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Chapter 13 PLANNING REPORTS AND PROPOSALS Multiple Choice 1.

Despite the variety among them, many analytical reports include a a. standard opening. b. section of recommendations. c. this is how its done quality. d. standard middle section. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 2. The basic purpose of informational reports is a. to persuade the audience to act. b. to present recommendations and conclusions. c. to present data, facts, feedback, and other types of information, without analysis or recommendations. d. to convince the reader of the soundness of your thinking. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 3. The best way to phrase the purpose statement of a report is with a. complex language. b. an infinitive phrase. c. a controversial statement. d. jargon. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: concept 4. Which of the following is the least clear statement of purpose? a. The purpose of this report to determine which of four alternative investments will have the highest return. b. The purpose of this report is to analyze four potential investments. c. The purpose of this report is to answer the question, Which of four investments will provide the highest return? d. The goal of this report is to evaluate the return on four investments. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: application

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5. Which of the following is an infinitive phrase? a. updating clients b. update clients c. updated clients d. to update clients ANSWER: d; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: application 6. A formal work plan includes all of the following except a. a statement of the problem or opportunity addressed in your report. b. a list of all the sources you will use. c. plans for following up after delivering the report. d. a statement of the purpose and scope of your investigation. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 397-98; TYPE: concept 7. Which of the following is not a typical element in a formal work plan? a. Statement of purpose b. Statement of the scope of the investigation c. Discussion of tasks to be accomplished d. Conclusions and recommendations ANSWER: d; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 397-98; TYPE: concept 8. When selecting media for a report a. you should choose the ones that are most convenient. b. you should choose the ones that are most economical. c. your decisions should reflect your audiences expectations. d. you should always present your report in writing. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 398; TYPE: concept 9. Delivering a business report as a word-processing file a. is usually not preferable to a printed document. b. is useful if the audience will need to search the report frequently. c. wastes time and confuses your audience. d. is rarely, if ever, necessary. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 398; TYPE: application

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10. When outlining the content of your report a. it is preferable to use informative headings as opposed to descriptive ones. b. you should use complex language for all headings. c. keep in mind that you will have to use this same outline for your final report. d. do all of the above. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 401; TYPE: concept 11. Which of the following is not a useful strategy in preparing business reports? a. Understand and meet audience expectations. b. Use the same format for reports, regardless of length. c. Keep your report as short as possible. d. All of the above are useful strategies. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 401; TYPE: concept 12. Monitor/control reports include a. policies and procedures. b. plans, operating reports, and personal activity reports. c. solicited and unsolicited sales proposals. d. research, justification, and troubleshooting reports. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 13. Policy and procedure reports are used for a. documenting compliance with government regulations. b. monitoring and controlling operations. c. conveying guidelines and other organizational decisions. d. presenting and analyzing the alternative solutions to a problem. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 14. Compliance reports are generally required by a. parent companies. b. accounting departments. c. government agencies. d. marketing departments. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept

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15. A public corporation filing a quarterly tax report would be providing a. a progress report. b. a compliance report. c. a justification report. d. a periodic operating report. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: application 16. A contractor submitting a weekly report on work done to date would be providing the client with a. an interim progress report. b. an interim compliance report. c. a justification report. d. a periodic operating report. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 402; TYPE: application 17. Topical organization strategies for informational reports include all of the following except a. complexity. b. spatial orientation. c. importance. d. comparison. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 404; TYPE: concept 18. A report that examines the financial aspects of a proposed decision, such as acquiring another company, is known as a ________ report. a. troubleshooting b. hypothetical c. due diligence d. justification ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 19. A justification report a. provides the history of a problem, then presents and analyzes possible solutions. b. describes what has happened in a department or division during a particular period. c. is written after a course of action has been taken to justify what was done. d. does all of the above. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept

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20. Unlike a failure analysis report, a troubleshooting report is written a. before a failure occurs. b. while a failure is occurring. c. after a failure occurs. d. by management. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 21. Unlike proposals, justification reports a. are designed to support products, plans, or projects after they have been implemented. b. are internal as opposed to external reports. c. are always in memo format. d. do not require a great deal of supporting data. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 22. Problem factoring is the process of a. looking at a problem from many different angles. b. considering how to divide responsibility for a problem c. creating problems instead of solving them. d. breaking a problem down into a series of logical, connected questions. ANSWER: d; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 409; TYPE: concept 23. Reports for skeptical audiences should generally follow the ___________ approach. a. direct b. indirect c. hypothetical d. none of the above ANSWER: d; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 410; TYPE: concept 24. Which of the following is not a common organizational format for analytical reports? a. Focusing on conclusions b. Focusing on recommendations c. Focusing on information d. Focusing on logical argument ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 410; TYPE: concept

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25. One potential drawback of focusing on conclusions in a report is that you may a. reveal information you know about that has not been included in the report. b. make everything you say seem too simple. c. offend your audience. d. do all of the above. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 410; TYPE: concept 26. A report focused on recommendations should a. first establish or verify the need for action. b. not include conclusions. c. avoid mentioning any potential risks. d. outline costs, but not in detail. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 411; TYPE: concept 27. Any risks involved with your recommendations should a. not be addressed since they may discourage your audience. b. be discussed in your report, but only in vague, general terms. c. be addressed clearly in your report. d. be outlined before you reveal the benefits that can be achieved. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 411; TYPE: concept 28. Unlike those focused on conclusions or recommendations, reports focusing on logical arguments a. use the indirect approach. b. are not very convincing. c. emphasize the positive. d. do not include outside evidence. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 411-12; TYPE: concept 29. Which of the following is not a strategy for structuring reports focused on logical arguments? a. 2+2 approach b. Direct approach c. Yardstick method d. All of the above are acceptable strategies. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 411-12; TYPE: concept

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30. The 2+2 approach a. generally works only with lengthy, nonroutine reports. b. is the first strategy to try when writing reports that include recommendations. c. is far more complicated than any other organizational strategy. d. is the only approach that is appropriate for any business report. ANSWER: b; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 412; TYPE: concept 31. Because of its natural feel and versatility, the __________ approach is generally the most persuasive way to develop an analytical report for skeptical readers. a. 2+2 b. yardstick c. direct d. none of the above ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 412; TYPE: concept 32. One drawback of using the yardstick approach to structure business reports is that a. you must discuss all the alternatives, even if many of them turn out to be irrelevant and/or unproductive. b. this approach is generally considered old-fashioned. c. it forces you to ignore the fact that the problem may have multiple causes. d. it is impractical in most business settings. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept 33. If a client requests a proposal and then provides a list of criteria the solution must meet, the ________ approach will probably be the best way to organize your report. a. 2+2 b. scientific c. direct d. yardstick ANSWER: d; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept

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34. Solicited proposals are generally prepared by a. companies attempting to obtain business. b. government regulatory agencies. c. companies at the request of clients who require a product or service. d. clients who wish to acquire the services of highly regarded companies. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413-14; TYPE: concept 35. In an unsolicited proposal, the writer a. must convince readers that a problem or opportunity exists. b. analyzes the client's business in light of the competition. c. uses a style approved by the American Association of Business Writers. d. enumerates the client's options regarding such business decisions as product-line expansion. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 414-16; TYPE: concept True or False 36. An analytical report often ends by presenting a recommendation. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 37. For a business document to be considered a report, it must be at least six pages long. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 38. Internal reports are more likely to be misinterpreted than external reports. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 39. The statement of purpose for a report is always presented as a question. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: concept 40. The statement of purpose for analytical reports will usually need to be more comprehensive than one for informational reports. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: concept 41. Very few reports require a work plan. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 397; TYPE: concept

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42. When writing a work plan, its important to begin by developing a problem statement. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 397; TYPE: concept 43. Some work plans include a tentative or working outline. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 397-98; TYPE: concept 44. An executive dashboard is a customized online presentation of key report elements. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 398; TYPE: concept 45. Electronic reports are always preferable to paper reports in todays business environments. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 398; TYPE: concept 46. The direct approach is the most popular strategy for business reports. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 399; TYPE: concept 47. Depending on your status in the organization, using the direct approach in reports can be misconstrued as arrogance. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 400; TYPE: concept 48. For long, complex reports, the indirect approach tends to be less effective than the direct approach. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 400; TYPE: concept 49. In business reports, it is never appropriate to combine the direct and indirect approaches by revealing conclusions and recommendations as you go along. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 400; TYPE: concept 50. A primary goal in preparing monitor/control reports is to emphasize the good news and hide the bad news. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept

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51. A memo summarizing an employees trip to a trade show would be an example of a personal activity report. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: application 52. Sales call reports are a type of compliance report. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 53. Operating reports establish expectations and guidelines to direct future action. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 54. Compliance reports, progress reports, and monitor/control reports are all types of informational reports. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 55. Position papers spell out lasting guidelines on company policies and procedures. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 56. Progress reports are never more than updates in memo or e-mail form. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 57. Interim progress reports to customers are rarely needed. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 58. For most audiences, reading material on a computer monitor is far easier than reading from the printed page. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 405; TYPE: concept 59. Reports that examine the financial aspects of a proposed decision, such as acquiring another company, are called due diligence reports. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 60. Whereas troubleshooting reports deal with problems as they occur, failure analysis reports seek to prevent problems before they happen. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept

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61. A justification report is an internal report designed to persuade top management to approve a proposed investment or project. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 62. Managers use feasibility reports to examine the ramifications of a decision they are about to make. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 63. Information architecture refers to the structure and navigational flow of all parts of a website. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 406; TYPE: concept 64. Focusing on conclusions in an analytical report involves using the direct approach to organization. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 410; TYPE: concept 65. In reports focused on recommendations, it is best to avoid the direct approach. ANSWER: F: DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 411; TYPE: concept 66. The yardstick approach is best for organizing reports when you and your audience do not agree on the criteria youre using in your analysis. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 412; TYPE: concept 67. The primary purpose of an internal proposal is either to request funds and management support for new projects or to obtain permission to take action on specific projects. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept 68. Proposals are classified in two ways: internal versus external, and solicited versus unsolicited. ANSWER: T; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept 69. RFP stands for ratified final proposal. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept

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70. A landscaper bidding on a job at the request of a general contractor would submit an external, unsolicited proposal. ANSWER: F; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: application Fill-in-the-Blank 71. Whereas ____________________ reports focus on facts, ____________________ reports offer interpretation and can also include recommendations. ANSWER: informational, analytical; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 72. The statement of ____________________ defines why you are preparing the report. ANSWER: purpose; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: concept 73. In organizing their reports, business people often combine the ____________________ and ____________________ approachesrevealing their conclusions and recommendations as they go along instead of putting them first or last. ANSWER: direct, indirect OR indirect, direct; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 400; TYPE: concept 74. A common monitor/control report is the strategic ____________________ , used to direct organizational activities over the course of several years. ANSWER: plan; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 75. All ____________________ reports are written in response to regulations of one sort or another. ANSWER: compliance; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 76. A ____________________ report is written to validate a decision that has already been made. ANSWER: justification; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept

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77. ____________________ ____________________ reports study events that happened in the past, with the hope of learning how to avoid similar failures in the future. ANSWER: Failure analysis; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 78. Breaking down a problem into a series of specific questions is called ____________________. ANSWER: factoring; DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 409; TYPE: concept 79. When you speculate about the cause of a problem, you are forming a(n) ____________________--a potential explanation that needs to be tested. ANSWER: hypothesis; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 410; TYPE: concept 80. The ____________________ approach is often the most persuasive and efficient way to develop an analytical report for skeptical readersits the approach to try first. ANSWER: 2+2; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 412; TYPE: concept 81. With the ____________________ approach to structuring analytical reports, you begin by discussing the problem, but then you set up the conditions that must be met to solve the problem. ANSWER: yardstick; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 412-13; TYPE: concept 82. Whereas ____________________ proposals are used to request decisions from managers within an organization, ____________________ proposals are directed to parties outside the organization. ANSWER: internal, external; DIFFICULTY: easy; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept 83. ____________________ proposals are initiated by a company that is trying to obtain business or funding on its own, without a specific offer from a client. ANSWER: Unsolicited; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept

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84. A formal invitation to bid on a contract is called a ____________________ for ____________________, or RFP. ANSWER: request, proposal(s); DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept 85. In a(an) ____________________ proposal, the author must convince readers that a problem or opportunity exists before providing a solution or plan of action. ANSWER: unsolicited; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 414; TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. You have been asked to help a company find ways to reduce the amount it spends on employee health and dental benefits. Write a purpose statement for the report you will produce. ANSWER: To analyze the current costs of employee health and dental benefits and suggest ways to reduce expenses. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: application 87. Briefly explain the primary function of a statement of purpose, then indicate the most useful way to phrase one. ANSWER: A statement of purpose defines why you are preparing your report. The best way to phrase a purpose statement is to begin with an infinitive phrase, such as to analyze. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 396; TYPE: concept 88. List three common types of monitor/control reports. ANSWER: (1) Plans, (2) operating reports, and (3) personal activity reports. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 402; TYPE: concept 89. Provide at least five examples of topical organization strategies for business reports. ANSWER: (1) Comparison, (2) importance, (3) sequence, (4) chronology, (5) spatial orientation, (6) geography, and (7) category. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 404; TYPE: concept

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90. What is the primary difference between a feasibility report and a justification report? ANSWER: Whereas a feasibility report studies proposed options, a justification report is written after an action, to justify what was done. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept 91. Give three reasons that writing analytical reports presents a greater challenge than writing informational reports. ANSWER: Analytical reports challenge (1) the quality of your reasoning youre doing more than just delivering information; (2) the quality of your writing you need to present your thinking in a compelling and persuasive manner; and (3) your ability to take the responsibility that comes with persuasion. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 407-08; TYPE: concept 92. Briefly explain problem factoring. ANSWER: Problem factoring helps report writers identify cause and effect by breaking down the defined problem into a series of logical, connected questions. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 409; TYPE: concept 93. List the three most common strategies for structuring analytical reports. ANSWER: (1) Focusing on conclusions (direct), (2) focusing on recommendations (direct). 3) focusing on logical argument (indirect). DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 410; TYPE: concept 94. Briefly describe the circumstances in which the yardstick approach would be particularly useful for organizing your proposal. ANSWER: The yardstick approach is useful when you need to use a number of criteria to evaluate one or more possible solutions. It is also tailor-made for situations in which the audience has provided a list of criteria the solution must meet. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 412; TYPE: concept 95. Describe the general function of internal proposals. ANSWER: Internal proposals request decisions from managers within the organization, such as proposals to buy new equipment or launch new research projects. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 413; TYPE: concept

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Essay 96. Describe the ways that analytical and informational reports differ. ANSWER: These two types of reports differ in terms of content and aims. Analytical reports offer information and analysis, and can also include recommendations. Informational reports present unbiased information; they do not offer analysis or recommendations. DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 394; TYPE: concept 97. List and describe the seven elements that usually are part of a formal work plan. ANSWER: (1) Statement of the problem or opportunity: This clarifies the problem you are addressing and helps you stay focused on the goal. (2) Statement of the purpose and scope of your investigation: This describes what you plan to accomplish and the boundaries of your work. It states what you will and will not cover. (3) Discussion of tasks to be accomplished: This includes the things to do, the amount of time needed for each task, the research necessary, and any constraints. (4) Description of any products that will result from your investigation: Sometimes this will consist only of the report. In other cases, there may be additional deliverables. (5) Review of the project assignments, schedules and resource requirements: Who will be responsible for what? When will tasks be completed? Who will coordinate the process? How much will it cost? (6) Plans for following up after delivering the report: Follow-up helps make sure that the information gets to the right people and shows you care about your work's effectiveness. (7) Working outline: This is an initial outline of the report you will produce. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 397-98; TYPE: concept 98. Describe several benefits and one potential drawback of organizing business reports using the direct approach. ANSWER: The direct approach is the most popular and convenient format for business reports because it saves time and makes the report easy to follow. It produces a more forceful report, and you sound sure of yourself when you state your conclusions confidently at the outset. In some cases, however, that confidence may be misconstrued as arrogance. Depending on your relationship with your audience and on their probable reaction to your report, the indirect approach may be more appropriate. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 399-400; TYPE: concept

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99. Discuss four points to keep in mind when structuring an analytical report or proposal. ANSWER: The first guideline is to make sure you understand and meet audience expectations. If possible, study an example of a successful report before writing a similar one. Second, be sure to select a format thats appropriate to the taska brief memo may be fine for a short, internal report, but a lengthy proposal will require many of the elements of a formal report. Third, keep the report as short as possible; leave out unnecessary information and irrelevant details. Fourth, Talk your way through your outline with descriptive headings rather than simple descriptive ones. This will help you plan more effectively and facilitate collaborative writings. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 401; TYPE: concept 100. Explain the three basic categories of analytical business reports and provide at least one example of each type. ANSWER: The first category includes reports written to assess opportunities. One example of this type is the market analysis report, which judges the likelihood of success for new products or sales initiatives by suggesting potential opportunities in a given market and identifying competitive threats and other risks. Due diligence reports, which examine the financial aspects of a proposed decision, are also in this category. The second category includes reports written to solve problems. Examples are troubleshooting reports (which managers assign when they need to understand why something isnt working properly) and failure analysis reports (which study past failures in an effort to avoid similar ones in the future). The third category of analytical business reports includes reports written to support decisions. Feasibility reports are one type in this category. They are called for when managers need to explore the ramifications of a decision theyre about to make. Justification reports (written to justify decisions that have already been made) also fall into this group. DIFFICULTY: difficult; PAGE: 407; TYPE: concept

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