning . punctured 1.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 39 . in order to maximize the throughput Two different mechanisms exists for GPRS and EGPRS: CS Adaptation in case of GPRS TBF mode and Link Adaptation (LA) in case of EGPRS TBF mode Selection of the most suitable (M)CS is based on measurements reported by the MS for the downlink path and by the BTS for the uplink path EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 39 (M)CS schemes are dynamically selected based on the quality of the radio channel.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

it requests and receives a retransmission of the same RLC block from the transmitter The retransmission can be performed using: Type-I ARQ mechanism. This applies only for DL EGPRS mode IR is optional for the BTS. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 40 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 40 In the ARQ method.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1. but is mandatory for the EGPRS MS (3GPP requirement) B9 !!! ARQ type-II applies for UL and DL EGPRS mode !!! EVOLIUM BSS . also called Incremental Redundancy (IR). when the receiver detects the presence of errors in a received RLC block. This applies for both GPRS and EGPRS mode Type-II hybrid ARQ mechanism.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 41 In the selective type-I ARQ mechanism. The decoding of a RLC data block is only based on the current transmission.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 With the type 1 ARQ mechanism. the sending side has to retransmit the erroneous data RLC blocks MS Uplink RLC data block B1 / PDTCH (1) Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (2) MFS The Block 2 has been unsuccessfully received Packet UplinkAck/Nack /PACCH (3) Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (4) Uplink RLC data block B3 / PDTCH (5) MS retransmits the uplink RLC data block B2 EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 41 .17 Type-I ARQ mechanism Radio Network Planning . and indicates in the acknowledgement messages the reference of these erroneous blocks for their retransmission. the decoding of a re-transmitted RLC block does not use the previously transmitted versions (not correctly received) of this RLC block. the receiver discards the erroneous blocks. The type 1 ARQ mechanism is always used for the GPRS All Rights Reserved © 2007. Then.1 Basics 1.

This will lead to the release of the TBF and the establishment of a new one in order to transmit the LLC frame In order to avoid this problem.1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 42 . leading to a reduction of network capacity compared with its theoretical capacity EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 42 GPRS CSs are designed independently from the others with its own basic payload unit size. This often results in an non-optimized use of the radio interface. the LLC frame is segmented into payload units according to CS that will be used to transmit the radio block In case of erroneous reception. the choice of the CS on the network side has to be made carefully.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning GPRS DRAWBACK All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. the RLC data block can be retransmitted only with the same CS (segmentation is not possible) If the radio conditions have changed and the coding rate is not appropriate to them. so the family concept does not exists in GPRS Before its transmission over the radio interface. the receiver will never be able to decode the retransmission of the RLC data block.

The blocks that are sent for the first time will be transmitted with the last-ordered MCS EVOLIUM BSS . the same or a next lower MCS within the same family is used The retransmission can be performed with or w/o RLC data segmentation (e.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS Radio Network Planning .g. and MCS-6 to MCS-3 with segmentation) When one RLC data block is retransmitted with a lower MCS. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 43 . the transmission will be performed with MCS-3. but the redundancy transmitted is increased That increases the capability to decode the radio block ! Retransmission operates in connection with the link adaptation E.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. from MCS-9 to MCS-6 w/o.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 43 MCSs have been designed to offset the GPRS disadvantage MCS family concept is applied In EGPRS.1 Basics 1.g. if the LA mechanism orders the usage of MCS-5 and the first transmission of an erroneous RLC block was with MCS-6. in case of retransmission request (type-I ARQ) for a RLC data block. the coding rate is decreased by two.

the type I ARQ shall apply in the MS receiver (ARQ without IR). thus increasing the decoding probability of the RLC block. • in case of re-transmission of this RLC block. the transmitter uses the same MCS or a MCS of the same family than the one used for the initial block. In B8 release.1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 44 .MCS7 block and an MCS5 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units). .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The type 2 ARQ mechanism or incremental redundancy (IR) is an ETSI function. The DL incremental redundancy is not used for the signaling blocks. In the type II ARQ mechanism (IR): • the first emission of a RLC data block is done using a first puncturing scheme (PS1).] Radio Network Planning . mandatory for the EGPRS MS receiver (downlink path) and optional for the BTS receiver (uplink path). This occurs when the memory for IR operation runs out in the MS (that is when the memory of the MS is full due to the storage of the different versions of a RLC block not correctly decoded). If the "MS OUT OF MEMORY" field is set by the mobile in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message. • at the output of the demodulator. All Rights Reserved © 2007.MCSx block and MCSx block (that is the same MCS is used for the re-transmission). • Remark : according to the 04. It is only used for the EGPRS data blocks in RLC acknowledged mode. a re-transmission of the same RLC data block is requested Forward Error Correction : adds redundant information to the user information at the transmitter. by the sender the receiver decodes (combines) the resulting message together with the previously received message(s) multiple retransmission can be requested until decoding succeeds EVOLIUM BSS . re-segmentation of the RLC block may be performed or not.60 (RLC/MAC layers) GSM recommendation. On the DL path. the IR feature is only available on the downlink path.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont. depending on the value of the parameter EN_FULL_IR_DL. the GPRS data blocks and the data blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. It is important to notice that the IR feature is always running in the EDGE MS receiver (except in case of MS memory shortage). the soft-combining inside the MS receiver is only performed between an : . the receiver combines the information of soft bits corresponding to the first transmission of the block and its different re-transmissions.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 44 Type-II ARQ (IR) is an efficient combination of 2 techniques: Automatic Repeat reQuest : in case of error detection in a received RLC block. the receiver uses the info to correct errors causes by radio disturbances In the IR mechanism: The information which is sent first results from an initial “puncturing scheme” (PS1) applied to the encoded RLC data block If an error is detected by the receiver: the received message is stored selective retransmission of the RLC data block is requested a second “puncturing scheme” (PS2) is applied to the same MCS.MCS9 block and an MCS6 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload units). .

19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont. If the block header is correctly decoded.1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 45 (1) The BSS sends a DL data block using the puncturing scheme P1 and MCS-6. The MS stores the received block (2) The MS requests a selective retransmission of the erroneous block. followed by PS2. in the next EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (3) The MS retransmits the DL data block using a new puncturing scheme P2 and the same MCS-6.] Radio Network Planning . the procedure shall start over and PS1 shall be used. the MS decodes the data making soft combination with the previous transmission MS BTS MFS Data Block Data Block puncturing scheme 1 Nack Data Block Data Block puncturing scheme 2 Data Block Data Block EVOLIUM BSS . so that the PS selection is cyclic. B1 is not successfully decoded by the MS. then by PS3 (if available for the considered MCS). • if the selected MCS has changed : the PS to be used is indicated by the table below. PS2 or PS3 PS1 or PS2 Any All other combinations All Rights Reserved © 2007. Previous MCS MCS9 New MCS MCS6 Previous PS PS1 or PS3 PS2 New PS PS1 PS2 PS3 PS2 PS1 PS2 PS1 MCS6 MCS9 PS1 PS2 MCS7 MCS5 MCS5 MCS7 PS1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 45 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 In the puncturing scheme selection for re-transmission. 2 cases have to be considered: • if the selected MCS has not changed : if all the different punctured versions of the data block have been sent.

except when the stored packets are a memory shortage is reported by the MS discarded and type-I ARQ is set ! Parameter for IR activation: EN_FULL_IR_DL which enable or disable the RLC data segmentation for retransmissions EN_FULL_IR_DL = disable.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 46 B9 release: the IR mechanism is implemented in uplink and downlink This mechanism is associated with link adaptation in order to provide superior radio efficiency on the air interface IR feature is always running in the EGPRS MS receivers.] Radio Network Planning . the retransmission is performed with MCS-6 (no segmentation. e. if MCS-5 is ordered by LA. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 46 . the retransmission is performed with MCS-3 (segmentation on the initial RLC data block. ARQ Type-I) EN_FULL_IR_DL=enable. and the first transmission was with MCS-6 then.g.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont. ARQ Type-II) EVOLIUM BSS . even if MCS-5 is ordered.1 Basics 1.

over the radio interface PDCH group The available PDCH’s are grouped into “PDCH groups” One PDCH group contains consecutive timeslots (without TS holes) belonging to the same TRX.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept Radio Network Planning . EVOLIUM™ BTS EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1. having the same radio configuration possible to have hopping and non hopping PDCH groups in one cell maximum number of PDCH groups/cell is equal to 16 (equal to maximum number of TRX / cell) 16 TRX/cell achieved with help of the B7 feature “cell split over 2 BTS’s”. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 47 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 47 Packet Data Channel (PDCH) (E)GPRS radio access method = GSM TDMA (8 timeslots per carrier) One PDCH represents a physical channel (1 timeslot) dedicated to packet data traffic (GPRS/EDGE).

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 48 12 radio blocks (B0 to B11) form a 52-(E)GPRS multiframe The frames 25 and 51 are idle frames and the frames 12 and 38 are used for the PTCCH One TDMA frame = 8 TS (4.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe Radio Network Planning .1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 48 .multiframe (240 ms) EVOLIUM BSS .615 ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 One PDCH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 47 48 49 50 51 Block B0 Block B1 Block B2 T PTCCH Block B3 Block B11 X idle One 52 .

22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels Radio Network Planning .1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 49 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 49 EGPRS is reusing the existing GPRS logical channels Packet logical channels are mapped in one physical channel (PDCH) using the technique of ‘multiframing’ The sharing of the PDCH is done on blocks basis PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Channel) used for broadcasting system information (SI) PCCCH (Packet Common Control Channel) used to initiate packet transfer PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel) PPCH (Packet Paging Channel) PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel) !!! MASTER CHANNEL ONLY !!! EVOLIUM BSS .

1 Basics 1. used to carry control data In Alcatel BSS is always allocated on one of the PDCHs on which PDTCHs are allocated PTCCH (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel) used for continuous timing advance mechanism Bidirectional channel allocated on the same PDCH as the PACCH EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. dynamically allocated on block basis.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 50 PTCH (Packet Traffic Channel) used for user data transmission and its associated signaling PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) used to carry user data (LLC PDU segmented is RLC/MAC blocks) PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel) Bidirectional channel.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 50 .

23 Master/Slave PDCH concept Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. active as slaves. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 51 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 51 A PDCH which carries a PCCCH or/and a PBCCH channel is called Master PDCH (MPDCH) MPDCH which carries the PBCCH is called Primary MPDCH Primary MPDCH is the ‘GPRS BCCH’ MPDCH which carries only PCCCH is called Secondary MPCH All other PDCHs. are called Slave PDCH (SPDCH) B8 release: MPDCHs are statically established only on BCCH TRX Up to 4 MPDCHs can be supported per cell (max Nb_TS_MPDCH=4) EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1.

1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Temporary Flow Identity (TFI): • Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS. • A Temporary Block Flow is a temporary. Important: • Since B7. it is possible to establish 32 TBFs per PDCH group (See sub-session 2. The TBF is established when data units are to be transmitted across the Um interface and is released as soon as the transmission is completed. TBF • is a group of blocks dynamically allocated to one MS for one transfer of RLC blocks in one direction inside one cell.24 Temporary Block Flow Radio Network Planning .2 for ‘PDCH group’ definition).GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 52 The packet data ‘call’ is a Temporary Block Flow (TBF) For a data packet transmission. a temporary physical connection (TBF) will be set up as an unidirectional link Each TBF is unidirectional: Uplink TBF and Downlink TBF for the same mobile are uncorrelated One TBF allocates radio resources on one or more PDCH and comprise a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs TBF is only temporary and maintained for the duration of the data transfer Either the mobile or the network can initiate a TBF EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 52 . All Rights Reserved © 2007. between one mobile and the BSS. unidirectional physical connection across the Um interface.

in a given direction A TBF is addressed by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) More than 32 TFI values per TRX (PDCH group) for each direction (i.24 Temporary Block Flow [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 53 TFI (Temporary Flow Identity) RLC layer Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS TFI is unique on a given PDCH.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 53 .e.1 Basics 1.] Radio Network Planning . DL and UL) TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity) LLC layer The TLLI identifies the logical link between the MS and the SGSN The TLLI is allocated by the SGSN to the MS in Standby and Ready states EVOLIUM BSS .

e.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. then the DL GPRS MS becomes candidate for EGPRS shall be limited to GMSK (i. MCS-4) radio resource reallocation EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 54 Two different resource sharing mechanisms exists: PDCH multiplexing Multislot usage Allows optimum usage of the available radio resources PDCH Multiplexing PDCH multiplexing refers to the sharing of one PDCH by more than two users (TBFs) It occurs when there are more requests for PDCH resources than available PDCH’s A maximum number of UL/DL_TBF can share the same PDCH in UL and DL direction respectively MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH=6. MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH=10 When a PDCH is shared between an UL GPRS TBF and a DL EGPRS TBF. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 54 .25 Resources Sharing Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 55 Multislot usage Refers to the case when 1 user can request at once more than 2 PDCH resources for the data transmission Up to 5 PDCH on different (but consecutive) timeslots on the same frequency could be allocated to one mobile at the same time (MS multislot capability) B8 & B9 release supports 4+2 slots for Type 1 MS and 5+5 for Type 2 MS The PDCH blocks will be consecutively transmitted over the PDCH only if there is no user multiplexing EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 55 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .25 Resources Sharing [cont.1 Basics 1.

1 Basics 1. another block of user 2 can be transmitted. followed by the user 3 transmission.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 56 PDCH Multiplexing example: lets assume that the data for user 1 has a length of 3 blocks (length of TBF 1=3 blocks) and is transmitted over PDCH #2 as soon as one block of user 1 was entirely transmitted. length = 4 blocks. user 2 and user 3 will not be transmitted in consecutive order: as soon as one block of user 1 is transmitted..GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 56 .g. continued with a block of the user 3 over the same PDCH #2 Multislot usage example: User 1 has (1+1) and users 2 & user 3 have (3+1) MS multislot capability EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .. the blocks of user 1. another user 2 can use the same PDCH #2 to transmit the blocks of its own TBF of e.25 Resources Sharing [cont.

25 Resources Sharing [cont...GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 57 PDCH Multiplexing and Multislot Usage example User 1: no multislot capability TFI = 5 Multislot capability PDCH 1 User 2: with multislot capability TFI = 9 User 2 User 2 User 3 User 3 User 2 User 2 User multiplexing PDCH 2 User 1 User 2 User 3 User 1 User 2 User 2 User multiplexing User 3: with multislot capability TFI = 13 PDCH 3 Block User 3 User 2 User 3 User 3 User 2 User 3 n n+1 n+2 n+3 n+4 n+5 . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 57 .1 Basics 1. EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

NB: the values of the USF are entirely dedicated to PDTCH and PACCH transfers. it can transmit in uplink using the block n+1 of PDCH i. 8 values. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 58 . All Rights Reserved © 2007.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination Radio Network Planning . it can transmit in UL using the block n+1 of PDCH 5 EVOLIUM BSS . So we can say that the de-multiplexing of the blocks is achieved by the use of a TFI. • An MS decodes all the blocks of all its allocated PDCHs and keeps the blocks carrying its TFI in the RLC header. See further (MPDCH and RRBP) The TFI is use in the UL as well: each mobile shall put its TFI in the UL header of the UL blocks during a UL TBF. Uplink PDTCH and PACCH for a UL TBF: • At UL TBF establishment.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 58 DL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH) MS decodes all blocks on its allocated PDCH The MS can identify the PDCH blocks intended for it by TFI present on the RLC block header UL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH) For an UL TBF.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Downlink PDTCH and PACCH blocks multiplexing: • The multiplexing of the different MSs is performed thanks to the TFI which is present in the RLC block header. a MS receives a USF (Uplink State Flag.1 Basics 1. the mobile receives one USF (Uplink State Flag) per PDCH to be used during the TBF If the MS receives its USF on the DL block n of PDCH 5. MAC header) per allocated PDCH. • If the MS receives its USF on the downlink block n of PDCH I. as well as in the RLC header of the UL PACCH blocks of a DL TBF.

periodically an UL PACCH block is allocated during DL transfer.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 RRBP: Relative Radio Block Period Allocation of a PACCH block for the sending of acknowledgements in the UL of blocks received in the DL: • The MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF • Use of the RRBP field transmitted in the downlink (MAC header) in association with the TFI of the DL TBF in the RLC header. to allow an MS to request the establishment of an UL TBF by including a Channel Request description in a Packet DL Ack/Nack message the MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF use of the RRBP (Relative Reserved Block Period) field transmitted in downlink RRBP values indicates the number of TDMA frames the MS shall wait before transmitting its uplink RLC/MAC block a special USF value is used: USF = no emission EVOLIUM BSS . the value gives the number of blocks to wait before sending its PACCH block in the UL S/P is false means MS has to send an acknowledgement message to the MFS.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont. The RRBP field of a RLC/LAC block is checked each time by the MS whose TFI is written in the RLC header.1 Basics 1. • When S/P is false. a special USF value is used for the UL TBF taking place on the same PDCH: USF=no emission. • When the RRBP field is valid. e. • At the exact occurrence of the RRBP.] Radio Network Planning .g.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 59 Uplink PACCH for a DL TBF : By the means of the polling mechanism. All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 59 . It is a semi-boolean parameter. no UL PACCH is scheduled.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 60 Example of a Uplink Block Flow scheduling: Downlink USF RRBP Uplink Block number Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3 Bn+4 Bn+5 Bn+6 TFI TFIa TFIb TFIa TFIb TFIb USFj USFk USFj FREE No Emission TFIb USFj TFIa USFk +3 PDTCHj PDTCHk PDTCHj PRACH PACCHa PDTCHj EVOLIUM BSS .26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 60 .1 Basics 1.

• SGSN Detach upon timer. • SGSN Detach upon SGSN overload. If PCCCH is not present in the cell. may trigger the establishment of TBF and transition to packet transfer mode. The timers regulating the transition between states are SGSN timers. Ready: • the MS location is known with the cell accuracy. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 61 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Idle: the MS is not attached to the network: paging is not possible. • When selecting a new cell. Packet Transfer Mode: • In packet transfer mode. so it cannot be paged but can monitor the GPRS information broadcast in the SI13 of the BCCH. Standby: • the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible. Upper layers can require the transfer of an LLC PDU which. The detach procedure is usually triggered by the MS. the mobile station is allocated radio resource providing a Temporary Block Flow on one or more physical channels. • the MS listens to the PBCCH and to the paging sub-channel for the paging group the MS belongs to in idle mode. All Rights Reserved © 2007. • A GSM MS in Idle mode is attached to a MSC and can be paged • A GPRS MS in Idle mode is NOT attached to a SGSN. • MS in Ready mode can be in Packet Idle Mode. the mobile station listens to the BCCH and to the relevant paging sub-channels. read the system information and may then resume to packet transfer mode in the new cell. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite directions. not tunable in the BSS. Transfer of LLC PDUs in RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS Radio Network Planning . Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible. The MS state in the SGSN shall be considered apart from the Packet Transfer Mode in the BSS: • MS in Standby mode can be in Packet Transfer Mode. Caution: Idle mode in GPRS and Idle mode in GSM are two different states. Standby is the closest GPRS MS state to Idle GSM. implicitly.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 61 Idle the MS is not attached to the packet network: paging is not possible Idle GPRS attach Timer expiry Ready the MS location is known with the cell accuracy GPRS detach Standby the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible the MS location is known with the RA accuracy Ready Timer expiry PDU transmission Standby EVOLIUM BSS . • timer T_READY keeps the MS in the Ready state just after data transfer. mobile station leaves the packet transfer mode. enters the packet idle mode where it switches to the new cell. Three other types of detach are triggered by the CN: • HLR Detach. • the MS location is known in the CN with the RA accuracy. Packet Idle Mode: • no Temporary Block Flow exists.1 Basics 1.

Continuous transfer of LLC PDUs is possible Packet Idle Mode (PIM) No TBF exists and the MS is also not trying to establish an UL TBF GMM states versus RR operating modes: GMM States GMM Ready GMM Standby RR Operating Modes PTM: TBF opened PIM: TBF closed but GMM ready timer is still running PIM: There is no on-going TBF established and GMM ready timer is no more running EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 62 Packet Transfer Mode (PTM) MS is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs for the transfer of LLC PDUs.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 62 .

29 Attach procedure Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 63 Aim to access to GPRS services. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 63 . a MS must first make its presence known to the network by performing a GPRS attach to the SGSN GPRS attach function is similar to IMSI attach MS authentication Ciphering key generation TLLI allocation (derived from the new P-TMSI) Subscriber profile request to the HLR EVOLIUM BSS .

1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 64 .29 Attach procedure [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 64 Results A logical link between the MS and the SGSN is created MS is in Standby state and may activate a PDP context MS location is known (RA accuracy) MS is available for paging via the SGSN Charging information is collected Combined GPRS and IMSI attach is possible for class A/B MS EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

the MS must activate the PDP (Packet Data Protocol) address. which it wants to use Results the MS is known in the corresponding GGSN (the GGSN knows the SGSN where the MS is located) and data transmission with external data network can begin EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 65 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1.30 PDP context activation Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 65 Aim in order to send and receive GPRS data.

All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 66 MS enters in a new cell New cell inside the current RA MS in Ready state New cell belongs to a new RA New cell belongs to a new LA Cell update RA update RA/LA update EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1. • The Cell and RAC information is added by the BSSGP at the programming of the BSSGP frame RA Update: • The MS sends an RA Update Request message containing the identity of the MS. • The BSS adds the cell global Identity when transferring the message into a BSSGP frame towards the SGSN. it performs a “Cell Update”. The update type is either enter a new RA or periodical RA update. • The MS sends any LLC frame in the new cell with its TLLI in the header.31 Location management Radio Network Planning . the old RAI and the Update Type. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 66 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 When the MS is in Ready State.

Routing Area (RA) was defined which may be smaller than Location Area (LA) One RA is a subset of one and only one LA RAI (RA Identity) identifies several cells The MS location in Standby state is known in the SGSN at the RA level The MS is paged in its RA when MT traffic (MS in Standby State) arrives at the SGSN One RA is served by only one SGSN EVOLIUM BSS .32 Routing Area Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 67 As total paging is more frequent with GPRS service together with GSM paging. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 67 .1 Basics 1.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Since B7. All Rights Reserved © 2007. According to the NMO offered and the packet mode of the MS (Packet Transfer Mode or Packet Idle Mode).33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) Radio Network Planning .no Gs interface .no MPDCH . all the possible combinations with the MPDCH are: • NMOIII. the routing of the PS paging and the CS paging changes.1 Basics 1.MPDCH . The NMO setting is done from the OMC-R via the NETWORK_OPERATION_MODE parameter. • NMOI with MPDCH.no MPDCH .no MPDCH I CCCH Packet data channel II III CCCH CCCH CCCH EVOLIUM BSS .no Gs interface .no Gs interface .MPDCH . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 68 .Gs interface .Gs interface .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 68 Paging Coordination NMO CS Paging Channel PCCCH PS Paging Channel PCCCH CCCH (not applicable) CCCH PCCCH CCCH Characteristics .Gs interface .

34 TBF establishment Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 69 .e.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. otherwise a GPRS TBF will be established EVOLIUM BSS .1 Basics 1. radio resources supported by an EGPRS capable TRX) available in the cell.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 69 Several modes of TBF establishment in UL and DL exists: In PIM mode UL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation) DL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation) In PTM mode UL TBF establishment during a DL TBF on the uplink PACCH DL TBF establishment during a UL TBF on the downlink PACCH The TBF establishment is performed through two types of access requests: One phase access request Two phase access request B8/B9: The BSS preferentially establishes an EGPRS TBF to an EGPRS MS provided that an EGPRS Packet Channel request message has been received and that there are EGRPS resources (i.

1 Basics 1. 1 phase access Radio Network Planning . TA 2 Packet UL assignment. TAI Resource activation Packet UL Ack/Nack TLLI. TFI) PDTCH PACCH EVOLIUM BSS .35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH. USF. TFI 3 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. USF. polling TFI.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 70 MS is in PIM mode: MS (EGPRS Packet) BTS Channel request TA calculation RACH Also PRACH The MS switches on the assigned PDCH (E)GPRS mode Immediate assignment AGCH Also PAGCH Packet UL assignment PACCH Packet control Ack PACCH RLC data block (TLLI.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning BSC Channel request + TA MFS Resource 1 Immediate assignment allocation TFI. TAI. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 70 .

1 phase access Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 71 1 allocation of only one PDCH because the multi slot capability of the MS is not known Even if the Packet EGPRS Channel Request provides the MS multislot class.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH. only one PDCH is allocated 2 sending of the Packet UL assignment in order to force the MS to send an acknowledgement (polling mechanism) 3 contention resolution mechanism : suppose two MS send a (EGPRS Packet) Channel Request at the same time each MS sends its TLLI (and TFI) the TLLI is present in the acknowledgement from the MFS the MS with the wrong TLLI is discarded EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 71 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1.

USFs. 2 phases access Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 72 MS is in PIM mode: MS (EGPRS Packet) BTS Channel request TA calculation RACH Also PRACH (E)GPRS mode Immediate assignment AGCH Also PAGCH Packet resource request PACCH Packet UL assignment PACCH Packet control Ack PACCH RLC data block PDTCH BSC MFS Channel request + TA Immediate assignment TBF starting time.1 Basics 1. TAI. TLLI Packet control Ack Resource allocation The MS switches on the assigned PDCHs Resource activation EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 72 .36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH. polling TFI. TA Single block allocation Packet resource request TLLI Packet UL assignment.

1 Basics

1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 73

2 phases access is necessary when the MS wants either to :
Use RLC unacknowledged mode Give its multislot class Give QoS parameters (Peak_Throughput_Class, Radio_Priority)

Main difference:
Packet Resource Request message

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 73

1 Basics

1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 74

MS is in PIM mode:
MS BTS BSC MFS LLC PDU

1 PDCH allocated PDCH(s) allocated 4 access bursts

Immediate assignment PCH Also PPCH Packet DL assignment PACCH

Resource allocation Immediate assignment TFI, TAI Packet DL assignment, polling TFI, TAI

Packet control Ack TA calculation Packet control Ack PACCH Timing Advance / Power control TA / PC PACCH RLC data block PDTCH

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 74

1 Basics

1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 75

The BCCH indicates if GPRS is supported in the cell:
SI3/4: GPRS supported or not SI13 position on BCCH used for GPRS SI3: RA_COLOUR (routing area color) field present if GPRS supported

If GPRS is supported :
SI13 is broadcasted on the BCCH SI13 broadcast instead of retransmission of SI 1

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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Note: do not confuse RA_COLOUR and RA Code. The former is used as a flag which has two uses for the MS entering a new cell: • to know if the GPRS service is supported in the cell (RA_COLOUR has a value different from -1). • to trigger an RA update when the value of the RA_COLOUR changes. It is easy to monitor because it is broadcast often. • The Routing Area Code is necessary for the RA update procedure (message content). • The SI13 takes the place of a few SI1 occurrences.

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 75

1 Basics

1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 76

SI 13 content (non exhaustive):
RAC: routing area code NMO: network mode of operation PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, PAN_MAX: radio link supervision ALPHA: GPRS uplink power control T_AVG_T, T_AVG_W: calculation of average levels PC_MEAS_CHAN: level measurements on BCCH/PDCH NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER: packet cell re-selection mode Access Burst Type : 8 bit or 11 bit access burst EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST: EGPRS capable MS shall use EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message for uplink TBF establishment on the (P)RACH (En_EGPRS = True) BEP_PERIOD: Bit error probability (BEP) filter averaging period

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

EGPRS cell

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The MS has to get SI13 information on a regular basis: • each time the SI13 content is updated (PSI field = SI13_CHANGE_MARK set to 1). • every 30 seconds max (even if the TBF has to be interrupted). • Through 2 different ways: SI13 on the BCCH or PSI13 in a PACCH block. • The MS has always the time to switch on PSI13 in NMOIII and/or NMOI with a Master PDCH because PBCCH blocks are always after a I or X TS within the 52 multi-frame. Access Burst Type: it defines the access burst (8 bits or 11 bits) to be used on the PRACH, PTCCH and the “Packet Control Ack” on a PACCH. When the Master Channel is present in the cell, the System Information Type 13 message has different contents from those described above. It mainly consists of: • The radio description of the Primary Master Channel (in terms of time slot number, training sequence code and frequency parameters). • One GPRS Mobile Allocation (MA), if frequency hopping is used for GPRS. This is the GPRS MA of the Primary Master Channel, if hopping. If the Primary Master Channel is not hopping, the MA corresponds to the hopping TRX(s) used for GPRS, if any. Three modes of cell reselection have been defined by the 3GPP Standard for GPRS MSs. These Network Control (NC) modes, known as the NC0, NC1 and NC2, are shortly described below: • NC0: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to the network. • NC1: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network. • NC2: the GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It sends measurement reports to the network. The network controls the cell reselection.

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 76

1 Basics

1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 77

Presence of a PBCCH (primary MPDCH) in the cell is indicated by a PBCCH description in the SI13 message
Primary MPDCH presence is possible only in NMO I or in NMO III Secondary MPDCHs presence are in indicated in PSI 2 message broadcast on the PBCCH channel All (E)GPRS MS monitor the PBCCH to receive the PACKET SYSTEM INFORMATION messages (PSI)

Without PBCCH configured in the cell:
In PIM, MS receive SI13 sent on BCCH In PTM, MS receive PSI 13 (=SI13) sent on PACCH Not possible to indicate to a MS, GPRS re-selection parameters (C31 and C32 criteria)

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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Cell Parameters • NMO, MS Timers, DRX info, RLS parameters, etc. PRACH access control parameters • access burst type, access control class, etc. PCCCH organization parameters • BS_PBCCH_BKLS, BS_PAGCH_BLKS_RES, BS_PRACH_BLKS The GPRS cell adjacencies are the same for a MS in Packet Idle Mode as for a MS in Packet Transfer Mode. The GPRS cell adjacencies are equal to CS cell adjacencies.

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 77

1 Basics

1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 78

PSI 1 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)
Cell and BSS parameters PRACH access control parameters Description of the configuration of the packet control channels
number of blocks per 52 multiframe

Power control parameters

PSI 2 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)
Cell allocation GPRS mobile allocation : HSN + list of frequencies PCCCH description : list of TS and frequency configuration Circuit-switched parameters Cell Identification : CI, RAC, LAC, MNC, MCC

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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PSI3, PSI3bis: • One PSI3 instance shall be sent and, as a minimum, one PSI3bis instance shall be sent as well • There may be up to 16 PSI3bis instances. • Reselection parameters: C31_HYST, C32_HYST, GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYST, PRIORITY_CLASS, HCS_THR, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS • Neighbor cell parameters: BSIC, BCCH frequency, SI13 PBCCH location, GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN, GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET, GPRS_PENALTY_TIME, GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET. • Up to 32 neighboring cells may be defined. The field Same_RA_As_Serving_Cell provides complementary information for reselection process.

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 78

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 79 PSI 3 / 3bis BA(GPRS) list (identical to GSM BA list. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 79 . neighboring cells BCCH) Cell selection and re-selection parameters for (non-)serving cells LSA identification of serving and neighboring cells PSI 8 CBCH information (TS.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont. freq..] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1. if there is CBCH in the cell) EVOLIUM BSS .

40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS !!! MODIFIED FOR B9 !!! 1 — 1 — 80 One Abis link is made of 31 64 kb/s timeslots A 16 kb/s transmission channel is called a nibble One timeslot is made of 4 nibbles A transmission channel established for carrying (E)GPRS traffic is called a GCH (GPRS channel).1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 80 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. One GCH uses one Abis nibble and one Ater nibble Two main types of Abis nibbles: Basic nibbles Carry CS traffic Carry PS traffic but only coded with (M)CS-1 or (M)CS-2 Located on Primary Abis Extra nibbles Come from additional Abis timeslots for support of high speed packet traffic Carry PS traffic only Located on Primary or Secondary Abis EVOLIUM BSS .

1 Basics 1. the higher the impact on BSS Telecom resources Five TRX classes (1 to 5) have been defined The Operator defines per cell the number of TRXs of each class EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel has developed a solution. the higher the maximum data throughput. which aims at providing the best trade-off between offered radio throughput and impact on the telecom resource consumption This solution is based on the concept of multiple classes of TRX. The higher the packet class.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 81 To support high data throughputs.40 TRX Classes Concept Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 81 . which support more or less data throughput.

on free nibbles of one or more already switched 64 Kbit/s channels and on an additional 64 Kbit/s channel.1 Basics 1.8.2. TRX class • The TRX class is defined at MFS level. and the AterMux congestion state.3. • As all radio time slots of a TRX must have the same throughput capability.2 EDGE MCS 1.6.4 EDGE MCS 1. from one to five AterMux nibbles will be necessary.2. a TRX needs up to 8 extra Abis time slots.4 EDGE MCS 1.4.8 GPRS CS 1.2. These extra Abis time slots are called a TRX transmission pool. a radio time slot needs up to 4 extra Abis nibbles in addition to the basic one.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 EGCH • An EGCH is made up of a pool of GCHs (from 1 to 5): One main GCH and a pool of auxiliary GCHs (the GCH uses the basic 16k Abis nibble).6.3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 82 . .5. All Rights Reserved © 2007.3. . the MFS will use n GCHs to establish one EGCH.] Radio Network Planning . • These nibbles will be taken: . switched for this purpose. • When possible. Abis configuration is static due to hardware constraints.3.3. higher the PDCH throughput is.4.9 Abis TS per TRX 2 4 6 8 10 Class 1 “Simple” Class 2 “Double” Class 3 “Triple” Class 4 “Quad” Class 5 “Quintuple” EVOLIUM BSS .4 EDGE MCS 1.3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 82 Supported (Modulation and) Coding schemes TRX Packet Class Max 12 kbps Max 22 kbps Max 30 kbps Max 54 kbps Max 59 kbps G3 or G4 TRX GPRS CS 1.5.5. the PDCH type (SPDCH/MPDCH).2. For a TRX class n. The TRX class varies with the hardware TRX capabilities (TRX type. • When establishing a PDCH.5 GPRS CS 1.2.7.on free nibbles of at least one already switched 64 Kbit/s channel. the first possibility will be chosen.4.2. AterMux resources allocation • In case of EGCH establishment. switched for this purpose.3. the number of GCH links per radio time slot is determined according to the TRX class.7.2 GPRS CS 1.3. Abis Interface • Several Abis nibbles are also used to handle a throughput higher than 16Kbit/s.2. • Depending on the requested throughput.4 EDGE MCS 1.on 1 or 2 additional 64 Kbit/s channels.4.6 GPRS CS 1. Nibbles have not to be contiguous. or.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont. or.2. Higher the TRX class is. Hardware PS capability).

up to CS-2 / MCS-2 TRX TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Abis TS0 TS4 TS1 TS5 TS2 TS6 TS3 TS7 Basic Timeslots Example 2: TRX class 4. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 83 . up to CS-4 / MCS-8 TRX TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Abis TS0 TS4 TS0 TS1 TS5 TS1 TS5 TS1 TS5 TS1 TS5 TS2 TS6 TS2 TS6 TS2 TS6 TS2 TS6 TS3 TS7 TS3 TS7 TS3 TS7 TS3 TS7 Basic Nibble Basic Timeslots Radio Timeslot TS4 TS0 TS4 TS0 TS4 1 PDCH = 4 terrestrial nibbles = 1 basic nibble also used for voice + 3 additional nibbles used only for packet traffic 6 Extra Timeslots Extra Nibbles EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 83 Example 1: TRX class 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.1 Basics 1.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Basics 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 84 .41 Two Abis Links per BTS Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 84 The secondary Abis is fully dedicated to packet data Two topologies exists BSC Primary Abis EVOLIUM BTS Secondary Abis Topology 1 Primary Abis EVOLIUM BTS BTS BTS Secondary Abis Topology 2 EVOLIUM BSS .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 85 2 B9 features EVOLIUM BSS .Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 85 .

in NC0 and NC2 mode. in the serving cell CCN mode procedure (Cell Change Notification) allowing.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 86 In B9 a number of procedures have been introduced to achieve better performances for GPRS cell reselections: Packet PSI Status procedure reducing the duration of the phase where the MS acquires PSI in the target cell Packet SI Status procedure. same scope as above for SI in the target cell Network Assisted Cell Change procedures reducing.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs) Radio Network Planning . the duration of the phase where the MS acquires target cell (P)SI. the MS to indicate its wish to perform a cell reselection Cell System Information distribution Cell ranking with load criteria EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 86 .2 B9 features 2.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. in NC0 mode.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 87 The B9 added improvements allow reducing the time dedicated to a Cell Reselection in packet mode.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 87 .1 Radio Network Impact Radio Network Planning .2 B9 features 2.1. allowing faster CR to a new cell or less number of CRs performed in a cell. These sub-features impact traffic model. will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell. EVOLIUM BSS .

The mechanism proposed has the following characteristics: • Extended Uplink TBF shall be used whenever allowed by the MS capabilities.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 88 This feature allows improving access time to the GPRS network ping test down to 350 ms It also improves the throughput in some cases. All Rights Reserved © 2007.2 B9 features 2. • During the uplink TBF extension (i. using the Radio Access capability update procedure (or information stored in other GPUs). and it avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF. • The BSS shall be able to acquire the MS capability as fast as possible. • in downlink..2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The feature main benefits are: reduced (may be 0) delay before next UL transmission (no new TBF to establish) and reduced DL TBF establishment. after the last LLC frame has been received from the MS and no data is being transmitted by the MS).e. it allows the network to initiate sending of data to the MS without performing a downlink TBF establishment oncommon control channels. and apply the “delayed Final PUAN” procedure if T_Delayed_final_PUAN is not 0. when it follows an UL TBF. it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction. the BSS will use the normal release procedure. it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction. • If the MS capabilities are not yet known by the BSS at UL TBF establishment. • While in the delayed state the network must allocate some radio blocks. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 88 . to allow the MS to restart the uplink transfer whenever required by the application. the BSS shall be able to switch to extended UL TBF mode if the MS capabilities are received before the release of the uplink TBF has been initiated. • Both effects are expected to improve the end-to-end transmission delay and consequently to reduce the transfer duration. • It allows the MS to send data from newly arrived LLC frames after the countdown has started. • In uplink. EVOLIUM BSS . • When the MS does not support the extended UL TBF mode . it allows to perform more often the TBF establishment on concurrent TBF and it saves the DL bandwidth by sending dummy UI commands (on the DL TBF is in delayed release state) if a concurrent TBF exists. Expected effects: • In uplink. and it avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 89 . then the maximum number of MS in UL on the concerned PDCH should be limited. The feature will also modify the average duration of an uplink TBF. If necessary to reserve a certain bandwidth in uplink for QoS.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 89 Traffic model changes: the feature will modify the number of UL TBF activation+release on PACCH for all TCP/IP based applications and WAP.2 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.2 B9 features 2. (the current default value is of 5 MS multiplexed in uplink) EVOLIUM BSS . and as a consequence increase the number of MS multiplexed in uplink.

] Radio Network Planning . It is recommended not to activate simultaneously extended UL TBF feature (flag EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF) and the DL PDU rerouting feature (flag EN_AUTONOMOUS_REROUTING).GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Fast USF UL extended : to keep the link alive in order to be ready as soon as needed. when the extended UL TBF feature is activated. EN_FAST_USF_UL_EXTENDED: Enable the transmission of USF every 20ms in extended mode. If n MSs in extended.2 B9 features 2. EVOLIUM BSS . then USF for 1 MS sent every n x 20ms. update is supported by SGSN.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 90 Some parameters are to be handled in order to set up and configure this feature: EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF: Enable the extended TBF mode feature on the uplink. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 90 . EN_RA_CAP_UPDATE: Enable the Radio Acces Capability update on Gb.2 Radio Network Planning Impact [cont. RA CAP Update : the MFS can request the RA capabilities of the MS to the SGSN (based on IMSI) All Rights Reserved © 2007. Recommended rule: should be enabled if EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF is enabled and RA cap. T_MAX EXTENDED_UL: Maximum duration of the extended uplink TBF phase. Recommended rule: value between 1s and 2s.

3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink Radio Network Planning .6 kbit/s 44.2 kbit/s All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.4 kbit/s 29.4 kbit/s 59.0 kbit/s 12.0 kbit/s 14.6 kbit/s 22.2 B9 features 2.2 kbit/s 14.0 kbit/s 8. Release B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B8 B9 B9 B9 B9 B9 EVOLIUM BSS .4 kbit/s 11.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 91 In B9 support of MCS-5 to MCS-9 coding schemes in UL was introduced.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK Coding scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 User data rate 8.8 kbit/s 54.8 kbit/s 17.4 kbit/s 20. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 91 .

EVOLIUM BSS . the link adaptation procedure can be more aggressive: if the chosen MCS is a bit too optimistic. IR increases the probability of data recovery and increases data rates considerably specially in poorer radio conditions for higher MCS’s. CV_BEP) done by the BTS on the radios blocks received from the mobile.] Radio Network Planning . Thanks to Incremental Redundancy. the BSS algorithm for link adaptation needs new link adaptation MEAN_BEP/CV_BEP tables. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 92 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 92 In B9 release.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.2 B9 features 2. The link adaptation mechanism in UL is based on measurements (MEAN_BEP. To take into account MCS-5 to MCS-9. “Incremental Redundancy” may be activated for both the DL and UL paths.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink [cont. These tables are the same as the one already used for DL.

EVOLIUM BSS .2 B9 features 2. The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput estimation : 2 dB can be taken for the average IR gain.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. It impacts cell range estimates if the link-budget is UL limited.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 93 8-PSK in the UL should be considered in the planning tools for the throughput and coverage estimation (based on interference calculation). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 93 .1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .3.

New MFS counters: It consists in defining a few new counters to ease the dimensioning and optimisation of (E)GPRS networks. Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level: It allows an operator to consolidate each indicator defined at cell level per GPU.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 94 “Counter Improvements for Release B9” feature covers four candidate “sub-features” for B9: Support of distributions: It introduces a new concept of counters called distributions to obtain improved statistics on (E)GPRS resource usage. This operation is very useful to follow possible lacks of GCH or GPU resources in a given GPU. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 94 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. 2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 Radio Network Planning . 3. EVOLIUM BSS . 1.2 B9 features 2. 4. Counters defined at TRX level: It introduces a few counters defined at TRX level to follow the radio and transmission resource usage.

FTP transfers. called “distribution”. All Rights Reserved © 2007. the average is meaningless if long TBFs generating high UL LLC volumes are not distinguished from short TBFs generating small UL LLC volumes. However. etc. However. . timing advance. Same rationale as P454a but for the DL direction The distribution of the number of PDCH units assigned to an UL TBF is required to check whether non-optimal allocations come from a lack of radio resources.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 95 Support of distributions Counter P453a Mnemonic DISTRIB_UL_TBF_DURATION Rationale The distribution of the UL TBF duration is interesting to: -Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling. etc.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Support of distributions • Actually. introduced on release B7..2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.). The ranges of each vector are defined by 9 thresholds. Same rationale as P453a but for the DL direction The distribution of the UL LLC volume is interesting to: -Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling. .2 RMS feature is based on the following principles: . -Check the validity of the UL TBF duration reported by the PM counters. in order to get statistics on radio measurements such as RXLEV. The existing PS counters count a number of events occurring during the reporting period (i. interference level. The B7. • The measurements are usually reported in vectors made of 10 values (or matrixes made of several vectors). every hour). MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD can be increased. it is interesting to know what is the proportion of short TBFs compared to long TBFs.2 B9 features 2. i. Web browsing.e.The operator can launch RMS from the OMC-R on a per cell or per BSC basis for a given duration (up to 23 hours). to understand the throughput measured in the fields. For instance. Same rationale as P455b but for the DL direction P453b P454a DISTRIB_DL_TBF_DURATION DISTRIB_UL_TBF_VOLUME P454b P455a DISTRIB_DL_TBF_VOLUME DISTRIB_UL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC P455b DISTRIB_DL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC EVOLIUM BSS . it is possible to launch extended measurement reporting in order to get measurements on radio frequencies not used for CS/PS traffic in the cell.During the observation period. etc. existing counters allow evaluating the averaged duration of the TBFs. These thresholds are changeable at the OMC-R. parameters like MAX_PDCH. FTP transfers. -The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a deep field analysis. “Support of distributions” is an enhancement for the feature “Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS)”. were introduced. • This sub-feature introduces a new concept of counters to monitor PS resource usage. such counters do not allow retrieving the distribution of the events.The radio measurements are monitored the closest to the observed functions. in the BTS.] Radio Network Planning .e. For instance. MS or BS transmitted power. In this case. RXQUAL. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 95 . -The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a deep field analysis. the average is meaningless if long TBFs are not distinguished from short TBFs. -Check the validity of the UL LLC volumes (measured in bytes) reported by the PM counters. -Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields. to evaluate the type of GPRS traffic. -Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields. Web browsing. New counters.). For instance. etc.

Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. it is not the role of the MFS to perform computation on counters. EVOLIUM BSS . Instance Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell The sub-feature consists in allowing the operator to consolidate cell counters P105c/d/e/f/g/h at GPU level.] Radio Network Planning . Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. it is up to the MFS to perform the consolidation. Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the GPU. Indeed. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 96 . without this consolidation.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 96 Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level Reference P105c P105d P105e P105f P105g P105h Definition Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont. Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the GPU. which is in contradiction with the usual principles.2 B9 features 2. Also.

a high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs observed in the fields are low. During voice calls or SMS. or sending/receiving an SMS during a GPRS connection. All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 P38e P451a CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_DL_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_UL_TBF_CELL P451b P452 CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_CELL CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_GMM_SIG_CELL P98f NB_SUSP_UL_TBF_REL P98e NB_SUSP_DL_TBF_REL EVOLIUM BSS . Same rationale as P98f but for the DL direction.] Radio Network Planning .4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont. For instance. This counter is used with P38f to quantify the overlapping of the UL TBFs on the PDCHs. This is suspend / resume All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning Class B Class B mobile phones can be attached to both GPRS and GSM services. GPRS services are suspended and then resumed automatically after the call or SMS session has ended. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 97 . a high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs observed in the fields are low. Operators are carefully analysing the TBF drop rate that it is one of the main (E)GPRS QoS figures. Class B enables making or receiving a voice call.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 97 New MFS counters Counter P38f Mnemonic CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_UL_CELL Rationale This counter is used with P451a to quantify the overlapping of the UL TBFs on the PDCHs. For instance. This counter is defined to obtain a more accurate indicator for TBF drops. For instance. using one service at a time. this information is required to know how many radio resources should be configured to carry only GMM signalling traffic. Same rationale as P38f but for the DL direction. This counter is used to quantify the part of the GMM signalling traffic over the whole (E)GPRS traffic. Same rationale as P451a but for the DL direction.2 B9 features 2.

EVOLIUM BSS .e.2 B9 features 2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 98 . better accuracy of the model can be achieved) but no impact on radio and other telecom performances is expected.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 98 The new counters and distributions should allow us to improve the existing (E)GPRS traffic model (i.

EVOLIUM BSS . instead the MFS is always aware of all the available radio timeslots. according to the whole BSS load (CS and PS loads). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 99 . The MFS needs no more to request radio timeslots to the BSC.2 B9 features 2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 99 The purpose of this feature is to give to the MFS all the radio timeslots that are usable for PS traffic.

but the preference is given to PS traffic in that zone.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is computed by the BSC and defines the number of SPDCHs that are allocated to the MFS (based on the whole BSS load) The allocated SPDCHs are always those having the highest priority for PS allocations and their positions are provided to the MFS within a new message called Radio Resource (RR) Allocation Indication message TBFs allocated in the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone cannot be pre-empted (T1 re-allocation) when MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value decreases Periodically. The size of this zone is given by the difference between the parameters MAX_SPDCH and MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD. The size of this zone is defined by the parameters MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD and MIN_SPDCH. the MFS may pre-empt a few SPDCHs to give them back to the BSC. All Rights Reserved © 2007. The size of this zone is defined by the parameter MIN_SPDCH. The MFS uses the same Radio Resource Usage Indication message to indicate to the BSC the de-allocated SPDCHs and to acknowledge the allocation of new SPDCHs − Reserved for PS: This zone defines the number of radio resources reserved for PS traffic.2 B9 features 2. This message is used by the BSC to estimate the PS load If required. the MFS sends to the BSC a Radio Resource Usage Indication message. but the preference is given to CS traffic in that zone. This message contains the allocated SPDCHs in the MFS as well as their usage. − Priority for CS: This zone defines a number of radio resources where CS and PS traffic can be carried.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 100 Main principles: CS and PS allocation separation with expected result of higher mean TBF throughputs. − Priority for PS: This zone defines a number of radio resources where CS and PS traffic can be carried. No PS traffic can be carried in that zone.] Radio Network Planning .5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation [cont. The size of this zone is defined thanks to the parameter MAX_SPDCH. No CS traffic can be carried in that zone. − Reserved for CS: This zone defines the number of radio resources reserved for CS traffic. To give to the MFS all the radio timeslots that are usable for PS traffic Max CS traffic without PS traffic Max PS traffic without CS traffic Max PS traffic when high CS traffic reserved for PS priority for PS priority for CS reserved for CS MIN_SPDCH MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT MAX_SPDCH EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 100 .

EVOLIUM BSS . This could lead to an increase in the average TBF throughputs at cell level. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 101 .1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 101 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation -100 ms gain in the DL or UL TBF establishment duration As the maximum number of radio resources is allocated to the MFS. the TBF establishment duration (DL or UL) is reduced compared to the B8 solution (if the MFS requests for additional radio resources to establish the TBF).2 B9 features 2.5.

2 B9 features 2. namely THR_CELL_LOAD_3G_REJECT EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. provided the HO has not been triggered by an emergency cause Current load will be compared with a new threshold.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 102 Improve the 3G neighborhood description in 2G cells Consistent with the cell reselection strategy in B9 2G/3G Interoperability” feature comprises two sub-features: Improved 3G cell reselection Neighbour UTRAN FDD cells are provided in SI2quater (new message) UTRAN frequencies are defined at GSM cell level (3/cell at max) Neighbour UTRAN FDD cells are described at the OMC with their UTRAN FDD frequencies Scrambling Codes and Diversity Load based 3G HO filtering The BSS may reject an external HO incoming from the UTRAN.6 2G/3G Inter-working Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 102 .

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 103 Improved 3G cell reselection The B9 “Improved 3G cell reselection” feature allows the operator to declare per 2G cell basis the 3G neighbor cells (the FDD UMTS frequencies and the scrambling codes). When knowing in advance the frequency and the scrambling code of a 3G cell.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. EVOLIUM BSS .2 B9 features 2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 103 . an MS should require 10 to 20ms to synchronize on that cell.] Radio Network Planning . Maximum 3 FDD UMTS frequencies may be declared per cell basis.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 104 . Radio Network Planning Impact These sub-features impact traffic model. i.] Radio Network Planning .e.2 B9 features 2. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell or in less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell. the BSS may reject an external hand-over coming from the UTRAN.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 104 Load based 3G HO filtering Regarding the current load. EVOLIUM BSS . allowing faster 2G-to-3G cell reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a loded condition. provided the hand-over has not been triggered by an emergency cause.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont. provided the hand-over request does not carry a cause type uplink/downlink quality/strength.

It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell or in less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell. allowing faster 2G-to-3G cell reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a loaded condition.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 105 These sub-features impact traffic model. EVOLIUM BSS .6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 105 .2 B9 features 2.

A segment is formed by a part of an RLC block (after its segmentation on the M-EGCH link) and a GCH header (different for first segment and subsequent segments). An M-EGCH is defined per TRX (instead of an EGCH per radio timeslot in release B8).7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing Radio Network Planning .2 B9 features 2.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 106 This feature provides a solution to share the Ater and Abis nibbles between the radio timeslots of a TRX so that the transmission resources left available by a PDCH can be re-used by other PDCHs as long as those PDCHs belong to the same TRX. • GCH . • Segment . The MFS or the BTS periodically send blocks on a GCH every 20 ms. It is composed of an Ater nibble and an Abis nibble cross-connected together in the BSC. EVOLIUM BSS . Padding bits are added to the RLC blocks’ segments to fill the frame to 320 bits. . a number of 320 bits of this GCH can be used: this is the frame. • GCH frame .In 20 ms period (also called block period). RLC data might be padded or a segment can be a “no-data segment”.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Terminology • M-EGCH . Thus allows reducing the waste of transmission bandwidth on the Ater and Abis interfaces. All Rights Reserved © 2007.A GCH is the 16kb/s channel between the MFS and the BTS.The term M-EGCH (Multiplexed-EGCH) is used to refer to a link established between the MFS and the BTS. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 106 .Note that in B9 a frame can be constituted of several segments belonging to different RLC blocks as now all the RLC blocks sent on several PDCHs of a TRX are multiplexed on the same M-EGCH link.

As in B8 a block for a PDCH can be spread over several 320-bit frames but after its last segment the block of another PDCH can be started (if the remaining transmission capacity is sufficient). As in B8.2 B9 features 2. of throughput experienced by one TBF. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 107 . The GCH left while the control blocks are transferred can also be reused by other TBFs (which is not the case in B8).GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 107 The M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing solution allows to share a given number of GCHs at a TRX level. an increase of MCS.2 like GCH stack (1 GCH allocated per PDCH to support up to CS2 TBFs). in establishment or delayed release phase) is automatically reused by another TBF mapped on the same RTSs or on another set of RTSs (as long as those sets of RTS are on the same TRX ). does not lead to an increase of transmission links need since this increase can be compensated by a decrease of MCS experienced by another TBF.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The Statistical Multiplexing introduces a new segmentation of the radio blocks on the M-EGCH link: the blocks of all the PDCHs of the TRX are sent one after the other without padding between them. the unused part of a 320bit frame (once all the PDCHs have been scheduled) is filled with padding and the unused GCHs with a NODATA PDU. This feature only applies to G3 and G4 TRX while the G2 DRFU TRX uses a B7.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing [cont. i. indeed control blocks are encoded with CS1 and do not use an entire 320-bit frame. All Rights Reserved © 2007. The EGCH layer is highly impacted to support the statistical multiplexing and is renamed “M-EGCH layer” in B9.e. EVOLIUM BSS . So a fixed 320-bit frame can have up to 2 or 3 segments of variable size.e between the radio timeslots of one TRX. i. so that: the transmission resource left available by one TBF mapped on a set of RTS and being idle (eg.

Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs allows : higher PS throughputs lower PS blocking/drop probabilities EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 108 Statistical multiplexing at M-EGCH layer does increase the BSS PS capacity without running out of Abis/Ater resources.7. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 108 .1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .2 B9 features 2.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

and in some BTS configurations it may avoid to deploy a second Abis link. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 109 . The extra Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level.8 Dynamic Abis allocation Radio Network Planning .2 B9 features 2.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 109 This feature enables. Radio Network Planning Impact Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop probabilities. it allows a higher average Abis bandwidth per PDCH. Compared to B8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. EVOLIUM BSS . the BSC capacity in terms of TRXs is increased. to dynamically allocate nibbles among the different TREs used for PS traffic in a given BTS. on the Abis.

EVOLIUM BSS .1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .2 B9 features 2.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 110 Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop probabilities. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 110 .8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

All Rights Reserved © 2007. It handles both Abis and Ater resources at GCH level. It is implemented as a transmission resource manager. Ater nibbles sharing rules: • A given amount of Ater transmission resource is allocated per GPU. Thus. and redistributing GCHs over the M-EGCH links Managing transmission resource preemptions Managing Abis and/or Ater congestion states. to prevent the above restriction from disturbing the First GPRS traffic in a cell. a process is launched to retrieved another 64K TS to replace it in the Ater reserve. an Ater reserve shall always be available. anytime.2 B9 features 2. according to the (M)CS of their supported TBFs (UL and DL). it has been decided that basic Abis nibbles are only shared at cell level (i. a 64K Ater TS may be moved from one DSP to another if. all its four 16K Ater nibbles are free. and only if.e. removing. EVOLIUM BSS . among TRXs of the same cell or sector). or. Every 64K TS of the Ater reserve may be connected to any DSP of the GPU to fulfil GCH requests: • to establish the initial GCH in a cell with the Fast Initial GPRS Access feature activated.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 111 Deals with the determination of the number and of the nature of the 16k GCH channels inside each M-EGCH. Optionally. Extra (and Bonus) Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level. The Ater reserve consists on one or several free 64K Ater TSs and is defined per GPU. However. adding. this Ater transmission resource is shared among the four DSPs of the GPU thanks to the GPU on-board Ater switch. • Furthermore.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Abis nibbles sharing rules: • To ensure that. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 111 . each cell of a given BTS would be able to support PS traffic. • to ensure the First GPRS traffic in a cell with no active initial GCH. monitoring M-EGCH links usage. • Only 64K Ater TS are handled at GPU-level between DSPs. Afterwards. It is in charge of: Creating and removing the M-EGCH links Selecting. This is done by means of GCH pre-emption on the Best effort traffic supported by the GPU. Consequently. • Each time a 64K TS is taken from the Ater reserve. This is the unique restriction to Ater nibbles sharing at GPU-level. This restriction prevents some cells from using the whole Abis nibbles of the BTS as a given cell cannot use the basic Abis nibbles of another cell. we should guarantee a minimal number of Abis nibbles to every cell in the BTS. The transmission resource manager is located at MFS/GPU level.9 Enhanced transmission resource management Radio Network Planning .

and adapting AMR thresholds to the situation of a given cell. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 112 . Indeed.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 RMS_I1 Indicators: Mnemonic RMS_AMR_FR_UL_BAD RMS_AMR_HR_UL_BAD RMS_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL Definition Number of bad speech frames using any AMR FR codec in uplink Number of bad speech frames using any AMR HR codec in uplink Number of speech frames using one AMR FR codec in uplink per Rxlev on the uplink path Number of speech frames using one AMR HR codec in uplink per Rxlev on the uplink path Number of speech frames using one AMR FR codec in downlink per Rxlev on the downlink path Number of speech frames using one AMR HR codec in downlink per Rxlev on the downlink path Formula RMS44a RMS45a RMS46a RMS_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL RMS48a RMS_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL RMS47a RMS_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL RMS49a All Rights Reserved © 2007.2 B9 features 2. EVOLIUM BSS .10 RMS_I1 Improvements Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 112 The goal of the feature is to monitor the usage of each allowed AMR codecs (FR or HR). This feature allows monitoring the proper operation of AMR and the quality of the radio coverage in a cell. statistics about frame erasure rate in uplink and comparison between codec distribution and RXLEV allow assessing the voice quality. and to provide statistics information on timing advance. It also gives the possibility to tune the AMR parameters.

These parameters are different for AMR FR and AMR HR.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 113 Knowing which codecs are the most used. EVOLIUM BSS .2 B9 features 2.1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. therefore interpretation of results would be easier if results are provided separately for uplink and downlink. and comparing them with link level in the cell. thresholds and hysteresis).10. The codecs used in UL and in DL can be different. the operator could assess the voice quality and possibly adapt the AMR parameters (definition of the subset. information shall be provided separately for AMR FR and AMR HR. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 113 .

in order to identify resurgences and hot spot. in order to understand geographical traffic distribution in a cell.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 114 The aim of this feature is to provide statistics information on timing advance. to identify resurgences and hot spots. This information is not detailed enough to understand geographical distribution in a cell. Its usage in RMS B7. EVOLIUM BSS . The average value of RXQUAL per TA band in downlink.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 RM_I2 Indicators: Mnemonic RMS_TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE Definition The distribution of number of measurement reports for which the value of timing advance is in TA band The average value of RXLEV per TA band in uplink. Formula RMS50a RMS_TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAN D RMS_TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAN D RMS_TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BA ND RMS_TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BA ND RMS51 RMS52 RMS53 RMS54 All Rights Reserved © 2007.2 is very limited: only measurement reports done over a TA threshold are available. The average value of RXLEV per TA band in downlink. The improvement “RMS_I2: Timing advance” is a good indicator about the mobile position relative to a cell. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 114 .2 B9 features 2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements Radio Network Planning . The average value of RXQUAL per TA band in uplink. along with the max measured TA.

through identification of these resurgences and hot spots. Detecting hot spots can be very useful in order to re-design that part of the network in a most adapted way to the experienced traffic load.1 Radio Network Planning Impact Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.11.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 115 This RMS improvement described here would provide help to the operator for optimization of his network planning.2 B9 features 2. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 115 . EVOLIUM BSS .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 116 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 116 3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms EVOLIUM BSS .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 117 . the MS does in GMM READY state (PTM) cell reselection In the old cell an abnormal TBF release takes place In the new cell the MS establishes a new resource. when an MS in idle mode moves from cell A to cell B. where the new channel is reserved by the network in advance) Cell 1 selection reselection Cell 2 RA A Cell 3 RA B LA 1 LA 2 EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.1 Cell Reselection Overview Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 117 In GSM. it performs a cell reselection applying the C1 or C2 criteria. (Different to handover in GSM. MS performs a handover For (E)GPRS. In dedicated mode.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 118 Three modes of cell reselection have been defined for a MS in GPRS packet transfer mode: NC0 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to the network NC1 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network NC2 mode: (E)GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 118 .1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont. It sends measurement reports to the network.] Radio Network Planning . The network controls the cell reselection B9 release supports NC0 and NC2 modes NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER parameter defines whether the MS or the BSS controls the cell reselections NC0 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 0 NC2 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 3 EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.

Cell reselection is identical to the basic GSM cell reselection in idle mode. C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria are used NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1. C31 and C32 criteria are used PBCCH established in the serving cell: GMM standby: Only NC0 mode is applied. All Rights Reserved © 2007. C31 and C32 criteria are used EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. C1NC2.Max (0.] Radio Network Planning . the network and the MS is in Packet Idle Mode (refer to GSM 05. depending on whether the PBCCH is present or not in the serving cell No PBCCH in the serving cell: GMM standby: Only NC0 mode is applied. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 119 .08). C1. C1 and C2 criteria are used GMM ready: NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator.B) with: . C31 and C32 criteria are used GMM ready: NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C2NC2 criteria are used NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 119 The attached (E)GPRS mobiles use different criteria.B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH . C1 criterion is used when the MS simultaneously attached to both.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN .TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) when Penalty_time<31 • C2 = C1 .CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET when Penalty_Time=31 In GPRS ready and standby states.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.MS_TXPWR_MAX + POWER_OFFSET(1800) • C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET . For a class B MS which can combine GSM and GPRS states. C1NC2.A = RLA_C . cell reselection is performed by the MS except for a class A MS while in dedicated mode of a circuit switched connection. in which case the cell is determined by the network according to the handover procedures.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 In GSM • C1 = A .

the BA(GPRS)=BA(BCCH) list ) Recommendation is to enable the GPRS service on all cells in order to prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.e.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 120 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 120 Independent from the presence of the PBCCH The GPRS cell adjacencies are the same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer mode are set equal to the CS cell adjacencies (i.

This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. All Rights Reserved © 2007. In the above equations.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. for cell selection and reselection C2: for cell reselection C1 criterion: the path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0 C1 = A . the parameter P(n) shall always refer to the RF power capability of the GMSK modulation.Max(B. • CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n. P(n) is the maximum output RF power of the MS in the BCCH frequency band of the cell n.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P RLA_C = Received Level Average for CS service RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = Minimum received signal level at the MS required for access to the system MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = Maximum TX power level an MS may use when accessing the system P = Maximum RF output power of the MS EVOLIUM BSS . Note that all values are expressed in dBm. no PBCCH established Radio Network Planning . the following notations mean: • AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) is the average received signal level measured by the MS on the BCCH of the cell n. • PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative. with the following criteria applied: C1: the pathloss criterion. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 121 . P(n) gives the MS Radio Access Capability Information Element provided in the Packet Resource Request message or in the DL LLC PDU. • RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) or GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) is the minimum received signal level required to perform an access to the cell n. In the NC cell reselection procedure. • MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) or GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) is the maximum transmit power of the MS when accessing the cell n.0) A = RLA_C .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 121 The same procedure as in GSM. The cell ranking criterion parameter C2NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion.

no PBCCH established [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 122 . PENALTY_TIME = 11111 C2 = C1 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.TEMPORARY OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .T) * non-serving cells: H(x) = 0 for x < 0. T shall be started from zero at the time the cell is placed by the MS on the list of strongest carriers CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET may be used to give different priorities to different bands when multiband operation is used TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C2 for the duration of PENALTY_TIME after the timer T has started for that cell.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 122 C2 criterion: PENALTY_TIME <> 11111 C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET . H(x)= 1 for x ≥ 0 serving cells: H(x) = 0 T is a timer implemented for each cell in the list of strongest carriers.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode.CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND = 0 then C2 = C1 EVOLIUM BSS .

PBCCH established Radio Network Planning . are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell EVOLIUM BSS .Max(B. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 123 .GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P GPRS specific parameters.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 123 The following criteria are applied for cell reselection: C1: when C1< 0 C31. C32: when a non-serving cell is evaluated to be better than the serving cell C1: the pathloss criterion Is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell reselection for GPRS in the same way as for GSM Idle mode criterion Same as defined.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. but with specific GPRS parameters: C1 = A .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.0) A = RLA_P .3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode.

The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. the determination of C32NC2 is modified so that the neighboring cell n having the highest AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 among all the neighboring cells is applied a GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (only if the offset is positive) and no GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is applied to the other neighboring cells.e. the MFS handles an anti-ping-pong timer and an anti ping-pong offset. Therefore. RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS. circular NC cell reselections). and C31_HYST are used to control the triggering conditions of a cell reselection. The MFS stops the anti ping-pong timer at the deletion of the NC2 context. among those cells that have the highest priority class. The cell ranking criterion parameter C32NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 124 C31: the signal level threshold criterion parameter for hierarchical cell structures (HCS) Is used to determine whether prioritized hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell re-selection shall apply For cells that fulfill C31criteria (C31>0): The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value. GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) applies a positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the neighboring cell n. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. PBCCH established [cont.] Radio Network Planning . While the timer T_NC_PING_PONG is running the neighboring cells are disfavored by the offset NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET (expressed in dB) in the cell ranking process. The MFS starts the anti-ping-pong timer at the creation of the NC2 context for the MS.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode. respectively called T_NC_PING_PONG and NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET. For that purpose.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. among all the neighbor cells C32: cell ranking criterion parameter is used to select cells among those with the same priority class EVOLIUM BSS .. As the GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS. they are not taken into account in the criterion C31NC2 and C32NC2 parameters. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 124 . among those cells that have highest LSA priority If no cell fulfils the C31 criterion: The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value. The MFS shall take care of avoiding ping-pong effects between the old cell and the new cell (i. the Alcatel BSS always assumes that GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = 0. If the parameter C32_QUAL is set. This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established. All Rights Reserved © 2007. the Alcatel BSS does not manage the timer T implemented for each cell to monitor the time a neighboring cell is present in the list of the strongest carriers. HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical GPRS cell reselection criterion.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31NC2 is used in hierarchical cellular networks to determine whether the signal level received from a neighboring cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion. This criterion parameter is used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell. Contrary to the C31 criterion implemented in the MS.

PBCCH established [cont.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 125 C31 criterion Serving cell: C31(s) = RLA_P(s) – GPRS_HCS_THR(s) Neighbor cell: C31(n) = GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) <> GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s) = GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s) T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) = RLA_P(n) – GPRS_HCS_THR(n) – GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = RLA_P(n) . C value) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS_HCS_THR(n) RLA_P is the received level average for PS service (i.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS_HCS_THR(n) = RLA_P(n) .3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode.e. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 125 .GPRS_HCS_THR(n) = RLA_P(n) .

PBCCH established [cont. Max: 320s . Default: -84 dBm GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS is the HCS priority of the cell Min: 0 (lowest). Max: -48 dBm.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 126 The following parameters are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell: GPRS_HCS_THR is the signal threshold for applying HCS GPRS and LSA reselection Min: -110 dBm.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode. Max: infinity (coded 7).] Radio Network Planning . Default: 0 EVOLIUM BSS . Max: 7 (highest).3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Default: 10s GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C31/C32 for the duration of GPRS_PENALTY_TIME after the timer T has started for that cell Min: 0. Default: 0 GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the time during which the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET is active in neighbour cells Min: 10s.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 126 .

the MS shall make one measurement for each BCCH carrier monitored every 4 seconds. positive GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET value shall only be applied to the neighboring cell with the highest RLA_P value of those cells for which C32 is compared above. as well as more than one sample per second for each BCCH carrier. It shall attempt to check the BSIC for each of these 6 strongest cells at least once every 10 seconds.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 C1 is the same as in GSM except that • A = RLA_P – GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: “listening capacity of MS in the cell” • B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P: “talking capacity of MS in the cell” • C1 shall be positive and as high as possible C32: • if C32_QUAL=1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 127 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. • If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) >0.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode. In Packet Transfer Mode. the cell has a handicap for reselection In Packet Idle Mode. All Rights Reserved © 2007. Default: 4 dBm EVOLIUM BSS . the MS shall monitor a list of 6 strongest non-serving cell BCCH carriers.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 127 C32 criterion Serving Cell: C32(s) = C1(s) Neighbor cell: C32(n) = GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) <> GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s) = GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s) T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) = C1(n) + = C1(n) + GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is used to apply an permanent offset for GPRS cell reselection in neighbor cells Min: -52 dBm. Max: +48 dBm. A list of 6 strongest cells shall be kept updated at a rate of at least one update per running average period. PBCCH established [cont.] Radio Network Planning . the cell has a bonus to reselection • If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) <0.

The penalty is computed based on the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) and GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) parameters.g. based on their frequency band C32 also gives the possibility to temporarily penalize neighbor cells having the same priority as the serving cell (contrary to C31 that penalizes cells of different priorities). as well as the same temporary offsets as for C2.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.] Radio Network Planning . This allows favoring neighbor cells e.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 128 C32 is an improvement of C2. Additional hysteresis values apply for a cell re-selection that requires cell or routing area update With C32.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. neighbor cells can be favored through the GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) broadcast on the PBCCH. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 128 . like for C31 EVOLIUM BSS . It applies an individual offset and hysteresis value to each pair of cells.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode. PBCCH established [cont.

or when a GPRS MS is in GMM ready state RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS indicates in both STANDBY and READY state the additional hysteresis which applies on C31 and C32 (with PBCCH) when selecting a cell in a new RA C31_HYST: Determines whether an additional cell hysteresis shall be applied to the C31 criterion in same RA.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. in READY state GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS additional hysteresis EVOLIUM BSS . in a different RA. PBCCH established [cont. for a GPRS MS.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 129 If cell B is belonging to another Routing Area (RA) than cell A. the MS has to make RA update additional hysteresis are applied to avoid unnecessary RA updates: CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS hysteresis for cell reselection applied on C1 criterion (no PBCCH). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 129 .] Radio Network Planning . when the new cell is in a different LA or.

after (P)SI information acquisition only the remaining data from the ‘old’ TBF will be sent then automatically Coding scheme adaptation is active in parallel and independently triggered EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. the MS performs a cell re-selection abnormal TBF release happens in the new cell.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM Radio Network Planning . a new TBF is automatically established.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 130 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 130 THERE ARE NO HANDOVERS IN GPRS The MS is performing now Cell Reselection during a TBF it leaves the coverage area of the cell or enters in a building if a neighbor cell is better (from C Criterion point of view).

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 Time [s] All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM [cont. CS change TBF 2 (Cell 2) CS 2 Average Throughput Throughput CS 1 t0 EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 131 . CS change TBF 1 (Cell 1) Cell Re-Selection Data “Call” Duration 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 131 Typical GPRS data transmission with cell reselection Throughput [kbit/s] 1.

. the data transfer is re-started (after a DL TBF establishment. a retransmission is needed. GSM 900) reduced impact on signaling load EVOLIUM BSS . the MS sends packet measurements reports (PMR) to the BSS Aim: NC2 mode is to limit the number of reselections to the strict necessary ones increased data throughput Alcatel NC2 implementation allows to favor GPRS traffic inside GPRS preferred cells (GPRS redirection) Particular layer (e. All Rights Reserved © 2007. • Then. the MS establishes a new UL TBF in this cell to send a Cell Update message to the SGSN. • The MFS deletes or reroutes towards the new cell the LLC PDUs stored in the old cell.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Each time the MS performs a cell reselection. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 132 .if they are deleted.g.g.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode Radio Network Planning . in case of DL transfer). the BSS controls the cell reselections of all MS when in packet transfer mode (PTM) or of all MS when in GMM Ready state (depending on the selected NC2 deactivation mode) While the NC2 mode is activated for the concerned MS.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. • The MS performs the PSI or SI acquisition in the new cell. the data transfer is interrupted and a retransmission of some LLC PDUs may be required: • The on-going TBF is released in the old cell. macro) Particular frequency band (e.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 132 In NC2 mode of operation. • Finally. All these steps degrade the data throughput or the page access time perceived by the enduser.

The “Packet Measurement Order (NC2)” message is sent when: › establishing the first Downlink TBF of the Packet Transfer Mode or when re-establishing the DL TBF while T3192 is running and there is not any on-going UL TBF. . Indeed. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 133 . • De-activation . the R97 and R98 MSs may not have been sufficiently tested and therefore there is a risk of interoperability with these MSs.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.96s) Measurement reporting and processing MS periodically reports its NC2 measurements on PACCH through a PACKET MEASUREMENT REPORT The BSS handles the following measurements: UL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF DL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF DL serving and neighbor cells: RXLEV measurements of BCCH EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER is a cell parameter tunable at the OMC-R. It provides mainly the NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T which is the reporting period of NC measurements sent by the MS while in PTM (default = 0. at the beginning of a data transfer.When the MS goes back to the STANDBY state.The “Packet Measurement Order (RESET)” message is sent at the end of the data transfer. › the MS has not been forced to operate in NC2 mode by a Packet Cell Change Order message (during an intra-RA cell reselection). in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = “NC2 deactivation at the end of the packet transfer”. The R97 and R98 MSs are differentiated from the other MSs. all the MSs shall support the NC2 mode. The “Packet Measurement Order” message is used to activate and de-activate the NC2 mode of operation for a given MS.] Radio Network Planning . All Rights Reserved © 2007. in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = “NC2 deactivation at GMM Ready timer expiry”.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 133 NC2 activation An MS transit to NC2 mode when it receives a PACKET MEASUREMENT ORDER message from the BSS. • Activation . › no measurement report has already been received for that MS during its on-going packet transfer(s) (UL and/or DL). however since no network manufacturer has implemented the NC2 mode.

5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 134 . This ensures that the target cell selected by the MS in NC0 mode or by the BSS in NC2 mode are identical in quite all cases C1NC2.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 134 Cell reselection detection NC2 reselection are triggered only for EMERGENCY or for POWER BUDGET causes: Cause Cause Cause Cause PT PT PT PT 1: Too low DL received signal level 2: Detection of a better cell 3: Too bad DL radio quality 4: Too bad UL radio quality The criteria calculated by the BSS in NC2 mode are very near from those used by the MS in NC0 mode.] Radio Network Planning . C2NC2. C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria are calculated by the BSS and the parameters defined for cell reselections in NC0 are re-used EVOLIUM BSS .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 135 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.0) No PBCCH ANC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) – RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) BNC2(n) = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) – P(n) PBCCH established ANC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) – GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) BNC2(n) = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) – P(n) EVOLIUM BSS .0) = handicap on threshold if MS can't reach max UL tx power recommended in the cell All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced with NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold.] Radio Network Planning .5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont. Max (Bnc2.0) NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = -110 dBm (Never) deactivates Cause PT1 Cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced by NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold C1NC2: Pathloss Criterion parameter C1NC2(n) = ANC2(n) – max(BNC2(n).GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 135 Cause PT1: Too low DL received signal level AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 < NC_DL_RXLEV_THR + Max(BNC2.

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. It is triggered if the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of one neighboring cell n exceeds the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of the serving cell s by at least the O&M hysteresis NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 136 Cause PT2: Detection of a better neighbor cell AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 ≤ NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR and { No PBCCH: C2NC2(n) > C2NC2(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s.n) defined per cell adjacency link (respectively whether or not there is a PBCCH in the serving cell).5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.n) } NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Cause PT2 is checked among the neighboring cells n upon receipt of a Packet Measurement Report message.] Radio Network Planning .n) PBCCH established: C32NC2(n) > C32NC2(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 136 .n) defined per cell adjacency link NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR = -110 dBm (Never) disables Cause PT2 The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell EVOLIUM BSS . All Rights Reserved © 2007.

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Same parameter as GSM Reselection "11111" = value 31 (or infinity) All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 137 C2NC2: Cell ranking criterion parameter used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion and applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established PENALTY_TIME(n) <> “11111”: C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) PENALTY_TIME(n) = “11111”: C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) – CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative The n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 137 .

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 138 C31NC2: signal level threshold criterion parameter Used in hierarchical networks to determine whether the signal level received from a neighbor cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion Used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell C31NC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) – HCS_THR(n) HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical GPRS cell reselection criterion The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 138 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 139 C32NC2: cell ranking criterion parameter Used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion Applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established Cell n is the serving cell: C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) Cell n is a neighbor cell: C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) applies an positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the neighbor cell n. Cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 139 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.

Max: 7. Cause PT3 • is checked only for the serving cell each time a (EGPRS) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message is received provided that the DL TBF is not in delayed release state and provided that the T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the receipt of the first Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message of the DL TBF. • T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF. Default: 7. Max: 7.1 NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never) deactivates Cause PT4 EVOLIUM BSS .1 NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never) deactivates Cause PT3 Cause PT4: Too bad uplink radio quality AV_UL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT4 is triggered due to a too bad RXQUAL in UL (while the MS is in PTM) Min: 0. step size: 0.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 140 Cause PT3: Too bad downlink radio quality AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT3 is triggered due to a too bad RXQUAL in DL (while the MS is in PTM) Min: 0. All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Cause PT4 • is checked only for the serving cell whenever one UL RLC data block is correctly received for the ongoing UL TBF provided that T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the computation of the first UL samples of the UL TBF.] Radio Network Planning . Default: 7.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 140 . • T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF. step size: 0.

The best cell candidate is the cell having the highest C2NC2 value PBCCH established The cell are ranked based on the C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria. the best cell is the cell with the highest C32NC2 value among: o For cells that fulfill C31NC2criterion (C31NC2>0): Those cells having the highest PRIORITY_CLASS(n) o If no cell fulfill C31NC2 criterion: All cells EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 141 Candidate cell evaluation Cell Filtering: this process removes from the list candidates the cells to which a previous NC2 cell reselection failed Cell Ranking: No PBCCH The cell are ranked to their C2NC2 value. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 141 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Among the cells.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.] Radio Network Planning .

] Radio Network Planning . (5) UL TBF establishment (7) UL LLC PDU (8) Flush-LL PDU (9) Flush-LL-Ack PDU (10) NC2 deactivation Two modes via the O&M parameter NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE: NC2 deactivation at the end of packet date transfer NC2 deactivation at Ready timer expiry EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 142 Cell reselection execution The network triggers the cell reselection by sending a PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER message MS Cell A Cell B SGSN On-going data transfer (1) Packet Measurement Report (2) (3) Packet Cell Change Order (4) (6) Packet Control Ack.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 142 .

6 GPRS redirection Radio Network Planning . it may be more efficient to define GPRS resources in the UPPER LAYER only Reduce the number of cell reselections Microcells have smaller traffic capacity and is assigned to CS EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 143 Thanks to NC2 activation for MS in PTM B8/B9 release GPRS redirection is actually a NC cell reselection that is triggered at the beginning of the PTM in the serving cell even if the radio link is good Redirect the MS towards a target cell more appropriate to carry PS traffic The operator may wish to favor GPRS traffic in a particular layer/band: MULTILAYER NETWORK. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 143 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.

] Radio Network Planning . it may be more efficient to favor GPRS traffic in the 900 MHz band.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 144 MULTIBAND NETWORK. due to its better indoor penetration MS GPRS mainly used in indoor environment Gain in stability of the GPRS session Operator must tune the NC parameters so that a NC cell reselection is systematically triggered at the beginning of a data transfer on receipt of the first Packet Measurement Report E.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.47 dBm (Always) EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 144 .g.6 GPRS redirection [cont.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. NC cell reselection Cause PT1 can be always activated by setting NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = .

4 timeslots). which is broadcasted on the (P)BCCH EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 145 GPRS power control is only implemented in uplink in open loop configuration GSM recommendation 05.08 During open loop power control.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview Radio Network Planning . the MS adapts its output power in UL per block (i. based on the measured average signal strength in DL Open loop: There is no indication by the BTS whether the output power was sufficiently low or high: the same path loss in UL and DL is assumed by the MS When accessing the network on the (P)RACH the MS uses the output power defined by (GPRS_)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 145 .e.

either on the BCCH of the serving cell or on the PDCH (carrying the PACCH): The choice is made according to PC_MEAS_CHAN parameter. thus proper average level available at transfer start EVOLIUM BSS . which is broadcasted on the BCCH: PC_MEAS_CHAN = 1.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements Radio Network Planning . measurements on PDCH (default) 24 measurements in 480 ms PC_MEAS_CHAN = 0. measurements on BCCH 12 measurements in 480 ms The LEVEL measurements are averaged with recursive filtering algorithms The average levels are calculated by the MS in PIM and PTM modes.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 146 MS (E)GPRS performs the necessary LEVEL measurements for power control algorithm.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 146 .

8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 147 Averaging Recursive Filtering (in the MS) to obtain average level Recursive Filtering Formula: Cn=a * SSn + (1-a) * Cn-1 Cn is the DL level average calculated by the MS (Cn-1 =previous value) SSn is mean of received signal level of 4 bursts a is the forgetting factor Packet Idle Mode a = 1 / [min (n.] Radio Network Planning . max (5..25.T_AVG_W/TDRX) ) ] TDRX= parameter which considers the number of measurements that are made and the paging group. recommended k < 12) is the signal level filter period for PC in PIM EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. TDRX=BS_PA_MFRMS BS_PA_MFRMS = number of multiframes needed to send all paging groups T_AVG_W = 2k/2 /6 (k=1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 147 .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning 4 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 [1-7] [5-9] [6-10] [6-10] [6-10] [6-10] [7-10] [7-10] All Rights Reserved © 2007.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 148 .] Radio Network Planning .8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 148 Packet transfer Mode a = 1/[6* T_AVG_T] on BCCH a = 1/[12* T_AVG_T] on PDCH T_AVG_T= 2k/2 /6 signal level filter period for PC in PTM k for T_AVG_T for measurements on BCCH or on PDCH: GSM averaging window size (A_LEV_PC) Default value of k Range to investigate 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 EVOLIUM BSS .

] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 149 Averaging Tuning of k: average mechanism convergent between GSM and GPRS Comparison between GSM averaging and the practical GPRS averaging with A_LEV_PC=2 and K =4: 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 106 111 116 121 126 131 136 141 RXLEV_DL GSM average practical GPRS average EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 149 .8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.

ΓCH .9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm Radio Network Planning .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. (GPRS)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH)) Γ0 : is the maximum classmark power of the MS = 39 dBm in GSM 900/850/400 = 36 dBm in GSM 1800/1900 ΓCH : is sent to the MS.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 150 Each block is transmitted by the MS with the output power PCH: PCH=min (Γ0 . This parameter can be described as a reactivity factor. This parameter is used for grading the power control to a target received level at the BTS side Min:0.α * (C+48). Max: 62. Default: 30 dB in GSM 900.08 GSM recommendation suggest to use α = 1 in order to have an open loop power control C : is the DL level average calculated by the MS EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 150 . 24 dB in GSM 1800 α : is send to the MS. The 05.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 151 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.PBTS Balanced DL and UL paths: PMS .] Radio Network Planning .08) ΓCH tune ΓCH in order to reach the Minimum UL Level (RXLEVUL) at the BTS ΓCH = Γ0 .48 .RXLEVUL .RXLEVUL = PBTS – RXLEVDL PBTS : BTS power. PMS: MS power RXLEVUL: Received level at BTS side RXLEVDL: Received level at MS side (C value in the PC formula) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 151 Tuning of ΓCH and α Idea: Tune PC algorithm to balance DL and UL paths α α = 1 (according to GSM 05.

80 dBm ΓCH = Γ0 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 152 .9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.RXLEVUL .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 152 Example: Tuning of ΓCH and α Settings: MS_Power_MAX = 33 dBm PBTS after connector = 40 dBm α α=1 ΓCH tune ΓCH in order to reach the Minimum RXLEVUL at the BTS side assume RXLEVUL = .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.(-80) .48 .40 = 25 dBm EVOLIUM BSS .48 .PBTS ΓCH = 33 .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. which could results in a TBF release EVOLIUM BSS . the MS is allowed to report RXQUAL = 7 AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term average). of the RXQUAL and I_LEVEL_TNi measurements received from the MS in Packet DL Ack/Nack messages AV_RXQUAL_ST Triggering condition AV_RXQual_ST aim to decrease the coding scheme number as fast as possible when the radio conditions degraded significantly.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control Radio Network Planning . AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long Term average) and AV_SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) are respectively averaged values at MFS side. Reaction would be much slower if it was only based on a long-term average. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 153 . where the new metric I_LEVEL_TNi (interference level) is also considered If CS-4 is used.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 153 It relies on RXQUAL except between CS3 and CS4 adaptation.

I_Level_TNi) Averaging . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 154 .26dB I_LEVEL_TN 15 = I ≤ C .AV_RXQUAL_LT .4dB < I ≤ C .AV_SIR Link adaptation new CS current CS MFS uses the I_LEVEL_TNi received to calculate the AV_SIR value In case of DL GPRS TBF with PDCH allocated on BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH TRX.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.. = = = = I>C C .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 154 Interference measurements performed during idle frames of the 52 multiframe (twice during 240ms): I_LEVEL_TN 0 I_LEVEL_TN 1 I_LEVEL_TN 2 I_LEVEL_TN 3 . the MS does not report any usage of BLER (Block interference levels Erasure Rate) instead of interference levels EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning O&M threshold and hysteresis All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Drawback of putting GPRS on BCCH freq : no measure of interference levels All Rights Reserved © 2007.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.28dB < I ≤ C .6dB < I ≤ C .AV_RXQUAL_ST .2dB < I ≤ C C .] Radio Network Planning ..4dB MS Packet DL Ack/Nack (RXQUAL. I_Level_TNi) MFS I_LEVEL_TN 14 = C .2dB C .28dB Packet DL Ack/Nack (RXQUAL.

some MS may not report any interference measurements (behavior observed in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation).GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 As it has been observed (in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation) that some MS do not report any interference measurements when the BCCH carrier is included in the frequency hopping sequence of the allocated PDCH. • or it contains interference measurements and the standard algorithm is applied. • the CS4 BLER is used for a CS change from CS4 to CS3.] Radio Network Planning . the interference level is replaced by the BLER (RLC BLock Error Rate): • the CS3 BLER is used for a CS change from CS3 to CS4. With the new algorithm. • case of a DL TBF with PDCH having the BCCH carrier belonging to the frequency hopping sequence : depending on MS implementation.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 155 Coding Scheme changing decision for a downlink GPRS TBF: Current CS CSi -> CSi+1 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 CSi -> CSi-1 AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT CS1 CS2 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 CS3 AND AV_SIR > CS_SIR_DL_3_4 (CS3_BLER < CS_BLER_DL_3_4) AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_ST AV_SIR < CS_SIR_DL_3_4 + CS_SIR_HST_DL (CS4_BLER > CS_BLER_DL_4_3) CS4 - EVOLIUM BSS . This new triggering condition shall be applied only to the TBF that do not report any interference level measurements. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 155 . All Rights Reserved © 2007.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont. Remarks : • case of a DL TBF with PDCH allocated on the BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH TRX : the MS does not report any interference level measurements in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message (no interference measurements on the BCCH carrier). the algorithm described above is slightly modified in the MR2 version of the B8 release. A new triggering condition is used for the CS change between CS3 and CS4. Each time a Packet DL Ack/Nack message is received: • either it contains no interference measurements and the new algorithm is applied.

] Radio Network Planning . a Ping-Pong effect may occur. when the coding scheme is CS-4.2%.10-4. a BLER of 0. to avoid ping-pong effects between coding schemes: AV_RXQUAL_LT 7 CS1 CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis) CS2 CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis) C S_QUAL_DL_3_4 CS3 0 0 CS_SIR_DL_4_3 CS3 or CS4 CS4 AV_SIR 15 CS_SIR_DL_3_4 EVOLIUM BSS .1)1/456 = 2.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 156 CS_HST_DL_LT and CS_HST_DL_ST are introduced to have hysteresis mechanisms.2%. it may happen that the conditions to change from CS-3 to CS-4 and CS-4 to CS-3 are simultaneously true in some situations. in static (AWGN). Indeed.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont. • If the changes from CS-3 to CS-4 and from CS-4 to CS-3 are based on different metrics. Indeed. This means that CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 should be close to 0 and that a condition based on RXQUAL is not sufficient to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS4. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 156 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.1 (typical value of the BLER threshold to change from CS-3 to CS-4) is obtained for a raw BER of 1-(1-0. All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 The change from CS-3 to CS-4 is not only based on AV_RXQUAL_LT for the two following reasons: • RXQUAL range only goes down to 0. This raw BER would be larger in multipath channels but is likely to remain below 0. the change of the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 will probably have to be done for even lower values. However.

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 157 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 157 MS BTS MFS It is based only on RXQUAL. AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long Term average) are averaged values of the RXQUAL received from the BTS UL RLC block (RXQUAL) UL RLC block RXQUAL measurement UL RLC block (RXQUAL) Averaging .AV_RXQUAL_ST . measured by the BTS Interference measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term average).11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control Radio Network Planning .AV_RXQUAL_LT O&M threshold and hysteresis Link adaptation new CS current CS EVOLIUM BSS .

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 158

Coding Scheme changing decision for uplink GPRS TBF:
Current CS

CSi -> CSi+1
AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_1_2

CSi -> CSi-1
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT

CS1 CS2

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_2_3

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT

CS3

AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_3_4

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_ST AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT

CS4

-

OR AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_ST

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

AV_RXQUAL_ST is a short term average whereas AV_RXQUAL_LT is a long term average. The short term average is used to react quickly in case of fast degradation of the radio conditions. • X = FH or NFH: two thresholds are available for hopping and non-hopping TRXs. • Y = ACK or NACK: two thresholds are available for RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes. The thresholds should be chosen so that: • CS_HST_UL_ST > CS_HST_UL_LT > 0

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 158

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 159

CS_HST_UL_LT and CS_HST_UL_ST are introduced to have hysteresis mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding schemes:
AV_RXQUAL_LT 7

CS1
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)

CS2
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)

CS3
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 CS3 or CS4 (hysteresis)

CS4
0 0 15 AV_SIR

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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In the uplink, the RXQUAL is available in CS-4 and the SIR measurements are not reported by the BTS to the MFS so far. Therefore, it is possible to also use RXQUAL measurements to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4 or from CS-4 to CS-3, contrary to the downlink algorithm, where the SIR was used.

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 159

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.12 Link adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 160

Two new metrics are introduced in EGPRS, Mean_BEP (mean Bit error Probability) and CV_BEP (Coefficient of Variation of BEP), to offset the fact that RXQUAL, does not provide an accurate estimation of the bit error rate of the radio channel
BEP measured on burst basis, is a reflection of the current C/I, time dispersion of the signal and the velocity of the terminal

MEAN_BEPblock =

1 4 ∑ BEPburst i 4 i=1

The variation of BEP value over several bursts also provides additional information regarding velocity and frequency hopping
1 4  1 4   BEPburst k − ∑ BEPburst i  ∑ 3 k =1  4 i=1  4 1 ∑ BEPburst i 4 i=1
2

CV_BEPblock =

The mechanism is more efficient than in GPRS, since measurements are taken on every burst and not only during the idle frames

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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For more details about MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages performed by the MS, refer to 3GPP 05.08. Raw measurements on a radio block basis • For EGPRS (that is during an EGPRS DL TBF), the MS shall calculate the following values, for each radio block (1 radio block = 4 bursts) addressed to it (the DL TBF TFI contained in the radio block must be decoded) : • Mean Bit Error Probability (BEP) of a radio block:

MEAN _ BEPblock =

• Coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability of a radio block:

1 4 ∑ BEPburst i 4 i =1

• In the above equations, the BEP is measured on a burst basis by the MS before channel decoding. Averaging of the raw measurements on a TS basis •The raw measurements made by the MS on a radio block basis are averaged by the MS per TS (TN in the below equations) and per modulation type (GMSK (MCS1 to MCS4), 8-PSK (MCS5 to MCS9)) as follows: •

1 4  1 4  − BEP  BEP ∑ ∑ burst k burst i  3 k =1  4 i=1  CV _ BEP block = 4 1 ∑ BEPburst i 4 i=1

2

MEAN_BEP_T N n = (1 − e ⋅

xn x ) ⋅ MEAN_BEP_T Nn−1 + e ⋅ n ⋅ MEAN_BEP block, n Rn Rn x x CV_BEP_TN n = (1 − e ⋅ n ) ⋅ CV_BEP_TN n −1 + e ⋅ n ⋅ CV_BEPblock,n Rn Rn
R n = (1 − e) ⋅ R n−1 + e ⋅ x n , R −1 = 0
(Rn gives the reliability of the averaged quality parameters)

• with

In the above equations : • n is the iteration index, incremented for each DL radio block, • e is a forgetting factor and is calculated according to the BEP_PERIOD cell parameter (new in B8, OMC-R changeable), SEE NEXT SLIDE All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 160

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 161

The link adaptation is based in DL on Mean_BEP and CV_BEP measurements reported by the MS in every EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message
The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (0..31) and 8 different CV_BEP values (0..7), per modulation type
Decision tables are different depending on whether the Incremental Redundancy is activated or not
IR current CS Link adaptation new CS Average Power Decrease in 8-PSK

MS

MFS

EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack (Mean_BEP, CV_BEP)

link adaptation tables

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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xn denotes the existence of quality parameters for the nth block, i.e. if the radio block is intended for this MS. xn values 1 and 0 denote the existence and absence of quality parameters, respectively Measurements reporting • A MS shall report the overall MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP (instead of reporting the RXQUAL and SIGN_VAR values) per modulation type (that is GMSK_MEAN_BEP, GMSK_CV_BEP and/or 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP, 8-PSK_CV_BEP depending on the received blocks since the last channel quality report sent to the network) averaged over all allocated channels (timeslots) as follows:

∑R

(j) n

(j) ⋅ MEAN_BEP_T Nn

MEAN_BEP n =

j


j

,

Rn

(j)

•where n is the iteration index at reporting time and j the TS number. • The MS reports the Mean_BEP and CV_BEP values to the MFS in the Channel Quality Report included in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack and Packet Resource Request messages. •The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (MEAN_BEP_0 to MEAN_BEP_31). The mapping between the calculated Mean_BEP value (linear scale) and the reported Mean_BEP value (logarithmic scale) depends on the used modulation (two mapping tables are given in the 05.08 GSM recommendation : one for GMSK and one for 8-PSK). •The MS can report 8 different CV_BEP values (CV_BEP_0 to CV_BEP_7). The mapping between the calculated and the reported values is identical for the GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. Measurements and reporting at BTS side •The BTS measures for each UL burst the BEP and calculates for each UL radio block (4 bursts) the Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP = Std_BEP / Mean_BEP. The Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP are reported on a radio block basis by the BTS to the MFS.

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 161

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 162

MS

BTS

MFS

In the UL, Mean_BEP and CV_BEP are computed in the BTS and sent to the MFS, in each radio block The MFS averages Mean_BEP and CV_BEP and then, a decision can be taken on the link adaptation

UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)

UL RLC block
CV_BEP, Mean_BEP

computation UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)

Averaging Average Power Decrease in 8-PSK

IR current CS Link adaptation new CS

link adaptation tables

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 162

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 163

The MFS verify if a MCS change is needed each time it receives new MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP measurements, based on the following algorithm:
RLC Acknowledge Mode
YES

IR activated

NO

?
APD value APD value

GMSK

GMSK / 8-PSK

8-PSK

GMSK

GMSK / 8-PSK

8-PSK

?
GMSK tables 8-PSK tables GMSK tables

?
8-PSK tables

MCS 1..4

MCS 5..9

MCS 1..4

MCS 5..9

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 163

91 All Rights Reserved © 2007. according to the following criteria : TRX supporting the BCCH.90 et p. if PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 TRX capability (EGPRS capable High Power. together extra Abis nibbles for one TRX The biggest TRX transmission pools are allocated to the TRXs having the highest ranking for PS traffic.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 p. then DR) Size of the PDCH-group TRX <--> TRE TRX ranking for PS traffic TRX characteristics ordered list of TRXs for PS traffic This ranking will be used in the reverse order for CS traffic TRX transmission pool set-up TRX transmission pools TRX <--> TRX transmission pool TRX transmission pool set-up A TRX transmission pool groups.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 164 TRX ranking PS capable TRXs (TRX_PREF_MARK = 0) are ranked at BSC side for PS traffic (from the highest to the lowest).3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. then EGPRS capable Medium Power and finally nonEGPRS capable) Dual Rate capability (FR. EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 164 .

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.MP G4 .HP G4 . TRXc. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 165 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. TRXd: TRX_PREF_MARK = 0 (PS capable) TRXe: TRX_PREF_MARK > 0 (non PS capable) 3 DR TRXs Pool types 1 “type 4” 1 “type 2” 2 “type 1” TREs Dual Rate usage FR FR DR DR DR associated TRXs TRXa TRXb TRXc TRXd TRXe PS capable TRX ranking 1 2 3 4 associated transmission pool type type type type 4 2 1 1 G4 .] Radio Network Planning . TRXb.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up [cont.MP G3 G3 EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 165 Example: 5 TREs in a cell 1 G4-HP TRE 2 G4-MP TREs 2 G3 TREs PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 (no specific preference) 5 TRXs TRXa.

received from BSC .TRX the BSC Max_GPRS_CS type En_EGPRS (parameter to allow or not EGPRS in the cell).119 All Rights Reserved © 2007. received from capability . received from the BSC TRX GPRS Max_GPRS_CS (parameter which gives the highest usable CS in the cell). received from the BSC capability Max_EGPRS_MCS (parameter which gives the highest usable MCS in the cell) GPRS capability (CS2/CS3/CS4) BSC O&M En_EGPRS Max_EGPRS_MCS TRX EGPRS capability EGPRS capability (MCS 1-MCS 9) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 p. taking into account: For GPRS: the max CS configured (MAX_GPRS_CS) For EGPRS: TRX type (n=1 to 5).3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 166 .16 TRX capability for PS traffic Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 166 TRX capabilities are determined at MFS side.HW PS Hardware PS capability of each TRX.

high class TRX usage).GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 167 To offer high throughput to EGPRS MSs : EGPRS TBFs are preferentially allocated on high class TRXs Multiplexing.e.e.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. MCS4) new PDCH state: “EGPRS” To fairly share throughput between EGPRS TBFs: A higher number of EGPRS TBFs has to be piled up on high class TRXs than on low class TRXs. as long as it does not conflict with EGPRS traffic A new reallocation trigger (T4) is created in order to reallocate an UL GPRS TBF which is multiplexed with a DL EGPRS TBF EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 167 . on the same PDCH. a DL EGPRS TBF with an UL GPRS TBF has to be avoided.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview Radio Network Planning . the DL EGPRS is limited to GMSK (i. since in this case. This ratio has to take into account the maximum throughput which can be offered by each class of TRX specific TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs To optimize GPRS throughput (i.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 168 !!! New states in B9 !!! All the following PDCH states are related to establish TBFs: Allocated : The PDCH is a slave PDCH. EGPRS : SPDCH used in the DL direction by a 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF. EVOLIUM BSS . All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 168 . which has been indicated as usable for PS traffic by the BSC Active : An allocated PDCH is active if it supports at least one radio resource allocated for a TBF or for a RT PFC Full : For GPRS TBF: The number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH. For EGPRS TBF: The number of established EGPRS TBFs is equal to MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH. This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the UL direction. because some EGPRS TBF on GPRS PDCH are using GMSK MCS.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Full : for GPRS TBF : GPRS + EGPRS ts are counted.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .e PDCH does not belong to a class 1 TRX meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MS only in UL direction When meaningful. i.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 169 New state for GPRS PDCH PDCH used in DL direction by 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont. it overwrites “active” and “busy” states but not the “full” state Avoids multiplexing of UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 169 . in order to not reduce the EGPRS throughput EVOLIUM BSS .

one state for the UL. • When meaningful. the PDCH is not established).GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 170 DOWNLINK UPLINK MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH Allocated Active Full Allocated Active [EGPRS] Full [EGPRS] EVOLIUM BSS . • For EGPRS TBF: at least one established EGPRS TBF and the number of EGPRS TBFs (1) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH. but no established TBF. because of GPRS TBFs.] Radio Network Planning . (3): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid radio resource allocation failure because of the restricted list of EGPRS capable TRXs. one state for the DL).e. active: • For GPRS TBF: at least one established TBF and the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH. • For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (1) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH.e. in order not to reduce EGPRS throughput. the PDCH does not belong to a class 1 TRX).GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 One SPDCH has one state per direction (i. • This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the UL direction. it overwrites “active” and “busy” states (but not the “full” state).18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.e. but associated transmission resources are not allocated (i. full: • For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH. (2): The aim of this new state is to avoid multiplexing UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.. radio resource allocated to the MFS. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 170 . • For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (3) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.. (1): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid to establish EGPRS TBFs on PDCHs with a low EGPRS capability. All the following states are related to established PDCHs: empty: • the PDCH is established. busy: • For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS and EGPRS TBFs) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH.. EGPRS (2) • PDCH used in the DL direction by an 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF (i. This state depends on the type of the MSs (EGPRS capable or non-EGPRS capable) for which the radio resource (re)-allocation algorithm is called. All Rights Reserved © 2007. but smaller than MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH. but smaller than MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.

19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs Radio Network Planning . the other EGPRS capable TRXs are not taken into account by the algorithm EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 171 Specific conditions are defined for TRX selection in case of allocation or reallocation for EGPRS capable MS To allocate EGPRS TBFs preferentially on TRX which allows a high throughput Principle: As long as the TRXs with the highest throughput do not support a maximum number of EGPRS TBFs. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 171 .

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. currently allocated in TRXi N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj It defines for each EGPRS TRX capability (MCSi) in the cell the number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability (MCSj). Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 172 . Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi / Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj with Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that can be achieved at RLC/MAC per PDCH using MCSx encoding EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 172 Following internal variables are defined: N_TRX_EGPRS : number of TRXs on which EGPRS MSs are served in EGPRS mode MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current(TRXi) : maximum number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.

GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 173 All the values between MCS2 and MCS9 are possible because of the O&M parameter Max_EGPRS_MCS Different used thresholds : EGPRS TRX capability (MCSi) MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 Immediately lower TRX capability (MCSj) MCS2 MCS2 MCS2 MCS5 MCS2 MCS6 MCS5 MCS2 MCS6 MCS5 MCS2 MCS8 MCS6 MCS5 MCS2 N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 2 5 EVOLIUM BSS . This value depends on the throughput gap between 2 consecutive TRXs inside the ordered (according to TRX Rank) list of EGPRS capable TRXs.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont. N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj = Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi DIV Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that can be achieved at RLC/MAC per PDCH using MCSx encoding.] Radio Network Planning .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. the number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability. All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 173 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj are internal parameters which define for each EGPRS TRX capability. in the cell.

19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 174 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 174 Example Assuming that in a cell the following TRXs are EGPRS capable: TRXa: EGPRS capability = MCS9 TRXb: EGPRS capability = MCS5 TRXc: EGPRS capability = MCS5 TRXd: EGPRS capability = MCS2 TRXe: EGPRS capability = MCS2 Two thresholds are used : N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 = 2 N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 = 2 EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning .

] Radio Network Planning . c. TRXc MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ OR MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ TRXa. TRXc. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 175 . TRXd. TRXb. b.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 175 CELL START MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXi) = 0 (with i = a.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. TRXb.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont. d or e ) MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 TRXa MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa) = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ OR MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ AND MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ TRXa. TRXe EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

20 Radio Resource Allocation: GPRS/EGPRS TBFs Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. If it is not a T3 reallocation TRXs for which have already enough GCHs established on the M-EGCH link A. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 176 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. EVOLIUM BSS . IMPORTANCE Lowest number of PDCHs in the “EGPRS” state Highest available throughput in the direction of the bias Highest available throughput in the direction opposite to the bias TRX with the highest priority For EGPRS Best Effort TBFs establishments TBFs in the direction of the bias Lowest number of GPRS B.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 176 !!! New in B9 !!! HIGH α. LOW F. D. E. C. Combination with the PDCHs that have the lowest index.

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 177 .20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont. because of GPRS TBFs LOW IMPORTANCE EVOLIUM BSS . in order to avoid to establish EGPRS TBFs on low class TRXs.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 177 HIGH E) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred It is preferred to multiplex an EGPRS TBF with a GPRS TBF. rather than with another EGPRS TBF F) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction opposite to the bias are preferred G) The candidate timeslot allocations which are on a TRX with highest priority are preferred H) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number of established GPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred H has a lowest priority than G.

20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 178 .GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 178 HIGH I) The candidate timeslot allocations which have all their PDCHs established are preferred.] Radio Network Planning . If all the preferred best candidate timeslot allocations require additional PDCHs. then a request is sent to the BSC and the algorithm is stopped J) If the MS has already one or 2 TBFs established.3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. preference is given to the candidate timeslot allocation which does not require a T2 reallocation of the on-going TBFs K) The candidate timeslot allocation with the PDCHs that have the lowest index is preferred LOW IMPORTANCE EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation Radio Network Planning . if it is possible. but extended possibilities EVOLIUM BSS . . to any TBF in the cell. All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 179 .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 T2 : It is the case in the following scenarios: .similar situation in case of uplink TBF establishment concurrent to a downlink TBF.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 179 B8/B9 release: 4 types of TBF reallocations: T1: re-allocation to maintain a TBF alive despite a pre-emption on a PACCH of a TBF or if MEGCH becomes too low to provide MAX MCS of the TBF [B9] T2: re-allocation of an on-going TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF in order to provide a better throughput T3: re-allocation to offer a better throughput to an on-going TBFs In order to provide a higher throughput. concurrent to an existing uplink TBF. which is allocated in such a way that the maximum number of timeslots supported in the direction of the bias cannot be offered to the MS.establishment of a downlink TBF. T4: re-allocation condition to move UL GPRS TBF sharing one PDCH with a DL EGPRS TBF PDCHs which do not carry a DL EGPRS TBF B9 : Same types as in B8.

Nb_TS_MPDCH . B8/B9 release: Min_PDCH takes into account: The pre-allocated SPDCH but not established (w/o GCH resource) The SPDCH pre-allocated and established for the “fast initial (E)GPRS access” The MPDCH represented by the parameter Nb_TS_MPDCH Thus.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH Radio Network Planning . the initial allocation process takes into consideration: IF EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 0 (false) MIN_PDCH .1 SPDCH are requested to the BSC and preallocated on the TRX with the highest priority EVOLIUM BSS .3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 180 Min_PDCH: O&M parameter per cell Minimum number of PDCHs that are always allocated to the MFS. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 180 .Nb_TS_MPDCH SPDCH are requested to the BSC and pre-allocated on the TRX with the highest priority IF EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 1 (true) MIN_PDCH .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 3. Default 0 EVOLIUM BSS . usable for UL GPRS and UL EGPRS TBFs.GPRS and EGPRS 1 — 1 — 181 Also called : “Immediate UL TBF establishment” To provide always one established PDCH. parameter per cell flag to indicate whether or not one Slave PDCH for (E)GPRS traffic usage will be statically established in the cell Min: 0. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 181 . Max: 1. even if there is no PS traffic at all A TBF can be immediately established without requesting transmission resource connection to the BSC EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 182 4 General (E)GPRS planning principels EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 182 .Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

CS2 wont provide the same tput (due to lost packets and retransmissions.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Neighbor cell… not really.4 General (E)GPRS planning principles 4. depending on netwpork planning) All Rights Reserved © 2007. the C/I values are valid for TU3.8 8 7. Depending on C/I.2 Note: the throughput values are ETSI requirements.8) For instance MCS9 can vary from 45 59 kbps If performing a planning with C/I > 12db : only MS with good C/I will get enough C/I to have max tput.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 183 Level of serving cell Level (dBm) C/I = 13 dB C/I = 9 dB Level of interfer cell CS-2 CS-1 Distance RL/MAC net Data Throughput 12 (kbit/s) 10. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 183 . it is a cell using identical interfering frequencies.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level) Radio Network Planning . SFH enabled EVOLIUM BSS . the useful tput decreases down to 10. It is possible to link the C/I and RXLEV to simplify analysis (rxlev = f(C/I).

4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.2 Packet data throughput
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

184

Packet data throughput (ETSI)
Maximum (error free transmission) on Air Interface at BLER=10% Degradation of RLC by Level and Interference

System Scheme Max RLC data throughput (RLC payload) [kbps]

RLC data throughput at Reference Point (BLER=10%) [kbps] 53.3 49.0 40.3 26.7 20.2 15.9 13.3 10.1 7.9 18.0 13.0 10.8 7.2

EGPRS

MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 CS-4 CS-3 CS-2 CS-1

59.2 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 8.8 20.0 14.4 12.0 8.0

GPRS

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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p.52 and p.64 of 3GPP 45.005 Type of channel PDTCH/MCS-5 PDTCH/MCS-6 PDTCH/MCS-7 PDTCH/MCS-8 PDTCH/MCS-9 Propagation conditions TU3(no FH) dB dB dB dB dB TU3(ideal FH) 18 20 23.5 28.5 30 TU50(no FH) 14.5 17 23.5 29 32 TU50(ideal FH) RA250(no FH) 15.5 18 24 30 33 14.5 17.5 24.5 30 35 16 21 26.5** * *

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 184

4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.3 Reference performance point
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

185

ETSI -> Simulation of coding scheme performance under different environment and fading conditions
typical urban environment with mobile speed of 3 km/h (TU3) typical urban environment with mobile speed of 50 km/h (TU50) typical hilly terrain with mobile speed of 100 km/h (HT100) typical rural area with mobile speed of 250 km/h (RA250)

The impact of Level and interference has been studied in order to find the minimum required Level and C/I ratio for the reference error performance, defined by a block error rate Block Error Rate (BLER) of 10%, the reference performance point Why is this important?
Saturation effect

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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For data, most users are static (TU3) Japanese/Korean behaviour : they use data while in subways and trains. Appearing in France due to tv online.

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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.4 Saturation effect
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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kbit/s 20 16 12

The reference performance point is reached at BLER=10% The following data rates can be achieved at this point: CS-1: C/I=9 dB =>7.2 kbit/s (saturation: 8 kbit/s) CS-2: C/I=13 dB =>10.8 kbit/s (saturation: 12 kbit/s)

CS1 CS2

8 4 0 3dB C/I 7dB 11dB 15dB 19dB 23dB 27dB

Throughput curve as required by ETSI for CS-1and CS-2, typical urban environment with MS speed 3 km/h TU3 with SFH
EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning
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4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.4 Saturation effect [cont.]
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187

By increase of the C/I ratio Less retransmission has to be performed (less data blocks are erroneous)
since saturation occurs. e.g. for CS-1 starting with 7.2 kbit/s at a C/I ratio of 9dB With an increasing C/I ratio the data throughput increases only little up to its maximum value of 8kbit/s (saturation point)

Data throughput increases Due to this saturation effect, a further increase of the C/I ratio does not have large impact on the data throughput of a single coding scheme: possibly a switch to a higher CS may occur (C/I ~ 7 dB for CS-1 to CS-2) Reference Performance Point : A tradeoff between the maximisation of the network throughput and excessive C/I constraints.

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 187

4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.5 Cell area and throughput
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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Level of serving cell Level (dBm)
C/I = 13 dB C/I = 9 dB

Level of neighbor-cell Distance

CS-2 CS-1

RL/MAC net Data Throughput (kbit/s)

12 10.8 8 7.2

1. Throughput at CS-2 saturation point 2. Throughput at CS-2 reference performance point

4. Throughput at CS-1 reference performance point 3. Throughput at CS-1 saturation point

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 188

4 General (E)GPRS planning principles

4.6 Throughput <-> C/I
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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ETSI requirements and Alcatel values for C/Ico and C/Iadj for CS and GPRS (PDCH) GSM 900 (Requirement for GMSK modulation: C/Iadj = C/Ico – 18dB)
In general: With higher coding scheme, higher C/I ratios required GPRS functionality more ‘sensitive’ against interference
Packet switched GSM 900 Circuit switched TU3 C/I cochannel ETSI C/I adjchannel ETSI C/I cochannel Alcatel C/I adjchannel Alcatel CS1 TU3 ideal FH 9 TU50 TU50 ideal FH 9 TU3 TU3 ideal FH 13 CS2 TU50 TU50 ideal FH 13

9

13

10

15

14

-9

-5

-9

-8

-9

-3

-5

-4

-5

11.5

6.7

7.5

6.5

13.1

10.3

11.1

10.8

-9

-13

-12

-13

-6

-8.8

-8.2

-9

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007

Ideal FH : hopping on 4 or more frequencies with at least 800kHz separation between each channel offers the "ideal FH" diversity gain (4 to 5 dB)

All Rights Reserved © 2007, Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 189

4 General (E)GPRS planning principles 4. which CS to choose? How would the curve looks like if TU3 was used ? (C/I scale would be squeezed) All Rights Reserved © 2007. CS adaptation gives flexibility in case of radio conditions changes. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 190 13−Jul−2000 09:45:44 Throughput → Parameters : GPRS C/I Throughput Co-channel Interferer TU 50 no FH 20 18 16 14 CS−4 CS−3 CS−2 CS−1 . At start of a session.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 190 TU50 (900 MHz) no fh 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 −5 0 5 10 15 C / I c o [dB] → 20 25 30 EVOLIUM BSS . For each C/I.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 CS4 can't resist to interference. even with high C/I. a typical tput can be expected.] Radio Network Planning .6 Throughput <-> C/I [cont. it doesn't reach the saturation point. Expect high retransmission % when using CS4.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 191 5 (E)GPRS Network introduction EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 191 .Radio Network Planning .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 192 .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. designed for speech service only Introduction of GPRS in operating GSM cells GPRS performance is strongly depending on GSM network quality Cell ranges are depending from GSM service planning EVOLIUM BSS .1 GPRS network planning Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 192 Two different cases are possible to introduce GPRS service: GPRS Greenfield planning means Dedicated analysis of GPRS network design All GPRS cells will be designed for maximum throughput performances So the (GPRS) cell ranges could be smaller as used to be in a pure GSM network.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 193 .2 GPRS Greenfield planning Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Objectives Traffic Analysis • PS Traffic • User Profile • Market applications • Customer questionnaire • Traffic model: Example • GPRS traffic calculation .Erlang C .Traffic tool .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.Straight forward .Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 193 • • • • • • Traffic Analysis Field strength prediction Mutual interference calculation GSM/GPRS frequency planning Cell specific interference calculation TRX assignment to GPRS service GPRS Throughput Analysis RA Planning + CAE Data Measures to reach GPRS QoS GPRS features GSM features EVOLIUM BSS .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 194 Traffic Analysis PS Traffic User Profile User Behavior Market applications Customer questionnaire Traffic model: Example GPRS traffic calculation Straight forward Erlang C Traffic tool Different traffic calculation procedure for packet traffic compared to speech traffic calculation EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 194 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS traffic calculation Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 195 The traffic analysis is done to have the amount of resources (frequencies) one needs to carry GSM+GPRS traffic CS traffic demand (Circuit Switched.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis Radio Network Planning . derived from Erlang B formula) PS (Packet Switched) traffic demand has also to be taken into account for the capacity calculation What is PS or GPRS traffic? EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 195 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.

Today all PS traffic values are based on assumptions until useful experience values are available The traffic values are collected in a traffic model In general.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 196 The PS traffic demand (or user throughput demand) is derived from an average traffic data volume generated by each type of GPRS subscriber GPRS traffic volume is given on a monthly basis as sum of used applications data volume. the traffic from PS services is depending on: User profile User behavior Market applications and service distributions EVOLIUM BSS .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 User profile : what kind of applications ? which volumes ? User behaviour : what time ? how long ? where ? Market applications : what is proposed to customers : video on demand ? Live tv ? Mmp games ? All Rights Reserved © 2007.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 196 .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 197 .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 197 U s e r p ro file U s e r b e h a v io r C u s to m e r Q u e s tio n n a ire M a rk e t a p p lic a tio n s a n d s e rv ic e d istrib u tio n s T ra ffic m o d e l T ra ffic c a lc u la tio n EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile Radio Network Planning . two profiles can be introduced. business and private user EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. e. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 198 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 198 A user profile defines a typical user for packet data services.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. using a certain amount of applications It is useful to limit the amount of user profiles to keep the calculation simple.g.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 199 Market applications Different services are possible for packet data use e.g. class 11 and 12 are coming (up to 4 TS in uplink. new designed services or services known from the fixed network Market applications and user profiles are related to each other. news Hourly : road traffic. audio downloading etc. in some others to uplink. Current Ms use 2ts in uplink. the data exchange traffic is oriented to downlink. In some applications. All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 199 . Create problem for dimesionning ? No. Generally the downlink traffic is preponderant in asymmetrical applications such as: web browsing. They create equal traffic in both ways. because MMS are uploaded and then downloaded.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Difference between prepaid and postpaid ? Daily services : weather forecast.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. EVOLIUM BSS . ftp upload.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications Radio Network Planning . market shares Uplink bias applications : MMS. information downloading. This shall be taken into account for the dimensioning process: so the dimensioning will be downlink oriented. thus some applications are assigned to one user profile only Each service is characterized by its occurrence: action time per month and the related bit rate per action. but still simplex.

Gn (sgsn-ggsn) Special tools : astelia All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 200 . etc…) Which interface : Gb (mfs-sgsn) . assumption busy hour is same for CS and PS The user distribution over the planning area Following definitions can be only expected values for the introduction of GPRS (homogeneous traffic distribution over the cell area is assumed) GPRS subscriber percentage (%). APN usage. gprs attach.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Core network : can provide statistics per user (pdp context activation.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 200 Important for the user behavior is the daily distribution Duration and occurrence time of busy hour (BH). related to the total (CS+PD) subscriber number GPRS user profiles percentage (%). related to the total GPRS subscriber number Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to morphostructure Daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month) EVOLIUM BSS .7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior Radio Network Planning .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.

Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub) 4.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 201 . Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 This questions are asked to the operator Speech traffic : from 10mErl to 25 mErl (depends on network age and area covered) 6. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes 5. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers) 2.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 201 Customer questionnaire Data collection from Operator -> Forecast data To keep process simple -> 12 Points questionnaire 1.8 Customer questionnaire Radio Network Planning . Blocking at air interface (speech) 3. split of different types of traffic All Rights Reserved © 2007. Busy hour mix (BHM) : at busy hour. Percentage of GPRS subscribers related to the total amount of GSM subscribers 6.

PS user behaviour/distribution: daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month) GPRS user profiles percentage (%).8 Customer questionnaire [cont.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. Number of BTS in the existing network 11. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 202 . Number of TRX/BTS. Market applications definition and relation to user profiles 9.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 202 7.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. in accordance to morphoclass EVOLIUM BSS . Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses 12. related to the total GPRS subscriber number geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to morphostructure 10. User profile definition 8.

50% private rural = 30% business.0878 10 100 0.) E-mail+Attachment 203 The table summarizes the assumptions made for the traffic profiles of GPRS subscribers (days/month): business 22 days.586 8.441 25 60 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— User Profile Market Application Remote access (e. event. WEB data bases general and specific (law.g. medicine.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Min/Month Kbytes/Min Mbytes/Month Mbytes/Month All Rights Reserved © 2007.516 25 100 2. private 30 Total GPRS Users 7%: 2% private and 5 % business urban = 70% business.g. Location.g.17 2 75 0. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 203 .380 WWW Pages/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month Information (e..124 3 30 0.464 8 75 0. (Access audio files on the net) TOTAL EVOLIUM BSS .9 Traffic Model (Example) Radio Network Planning .146 1024 2.977 20 60 1. ..g. 50% private Business Private during GPRS ntroduction Update/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month mail/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month 6 20 0. On-line shopping) info/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month usage/Month Kbytes Mbytes/Month Audio (MP3) e. transportation services) e-Commerce (e.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.117 24 150 3.

Behavior in GPRS -> Packet switched service for different users on one timeslot.10 User mapping Radio Network Planning . never take maximum usage as an average value! User mapping should be quite low. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 204 .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 204 User mapping and Multi-service mapping GOAL : to categorize the quality of the three calculation methods User mapping One certain resource can be shared simultaneously by different users.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 In dimensionning. in order to allow a high throughput but requires higher capacity All Rights Reserved © 2007. User User 3 User 2 User 1 Timeslot 1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TRX TS 6 TS 7 TS 8 EVOLIUM BSS .

H T T P e .11 Multi-Service Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Typical http "surfing" usage : 10kB/s (average on 1 hour) All Rights Reserved © 2007. W A P U ser EVOLIUM BSS .g .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.g .g . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 205 . F T P S e r v ic e 1 S e r v ic e 3 e . So one user is not directly mapped to only one service in the traffic model examination S e r v ic e 2 e .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 205 Multi-Service with GPRS One user can use different services.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 206 QoS per User Application Volume@BH Page size Queue Delay Acceptable delay if no resource is available at service attempt Quantile Specific elements in the range of a variety X are called quantiles Bit rate EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Queue delay : how long a user can wait before disconnecting ? Usually for data. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 206 . Quantile : percentage of throughputs measures that are within a certain range (to check) DEVIATION !! STANDARD All Rights Reserved © 2007.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.12 QoS per User Application Radio Network Planning . user can wait up to 30s.

13 GPRS traffic calculation Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 207 3 different calculations can be used for GPRS traffic calculation Straight forward Erlang C Traffic tool User mapping Straight Forward result for PS Erlang C for PS Traffic Model QoS per service _ Multi-service mapping _ _ + + + All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 + + + EVOLIUM BSS .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 207 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © 2007.

which is the benefit of packet transfer (GPRS).GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 208 The straightforward calculation gives the smallest number of needed PS TS among the traffic calculation methods It calculates for the whole data volume.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont. EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 208 . A calculation method to get in the first step of GPRS planning an idea of minimum needed PDCH TS. sum of all users data.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. So no service attempt queuing and no service multiplexing is taken into account by this method.] Radio Network Planning . regardless of data transfer peaks This method is not taking into account parallel data transfer. the number of PDCH TS needed to transfer this data volume.

13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont. 2 s delay can be set if no resource is available at service attempt).GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 209 Erlang C calculation gives for a required service attempt probability (Quantile) and the queue delay time of it (e. This method can be used to give very fast a planning result on how many PDCH as maximum can be expected. the number of needed resources (TS). The reason is that a constant data flow is considered which is not the case for different applications like WAP For all different services the PDCH TS with Erlang C has to be calculated and summarized. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 209 . The result of Erlang C will give the biggest number of needed PDCH TS among the presented packet traffic calculations.g.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Afterwards the sum of PDCH TS for the different services leads to an over dimensioning.] Radio Network Planning . EVOLIUM BSS .

] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 210 Traffic Model from Alcatel The traffic tool is the most exact method to calculate the needed PDCH compared to the above calculation methods Traffic tool is an automated tool (processed by Alcatel-Lucent only) Result of this calculation will be most probably between the above calculation methods Additionally operator agreed/suggested handling of GPRS channels must be fixed. This is for example the usage of: Activation of MPDCH or not BCCH combined mode or not Usage of Delayed DL TBF Release or not QUALITY OF SERVICES [Volume @BH.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. Page size (KBytes). Quantile (%).13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 210 . Bit rate (kbit/s)] EVOLIUM BSS . Queue delay (seconds).

13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 211 .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 211 Traffic Model from Alcatel The traffic tool can calculate the result: TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL TS needed PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL TRX calculation for CS and PS with application of reuse of CS TS for PDCH (PS) when dynamic/smooth PDCH adaptation and /or fast preemption feature is activated EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 212 General Input data for all 3 calculation methods GPRS users (Packet Switched Service)=600 per cell WAP users: 60 WEB users: 180 MMS users: 360 Service data size per user in busy hour (per 3600s) WAP data size per user 12KB WEB data size per user 40KB MMS data size per user 40KB Coding Scheme : CS-2 EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 212 .

14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 But assumption is : all users can bare to wait for 3600 sec to finish their download… All Rights Reserved © 2007.6 kbps / 10 kbps) EVOLIUM BSS .6 kbit/s Expected transfer rate per Timeslot (PDCH)= 10 kbit/s in good radio conditions Total needed PDCH = 5 PDCH TS / cell (= 49. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 213 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 213 Straight Forward calculation for GPRS Traffic Needed transfer rate per service for all users WAP WEB MMS 12KB x 8bit/3600s x 60 users 40KB x 8bit/3600s x 180 users 40KB x 8bit/3600s x 360 users = 1.6 kbit/s = 16 kbit/s = 32 kbit/s Total number of needed PDCH's Sum of data rate for all services: 49.5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 214 .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5. WEB and MMS EVOLIUM BSS .14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.] Radio Network Planning . The results are listed for each service in this example here for WAP.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 214 Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation QoS per service WAP service: bit rate = 5 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay WEB service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay MMS service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay Number of needed PDCH per service The following results calculation can be done with an Erlang C tool.

0 6 6 7 RO = 2 s 1 .0 % 30 Subscribers PDCH = Quantile 40 1 PDCH = 2 ← 180 ↓ 0 . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 215 Bit rate Bit rate .5 3 3 3 RO = 2 s 1 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 215 Page size (Kbytes) Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation WAP WEB Volume@BH MMS Volume@BH ERLANG C Queue delay (s) Subscribers Quantile 4 0R L A N G 2 E C Page size (Kbytes) Queue delay (s) 2 ← 360 ↓ 1 .14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.0 % 30 Total number of needed PDCH = 10 PDCH TS Assumption: Expected rate per TS of 10 kbit/s For the WAP service 1 resource of 5 kbit/s is needed = 1 PDCH TS For the WEB service 1 resource of 30 kbit/s is needed = 3 PDCH TS For the MMS service 2 resources of 30 kbit/s is needed = 6 PDCH TS EVOLIUM BSS .8 7 5 0 MU = 9 0 .] Radio Network Planning .8 7 5 0 MU = 9 0 .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.

5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont. DL Delayed TBF Release and MPDCH Call Mix Reference used is: Alcatel B7 reference EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 216 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 216 TRAFFIC TOOL version 1.0 Results of the traffic tool is: 6 PDCH TS / cell needed to cope with GPRS traffic per cell Used settings in the traffic tool: No activation of: Combined mode.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 217 General GPRS traffic calculation result: Needed amount of timeslots for PS traffic makes it possible to go to the next step of GPRS network design process The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence (user capacity) EVOLIUM BSS .5 (E)GPRS Network introduction 5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 217 .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 218 .Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 218 6 (E)GPRS Network design EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 219 .1 General Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 219 With the input from GPRS traffic calculation the GPRS Design process can start: Basis: The knowledge of the amount of timeslots makes it possible to go to the next step of GPRS network design process The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence (user capacity) and in combination with the CS traffic demand. the needed equipment amount is calculated: Number of timeslots which may be reserved for GPRS in normal and high load state of the BSC Number of timeslots which have to be reserved exclusively for GPRS Number of remaining timeslots for CS traffic => Standard BTS configuration EVOLIUM BSS .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

The traffic areas are most commonly linked to a specific morpho class Next steps: 1.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 220 .] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 220 Standard BTS configuration The result of traffic analysis gives the standard BTS configuration for the different traffic areas. Inputs for mutual interference calculation [A9155] Inputs for a GSM/GPRS frequency planning [A9155/AFP module] EVOLIUM BSS . 3. GPRS Field strength prediction is done as for the GSM network planning [A9155] 2.1 General [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 221 .] Radio Network Planning . The cell specific interference calculation will be used to identify less interfered frequencies for TRX assignment.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.1 General [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 221 Cell specific interference calculation It is done with the results of the GSM/GPRS frequency planning. EVOLIUM BSS .

Needs an higher C/I to ensure better tput. electrical down tilt site lowering site densification network expansion/enhancement strategies (like Dual Band) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 222 Mostly all GPRS networks will be INTERFERENCE limited Therefore: Proper Frequency Re-use Introduction of Frequency hopping [FH doesn't bring better throughput in GPRS and E-GPRS while using high CS & MCS] What is the best Carrier for GPRS . yes.2 Frequency planning Radio Network Planning .BCCH or TCH? Make use of improvement strategies site design changes e. All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 222 . Redo a frequency planning with greater constraints on C/I Best carrier = the carrier with the less interference BCCH ? Normally.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6. antenna changes.g.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Interference limited = C/I limited.

2 Frequency planning [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning . PC (Power Control) or FH (Frequency Hopping) C/I of minimum 11.5 dB is recommended (Alcatel values) Disadvantage: only 6 TS available for GPRS TCH Hopping. (PC) all 8 TS available for GPRS Disadvantage: by hopping -> Interference is RF_load dependent the increase of RF_load implies a decrease of C/I and therefore of the throughput EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 223 .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 223 BCCH no DTX.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. the shape of a cell is related to the throughput GPRS cells are designed in respect to the desired data transmission (throughput) behavior of the customers in the planned area Attention: GPRS service more sensitive against interference and level than CS service Therefore GPRS designed cells are smaller than CS designed ones EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 224 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 224 Throughput -> directly related to link quality and level Due to this dependency.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.3 Throughput Radio Network Planning .

the link budget calculation is the same like for CS design Attention has to be paid to the hardware related values: BTS/MS performance -> Supplier dependent BTS output power & receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme MS output power & receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme EVOLIUM BSS .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 225 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 225 In general.4 Link budget Radio Network Planning .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 226 . depending of the frequency re-use).GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 226 Some differences compared to the well-known power budget is the handling of some losses and margins: body loss. from the propagation point of view unfavorable position (e. due to the high dependency of the PS service on C/I (lognormal) fading margin can be added to increase the coverage probability from 50% up to 95%.] Radio Network Planning .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.4 Link budget [cont. that for the most PS applications the MS is not close to the body . due to the fact.g. but on an other. e.65 sigma ~11 dB EVOLIUM BSS . on the table) interference margin: minimum 3 dB (urban and dense urban area up to 5 dB.g. assuming standard deviation sigma = 7 dB =>fading margin:1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. for PS: 2 dB.

in comparison to a CS link budget Balance Max.00 dBm Downlink 151.00 dBm 0.00 dB 3.00 dBm Downlink 152.00 dBm Uplink -105.43 dBm Downlink -102.00 dBm 0.0 dB -126. Power: GPRS link budget example.44 dBm 5.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dBm 2.00 dBi 0.00 dBm 2. Isotr.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.43 dBm Downlink -102.00 dB 18.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.4 Link budget [cont.43 dB CS2 (TU 50) Uplink 33.00 dBm Uplink 155 dB Downlink 45.00 dB 3.Comb.00 dBm 0.0 dB -96. 5dB alcatel standard Uplink Rx sensitivity depends on CS being used.39 dBm 3.00 dBm 3.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.00 dBm 0.00 dBm 0.00 dB 18.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Path loss difference = 3dB standard.00 dB 0.00 dBi 30. Power: RX Rec.00 dB 0.44 dBm 5.00 dB 3.00 dBi 55. Sensitivity: Body Loss: Cables. p. Rad.Connectors Loss: Body Loss: Antenna Gain: Eff. 3x4 configuration.0 dB -93.00 dBm 0.44 dBm 5.00 dB 0.39 dBm 3.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 227 Circuit switched mode TX Uplink 33.39 dBm 3.43 dB EVOLIUM BSS .00 dBm 0.00 dBi 3.43 dB CS1 (TU 50) Uplink 33.00 dBi 31.43 dBm Downlink -98.00 dB 18.00 dB 0.00 dBm 0.00 dBm Uplink 156 dB Downlink 45.00 dB 0..00 dB 0.00 dBm Internal Power: Isol.00 dB 2.00 dBi 31.00 dB 33.00 dB 3.0 dB -120. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 227 .00 dB 2.05dB 40.00 dB 0.0 dB -124.00 dB 0.00 dBi 3.00 dB 3.01 dB 40.00 dB 0. Rec.00 dBi 3.00 dBi 55.00 dBm Downlink 45.00 dBm 0.00 dBi 55.00 dB 0.00 dBi 0.00 dB 3. 1 X-Pol Antenna/sector.00 dB 33.00 dB 33. Connectors Loss: Antenna Gain: Diversity Gain: Interference Margin Fading Margin Isotr.00 dBm Uplink -111. 92 radio network planning aspects All Rights Reserved © 2007.0 dB -97.Filter Loss: Output Power Cable.0 dB 18.00 dB 0.00 dB 0. Path loss Uplink 151 dB Downlink 148.00 dB 18.00 dBi 0.00 dB 0.00 dB 0.00 dB 0.] Radio Network Planning ..00 dB 3.05dB 40. dimensioned for the Evolium BTS (without TRE): Evolium/900.00 dB 18.00 dBm Uplink -109.

5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies Radio Network Planning .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 228 Network wide C/I (BCCH) Legend (dB) > 25 dB > 16 dB > 13 dB > 9 dB < 9 dB EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 228 .

6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 229 Network wide C/I (worst TCH) C/I reduction Legend (dB) > 25 dB > 16 dB > 13 dB > 9 dB < 9 dB EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 229 .

g High Power TRX.FR. non-EGPRS capable TREs (When PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = TRUE. EGPRS capable TREs .FR. this can be any TRX in the cell.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service Radio Network Planning . EGPRS capable TREs .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 How to map TRE with TRX ? PS capable TRXs have to be preferentially mapped (from the best choice to the worst) on: . PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX. Since B7 up to 16 TRX per cell are available for GPRS service. MP.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 230 Some general considerations apply independently from the BSS software release: GPRS/EDGE shall be mapped on the TRX(s) with the best radio quality (lowest interference probability). EVOLIUM BSS . the TRX supporting the BCCH is mapped on the “best” TRE) All Rights Reserved © 2007.DR. So a differentiation of GSM and GPRS TS allocation priority on the TRX must be fixed during planning. EGPRS capable TREs . HP. TRX Classes.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6. MP. Identification of less interfered frequencies and their ranking Assigning the preference for PS traffic handling to the best ranked frequencies (e.FR.DR. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 230 .DR. The allocation priority for GPRS shall be set according to GPRS QoS needs. Full rate capable TRX) with the help of the parameters: TRX_PREF_MARK. HP. non-EGPRS capable TREs . EGPRS capable TREs .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 231 .8 GPRS Analysis Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 231 GPRS ‘coverage’ analysis What area is ‘covered’ with what coding scheme? Area and average throughput distribution Environment definition (Example) TU 50 GSM 900 Band BCCH as GPRS carrier EVOLIUM BSS .

8 GPRS Analysis [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 232 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 232 GPRS analysis Steps: C/I based analysis Coding scheme Throughput Analysis in respect to: Average throughput or/and throughout hot spots EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 233 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 233 GPRS service is C/I limited Improvements for a larger CS-4 coverage -> reduction of the overall interference situation in the network (higher achievable throughput) Network wide Coding Scheme Distribution (C/I based) Legend (CS value) CS 4 CS 3 CS 2 CS 1 EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.] Radio Network Planning .

.20 kbit/s from the 16.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.18 kbit/s C/I ratio is visible 14.13 kbit/s < 7 kbit/s Network wide GPRS Throughput (C/I based) EVOLIUM BSS . until the C/I proportions lead to change to a lower coding scheme By driving through the CS4 area from the center to the border.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 234 The system keeps always the highest coding scheme (and due to this. a stepwise degradation Legend (kbit/s) of the throughput depending 19.] Radio Network Planning . the highest achievable throughput).6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.15 kbit/s 7... Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 234 .8 GPRS Analysis [cont..

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. The signalling effort for paging is now more focused to a smaller area. Since not all cells of a LA are involved in the paging process. in case of a downlink TBF (comparable to a CS MT call). which are smaller than LA. Paging GSM+ paging GPRS additional signalling effort will be produced in the network ETSI introduced Routing Areas (RA). the signalling load for the cells is reduced EVOLIUM BSS . GPRS: the SGSN pages the MS in STANDBY state.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 235 Routing Area (RA) Definition CS case with a mobile terminating call: the MS in idle mode will be paged in all cells belonging to the LA where the MS is assigned. The signalling effort for paging is thus focused to a certain area. the LA.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.9 LA and RA planning Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 235 .

The location of a MS in STANDBY state is known in the SGSN on a RA level. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 236 .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6. if RA COLOUR = -1 : no gprs in the cell Allows the mobile to quickly check if change of RA : ra colour change (because SI3 update frequent) All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 In SI3.9 LA and RA planning [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 236 Routing Area (RA) A Routing Area is a sub-set of one LA and identifies one or several cells in a location area. Each cell in a network is now (additionally to CI and LAC) characterized by: Routing Area Code (RA_code) RA_Colour range 0…255 range 0…7 EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .

9s SI 13 : once in 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Mapping of BCCH data in 3GPP 45. the assignment of the cells belonging to RA has to be done carefully.002 (§6.3) SI3 : twice in 1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 237 .] Radio Network Planning .3.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.9s SI4 : twice in 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 237 Routing Area (RA) RA information is sent to MS on BCCH by RA_Colour (SI 3 and 4) RA_Code (SI 13.9 LA and RA planning [cont.9s All Rights Reserved © 2007. to avoid additional signaling load on the cell (additional to the signaling for the CS traffic too) EVOLIUM BSS .1. less often ) RA_Colour indicates the MS: if GPRS is supported in the cell (if ≠ -1) the fast identification of the RA membership of the serving cell and neighbour cells (what cell belongs to what RA) As a consequence.

Routing area color : shouldn't be the same between two areas that are next to each other All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 238 LA planning in accordance to the common rules for CS planning. on the neighbour list) has to be made for PS services RA planning follows in general the rules of the common LA assignment.3..g.. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 238 .g. LAC+0.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Routing area code can be. no extra adaptation (e.1.2.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.] Radio Network Planning . ie. e. avoid roads with fast moving traffic through RA The RA planning consists of: assignment of each cell to a RA assignment of the RA_Code to each RA assignment of a RA_Colour to each RA EVOLIUM BSS .

] Radio Network Planning . it is not possible to define a RA across a LA border (e..6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 239 The following rules are mandatory: 256 possible RA_Code (0.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. 1 cell from LA1 and 2 cells from LA2) a RA can contain one or several cells one cell can not belong to two RA cells from one BTS can be allocated to different RA the maximum number of RA in a LA is 256 it is possible to reuse the RA_Colour in a LA two adjacent RA in a LA must have different RA_Colour EVOLIUM BSS ..g.255) 8 possible RA_Colour_Code (0.9 LA and RA planning [cont.7) one RA must belong to only one LA. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 239 .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 240 For the dimensioning of the number of RA in a LA.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 240 . of the number of cells belonging to a RA and the number of RA_Codes per LA. function of different network growths Step 1: Network with low GPRS/E-GPRS traffic RA as big as LA =>1 RA_Code (same for each cell) per LA. 1 RA_colour (same for each cell) per LA The first introduction step is based on the assumption.6 (E)GPRS Network design 6. The expense of this implementation is low EVOLIUM BSS .9 LA and RA planning [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. the following steps are proposed. that in the beginning not much PS services is expected.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 241 Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic The LA is split into maximum 8 RA For each RA in a LA one unique RA_Code is assigned A balanced number of cells per RA needs to be acquired. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 241 .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.9 LA and RA planning [cont. however for identified hot spots an unbalanced assignment is possible (smaller RA for hot spots) This step represents a reasonable split of the LA into RA if packet data traffic rises It can also be carried out right from the start to be prepared for the traffic growth The planning effort is medium EVOLIUM BSS .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 242 .] Radio Network Planning .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 242 Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic The LA is split into maximum 8 RA RA 1 RA_C: 0 RA 4 RA_C: 3 RA 7 RA_C: 6 RA 2 RA_C: 1 RA 5 RA_C: 4 RA 8 RA_C: 7 RA 3 RA_C: 2 RA 6 RA_C: 5 EVOLIUM BSS .

adjacencies of RA's with the same RA_Colour have to be avoided EVOLIUM BSS . and a large-scale careful planning is recommended As described before. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 243 .6 (E)GPRS Network design 6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. frequent RA change by cell-reselection is not desired =>thus the RA should be not to small by reusing the RA_Colour. the RA_Colour reuse is necessary.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 243 Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network LA = up to n RA (max 256) If the number of RA in a LA is larger than 9.

6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

244

Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network
LA = up to n RA (max 256)
RA 1 RA_C: 0 RA 4 RA_C: 3 RA 7 RA_C: 6 RA 10 RA_C: 1 RA 2 RA_C: 1 RA 5 RA_C: 4 RA 8 RA_C: 7 RA 11 RA_C: 2 RA 3 RA_C: 2 RA 6 RA_C: 5 RA 9 RA_C: 0 RA 12 RA_C: 3

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.10 Quality of Service
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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GPRS QoS is not an isolated topic It is necessary to use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of :
GPRS QoS the impact of GPRS on GSM QoS
Note: for more information refer to the GPRS QoS follow up expert training

GSM QoS Impact of GSM on GPRS GPRS QoS

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

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Use GSM indicators in order to complete the analysis of GPRS QoS Example :
high number of TBF establishment failures due to radio problems => check with GSM counters if there are interferences (quality HO, interference HO)

Use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of the impact of GPRS traffic on GSM QoS Example :
CCCH load due to GSM and GPRS TCH Erlang TCH Congestion (call establishment and incoming HO)

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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6 (E)GPRS Network design

6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1—1—

247

OMC-R indicator comparison
According to GSM, QoS indicators for the Air interface available for GPRS Indicators based on counters, computed by the MFS, transferred to the OMC-R
GSM Radio interface indi- Call setup cator rate Call drop rate GPRS success TBF establishment success rate TBF normal release rate Abnormal TBF release

Call success rate

Note: To obtain the QoS for GPRS, it is not sufficient to study only the GPRS indicators. There is always an influence of GSM service on GPRS service, e.g. TCH congestion in GSM could be influenced by high CS traffic or the additional high packed data traffic.

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS

1—1—

248

7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS target

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target

7.1 General
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249

GSM QoS and Interference problems if existing shall be fixed, e.g. by
Introduction of Frequency Hopping GSM Power Control (UL)

If the GPRS QoS is still not reached, then
New GPRS features as mentioned in next slides shall be introduced

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning

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then an optimization campaign on parameters has to be started Use of unique values of (GPRS) parameter settings has to be checked Use of latest Alcatel default parameters Optimize parameters for the different GPRS features. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 250 . if implemented in the network TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) from hardware point of view can be considered to increase UL throughput.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 250 If still the GPRS QoS requirement is not fulfilled. see also GPRS power control topic EVOLIUM BSS .1 Optimization campaign on parameters Radio Network Planning .7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

Routing Area Update signaling) Subscriber distribution per service and area Mobility (cell reselection) of users during GPRS transfer EVOLIUM BSS .2 MPDCH Radio Network Planning . Location Area Update signaling) and GPRS (data.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. signaling.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 251 MPDCH and SPDCH Planning The enabling of MPDCH and the decision to allocate them dynamic or static is depending on Traffic capacity the operator has for GSM and GPRS Traffic capacity the operator can reserve directly to GPRS Amount of traffic for GSM (Voice. SMS signaling. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 251 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

Note: MPDCH can be enabled in network mode of operation: NMO I and NMO III.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. cannot access the GPRS service if MPDCH is enabled.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. L o w p r io r ity fo r G P R S o r lo w G P R S tra ffic ? YES NO NO M PDCH S ta tic M P D C H (D y n a m ic M P D C H ) G P R S s ig n a lin g c o n g e stio n YES NO E n a b le s e c o n d a ry M P D C H s d e p e n d in g o n G P R S s ig n a lin g n e e d EVOLIUM BSS . is unclear the MPDCH should be not enabled So it is guaranteed that all GPRS mobiles in the network can access for GPRS service. which do not support MPDCH.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 252 Planning Recommendation on MPDCH Till the penetration rate of GPRS MS. MS.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 252 .2 MPDCH [cont. which support master channel feature.

7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 253 .] Radio Network Planning .2 MPDCH [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 253 Traffic dependent recommendation (with respect to condition for MPDCH): Low GPRS traffic If GPRS traffic is low no Primary Master Channel needs to be activated High GPRS traffic Static Primary Master channel If the available TS are not scarce Operator wants the GPRS MS to perform autonomous cell re-selection based on C31 and C32 criterion Dynamic Primary Master Channel If the CS signaling channels CCCH getting overloaded due to high GPRS traffic and signaling in addition to CS signaling EVOLIUM BSS .

7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Locked PDCH = PDCH's that are required by the BSC to the MFS for CS calls All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 254 . leads to higher GPRS QoS [B7] There are no parameter to control this feature in B9.GPRS and EGPRS !!! New in B9 !!! 1—1— 254 Feature “Smooth/Enhanced PDCH Adaptation” is recommended to be enabled. Soft Pre-emption T1 reallocation of TBF's whose PACCH is supported by a preempted time slot T1 reallocation of TBF's whose MEGCH link becomes too small (basic nibbles are allocated to the CS calls) Fast pre-emption After T_PDCH_Pre-emption = 4s Soft pre-empted PDCH's are released Other "locked" PDCH's are released EVOLIUM BSS .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 255 . On the other hand.0 kbit/s (=12/2) per used timeslot for this MS If operators goal is to maximize the PS throughput then N_MAX_UL/DL_TBF_PDCH = 1 (default value) is recommended EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 255 The strategy of the TBF resource sharing is to use the PDCH resources in a most effective way. the less effective the data flow and the longer the download or upload time is Trade-off between radio resource capacity sharing and optimum data throughput Since GSM speech service users are still to be preferred.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. the more users (different TBFs) share a PDCH.g. the DL bit rate per MS will be 6. that means not to ‘waste’ a PDCH just with one user and therefore to limit the available PS capacity.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. if N_MAX_DL_TBF_PDCH and CS-2 is used. it is recommended to set N_MAX_UL/DL_TBF_PDCH ≠ 1 (e.=2) E.g.4 User multiplexing Radio Network Planning .

5]. Thus the parameter has to be set.. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 256 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. which can be allocated to a single TBF (or MS) Range: [1. depending from the expected load and in combination with N_TBF_PER_S/MPDCH to reflect operator’s strategy on GPRS QoS.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing Radio Network Planning . EVOLIUM BSS . following parameter is used: MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF : Maximum number of PDCHs.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 256 Multislot access is the allocation of more than one PDCH to one MS (multislot access). However to prevent one multislot MS to use too many PDCHs each time it wants to transmit data (detriment of other users).7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. default value: 5 (today’s MS capabilities) Radio Network Planning Impacts A few multi slot mobiles can occupy all resources with the default value of MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF.

the radio resources allocated to a TBF can be changed during TBF lifetime. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 257 . the initial TBF can be “moved” to other PDCHs Trigger T3 (target periodically attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS which has a TBF in the direction of the bias with less PDCHs than it can support according to its multislot class): • take benefit of PDCH resource usage variations in a cell to reallocate the resources granted to a Mobile Station.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 257 With the feature TBF reallocation. Radio Network Planning Impacts EN_RES_REALLOCATION is enabling / disabling the Radio Resource reallocation feature per trigger and per BSS All event triggers for TBF resource reallocation shall be considered: Trigger Trigger Trigger Trigger T1 T2 T3 T4 (new in B8 for EGPRS purposes) !!! B9 : this feature is always activated !!! Not changeable ! EVOLIUM BSS . which increases successful and efficient TS allocation (according to multislot capability) during ongoing data transfer for PS case.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Trigger T1 (target maintain a TBF alive when its PACCH is fast preempted): • Reallocate all impacted TBFs using the pre-empted PDCHs instead of releasing them using the Packet TBF Release procedure Trigger T2 (target attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS upon concurrent TBF establishment): • get rid of the concurrence constraints imposed by the multislot class of the MS and an existing TBF to offer the best throughput.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation Radio Network Planning . in case those resources were not using the full multislot class capabilities of the MS • to offer the best throughput in the direction of the bias and even adapt to bias changes in the course of a packet transfer • Parameters for trigger T3 : .T_CANDIDATE_TBF_REALLOC: Timer value controlling the time duration between successive resource reallocation attempts for candidate MSs with the trigger T3 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

whilst using them would have improved the TBF throughput EVOLIUM BSS .7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. during establishment and lifetime of TBF Drawback The allocation process is based on the number of PDCHs that the TBF can be mapped on a new resource and not on the throughput the TBF will get on these PDCHs Consequence: in certain cases. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 258 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. according to the available radio.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 258 Advantages The advantage of the feature TBF resource reallocation is to serve a better PDCH allocation to a TBF (throughput can be optimized).6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation [cont. available PDCHs will not be used for TBF reallocation. DSP and CPU resources. transmission.] Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 259 Different quality threshold are introduced since B7 to optimize coding scheme adaptation algorithm Radio Network Planning Impacts Recommendation: Enable Coding scheme adaptation mechanism in GPRS RLC acknowledged. If the network interference is low it allows to start CS-2 usage at the beginning of a TBF: TBF_UL/DL_INIT_CS = CS-2 (default setting = CS-2) TBF_UL/DL_INIT_MCS = MCS-6 (default setting = MCS-3) EVOLIUM BSS .7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation Radio Network Planning . un-acknowledged mode with parameters EN_CS_ADAPTATION_ACK/EN_CS_ADAPTATION_NACK Default parameter setting = enable. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 259 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GMM state and the presence of PBCCH in the serving cell.8 Cell Reselection Radio Network Planning . C32 C1. C2 C1.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. C31. Network Control Order parameter MS GMM State Standby NC0 Ready NC1 Standby NC2 Ready (or RMM Mode = PTM) MS autonomous cell reselection (NC0 mode) C1. C2 Not supported in B8 MS autonomous cell reselection (NC0 mode) Network controlled reselection (NC2 mode) C1. C32 Absence of the PBCCH C1. C2 Independent from the presence of the MPDCH: GPRS cell adjacencies are same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer mode GPRS cell adjacencies are set equal to the GSM cell adjacencies (i. C31.e.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 260 Network control order (NC) parameter defines cell reselection mode. C2 Mode of cell reselection MS autonomous cell reselection (NC0 mode) Presence of the PBCCH C1. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 260 . the BA(GPRS) list = BA(BCCH) list ) EVOLIUM BSS .

] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 261 .7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. C2) Radio Network Planning Impacts Generally optimized GSM/CS parameters for cell reselection shall be kept also for PS cell reselection Default values for the parameters are kept EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 261 Radio Network Planning Impacts Possible to reselect a cell without GPRS service (if in the target cell GPRS is disabled) Recommendation : enable the GPRS service on all cells in order to prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support "NC0" Cell reselection criterion for PBCCH established or not MS triggers GPRS reselection according to GSM reselection criteria (C1.8 Cell Reselection [cont.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 262 Compatibility of GSM and GPRS UL Power control For GPRS rollouts it is recommended to disable the GPRS UL PC by setting: α=0 and ΓTNX=0 The reasons why GPRS UL PC shall be disabled: MS controlled open loop PC is not working reliably (MS software implementation) Field tests show a better throughput performance since the acknowledge message is sent in UL with full power Remark: It is possible to deactivate GPRS UL power control (GCH=0 and a=0) and to let GSM UL power control activated (EN_MS_PC=enabled. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 262 .7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. default).8 GPRS Power Control Radio Network Planning . different power control parameters for GSM and GPRS Increase UL GPRS throughput If TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) is used and UL GPRS PC is disabled on a site than better throughput in UL is expected EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 263 .8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. how often pages are changed and the content of the downloaded http looks like.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 263 3 different features are presented which preemptively delay the TBF release to speed up the setup of subsequent TBF Delayed DL TBF release Fast DL TBF re-establishment Non DRX Mode Their success depends on the users download behavior e. For Web browsing and WAP applications where the PS traffic is bursty. the gain of the features to delay TBF release will be very high The 3 features are complementary and can be activated independently from each other.g. Delays to start download of new LLC PDU depending on feature EVOLIUM BSS .

download of successive WAP pages or HTTP links because there is no need to establish a new TBF during T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL time T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL should be in between of 1.5s up to 2s depending on available resources in the cell. is affected by the TBF hold time and the time between pings So in fact less signaling is needed for e. This LLC PDU is hence discarded by the LLC layer of the MS. The round trip time (RTT) can be shortened by the availability of an already opened TBF. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 264 . If the BSS does not receive any DL LLC PDU during the inactivity period. If new DL LLC PDUs are received for that MS. and prevents defense RLC timers from expiring in the mobile station.1 Delayed DL TBF release Radio Network Planning . WAP and HTTP (clustered web page). All Rights Reserved © 2007.8. the DL LLC PDUs can be sent immediately on the DL TBF. in turn.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 264 This feature should be enabled if there is no lack of resources to achieve higher user application throughput Main beneficiaries will be the applications consecutive pings. it releases the DL TBF through the normal TBF release procedure. This. Sending periodically Dummy UI Commands enables the mobile station to request an UL TBF establishment in a PACKET DL Ack/Nack message if it has data to send. the BSS periodically sends to the MS a DL RLC data block (with a polling request) containing a Dummy UI Command which is a LLC PDU whose checksum is deliberately wrong.82 During the delayed release of the DL TBF.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning Non-DRX mode DL TBF establishment via PCH or PPCH of MS paging group All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 p.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7.g. The higher the TS capacity in a cell is the higher the value of T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL can be tuned T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME T3192 DRX_TIMER_MAX DL TBF EVOLIUM BSS .

] Radio Network Planning . in turn. This. is affect by the TBF hold time. TBF is kept open during delayed downlink time. available USF values are limited EVOLIUM BSS .1 Delayed DL TBF release [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 265 Delayed Downlink TBF release -> Total TBF release time is: T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL_RADIO + T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME (= 1600ms) T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME. Drawback waste of resources. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 265 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. RTT can be shortened by the availability of an already opened TBF. = 800 ms + 700 ms (defaults) = 1500 ms if delayed DL TBF Release is enabled by parameter EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL Advantage no delay to start DL data transfer for new DL LLC PDUs less signaling throughput improved for reason: long RTT. and the time between pings.8.

2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process Radio Network Planning . TAI) Rules T3192 > MS-BSS roundtrip delay + RRBP maximum duration (120 ms) T3192 + T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL + round_trip_delay < 5 sec Default Values T3192 = 1000ms when non-DRX mode is not activated T3192 = 500ms when non-DRX mode is active EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 266 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process After reception of the final block by the MS and after the sending of the last PACKET DL ACK/NACK message.8. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 266 .e.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Relative Reserved Block Period : waiting time before UL emission (=> for PACCH) is allowed (cf. USF mechanism) RRBP : +3RB. a new TBF is established but with the parameters of the old TBF (TFI.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. to send a PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT message on the PACCH) fast DL TBF re-establishment without impacting the (P)CCCH resources. +5RB or +6RB (approx) All Rights Reserved © 2007. the MS still listens on the PACCH during T3192 sec BSS re-establishes a DL TBF on the PACCH of the previous DL TBF (i. i.e. +4RB.

2001. Radio Network Planning Impacts DRX_TIMER_MAX = 2s (Max = 4s) Non-DRX mode possible for 2 seconds If Non-DRX feature possible. This function allows a MS not to monitor all PCCCH blocks. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 267 . Remove 0.8. the default value was set to 0. T_PDA.3 Non-DRX feature Radio Network Planning . WAP). influence on following parameters settings: BS_AG_BLKS_RES.4s. T_GPRS_assign_AGCH T_GPRS_assign_AGCH parameter can be found in the memo MND/TD/SYT/EBR/0342. due to AGCH queuing time. All Rights Reserved © 2007. So real time in non-DRX is 1.7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target 7. BS_PA_MFRMS.6 seconds.7 s The discontinuous (DRX) mode applies when the MS is in packet idle mode.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 In B7. but only blocks defined by its paging group. The MS applies existing GSM DRX procedures if there is no MPDCH. T_PUA. EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 267 Non-DRX feature benefits Continuous monitoring of AGCH messages by the MS The MFS establishes a DL TBF on the first available AGCH block (without MPDCH) or the first PPCH occurrence (with MPDCH) Higher downlink throughput and shorter transfer delay for cell reselection and bursty download application (HTTP.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 268 .Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 268 8 GPRS introduction into operational GSM network EVOLIUM BSS .

1 General Radio Network Planning . mainly GSM QoS and interference. then the implementation of this design should be done before GPRS is implemented EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 269 Following aspects are considered if GPRS is introduced into a mature GSM network without network design changes Different to the approach of GPRS Greenfield planning If the operator foresees design changes due to GPRS QoS requirements than traffic analysis and GPRS network design tasks has to be done before the GPRS introduction step Actual status of the GSM network GSM QoS and Interference All GSM network enhancement features and GSM network problems. shall be fixed before GPRS is implemented New network design/frequency planning If a new network design and frequency planning is developed to improve GSM QoS and interference.8 introduction into operational GSM network 8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 269 .

Check GPRS throughput map RA planning CAE data generation no How to reach GPRS QoS? GPRS QoS reached? Considerable features to reach GPRS QoS target EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 270 yes Tasks before GPRS Introduction GSM QoS and Interference problems? no New Frequency plan foreseen? no Actual GSM capacity enough to cope with GSM and GPRS traffic? yes yes GSM problem fixing Implement Frequency Plan Increase capacity yes GSM QoS and Interference problems no Add new GPRS features if needed Optimize GPRS parameters if needed no GPRS Introduction Introduction of GPRS and related features/settings.8 introduction into operational GSM network 8. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 270 .1 General [cont.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 271 Occurred traffic and handled traffic balance GPRS QoS requirements Operator requirements define the needed GPRS capacity and GPRS QoS per user in relation to specific definitions for user and used service: Volume @BH (Kbytes) Page size (Kbytes) Queue delay (seconds) Quantile (%) Bit rate (kbit/s) Expected GPRS traffic The calculation of expected GPRS traffic has to be done before Following results will be then available: TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL and TS needed for PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL EVOLIUM BSS .8 introduction into operational GSM network 8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 General [cont.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 271 .

] Radio Network Planning . A new frequency planning should be done when a not negligible amount of new frequencies have to be added to a planning area to fulfill (GSM+GPRS) capacity requirements. EVOLIUM BSS . If resources are not enough for GSM and GPRS Additional TRX & frequencies must be allocated to the sites with not enough traffic capacity. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 272 . TRX's & frequencies needed : If resources are enough for GSM and GPRS TRX assignment to GPRS service and the PDCH planning can be done.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 272 Amount of TS.8 introduction into operational GSM network 8.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 General [cont.

see chapter 7 for details on RA planning and CAE data generation.] Radio Network Planning .8 introduction into operational GSM network 8. EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 273 Introduction of GPRS and related features/settings The prerequisites for a GPRS analysis are following tasks Field strength prediction Interference analysis If new sites after GPRS analysis are required to fulfill operators GPRS requirements. Routing area. a new frequency planning with a certain frequency band range planning has to be done. CAE data The routing area (RA) planning is a must for GPRS introduction into GSM network.1 General [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 273 .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. What kind of tasks and references can be done to increase GPRS QoS ? As seen earlier : Dedicated TRX for GPRS in a cell can be done if TRX number in the cell is ≥2 Introduction of GPRS Master channels (MPDCH to separate GPRS and GSM signaling Open question: Penetration rate of GPRS MS which can decode MPDCH The parameters for PDCH dynamic allocation (and TBF resource management) depends on GPRS QoS requirements : Weaker GPRS requirements value of MAX_PDCH more TS for GSM can be reserved with a low For GSM tasks see next slides EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 274 GPRS QoS increasing tasks to be done are depending on dimensions of QoS requirements.1 General [cont.8 introduction into operational GSM network 8. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 274 .] Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 275 9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 275 .Radio Network Planning .

The overall gain of CS1 . Thus CS4 will perform less good and will be used more seldom.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. similar it is valid for GPRS. bad calls will get better.9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9. which are more seldom in a hopping network. CS adaptation parameters can be tuned more optimistic in respect to throughput and Coding Scheme if FH is used: CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_FH_Z > CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_NFH_Z EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 276 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 276 The dependency between FH usage and Coding scheme distribution and the consequences on CS1-CS3 and CS 4 Generally Frequency Hopping (FH) leads to Interference averaging. Thus calls having good quality will get worse. CS1 is used in bad conditions. This is valid for GSM. CS4 is used in very good conditions. thus it will be improved if FH is introduced.1 Frequency Hopping Radio Network Planning .CS3 will depend on the C/I situation before and after FH.

frequencies Make smaller cell sizes (e.1 Frequency Hopping [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 277 GPRS load and GPRS performance GSM + GPRS load increases Higher probability for interference Because GPRS performance is mainly based on C/I it will reduce the performance. Radio Network Planning Impacts To reduce the load in the network/cell following GSM activities can be started: Adding more resources.] Radio Network Planning .9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9. achieved by stronger tilt) Do proper cell planning EVOLIUM BSS .g. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 277 .

thus better C/I value and higher throughput can be expected (especially for E-GPRS with higher C/I requirements than GPRS s). Step: GPRS traffic is low => introduction of GPRS for macro and µ-cell together Disadvantages in both layers : Emergency capacity on macro cell layer reduced Higher blocking probability on µ-cell layer for CS traffic Solution: Reduction of the maximum GPRS capacity of the µ-cell to 30-50% by parameters setting Tuning of the GPRS user access handling (TBF and PDCH share) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Following two steps is proposed for GPRS implementation 1.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 278 The main advantage of a µ-cell environment may be a better frequency re-use possibility. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 278 .2 µ-cell Radio Network Planning .9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9.

] Radio Network Planning . µ-cell and macro cell densification. 20% is dynamic (driving) The strategy is also valid for a different assumption. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 279 . !!! Activate Outgoing Redirection from MICRO !!! EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(Umbrella) = Disable EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(Micro) = Enable NC_DL_RXLEV_THR(Micro) = -47 dBm NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE(Umbrella) = at the expiry of the GMM Ready timer EVOLIUM BSS .2 µ-cell [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 279 Step 2: Increasing GPRS traffic => network densification Measures: − − Hardware : TRX upgrade. but this assumption is more probable. site design Parameter: GPRS capacity and user access handling tuning Basis: OMC-R Load measurements and GPRS customer behavior (location) Assumption: 80% of packet data traffic is static.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 280 The consequence for the PDCH configuration will be explained related to Alcatel’s dual band approaches.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9. Reminder: there are no HO in GPRS for PS services supported MS classes to be checked Two Approaches Multiband BSS approach Multiband cell approach EVOLIUM BSS .3 Dual Band Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 280 .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 281 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 281 Multiband BSS approach A dedicated BCCH for each cell/frequency band Class B and C MS’s can make interband cell reselection during data transmission if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for circuit mode the same priority is obtained for packet mode thus GPRS can not be kept in 900 MHz layer.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9.3 Dual Band [cont. if GSM MS is sent to 1800 MHz layer therefore PS functionality should be configured in both bands EVOLIUM BSS .] Radio Network Planning .

class B and C MS’s will always be served by the outer zone GPRS TRX. The BCCH is configured to the outer zone. the GPRS service cannot be ensured in the inner zone PS functionality in outer zone only No use of C2 to give a higher priority to non-GPRS layer EVOLIUM BSS .9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 282 .3 Dual Band [cont. During PS traffic. The principle is similar to the concentric cell ones. if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for circuit mode the same priority is obtained for packet mode if GSM MS is sent to inner zone in dedicated mode.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 282 Multiband cell approach TRX’s of one band are allocated to the outer zone and the TRX’s of the other band to the inner zone.

the size of the inner zone is dimensioned by proper parameter setting the same recommendation holds: the TRX for PS traffic must be configured in the outer zone of the concentric cell EVOLIUM BSS . nevertheless.4 Concentric cell Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 283 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 283 For the two possible cases: Concentric cells which are disturbing other cells: the inner zone is smaller than the outer zone and keeps the disturbing carriers concentric cells which are disturbed by other cells: the inner zone and outer zone carriers have the same output powers.9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS 9.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 284 10 E-GPRS EVOLIUM BSS .Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 284 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

8 dBm (tolerance –0.1 E-GPRS main differences Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 285 E-GPRS main differences TRX output power RX sensitivity EDGE timeslot 8PSK TX power Reference sensitivity GSM900 GSM1800 15 W or 41.5 dB) -112 dBm (static MCS-1) • 108 dBm (TU50 ideal FH.5 + 0.10 E-GPRS 10.100 dBm (TU50 ideal FH. MCS1) • -104 dBm (static MCS-5) .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 285 .5 + 0. MCS5) EVOLIUM BSS .5 dB) (tolerance -0.76 dBm 12 W or 40.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 286 60 MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 50 MCS-6 MCS-5 Throughput [kbps] MCS-4 40 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 30 20 10 0 -110 -105 -100 -95 -90 -85 Level [dBm] EVOLIUM BSS . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 286 .1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.10 E-GPRS 10.] Radio Network Planning .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 287 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 C/Ico(dB) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 Throughput [kbps] MCS-9 MCS-8 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 25 30 35 All Rights Reserved © 2007.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 287 .1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.10 E-GPRS 10.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 288 11 GPRS traffic calculation example EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 288 .Radio Network Planning .

private 14-20 o’clock 7.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Blocking at air interface (speech) 2% 3.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 289 .11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic: Speech traffic busy hour: 8-11.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 289 1. see table EVOLIUM BSS . 13-17 and 18-22 o’clock Packet data service hours: Business: 8-11 and 14-17. Percentage of GPRS subscribers 7% of total GSM subscribers 6. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub) 20 mErl/Sub rural. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes 80% urban 20% rural) 5.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont. and 8. 25 mErl/Sub urban 4. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers) 1Mio 2.

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 290 9. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 290 .] Radio Network Planning . PS user behaviour/distribution: daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month): business 22 days.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses: 1200 BTSs in urban. related to the total GPRS subscriber number = 7%: 2% private and 5 % business Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to morphostructure: urban = 70% business. 800 in rural 12. private 30 days GPRS user profiles percentage (%). 50% private rural = 30% business. Number of BTS in the existing network 2000 BTSs 11. Number of TRX/BTS. 3*1 configuration in rural EVOLIUM BSS . 50% private 10. in accordance to morphoclass: 3*2 configuration in urban.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.

) 70% (35000) 50% (10000) 30% (15000) 50% (10000) Speech Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio Urban area 80% (800000 subs.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 291 .) 2% (20000 subs.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 291 According the questionnaire.) Rural area 20% (200000 subs) EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. the GPRS and speech subscriber are split to urban and rural area Packet data GPRS share 7% total Urban area Rural area Total GSM subscriber: 1 Mio Business Private 5% (50000 subs. the GPRS user distribution will be calculated Due to the different network capacity in urban and rural area and the different ratio of business and private users in the area.2 User and area distribution determination Radio Network Planning .

11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 292 The traffic demand for CS subscribers 2% blocking during the busy hour Urban area 25 mErlang/Subs.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. Rural area 20 mErlang/Subs. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 292 . Traffic [Erlang] Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio Urban area Rural area 20000 4000 Assumption: Homogeneous traffic distribution in each morpho class EVOLIUM BSS .3 Traffic demand for CS traffic Radio Network Planning .

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 293 . not during the whole month. there are now service hours/day. During service hours. depending on the user profile Packet data traffic occurs only during the service hours.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. like speech traffic) PS traffic is not to be spread over the whole day.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 293 The traffic demand for PS is calculated in two steps: First step: throughput demand per user profile calculation (due to the different user behaviours) Second step: Relation of throughput demand to the total subscriber amount in urban and rural area Assumptions: packet data traffic per month is user profile depending (e. the user is continuously active (worst case calculation) EVOLIUM BSS . Packet data traffic is homogeneously distributed over the service hours.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic Radio Network Planning .11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.g.

CS traffic is maximum 2. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 294 .4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.] Radio Network Planning . PS traffic is also maximum in that period Exception: CS and PS busy hour not overlapping -> separate dimensioning  Reserve still sufficient capacity for CS during PS busy hour! Use user profile with highest throughput demand PS user profile service hours not overlapping  EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 294 What is the busy hour? 1.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.

Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 295 .11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 295 In our example. also for speech traffic a busy time occurs Busy hour: GPRS traffic dimensioning will be 14 to17 Speech Packet Business Private 8 11 1314 17 20 22 EVOLIUM BSS . but from 14 to17 o’clock business and private subscriber will make data traffic at the same time Thus the busy hours for data traffic are these 3 hours It is also visible.] Radio Network Planning . the service hours for PS traffic are in total 6 hours.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. that during that time.

14 during 3 busy hours Private 2.68 =68149. hours 0.49 for 30 days 0.68/(6 hrs*3600) 0.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.05= 8.14 =3097. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 296 .88 665.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.05/22 days 0.] Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 296 Packet data throughput demand (user profile): Traffic/month [Mbyte] Traffic/month [kbit] traffic volume demand /day [kbit] throughput demand /service hours [kbit/s] throughput demand /busy hours [kbit/s] Business 8.124 68149.03 6 serv.380 =19964.124*1024*1024*8/1000 3097.03 during 3 busy hrs Packet data throughput demand (total network): throughput demand /busy hours [kbit/s] Total: Urban area Business Private 4900 300 5200 Rural area Business Private 2100 300 2400 EVOLIUM BSS .

9 4000 The actual network capacity is sufficient to handle the CS traffic during the busy hour by assuming a maximal blocking probability of 2% EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 297 For CS traffic: Total BTS BTS Configuration Capacity/Erlang 2% Blocking CS traffic demand Urban area 1200 3x2 29520 =1200*3*8.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 297 .2 20000 2000 Rural area 800 3x1 6960 =800*3*2.5 Network capacity calculation Radio Network Planning .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.41*8+0.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 298 Network throughput capacity for PS traffic: The network throughput capacity for PS traffic is based on the cell throughput capacity For this dimensioning example it is appropriate to consider the result of the cell ranges dimensioning example According to it. 59% of the cell area is operated in CS-2 and 41% in CS-1 mode The cell throughput capacity can be estimated with a data rate of (0.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 298 .59*12) kbit/s = 10.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.36 kbit/s per timeslot EVOLIUM BSS .

only one TS will be present for packet data usage) EVOLIUM BSS .11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.] Radio Network Planning .5 Network capacity calculation [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 299 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 299 The network capacity is depending from the allocated TS for PDCH use: parameter MAX_PDCH in cell's CS normal load situation parameter MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD in cell's CS high load parameter MIN_PDCH (optional) Example: MAX_PDCH is set to 8 TS for the 3x2 BTS configuration (2nd TRX allocated for GPRS). only 7 TS can be allocated for packet data (TS 0 is reserved for BCCH) MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD =1 (Under CS high load conditions. MAX_PDCH for the 3x1 BTS.

BCCH not incl. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 300 .GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 300 Total BTS BTS Configuration Total Available TS. Available TS. BCCH not incl. MAX_PDCH_GROUP = 8 TS Available TS if BSC in HIGH_LOAD MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 TS Capacity [kbit/s] (10.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.36 kbit/s /TS) Capacity [kbit/s] if BSC in HIGH_LOAD (10.36 kbit/s /TS) Urban area 1200 3x2 54000 =(7+8)*3*1200 28800 =8*3*1200 3600 =28800/8 298368 =28800*10.36 2000 Rural area 800 3x1 16800 =7*3*300 16800 =7*3*800 2400 =16800/7 174048 24864 EVOLIUM BSS .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.36 37296 =3600*10.] Radio Network Planning .5 Network capacity calculation [cont.

49 17.82 29.61 12.27 7.33 18.83 1.26 26.03 20.91 1.34 33. according to the amount of allocated timeslots for GPRS in BSC high load situation Amount of TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 6 TRX Amount SDCCH 1 2 3 4 4 5 Amount TCH +PDCH 7 14 21 28 36 43 0 1 2 Amount PDCH 3 4 5 6 7 2.62 30.72 30.6 Traffic dimensioning Radio Network Planning .82 15.52 31.65 6.2 4.76 22.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.43 32. the BSC is in high load situation.02 3.34 9.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.18 19.93 8.03 21.99 0.50 24.15 27.62 9.38 25.89 21.34 EVOLIUM BSS .09 5.84 11.93 28.25 0 2.63 23.2 14.01 14.75 2.03 27.08 10.08 0.4 13.65 16.2 14.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 301 Allocating TS to GPRS traffic reduces the capacity within the circuit switched design For the busy hour. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 301 . i.6 5.93 8.16 0.e the maximum of PDCHs is equal to MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD (resource control) The following table gives the CS capacities based on a blocking probability of 2% (in Erlang).

6 Traffic dimensioning [cont. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 302 .4 =800*3*2.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 302 MAX_PDCH_Group = 8 or 7 MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 Network capacity for CS and PS traffic (1 TS for PS): Total BTS =2000 Urban area Rural area 1200 800 3x2 3x1 29520 6960 26640 5448 =1200*3*7.] Radio Network Planning .11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.27 20000 4000 298368 174048 37296 24864 5200 2400 Speech number of BTS Configuration Capacity/Erlang @2 % Blocking Capacity/Erlang @2% Blocking and 1 PDCH CS traffic demand [Erl] Capacity [kbit/s] (10.36 kbit/s /TS) Capacity [kbit/s] if BSC in HIGH_LOAD (10.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.36 kbit/s /TS) PD busy hour throughput demand [kbit/s] Packet data EVOLIUM BSS .

6 Traffic dimensioning [cont. To guarantee a permanent PS service independent form the load situation. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 303 .GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. since the remaining network capacity is still sufficient to handle the CS traffic.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11. One TS is sufficient for PS traffic during the busy hour. 1 TS/ cell is permanently reserved for PS service and not available for CS traffic).GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 303 Conclusions: Network is able to serve CS traffic.e. however Min_PDCH_GROUP = 0 is recommended (load reduction on Atermux interface) EVOLIUM BSS . the parameter Min_PDCH_GROUP was set to 1 (I. One TS is necessary to handle PS traffic. No CS service degradation during busy hour. The reservation of 1 TS for PS traffic represents no service degradation for CS traffic.] Radio Network Planning .

6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 304 Further iterations would be necessary (increase of MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD) if the PS traffic demand could not be handled with MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 timeslot Further.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.g. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 304 . introduce downtilt) and increase the cell size of a neighbouring cell which offers sufficient capacity to handle the traffic demand surplus of the serving cell reduce interference (network changes) to get higher average throughput EVOLIUM BSS .g. if the CS traffic demand could not be handled with the remaining timeslots some measures are necessary e.] Radio Network Planning .: add a TRX to the considered serving cell shrink the cell size of the serving cell (e.

the number of TRX's which can be allocated to GPRS is maximum NTRXGPRS =1.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.11 GPRS traffic calculation example 11.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 305 In the Alcatel GPRS implementation step 1.] Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 305 . In our worst case consideration.GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007. this TRX comes to its limit when the packet throughput demand is higher than the throughput capacity and cannot be satisfied even if the number of allocated TS for PS reaches Max_PDCH_Group EVOLIUM BSS .

GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 306 ALMAP: ALcatel MAnagement Platform PCO: Protocol APN: Access Point Name PCU: Packet Control Unit AS: Alpha Server (Compaq) PDCH: Packet Data CHannel BG: Border Gateway PDN: Packet Data Network BSC: Base Station Controller PDP: Packet Data Protocol (IP or X25) BSS: Base Station Subsystem PDU: Protocol Data Unit BSCGP: BSC-GPRS Protocol PPCH: Packet.Common Control Channel Switch to notes view! All Rights Reserved © 2007.Visitors Location Register CS: Circuit Switching QoS: Quality of Service DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RA: Routing Area DL: Down Link RIP : Routing Information Protocol DLCI= Data Link Connection Identifier RLC: Radio Link Control DNS: Domain Name System RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial In Use EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Service FUMO : Frame Unit Module RRDTUF : Roaming Restriction Data Towards FR: Frame Relay Unknown Foreign PLMN GPRS: General Packet Radio Service RRM: Radio Resource Management GGSN: Gateway GSN RSZ : Regional Subscription Zone GMM: GPRS Mobility Management SGSN: Serving GSN GR: GPRS Register SM: Session Management | Short Message GSL: GPRS Signaling Link SMS: Short Message Service GSM: Global System for Mobile communication SMS-C: SMS-Center GSN: GPRS Support Node SNDCP: Sub Network-Dependent Convergence GSS: GPRS Sub-System Protocol EVOLIUM BSS .Abbreviations and Acronyms Radio Network Planning .Temporary Mobile Subscriber CCU: Channel Codec Unit Identity CDR: Call Detail Record PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit CG: Charging Gateway P-VLR: Packet.Paging CHannel BSSGP: BSS-GPRS Protocol PRACH: Packet.Access Grant Channel PCCCH: Packet.Virtual Circuit NTP: Network Time Protocol DB : On Demand Bandwidth OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center OS: Operation System PAGCH: Packet.Random Access CHannel BVCI: BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier PS: Packet Switching CCBS: Customer Care and Billing Center P-TMSI: Packet. Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 306 .GPRS and EGPRS All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 GTP: GPRSPlanning Tunneling Protocol SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol Radio Network HLR: Home Location Register SNS: Sub-Network Service layer HSCSD: High Speed Circuit-Switching Data TBF: Temporary Block Flow IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity TC: Trans Coder IP: Internet Protocol TCH: Traffic CHannel ISDN : Integrated Service Digital Network TCP: Transmission Control Protocol ISP: Internet Service Provider TDMA: Time-Division Multiplexing Access LAN: Local Area Network TFI: Temporary block Flow Identifier LLC: Logical Link Control TID: Tunnel IDentity MAC: Medium Access Control TLLI: Temporary Logical Link Identity MFS: Multi-Bsc Fast packet Server TMN: Telecommunication Management Protocol MNRG: Mobile Not Reachable for Gprs TS: Time Slot MS: Mobile Station UDP: User Datagram protocol MSC: Mobile Switching Center UL: Up Link MT: Mobile Terminal UMTS: Universal Mobile Transmission System NE: Network Element WAP: Wireless Application Protocol NMC: Network Management Center WAN: Wide Area Network NNM: Network Node Manager NRPA : Network Requested PDP Context Activation NSAPI: Network Service Access Point Identifier NSC: Network Service Control layer NSEI: Network Service Entity Identifier NSS: Network Sub-System NS-VC: Network Service.

GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2007 All Rights Reserved © 2007.GPRS and EGPRS 1—1— 307 End of Module EVOLIUM BSS – GPRS and EGPRS EVOLIUM BSS .Radio Network Planning . Alcatel-Lucent 3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2 Section 1 — Module 1 — Page 307 .