Language Functions in English and Vocabulary

Agreeing in English
In English conversations, people often say that they agree or disagree with each other. There are many ways of agreeing or disagreeing and the one you use depends on how strongly you agree or disagree. Here's a list of some common expressions.

Agreeing in English
"I think you're right." "I agree with you."

Strong agreement
"I couldn't agree with you more." "You're absolutely right." "I agree entirely." "I totally agree."

Partly agreeing
"I agree with you up to a point, but…" "That's quite true, but…" "I agree with you in principle, but…"

"I'm not sure I agree with you."

"(I'm afraid) I don't agree." "(I'm afraid) I disagree." "(I'm afraid) I can't agree with you." "(I'm afraid) I don't share your opinion."

When you disagree with someone in English, you can often sound more polite by using a phrase such as "I'm afraid…"

Disagreeing strongly
"I don't agree at all." "I totally disagree." "I couldn't agree with you less."

Complaining in English
When complaining in English, it helps to be polite. This page will help you with this important English speaking skill.

In a shop
You're in a shop and the assistant gives you the wrong change. "Excuse me, I think you've given me the wrong change", or "Sorry, I think this change is wrong. I gave you $20, not $10."

In a hotel
"Excuse me, but there's a problem with the heating in my room." "Sorry to bother you, but I think there's something wrong with the air-conditioning." "I'm afraid I have to make a complaint. Some money has gone missing from my hotel room." "I'm afraid there's a slight problem with my room - the bed hasn't been made."

When people apologise, they normally say "sorry" and offer to put the situation right. "Excuse me, but there's a problem with the heating." "I'm sorry - I'll get someone to check it for you." or "Sorry to hear that - I'll send someone up."

Speaking tip
Although you may find it strange to use the word sorry when you complain, English speakers consider it polite. It will help you get what you want!

English greetings
First impressions are important, so here's a guide to using the right expression.

Two friends meeting Friends often say "Hi" to each other. Then they often ask a general question, such as "How are you?" or "How are things?" or "How's life?" The reply to this question is normally positive. "Fine thanks, and you?" "Fine thanks, what about yourself?" "Not bad." Or "Can't complain." Greeting people you don't know You can use "Hello" with people you don't know, but a more formal greeting is "Good morning / afternoon / evening." The other person normally replies with the same greeting as you have used and then makes polite conversation, such as "How was your trip?" or "Did you find our office easily?"

" Or "Hello Maria." Introducing clients "Mr Mitchell.Introducing yourself At an informal party "Hello." The reply could be: "Hi. "Let me introduce myself. Sarah. I'm Maria from english@home." Or "Hello." Or. I'm Maria." John could say: "Nice to meet you too. I'm Peter Mitchell." Sarah says: "Pleased to meet you. from Mitchell Creations." At work-related events "I'd like to introduce myself. I'm Sarah. my name's Maria. have you met my colleague John?" "Sarah. from Mitchell Creations." The reply could be: "Nice to meet you." "How do you do? I'm Peter Mitchell from Mitchell Creations. John. I'd like you to meet my colleague John." Or "Nice to meet you. Sarah." Or "Nice to meet you. I'm Maria. I'd like to introduce you to my manager." ." Or "Hello." "Pleased to meet you." Introducing other people Introducing a friend to a work colleague "Sarah. I'm Peter Mitchell. I'm Sarah. John. from english@home. I'm Sarah. Henry Lewis.

. you can use their first name too. this is Sarah. My friends call me .. one person may have higher status . I am . If someone uses your first name. If someone says. I think we've already met." Or "Good to meet you. "How do you do?" (as strange as that may sound!) At a more informal party When you introduce two of your friends to each other. * Don't forget to smile! :-) Introducing people • • • • • • • • • • • • What's your name? Who are you? My name is .... or a client. Haven't we met (before)? Yes.... It's polite to address them as Mr / Ms until the situation becomes more informal." Speaking Tip "How do you do?" is quite formal for British English speakers and the reply to this question is to repeat the phrase. I don't think we've met (before)." Cultural considerations At work. No.Mr Mitchell could then say: "How do you do?" and Henry Lewis also says "How do you do?" Or Mr Mitchell could say: "Pleased to meet you. "Please call me (Henry)". for example.your boss.. You can call me . People in European and English-speaking cultures often shake hands when they meet someone for the first time. I think we have. you can simply say. .. This is . you know you can use first names. "John. I don't think we have.

Nice to see you again. No. I have." "Thursday suits me.. Asking to meet "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" "How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Agreeing on a date "Yes. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" . No." "Thursday would be perfect... (informal) Pleased to meet you. Thursday is fine.. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. Making appointments Useful phrases for making and changing appointments. I haven't. I think I have. (name) Nice to meet you.? Yes. Hello. ." Suggesting a different date "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd.. Have you met . I don't think I have.• • • • • • • • • • • • Meet .. How do you do? (formal) Nice to see you. Yes. I won't be able to make it on Monday.

"Ah." "How does 2pm sound to you?" Changing the arrangement "You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. rather than saying something is a fact.) "I tend to go to bed early in winter. I'd like to meet in the morning. I'd much prefer Friday. Can we fix another time?" "Something has just cropped up and I won't be able to meet you this afternoon. but something urgent has come up. you will sound less direct and sure of yourself and therefore more open to other people's suggestions and ideas." "I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all." (I normally go to bed early in winter." "I really don't think I can on the 17th. When you make generalisations. if that's alright with you. Can we meet up on the 19th?" Setting a time "What sort of time would suit you?" "Is 3pm a good time for you?" "If possible." (I agree with most of what you say. People will think you're friendly! To show that something is generally true tend to "I tend to agree with you. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. Can we make another time?" Making generalisations English speakers often prefer to make generalisations. I'm very sorry.) have a tendency to .

" Mostly. Making invitations ." In most cases "In most cases. sometimes (These words go before the main verb. wars are caused by land disputes. English beaches are unsafe for swimming. often. To show how common something is Generally speaking "Generally speaking." "English people often complain about the weather."The English have a tendency to drink tea." "Eating chocolate sometimes causes migraines." Note: have a tendency to is used more in written than in spoken English. not coffee." "They mostly go to the cinema at weekends. being able to make generalisations is a speaking skill that will make you sound much more like a native English speaker. or after the verb to be) "We are mostly concerned with costs." Speaking Tip Although you may find it strange to avoid saying exactly what you mean." "He is sometimes difficult to work with." In some cases "In some cases. obesity is caused by over-eating." In a large number of cases "In a large number of cases. more men than women use the internet.

" "I really don't think I can .How to make and accept invitations in English. but I've got something else on. but I'm already going out to the cinema. thanks. thanks." Do you fancy coming to the cinema tonight? "What a great idea. Would you like to come?" "Are you free next Thursday?" "Are you doing anything next weekend?" "Would you be interested in coming to the cinema with me tonight?" "How do you fancy going out for a meal at the weekend?" Accepting "Would you like to…" "I'd love to. but actually I'm doing something else on Saturday. ." "I'm really sorry. thanks.I'm supposed to be doing something else. or use words like "actually" or "really". I'd love to." Declining "Would you like to come over for dinner on Saturday?" "That's very kind of you." "That sounds lovely. "What are you doing next Saturday? We're having some people over for a meal. thanks." Speaking Tip It's important to be polite when you decline an invitation." "That's very kind of you." "Well. We normally give a reason why we can't do something and either apologise.

That would be very kind of you. can and will are followed by the verb without to. "Yes please. Shall is more formal than can. "No thank you. "Can I help you?" "Yes please. "Can I help you?" "Shall I open the window for you?" "Would you like another coffee?" "Would you like me to answer the phone?" "I'll do the photocopying. They say things like: Can I… ? Shall I… ? Would you like me to… ? Using these common English phrases ." Or." Shall." "Would you like another coffee?" "No thanks." . I'd love one." Or.Making offers English speakers make offers all the time in conversation. I'd like to know what time the train leaves. that would be lovely. if you like." (In a shop." "Would you like another coffee?" "Yes please.and being able to accept and reject offers . or by the verb with to.) "Shall I open the window for you?" "Yes please. Responding to offers These English dialogues show you ways to accept or reject offers made to you. Would you like… is followed either by a noun. I'm just looking.will make you sound polite and helpful." "Can I help you?" "No thanks.

"What do you think will happen next year?" "Next week is going to be very busy." Or. To do this. non-emotional fact. we can either use will followed by the verb without to." Or. "Or. But "He isn't going to help us" doesn't have this negative implication. For example: "Watch out! You're going to hit that car in front.not a cloud in the sky. you'll find it easy to use these English expressions. we use going to and the verb (not will)."Would you like me to answer the phone?" "If you wouldn't mind. They'll help you sound both natural and confident." "It's going to be a lovely day today . I think." Because we also use will to talk about intentions and strong decisions. "If you could. if you like. It sounds more like a prediction and a simple." (Don't answer "Yes." "There won't be a rise in house prices next year. we often use going to to sound less emotional." . I can do it. or going to followed by the verb. "Don't worry. Predictions based on what you know now We can make predictions based on what we can see now." "It's OK." "He isn't going to win the election.perhaps he isn't able to help us. "Thank you.) "I'll do the photocopying. as this sounds like you expect someone to do it for you. I'll do it. I would". Making predictions When we want to say what we think will happen in the future in English." English speaking tip With a little practice. "He won't help us" can mean that he has decided not to help us. that would be great.

please?' Speaking tip: could and can are followed by the verb without to. Do you mind if…" is followed by the verb in the present tense.Making requests When you ask someone to do something for you. When you're using these two sentences. please?" "Could I borrow some money from you. Would you mind is followed by the verb and -ing. please?" "Do you mind if I turn up the heating?" "Would you mind if I turned up the heating?" Speaking tip: Could is more polite that can. don't use please. It's already polite enough! Speaking about hopes in English There are a number of expressions you can use to show your hopes and preferences. but would you mind if… is followed by the verb in the past tense.") I'm hoping to get… ("I'm hoping to get a new phone. Here are some of the common ways that you can do this. Asking someone to do something for you "Could you open the door for me.") . Hopes I'm hoping for (noun) ("I'm hoping for a new cell phone. please?" "Would you mind opening the door for me. it's important to sound polite. please?" "Can you open the door for me. or ask if you can do something. Asking if you can do something "Can I use your computer.

") What I'd like more than anything else is… On my Christmas wish list is… Preferences I'd rather have (noun) ("I'd rather have tickets to the opera.") …. should "You should try to practise English.) Something I've always wanted is… I'd be delighted / over the moon if… ("I'd be delighted if you gave me a new watch..") I'd prefer (noun) ("I'd prefer some money for the new house. ("If it's all the same to you. I would go for… If it's all the same to you." .") I'd rather you (simple past) ("I'd rather you saved your money.I would like… I really want… (Using "want" can be impolite unless you are talking to a close friend or family member." Why don't you "Why don't you join an English club?" ought to "You ought to read more.") Suggestions in English The following English words and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people." "You shouldn't translate too much.") I'd prefer it if you (simple past) ("I'd prefer it if you gave some money to charity. …. would be more suitable / would be better If I had a choice. I'd like some book tokens.

") suggest and recommend Either use a verb + ing "I suggest visiting the Eiffel Tower. we say some advice or a piece of advice. without to." Speaking tip Many people don't like getting advice if they haven't asked for it! To avoid giving the wrong impression." (Not "he should to visit the Eiffel Tower." "She gave me a very useful piece of advice: to buy a good dictionary. For example: "He should visit the Eiffel Tower. you can try some of these expressions: "You could always…" "Have you considered…" "Perhaps we could…" "Do you think it's a good idea to…" Talking about fear ." (We should all go." (It's a very good dish to choose in this restaurant.) OR use that + a verb without to "I suggest that you visit the Eiffel Tower.) advise "I advise you to buy a good dictionary." (I'm not going. "Let me give you some advice." advice Advice is an uncountable noun. Instead. I'd watch more television. This means that we can't say an advice.) OR use a noun "I recommend the lasagne." *All these expressions are followed by a verb.If I were you. I'd… "If I were you.

it gives you goosebumps.There are many words and expressions for talking about fear. There are some fabulous sound effects. When you hear the crying voices at the end of the film. one of the guy’s rucksack has been emptied." feel uneasy: "I felt a bit uneasy when I walked home in the dark." spooked: “My cats are easily spooked before a thunderstorm. and I jumped out of my skin at the end when the camera stopped filming. it will make the hairs on the back of your neck stand up. and I’m ashamed to say that I wouldn’t go into an empty room in the house unless there was someone there with me.” petrified: “The building began to shake and we were all petrified." scared: "He’s scared of making mistakes.vulgar) be bricking it (British slang . Talking about likes and dislikes in English . especially the one when the students run out of the tent in the middle of the night. When that same guy goes missing the next day. The film scared the hell out of me for weeks afterwards.vulgar) frighten the life out of me shake with fear jump out of my skin Examples One of the best horror films I have seen is “The Blair Witch Project”. When they go back. Perhaps the scariest part of the film is at the end. Some of the scenes in the film sent shivers down my spine. Words afraid: "Are you afraid of the dark?" frightened: "I’m frightened of spiders. It certainly frightened the life out of the girl when she saw him.” terrified: “She was absolutely terrified when she heard the noise. It tells the story of a terrifying ordeal in the woods of northern USA. especially the ones of the wind blowing and howling.” Expressions a terrifying ordeal send shivers down my spine give me goosebumps (goosebumps are when you skin has little bumps on it) make the hairs on the back of my neck stand up (dogs also do this when they are scared) scare the hell out of me be scared shitless / shit scared (British slang . when you see one of the surviving students literally shake with fear in the corner of the basement.

" "He detests being late." If you neither like nor dislike something "I don't mind doing the housework." If you like something a lot "She's fond of chocolate." "I like cooking." "She can't bear cooking in a dirty kitchen. If you love something "I love eating ice-cream." If you like something "He quite likes going to the cinema." "I adore sun-bathing." If you really dislike something "I don't like sport at all." "I like swimming very much." If you don't like something "She doesn't like cooking very much." "He can't stand his boss." ." "I hate crowded supermarkets.There's a whole range of English expressions you can use to talk about how much you like or dislike something." "He's not very fond of doing the gardening." "I dislike wasting time.

" likely to = probable: "We are likely to win the contract." will definitely happen: "There will definitely be a storm later. Probable bound to = certain: "They are bound to succeed!" sure to = certain: "He is sure to win the championship." NOT "I like very much reading." Things to remember… Dislike is quite formal." Talking about probability in English There are many ways of saying that something will probably or possibly happen." will probably happen: "They will probably take on more staff. The 'oa' in loathe rhymes with the 'oa' in boat. These words should go after the thing that you like. follow this pattern: like something or like doing something. Fond of is normally used to talk about food or people." definite = sure: "He's a definite frontrunner for the job!" probable: "It's probable that we will be on holiday around then."She loathes celery." . For example. "I like reading very much. Common mistake Be careful where you put very much or a lot. Grammar Note To talk about your general likes or dislikes." likely: "An election is likely next year.

As weather is a neutral topic of conversation.I'm not sure." will possibly: "She'll possibly tell us tomorrow." definitely won't: "I definitely won't go to the party." Note: Be careful of the word the bus stop. or with a neighbour over the garden fence." could: "There could be a bug in the system. it's usually safe to use it to strike up a conversation . in a shop." … is highly unlikely: "It's highly unlikely that the company will expand. that's possible." might: "There might be a holiday next month ." probably won't: "They probably won't hear until next week." … is possible: "Do you think he will resign?" "Yes. "Definitely" and "probably" come after "will" (in positive sentences) and before "won't" in negative sentences.Possible may: "We may be able to help you. Variations You can add words to alter the strength of probability: highly likely / unlikely (= very likely / unlikely) quite likely / probable / possible (= more likely. probable or possible) could possibly / probably most definitely won't (= even more unlikely) Talking about the weather It's true! British people often start a conversation with strangers and friends by talking about the weather. ." … is unlikely: "It's unlikely that she will move.

" Human attributes We also attribute human features to the weather." "I hear that showers are coming our way." Attitude to weather Although British people like to complain about bad weather. They've had terrible flooding. they generally put a brave face on it." If the conversation has been about general bad weather." If someone complains that it's too hot. almost as if the weather can decide what to do: . using a range of forms ." Predicting the weather We can make predictions about the weather." "They're expecting snow in the's good for the garden.not just the "will" or "going to" form: "I think it'll clear up later. isn't it!" "Bit nippy today. If someone complains about too much rain.Some examples of conversation starters "Lovely day." "We're in for frost tonight. you could hear: "At least my tomatoes will be happy. perhaps someone will say: "Well. you might hear: "Never mind ." "It's going to rain by the looks of it." "What strange weather we're having!" "It doesn't look like it's going to stop raining today. I've heard it's worse in the west.

" "It's been trying to rain all morning. they are your first cousins. your husband (or wife's) family become your in-laws. Your female child is called your daughter. In-laws When you marry. The mother of your spouse (husband or wife) is your mother-in-law and his or her father becomes your father-in-law. whether the cousin is female or male. If your aunts or uncles have children. Your family tree Your closest relatives are your parents: your mother and father. If your mother or father is not an only child. and your siblings (brothers or sisters). while the . So the husband of your sister becomes your brother-in-law. (In English." Understanding the forecast Many British people are keen gardeners. The term in-law is also used to describe your relationship with the spouses of your siblings." "It's finally decided to rain. and they keep a close eye on the weather forecast. the word cousin is used. Here are some of the weather features which can worry gardeners: a hard frost blizzard / galeforce conditions hailstones prolonged rain blustery wind a drought Here are some more temperate conditions which gardeners like: mild weather sunny spells light drizzle Talking about your family English Vocabulary for talking about your family. An aunt is the sister of your mother or father. you also have aunts and / or uncles. while an uncle is the brother of your mother or father.) Your female cousin is your mother (or father's) niece."The sun's trying to come out. and your male child is your son. while a male cousin is the nephew of your mother and father.

father and children: "The traditional British family unit is a nuclear family. The father is your great-grandfather.either a granddaughter or a grandson. Types of family nuclear family = mother." close-knit family = a family where the members have close relationships with each other: "They are a close-knit family. If your grandparent has a brother. you can acquire a new family and set of relatives." single-parent / one-parent family = a family which only has one parent (because the parents are divorced. to mean a brother who is related by blood." extended family = your entire family: "The wedding invitations were sent to the entire extended family.sister of your husband becomes your sister-in-law. If you are a woman. If your mother or father remarries and has children. (And you are either his or her great-niece or great-nephew. Grandparents / grandchildren The parents of your parents are your grandparents . she is your great-aunt.) The mother of your grandmother or grandfather is your great-grandmother. The grandfather of your grandparent becomes your great-great-grandfather." . For example. the grandmother of your grandmother / grandfather is your great-great-grandmother. If your grandparent has a sister. for example. You might also hear people talking about their biological brother / sister etc. You are their grandchildren . if your father marries a second wife. she becomes your step-mother. Any children she already has become your step-sisters or step-brothers. The same term in-law is used for all generations. they become your half-brothers or half-sisters. The husband of your aunt is still your mother's brother-in-law. rather than by marriage. you become the daughter-in-law of your husband's parents. he is your great-uncle. or because one of the parents has died): "There are more and more single-parent families in the UK. Second families If your mother or father remarries.grandmother and grandfather. you become the sonin-law of your wife's parents. If you go back another generation." immediate family = your closest relatives: "Only immediate family members attended the funeral. and if you are a man.

" to run in the family = a characteristic that is common among family members: "Baldness runs in his family. sibling rivalry (the competition between brothers and sisters) is quite common.or squabbles . ." to bring up / raise a family = to have and look after children: "It's difficult to raise a family on one income." to start a family = to start having children: "They want to wait a couple of years before starting a family." family doctor = a doctor who looks after general medical needs: "There are a number of good family doctors in this area." family values = traditional ideas about what a family should be: "Some political parties often emphasise family values and the importance of marriage. In fact. but we're still very close." family resemblance = where members of the family look / act similar: "You can see a distinct family resemblance between the father and the son." blood relative = a relative connected to you by "blood" rather than through marriage: "She's not a blood relative." family man = a man who prefers to spend his time with his family: "John is a family man." a family car = a car big enough to transport a family: "The Volvo Estate is a popular family car." family name = surname: "What's your family name?" Describing family relationships Children often quarrel with each other.dysfunctional family = a family where the members have serious problems with each other: "He comes from a rather dysfunctional family. and these arguments .are often quickly resolved." Expressions with family family gathering = a meeting / celebration of family members: "There's a small family gathering next week." family-size = large quantity item: "We need to buy family-size packets of biscuits!" family-friendly = a policy that favours families: "This hotel is family-friendly.

Did I ever tell you about… Hearing your story reminds me of when… Something similar happened to me…. How to tell your story First of all. if arguments continue into adulthood. so that it is easy to follow. A person who no longer speaks to a family member is estranged from his / her family. How to start Traditional stories often start with the phrase "Once upon a time". However. if you are going to tell your story after someone else has already spoken. family feuds can develop where both sides can end up hating each other and even trying to hurt or destroy each other. I changed some money. they cut them off (= break off communiation). Try to keep it grammatically simple as well. if parents decide they no longer want anything to do with their children. Telling a story A useful skill in English is to be able to tell a story or an anecdote. or even disinherit them. Anecdotes are short stories about something that happened to you or to someone you know.) Most people feel loyalty to their family. Make it easy for the listener to understand by using sequencing and linking words: Sequencing words These words show the chronological sequence of events. There's also a saying "Blood's thicker than water" which means that your family ties are stronger than any other relationships. your story should be quite short. Often estrangement is voluntary. (made sure I had all my documents) Previously (before that) …. I (packed my suitcase) Secondly.More seriously. However. I realised…) But before al that… (I had double checked my reservation) Finally… (I arrived at the wrong check-in desk at the wrong airport for a flight that didn't go until the next day) . you can say something like: That reminds me! Funny you should say that. (Decide not to leave them anything when they die. Then… I (called a taxi for the airport) Later (on)… (when we were stuck in traffic. and will defend family members saying "He / She's family". I …. First of all..

Linking words can be used to show reason. and to summarise. you can use the past simple: I double checked my reservation. Remember that you can "exaggerate" when you tell a story. Jokes are often in the present tense: A man walks into a bar and orders a beer. which I had made three days previously. and then I called a taxi. In short. or to describe the background. so instead of using words like "nice" or . Tenses We can use a variety of tenses to tell stories and anecdotes.Linking words Use these words to link your ideas for the listener. result. I had made a complete mess of the holiday. you might want to avoid telling your story as one chronological event after the other. Harold. we generally use past forms to talk about past events. I made sure I had an up-to-date passport and I also took along my driving licence. We were heading towards a huge tailback. I booked a flight because…. additional information. I packed my suitcase. We also use the present tense to give a dramatic narrative effect: The year is 1066. I wanted to visit some friends who had been living in France for the last five years. Vocabulary Try to use a wide range of words to make your story more interesting. is not strong enough to fight off a Norman invasion. However. I was late… Although I had a reservation. The sun was shining and it was a beautiful day. Sometimes. As a result. Use the past continuous to describe activities in progress at the time of your story. We were driving along the motorway quite steadily until we suddenly saw in front of us the warning lights to slow down. In medieval England people are worried that the king. If you tell your story in chronological order. You can use the past perfect (simple and continuous) to add more interest to your story by talking about events that happened before the events in your story: I double checked my reservation. I hadn't checked the airport name. contrasting information.

Look at the people listening. Your doctor might want to give you a check-up. you can also get a flu vaccine so that you won't get the flu. You might need blood tests done. You might also want to try practising a few anecdotes in the mirror before "going live".the illnesses you have had." ambitious = wanting to succeed: "He's ambitious and wants to lead the company. any operations you have had and so on. You can get your prescription filled at a chemist. Have fun! Visiting the doctor The first time you visit a new doctor. "fabulous"."bad". Words that describe behaviour The A-Z of English word and phrases that describe behaviour. as high blood pressure is serious and can lead to life-threatening conditions. A check-up will include monitoring your blood pressure.not giving a lecture. A active = always doing something: "She's an active person and never wants to stay in. In winter. Of course. experiment with more interesting words. you can get a referral to a clinic or a hospital. "awful" or "terrible". If you need medication. Children need to have their injections and if you are going abroad on holiday. a doctor will write you a prescription. and try to "involve" them in the story or anecdote. you might also need to have injections against infectious diseases." . you can also visit the doctor for a huge range of other reasons. "horrible". you should talk about your medical history . or a condition such as asthma." aggressive = being angry or threatening: "He's aggressive and starts arguments. Your doctor will probably also take your pulse to check that your heart rate is normal. A doctor uses a stethoscope to listen to your breathing . Finally . or you might need to see a specialist. "wonderful". such as "beautiful". or you might need an X-ray. For more serious medical conditions.remember that you are telling a story . use the right intonation and try to make your face expressive.particularly if you have a heart or chest infection. Keep eye contact.

argumentative = always arguing with people: "He won't accept what you say ." clever = intelligent: "She's a clever student and picks things up quickly." conscientious = doing something carefully." considerate = thinking and caring about others: "My neighbour brought me flowers when I was in hospital ." B bad-tempered = in a bad mood: "What's got into him lately? He's so bad-tempered."I'm sure he'll have an accident. but calling her names is a bit catty." charming = pleasant and likeable: "What a charming man!" cheeky = being rude or disrespectful: "It was a bit cheeky of him to ask for more money." C careless = not taking care: "He's a careless driver ." caring = wanting to help people: "My boss is caring and often asks me how things are going.he thinks everyone should admire him.he's very considerate." cautious = being careful." assertive = being confident."I find him very arrogant. so people can't force you to do things you don't want to do: "It's important to be assertive at work. or better than others: "He's so conceited . because you want to do it well: "She's a conscientious student and always does her homework." catty = saying nasty or spiteful things about other people: "I know you don't like her. so that you avoid mistakes: "He's cautious about investing money in the stock market." big-headed = thinking you're very important or clever: "I've never met anyone so bigheaded!" bossy = telling people what to do all the time: "He's so bossy .he's argumentative and loves to disagree!" arrogant = thinking you are better than anyone else: "He always behaves as if nobody else's opinion is important .") ." ("That was considerate of him." conceited = thinking you're very clever.he never lets me do things the way I want to do them.

" creative = someone who can make or design things." ." dogmatic = wanting others to accept your ideas without discussion: "He's a dogmatic politician and always thinks he's right. but otherwise she's a good worker." docile = quiet and submissive: "She's a docile child and always does what she's told." excitable = someone who easily gets excited: "He gets very excitable about politics . or can think of solutions to a problem: "She's creative and artistic." E enthusiastic = having a lot of interest in something: "He's an enthusiastic supporter of equal rights." curious = wanting to know things: "I'm curious to find out what you think of the situation." full of himself = acting proud of yourself: "He was full of himself after he got the promotion ." F faithful = being loyal to someone or something: "She's a faithful friend." domineering = trying to control other people: "He's loud and domineering in the office it's difficult to get him to listen to us." fickle = changing your mind and being unpredictable: "Politicians can be fickle when it suits them!" flaky = slightly unstable and unreliable: "She's a little flaky at times." funny = making other people laugh: "He can be extremely funny when he's in the mood." D deceitful = trying to make people think something.coy = pretending to be shy so that you don't have to give information: "He's very coy about his qualifications ." extroverted = outgoing and lively: "She's extroverted and loves going out with's one of his passions in life. so that you get what you want: "He lied to get this job .he's so got annoying after a while.maybe he doesn't have any.

" inventive = able to think up new ideas: "As head of Marketing." H happy-go-lucky = not worrying about what might happen in the future: "He's a bit happy-go-lucky and doesn't think about the future.he can be so impulsive at times!" inconsiderate = not considering other people or their feelings: "It was a little inconsiderate of him not to give you a get-well card. he can often think of inventive ways to keep his customers happy. but became more confident as he got older." G good-natured = kind and thoughtful: "She's good-natured and always tries to help." I impulsive = doing things without thinking first: "If he sees something he likes.she looked after my cat when I was on holiday.fussy = only liking certain things: "She's fussy about what she wears." introverted = opposite of extroverted: "He was introverted as a teenager." irritating = annoying others: "He can be very irritating to work with." J jokey = making jokes: "You're in a jokey mood today." L loud-mouthed = someone who talks a lot and often says offensive things: "Don't worry about what he said ." ." K kind = thoughtful and caring: "My neighbour is kind . he just buys it . but we've got work to do!" jolly = happy and cheerful: "It was the weekend and everyone was in a jolly mood." grumpy = someone who tends to be in a bad mood: "He's always grumpy in the morning and never says 'hello'.he's loud-mouthed at times.

" playful = someone who likes to play and have fun: "You're in a playful mood today!" pleasant = nice and polite: "The bank manager was pleasant to me today." moody = having unpredictable moods: "Some people think he's moody .we're rushing to finish the work before our deadline." O old-fashioned = behaving or thinking in a way that isn't modern: "He's a bit oldfashioned and thinks women shouldn't spelling mistakes are allowed." manipulative = trying to get people to do what you want." picky = only liking certain things or people: "She's picky about her friends.the last person you want to negotiate with.doing what other people want you to do without arguing: "He's passive at work." M manic = behaving in a slightly crazy way: "We're a bit manic at the moment ." ." persuasive = being able to persuade people to do things or to accept your ideas: "He's a persuasive talker." perfectionnist = someone who wants perfection: "Her boss is a perfectionnist . by influencing or deceiving them: "She's very manipulative when she wants never know if he's happy or grumpy." P passive = not assertive . but domineering at home." polite = showing good manners: "She's polite and never forgets to say 'please' or 'thank you'.loyal = someone who is faithful and stands by you: "His colleagues were loyal to him when he was having problems with his boss." N nervous = uncomfortable with a situation: "I'm always nervous before an exam." opinionated = having strong opinions: "He's opinionated and dogmatic .

" R reserved = keeping your ideas and thoughts to yourself: "He's reserved.I doubt he'll ever become a lawyer.pragmatic = being practical and aware of your limitations: "She's pragmatic at work and only does what she can. but polite." shy = quiet." thoughtless = not thinking about people or the consequences of your actions: "I'm sure he didn't mean to be rude ." slapdash = doing your work quickly and carelessly: "He's got a very slapdash attitude ." sincere = saying what you believe (opposite of insincere): "He's sincere in his beliefs. she can be quite spiteful." .he can be thoughtless at times." S scatter-brained / scatty = someone who often forgets things: "Don't you remember where you put your wallet? You're so scatter-brained!" serious = not light-hearted: "He's a serious student and always does his homework.he's sly and manipulative." slimy = trying to get what you want by being over-friendly: "That man is so slimy . because you are not very confident: "He's so shy and hates saying anything to people he doesn't know." rude = impolite: "He's very rude and never says 'please' or 'thank you'." Q quick-tempered = getting angry quickly: "He was quick-tempered when he was young. but he's more relaxed now.he makes me feel sick!" sly = doing things in a secretive way: "You never know what he's up to ." T thoughtful = someone who thinks a lot: "He's a thoughtful person and won't do anything unless he has considered the consequences." spiteful = trying to hurt other people because you didn't get what you wanted: "If she doesn't get what she wants.

easily feels emotion. Cynical suggests a disbelief in the sincerity of human motives A. A. very experienced in life Rephrasing Sometimes we say things that other people don't understand. often doing things to make other people feel good sophisticated A. thinking too highly of oneself. having much imagination A. seeing little or no good in other people. having strange. considering oneself better than others. = Idiom N. = Verb cynical eccentric egotistical imaginative indecisive picky sensible sensitive thoughtful A. practical. easily hurt emotionally can be positive or negative A. This is an example conversation where one person says something that the other person thinks is strange. = Adverb IDM. something that makes sense A. reasonable. hard to please. weird or bizarre." W witty = being able to make other people laugh by what you say: "He's witty and charming . believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere. not knowing what choice to make A. LUIZ: "English is a very easy language to learn.trustworthy = someone you can trust: "My accountant is really trustworthy. representing high culture. creative. too careful in choosing something A. unusual or abnormal habits or tastes This term is less insulting than strange." IRENE: "What do you mean?" LUIZ: "Well." . = Adjective ADV.the perfect person to invite to a party." Personalities A." V volatile quickly changing moods: "He's easily excitable and pretty volatile. unable to decide quickly. or we give the wrong impression. A. = Noun V. what I meant to say was that it is easy if you practise every day.

" Rephrasing expressions "What I meant to say was…" "Let me rephrase that…" "Let me put this another way…" "Perhaps I'm not making myself clear…" Back to the beginning If you're explaining something. right. especially if you can do it in a slightly different way. . Here are some of the more common expressions. you can use the following phrases: "If we go back to the beginning…" "The basic idea is…" "One way of looking at it is…" "Another way of looking at it is…" If you forget the English word If you forget the word you want to use. but…" "What I want to say is…" Speaking Tip Don't be afraid to repeat what you're saying. you can say: "I can't find the word I'm looking for…" "I'm not sure that this is the right word.IRENE: "Oh. Giving advice in English There are many ways of giving advice in English. and you realise that the other person doesn't understand.

I would…" "Have you thought about…" "You really ought to…" ('ought' is pronounced 'ort') "Why don't you…" "In your position." "You could always get a penpal. you could say: "If I were you." Giving your opinions There are many ways to give your opinions when speaking website." "Have you thought about going to the UK for a couple of weeks?" "You really ought to watch English television. Giving your opinion neutrally "I think…" "I feel that…" "In my opinion…" ." "You should perhaps look at the english-at-home. I would…" "You should perhaps…" "You could always…" Examples If someone says "I'm having problems learning English". I would try and practise speaking English." "Why don't you read more English books?" "In your position."If I were you. The exact English expression you use depends on how strong your opinion is. I'd sign up for an English course.

) Can / Could you give / get me …. so that your speech sounds more varied! How to ask for things in English Asking for things in English doesn't need to be stressful.) A table for two. please? (Falling intonation) (Good morning. and you'll be able to deal with most situations smoothly and confidently! Asking clerks or at help desks (Hello."As far as I'm concerned…" "As I see it…" "In my view…" "I tend to think that…" Giving a strong opinion "I'm absolutely convinced that…" "I'm sure that…" "I strongly believe that…" "I have no doubt that…" English expressions for asking someone's opinion "What do you think?" "What's your view?" "How do you see the situation?" Speaking Tip Try to practise using these expressions. .. please. please? (Good evening.) Can / Could I have …. Just remember some key phrases..

three tens and a five. Is this the right way for…. "Ah". Do you know if…? ….Interrupting people to ask them for something Excuse me… ….) Responding to questions You ask for something. (keeping an eye on my luggage?) …. "Um". Here are some ways that you can be polite. (there's a Post Office near here)? In more formal situations Excuse me… …. Remember." Clerk: "Single or return?" You: "Um. Could you tell me if …. then the person you have asked needs more information. please. Anything else?" You: "Um. return please. do you have any information about musicals?" Tips When you ask someone for something. complete silence makes the other person feel uneasy! You: "Two tickets to Glasgow. (the Post Office)? …. please. Can I have a leaflet about London museums.say something to give you time to think. Would you mind …. or "Er" to give you a second or two to formulate an answer. We're coming back tomorrow. you can "play for time" . or you ask them to do something for you. You: "Hello. er. Do you have…? …." (You are at the bureau de change) Clerk: How would you like your money? You: Oh. (credit cards)? …. it is essential to be as polite as possible. Say hello A "hello" and a smile go a long way! Say "hello" at the beginning of your request. If you haven't expected this. (move your suitcase a little. please. He or she asks you a question. . Say something like "Oh"." Clerk: "Sure. Do you accept …. I wonder if you could ….

" Say "thank you" after you have received something: "Here's your change. Three stamps for Europe. thank you. (I'd like) a travel card.) How can I help you? What can I do for you? 2." "Can you give me directions to Oxford Street. You ask for something Hello. do yo have this dress in a smaller size?" (In a shop) "Excuse me. We've booked a table for four. please.) "Good evening." Remember "please" and "thank you" "Please" normally goes at the end of the sentence: "Two tickets please." You can use "Yes. please" or "No. Clerk asks you a question . you can say "Good morning"."Hello." "Thank you. do you know where the nearest bank is?" (On the street) Structure of an example conversation 1. please." In more formal situations. "Good afternoon" or "Good evening". we only say "Good night" if we're saying "Good bye" at the end of the day. 3. remember to say "excuse me": "Excuse me. please. please" or "No. I'd like some information about… Can I have…. (Remember. Clerk greets you (Good morning. thank you" in response to a question: "Would you like salad with your pizza?" "Yes." Say "excuse me" If you ask someone who is doing something else.

Single or return? Air-mail or surface mail? 4. You answer Oh, er, single thanks. Um, let me see. Air-mail please. 5. Clerk asks you if you need anything else Will that be all? (Is there) anything else? 6. You answer Ah, actually I'd also like… No, that's it thanks / thank you.

How to express shock in English
It is sometimes difficult to say how you feel in unexpected situations, such as natural disasters, especially when you feel sad. Here's a list of some common expressions to help you express shock and disbelief.

I was shocked to hear… The news came as a complete shock. We're all in complete shock. Everyone's reeling from the shock of… It happened out of the blue. Who could have predicted it? I (just) can't get over …. We were completely taken aback by… I was just stunned by…

I just can't believe… It's unbelievable. I / You just can't imagine… Words can't describe… (how I feel about / the terrible devastation etc) There's no way it could have happened.

Saying how bad something is
It's so awful. It's terrible / What terrible news. It's a tragedy. It's a catastrophe (pronounced "ca - tas - tra - fee" with the stress on "-tas") This is the worst thing that could have happened.

How to keep the conversation going
What can you say when you want to encourage people to keep talking to you? Try making a comment or asking a question - it shows the other person you're interested in what they are saying. Here are some examples of what you can say:

Making comments
"No!" - to show surprise. "I don't believe it!" - to show surprise. "Wow!" - to show admiration or surprise. "That's incredible / amazing / unbelievable" - to show great interest in the subject of conversation. "How awful / terrible" - to show sympathy with someone else's bad news.

Asking questions
"Really?" - to show surprise. "And you?" - when someone asks you how you are. "Did you?" - can be used to encourage someone to tell their story. For example, "I saw her last night", "Did you?" "Yes, she was with one of her friends, and she…."

How to make a booking in English

Making a booking in English does not have to be complicated. In fact, if you keep the information concise, you will find it easy!

Starting the conversation
I'd like to….. …. book a double room (for two nights from Monday 2 August to…) …. book a table (for two at 9 pm tomorrow night) …. book a flight (from London to Paris on Tuesday 10 November) …. book seats (tonight for "Phantom of the Opera") You can also reserve a room, a table or seats.

Responding to questions
How many people is the booking for? … It's for two people. How would you like to pay? … Can I pay by credit card? Can you spell your surname? … Yes, it's B - R - O - W - N. Can you give me your credit card number and expiry date? …Yes, it's ……. Travel bookings What time do you want to leave / arrive / check-out? … I'd like to arrive in London by 6 pm. Would you like to take advantage of our special insurance / extra facilities? … No thank you / Could you give me extra information?

Asking for more information
Does this price include all taxes? (for hotels and flights)

speak slowly and emphasise the important information.what type of theatre seat you need . theatre tickets or a hotel room) Research the vocabulary you need before you make a call: .where you want to sit on the plane Remember to pronounce numbers and letters clearly.Is there a booking fee? (for flights. . passing many nights (at a hotel) .what type of hotel room you want . Well done! You can say this to someone who has passed an exam or achieved something difficult like a much does it cost (for a flight. restaurants) What time do I have to check in / do I have to check out? (for flights. hotels) Is there an ensuite bathroom? (for hotels) Tips Remember the essential information: . promotions. theatre tickets) How much is the baggage allowance? (for flights) Could you confirm my booking? What time should I arrive? (for theatres. or to the parents and family of a new baby. When you spell something or give a many people (at a restaurant or the theatre) . How to respond appropriately in special situations Certain situations need special vocabulary… Congratulations! You can say Congratulations in many circumstances.what time (for a flight or at a restaurant) . such as for weddings.

Many happy returns! Cultural note: Some birthdays are more special than others in Britain. . you could also hear Break a leg! If someone has failed at something. Wishing you the best of luck in your future together. by saying Good luck! But if people are superstitious and believe that saying "Good luck" will have the opposite effect. Please raise your glasses to… Writing to someone who has passed an exam If you are writing a card or a letter to someone who has passed an exam. and some people still celebrate it in a special way by giving silver keys. Congratulations on passing! You deserve it after so much hard work. Your 18th birthday is special as you then become an official adult. Writing wedding cards Here are a couple of standard phrases to write on wedding cards: Congratulations! Wishing you many happy years together. you can use the following expressions: Well done! It's a fantastic result. which represent the key to the door. In the past. Here's to … Let's drink to… Ladies and Gentlemen. 21 was the age of adulthood.Birthdays The most usual ways of referring to someone's birthday are by saying Happy Birthday! or more formally. you can say Bad luck! Toasting At parties and gatherings. Before an exam or something difficult Wish someone good luck before something difficult. "The Bride and Groom". you might be asked to drink a toast to celebrate a happy event.

If you are writing to the relatives of someone who has died. you can also write I was deeply saddened to hear… or Please accept my deepest condolences on the death of… (You can replace "I" with "We". such as "We were very sad to hear that…") How to say what's important Sometimes you need to say how important things are to you." "The most crucial thing for me is to be valued by my colleagues. These are all common ways of telling someone what your priorities are." "The most vital thing is knowing that I am doing a good job." "At the top of my list of priorities is feeling appreciated." "The least important thing is salary." "What really motivates me is learning about new ways of doing something." How to talk about illness Sometimes you don't feel very well. I would like to develop my marketing skills.Writing in sad situations In difficult situations you can write I was so sorry to hear that …. Here are some common expressions that you can use to describe general "aches and pains" and some useful . getting results is the most important. but you're not really ill." "What's really important to me is being able to learn something new." "I'm extremely interested in learning more about the market. In addition." "As far as my priorities go. In a job interview "The most important thing for me is that the job is challenging. I am most interested in getting results." "In terms of priorities.

" "I'm not feeling very well."sympathetic" responses." (Flu = influenza) "I've got a nasty cough." "Why don't you go home and have a lie-down.I hope it's not a migraine." "Maybe you should go home and get some rest." "You don't look very well." "I have a touch of flu." "You look a little pale. There's a bug going around." "I think I'm going down with a cold." (pronounced "coff") ." (nagging = a pain that won't go away) "I've got a splitting headache ." "I think I've got a bit of a temperature. General aches and pains "I feel a bit under the weather." "I've got a slight headache." Sympathetic responses "I'm sorry to hear that." (Or toothache / stomach ache / backache) Pronounced "ake" as in "cake"." "Maybe you're going down with something." "I've got a nagging pain in my shoulder. I've got a sore throat. "I'm not sleeping very well at the moment." "I feel a little faint." Mild illness "I have a bit of a stomach bug.

Keep a note of television programmes and presenters that you find easy to understand and try to watch them regularly. The pictures make it easier to understand than radio and because you can see who's talking. Here's the english@home guide to learning as much as possible while watching English television: Only watch programmes you find interesting. Learning English should be fun . This is especially useful if the programme you are watching has been subtitled into your language. If the programme you're watching is full of unknown words. you'll be amazed how much you learn. so that you can jot down any new words or expressions that you hear.whatever you watch will help you to improve your English.not something you have to force yourself to do. Don't worry if you don't understand everything . just concentrate on understanding the general meaning. Asking to meet "Are you available on the 17th?" "Can we meet on the 16th?" . Even cartoons and children's programmes are useful when learning English and quiz shows are useful for learning how to ask and answer questions in English. Try to watch English television regularly. Keep a notebook near to your television. If you have a passion for football.Learn English with television Television is great for learning English. Even if you can only watch 15 minutes a day. you get a better idea of what people mean.English television is normally aimed at native English language speakers. Programmes often include difficult words and expressions. watch matches or the sports news. Doing this will increase your confidence and give you a sense of achievement. Making appointments Useful phrases for making and changing appointments. Just watch their "body language"! Watch programmes that you find enjoyable and entertaining .

I'd like to meet in the morning. Can we meet up on the 19th?" Setting a time "What sort of time would suit you?" "Is 3pm a good time for you?" "If possible." Suggesting a different date "I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd. but something urgent has come up." "Thursday suits me. I'd much prefer Friday."How does the 3rd sound to you?" "Are you free next week?" "Would Friday suit you?" "Is next Tuesday convenient for you?" "What about sometime next week?" Agreeing on a date "Yes." "How does 2pm sound to you?" Changing the arrangement "You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well. Can we make another time?" ." "Thursday would be perfect. Thursday is fine. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?" "Ah. if that's alright with you. What about the 6th?" "I'm sorry. Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. Can we fix another time?" "Something has just cropped up and I won't be able to meet you this afternoon." "I really don't think I can on the 17th." "I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. I won't be able to make it on Monday. I'm very sorry.

Friends have bought them baby clothes already. The birth itself was uncomplicated. a cot (for the baby to sleep in). She didn't feel too much pain and didn't need an epidural." (lance . During the pregnancy she had terrible morning sickness and she also had cravings (a strong desire to eat something) for cheese and pickle sandwiches. such as a baby bath. it was a normal delivery and she didn't need a Caesarean section (operation).m. so they are as ready as they can be for their new baby. He said "Congratulations! It's a healthy baby girl!" She and her husband prepared their house before she went into hospital." Rash = allergic reaction which makes your skin go red: "When she used the soap her skin came out in a rash. a carry cot (so they can carry the baby around). Instead. and the baby was born at 7 a. I wonder what caused it. She went into labour at midnight." . Boil = infected swelling with liquid inside it: "You'll need to go to the doctor to have that boil lanced. a mobile (to hang over the cot so that the baby can see moving shapes) and more teddy bears than any baby can surely need. She waited until the second trimester (after three months) to tell people.puncture and clean) Lump = swelling: "I have a strange lump on my arm. They decorated the nursery. Luckily. as by then there is less risk of losing the baby / having a miscarriage. They also had to buy some baby equipment. Medical vocabulary English words and phrases connected with injury. The doctor cut the cord and put the baby on her stomach.VOCABULARY Baby vocabulary How to talk about pregnancy and babies. just to make sure that everything went well. Her midwife (special nurse who follows a woman throughout pregnancy) was with her during the birth. My friend got pregnant / conceived in April and her baby was born in January. she was on drips to make the contractions come a little quicker. a changing mat (on which they will change the baby's nappies).

" "Fortunately." "He was picking berries and got a couple of scratches from the thorns. she was always grazing her knee. but more painful: "The cat scratched me ." Gash = deep cut: "He gashed his hand badly on a piece of broken glass." Cut = when something sharp breaks your skin and you bleed: "He cut himself badly on the bread knife." "I got a small graze on my hand when I fell onto some gravel. There were only a few cuts and bruises. high-street chemists stock a huge range of toiletries (items for personal hygiene)." These words can be used as nouns and verbs Bruise = when the skin goes blue and yellow: "She fell down the stairs and bruised her arm. You might need stitches." Bump = when you hit yourself and get a slight swelling: "Ow! I bumped my head on the desk!" "It's only a little bump ." "She got a nasty cut on her hand while she was diving. but it's only a minor sprain.Scab = dry skin that forms over a cut: "Don't pick at your scab .you might make it bleed. nobody was seriously injured in the accident. Dispensing chemists ." "I've got a terrible itch where the mosquito bit me." Chemist vocabulary In England." Sprain = twist a part of your body: "She sprained her ankle when she slipped on the ice. cosmetics." Itch = when a part of your body makes you want to scratch it: "My eyes are itching ." "My ankle looks swollen. she had a swelling on her leg for days." Spot = red mark on the skin (much smaller than a boil): "When he was a teenager he had a lot of spots.nothing serious." "That's a nasty gash." Graze = slight cut ." Swelling = an irritation or infection that makes the skin rise: "After the wasp stung her." "He has a bruise just under his eye.this atmosphere is too smoky for me.not enough to bleed much: "When she was little. " Scratch = like a stings a little. baby products. perfumes and medicines.

which is like string that you use to clean between your teeth. and lipgloss which adds shine to your lips. you can find eye-liner (or kohl). and feminine hygiene products. blusher (to add colour to your cheeks). To colour your nails you can use nail polish. you can buy toothbrushes. mascara (for your eyelashes) and eye-shadow. You can buy shampoo and conditioner (to wash your hair) and products to colour hair. Personal hygiene There's normally a wide selection of personal hygiene products. lipstick (which adds colour to your lips). . hot bath. such as tampons and sanitary towels. Many English people like to soak in a long. For styling your hair you can buy gel or mousse. baby wipes (to help clean a baby) and so on. For oral hygiene. Along with the nappies are other products for babies.all ways to add nice smells to your bath! You can also buy nail scissors and emery boards (to file your nails) and pumice stone. You can also buy hair brushes or combs. to rub away dry skin from your feet. which act a bit like glue to keep your hair in a particular style. shaving foam. which are plastic objects that keep your hair in place. such as nappy cream. and so there's a huge market in bath oils. cotton wool buds (lengths of plastic tipped with soft cotton to clean a baby's ears.also fill prescriptions (given to you by your doctor) and some even develop films for you. bath salts or bubble bath . You can also buy face and body creams. soap and deodorant. to make your hair neat. and hair grips and hair slides. Make up If you are looking for cosmetics or make-up. You can also buy foundation (a cream to put on your face to give an even surface). Hair care Chemists also stock a range of hair products. Driving vocabulary Here are some words and phrases you'll find helpful when driving in an English-speaking country. Baby care Many people buy nappies (diapers) for their babies at chemists. for example). which is coloured powder to put on your eyelids. also known as nail varnish. moisturiser (cream to prevent your skin from going dry). to shave hair from your body. Other items you can find in this section of the chemist are razors. toothpaste and dental floss.

You should also use your mirrors (wing mirrors on the side of the car) and rearview mirror (to see behind you) before you set off.) Signal left to leave the roundabout after you have passed the exit previous to yours. check to see that no pedestrians are crossing the road into which you are turning. the penalties can be serious. get in the middle lane(s). Some junctions are controlled by traffic lights. There are also box junctions. If there is a Stop sign at the junction.Regulations In England. Roundabouts At roundabouts. get into the left hand lane. except if they have certain medical conditions. make a turning. You can only go into a box if your exit is clear. you go round in a clockwise direction. and seatbelts should also be worn in the back seat. you may get a fine or points on your licence. After green. A sign tells you what the maximum speed limit is. If you "drink drive" (drive after drinking alcohol). There are many hidden speed cameras in operation. Be especially careful to respect the speed limits on the roads. (If you are leaving at the first exit. the light changes to amber (orange) and you can only continue if your car has already crossed the line and when stopping could cause an accident. and here the same rules apply as for traffic lights on other roads. . you must drive on the left (unless road signs tell you otherwise or if you are overtaking . If there is a Give Way sign (also shown as a triangle). where there are yellow lines painted in a box on the road. Drivers should also turn round to look over their right shoulder so that they can see what is happening in their blind spot . if you are leaving at the middle exits. You have to give priority to traffic coming from the right.the place behind you that you cannot see . and you can only start moving when the light changes to green. The driver's seat is on the right hand side of the car. The gearstick is to the left of the driver. Most people will advise you not to drink alcohol at all before driving. you must give priority to traffic on the main road. so watch out! Indicators You should use your indicators to show if you are turning left or right.passing another car). as they have priority and you will have to wait. You should get in lane according to which exit you need. slow down or overtake. Road junctions At road junctions. and the passenger's seat is on the left. and if you break the speed limit. A red light means "stop". and get into the right hand lane if you are leaving at the last exit.even with mirrors. Drivers and passengers have to wear a seatbelt. you must stop your car behind the white line and wait until there is a gap in the traffic.

you're likely to have other furniture in your bedroom. or those which have a double bed (bed which is big enough for two people). joining or leaving the motorway. You have to take extra care when overtaking. The upper bunk is reached by a small ladder. with a mirror to see your reflection in when you do your hair or make-up. you can replace the top sheet and blankets with a duvet (a warm. or skirts and dresses on clothes hangers. they might sleep in bunk beds. which is a small table next to the bed. If you break down. On the bedside table. many people use a hot water bottle (a flat rubber bag that you fill with hot water then seal) to put into the bed to warm it up. Some people also have a sheet over them. with blankets (made from wool) to keep them warm. learner drivers (those who haven't yet passed their driving tests) cannot drive on motorways. There are zebra crossings (which are marked by white stripes in the road) and there are pelican crossings. which is a small table that you sit in front of. but in a variety of colours or patterns). Bedrooms come in all shapes and sizes. On your bed. Some people choose to sleep in a futon (a Japanese bed which is low on the ground) and some people who like luxury might have a four-poster (a bed which has four posts . and a couple of drawers. where a red flashing light means you have to stop for pedestrians. Motorway driving There are special rules for driving on motorways. The speed limit is higher than on other roads. you'll have at least one sheet (normally in cotton. and there are at least three lanes of traffic. When children share a bedroom.Pedestrian crossings There are two main types of pedestrian crossings. and the duvet is also put inside a cotton duvet cover. Some people also have an electric blanket that they use to warm up the bed. such as a chest of drawers (a piece of furniture with several drawers to put clothes in). and a bedside table. trousers. or even twin beds (two single beds side by side). but lightweight quilt). where there is one bed on top of the other. Alternatively. If it gets really cold. you can also have a quilt or eiderdown over your blankets. You can find bedrooms which contain just a single bed. which is a piece of furniture with doors where you can hang shirts. Other .and from which you can hang curtains or mosquito nets). As well as a in each corner . Pillows are normally put inside a cotton pillow case. You can't park on either type of crossing. You're likely to sleep with your head on a pillow. you might have a bedside light and an alarm clock. you should stay in the hard shoulder (a narrow lane on the left) and wait for assistance. In short. and you normally lie on top of this sheet. which is often filled with feathers. In England. a wardrobe. and you should give way to pedestrians. Some people also have a dressing table. English bedroom vocabulary English words connected with the bedroom.

" jump for joy: "We jumped for joy when we got the mortgage." in seventh heaven: "They were in seventh heaven when they learned they'd won a cruise." Annoyed because you have missed an opportunity sick as a parrot: "He was as sick as a parrot when he realised he had thrown away his lottery ticket. :-) All these idioms mean that you are absolutely delighted! over the moon: "He was over the moon when he heard the news. see red: "Don't talk to him about his boss ." feel blue: "She felt a little blue when she lost her job. worry): "When her son went missing." :-V These idioms mean that you are very angry." on cloud nine: "When I got the job. down in the dumps: "When she left him." thrilled to bits: "She was thrilled to bits with her new bicycle. sad or angry. she was beside herself with just makes him see red!" . I was on cloud nine for several weeks. as well a hair brush and even a clothes brush (a special brush that you use to clean jackets and shirts)." :-( These idioms mean you are feeling sad. he was down in the dumps for a couple of weeks.people might have their mirror on their chest of drawers." beside yourself (with grief. English idioms of emotion Here are some emotional idioms to tell people whether you're happy.

but nothing has worked. aluminium foil (metal paper). They just seem to rub each other up the wrong way. forks and spoons)." In desperation These idioms mean you don't know what to do. In the eye level cupboards you will probably find dry goods (such as flour. either at floor level. where various items are kept. He's tried everything to solve the problem. Other people have a kitchen where the units are free-standing: not necessarily bought together at one time. pasta. and they are assembled according to a plan. where all the kitchen units have been bought together." Less angry idioms. sugar." English vocabulary for the kitchen Some people have a fitted kitchen. such as cutlery (knives. rice. spices) and maybe glasses and crockery (plates." at your wits' end: "He's at his wits' end. bowls etc). and serving dishes made from glass or china." rub someone up the wrong way: "Those two are always arguing. Often the top part of a floor level cupboard has a drawer. baking tins and roasting tins for cooking food in the oven." To be off someone's Christmas card list: "Oh dear. cling film (thin plastic .she's in a black mood today." to not be on speaking terms: "They're not on speaking terms at the moment after their row. frying pans for frying food. I think I'm off her Christmas card list after insulting her husband!" have a downer on someone: "What's John done? You seem to have a real downer on him. In the floor level cupboards you might find pots and pans: saucepans for cooking pasta etc. at the end of your tether: "I just can't cope. cheesed off: "I was really cheesed off when I lost the competition. or at eye level. In a kitchen you are likely to find cupboards (or cabinets)." in a black mood: "Be careful what you say . I'm at the end of my tether with all these bills and debts.hopping mad: "She was hopping mad when she found out her daughter had disobeyed her. You could also find other kitchen implements such as a blender (= food processor) and kitchen scales (for measuring and weighing food).

Most kitchens also contain a cooker with an oven and four rings." appalled = very shocked: "They were appalled to hear that they would lose their jobs. potato peeler (to take the skin off potatoes). where the oven is separate from the rings)." ashamed: "How could you say such a thing? You should be ashamed of yourself!" at the end of your tether = completely fed up: "The children have been misbehaving all day . where you can prepare food. and larger kitchens also contain a kitchen table and chairs." B bewildered = very confused: "He was bewildered by the choice of computers in the shop. salt. and other kitchen items such as a bread knife. A angry: "She was angry with her boss for criticising her work." betrayed = when someone breaks the trust you have in them: "He betrayed my trust when he repeated my secret to everyone.I'm at the end of my tether." "She was annoyed by his comments. a fridgefreezer. where you wash the plates and dishes. He hasn't returned any of my calls. a rolling pin (to roll out pastry) and so on. or hard wood. corkscrew (to open bottles of wine). or various sauces. (although some modern cookers are split level. and they can be easily cleaned. English words for emotions The A-Z of English words that describe emotions. freezer bags. On the top of the floor level cupboards you often find a worktop or work surface." apprehensive = slightly worried: "I felt a little apprehensive before my interview." ." annoyed: "I'm very annoyed with him. such as oil.wrap). You'll probably find a kitchen sink. along with things they need frequently. and perhaps a dishwasher or even a washing machine. so you can eat in the same room. These surfaces are sometimes made of marble. tin opener. Some people keep a toaster or microwave on the work surfaces.

" E ecstatic = extremely happy: "When he asked her to marry him she was ecstatic. It's just what I always wanted.I should have won that competition." G great = very good: "I feel great today!" ." frightened: "As a child she was frightened of the dark." cross = quite angry: "I was cross with him for not helping me." envious = when you want something that someone else has: "I'm very envious of her happiness ." disappointed: "She was disappointed by her son's poor results at school. he became quite emotional.I was confused about the dates." confident = sure of your abilities: "I'm confident that we can find a solution to this problem. as he said he would.C confused: "I'm sorry I forgot your birthday ." embarrassed = slightly ashamed: "I felt so embarrassed that I went bright red." F furious =very angry: "I was furious with him for breaking my favourite vase. he was depressed for a week." emotional = you have strong feelings (happy or sad) and you cry: "When he heard the news." excited: "I'm excited by the new opportunities that the internet brings." D depressed = very sad: "After he failed his English exam." down in the dumps = sad and fed up: "What's the matter with him? He's so down in the dumps these days.I wish I was happy too." delighted = very happy: "I'm delighted that I got the job." cheated = when you don't get something that you think you deserve: "Of course I feel cheated .

I felt really let down." "I'm keen on keeping fit.I feel really lazy!" lucky: "I'm going to play the lottery ." K keen: "I'm keen to see your new house .H happy: "She was happy to hear the good news.I've heard lots about it." I irritated = annoyed: "I get so irritated when he changes TV channels without asking me first." N nonplussed = so surprised that you don't know what to do next: "I was so nonplussed by his announcement that I couldn't say anything.I feel lucky today!" let down = disappointed: "When you didn't turn up to the meeting." . I just feel jaded." horrified = very shocked: "I'm horrified by the amount of violence on television today." L lazy: "I can't be bothered to do anything today ." jaded = tired and having no interest: "After 10 years at this company." intrigued = being so interested in something you have to find out more: "I'm intrigued to hear about your safari in Kenya." J jealous = envious: "She was jealous of her sister's new toy." negative = when you can only see the disadvantages: "I feel very negative about my job the pay is awful." M maternal = feeling like a mother: "Looking at my sister's new baby made me feel really maternal.

" P positive = opposite of negative . but hiding it: "She was seething after her boss criticised her." scared = frightened: "Are you scared of heights?" stressed = being worried or anxious about something so you can't relax: "I feel really stressed at work .the one we have is fine." terrified = very scared: "She's terrified of spiders and screams whenever she sees one.I need a break.I'm positive." R relaxed: "I was completely relaxed after I came back from holiday." "He was stressed out by all the travelling in his job." positive = very sure: "Are you sure that's what you want? Yes .O overwhelmed = so much emotion that you don't know what to say or do: "I was overwhelmed by the offer of promotion at work." T terrific = fantastic: "I feel terrific today!" terrible = ill or tired: "I've got a blinding headache and I feel terrible." reluctant = when you don't want to do something: "I'm reluctant to buy a new car ." sad: "It makes me sad to see all those animals in cages at the zoo." S seething = extremely angry." tense = not relaxed: "You look a bit tense." over the moon = delighted: "She was over the moon with her new bicycle and rode it every day for a whole year.seeing the good side of something: "She's a very positive person and never lets anything get her down. Did you have a bad day at work?" .

PG (parental guidance) suitable for everyone over the age of 8. The cinema Many people regularly go to the cinema (or the pictures). which are in the first balcony. with U suitable for all ages. the better seat you get. for the matinee (pronounced "mat . Films are classified in Britain. where you can see plays. which are private rooms built into the side walls of the theatre." V victimised = to feel you are the victim of someone or something: "My boss kept criticising me and not the others. musicals or pantomimes (a comedy play performed over Christmas). Most towns have a multiplex (= multi-screen) cinema which show a wide range of films." W wonderful = great: "I felt wonderful after such a relaxing . . You can choose to go in the afternoon.U upset = angry or unhappy: "I'm sorry you're upset . They also have good views of the stage. Above this are cheaper seats in the Balcony or the Gallery. or in the evening. 12 (where no children can watch unless they are with an adult). and these have the best views. The theatre Large towns as well as the major cities have theatres. There are also seats in the Boxes. Generally. so I felt quite victimised.ay") performance. The stalls are the seats at ground level in front of the stage. which are so high up that it's often difficult to see the actors. 15 (where no one under the age of 15 can watch) and 18 (only suitable for adults)." unhappy = sad: "I was unhappy to hear that I hadn't got the job. the more you pay. Then there are the seats in the Upper Circle. from feature films to family films.I didn't mean to be rude." Entertainment What do you like doing in your spare time? Do you go somewhere with your friends or your family? Here is some useful vocabulary for talking about entertainment. which are in the second balcony. Then there are the seats in the Dress Circle (or Royal Circle).

such as fun-days. and in London.fried in a frying pan roasted . people still go to the dogs. younger people often go clubbing (= night clubs) or to a disco with their friends. to see and bet on dog racing. Children often like to go by themselves to funfairs.cooked over a saucepan of boiling water fried / sauteed . Family entertainment Bank holidays and weekends are favourite times to go out with your family. How food is cooked boiled . Bingo is popular. many people go to their local (= pub) where they can play darts or pool (= a type of snooker). In Britain. with Glastonbury Festival being one of the most popular. as well as have a drink with friends. In summer there are often music festivals. parades and carnivals are much cheaper. where they can go on the rides and eat candyfloss.cooked in boiling water steamed . zoos and water parks can be quite expensive.cooked in oil in a frying pan stir-fried .cooked in oil in the oven grilled . A cheap night out There are also plenty of cheap activities available in towns and cities. from opera to classical concerts to jazz. At the weekend.fried fast in hot oil pan-fried . such as circuses. rock and pop gigs (= concerts). But other events. You can often find a leisure centre in towns. folk. Some things.cooked under a grill .Live music Large cities can offer you a huge range of musical performances. which offer sport facilities. Food vocabulary Words and phrases to help you talk about food in English.

the interest rates. lobster. turkey. duck game = rabbit.cooked in the oven stewed . and rising property prices. pork or beef poultry = chicken. crab vegetables fruit Dishes starter / hors d'oeuvre / appetiser main course dessert / pudding House and home vocabulary People in Britain often talk about their homes: their mortgages.baked . hare. goose.cooked slowly in juices Types of food meat = lamb. Here's a guide to some of the words and phrases you might come across. mussels. The next step is to go to an estate agent (= a company which represents buyers and sellers of properties) to see what sort of properties they have available in your budget . scallops. shrimps. Your dream home It's a good idea in the UK to arrange a mortgage with a bank before you start looking.cooked for a long time on a low heat casseroled . pheasant fish = salt water fish / sea fish. This is when the bank tells you how much money they will lend you so you have a good idea of how much you can afford. partridge. fresh water fish seafood = prawns.

Most British houses are made of brick and cement. as you don't pay any money at this point. the walls are covered in plaster. and if the vendor accepts it. Congratulations! House vocabulary Unless you live in a block of flats or a bungalow (one-storey house with or without an attic). If you see something you like. with a landing (area) on the upper floor which leads to the upstairs rooms. In a row of terrace houses (houses joined together). kitchen and dining room. On the roof of many houses you can still see a chimney and chimney pot . Your next step will probably be to get a structural survey done. you put in an offer. you need to appoint a solicitor (a lawyer) to do the conveyancing (= the legal paperwork.even if the house now benefits from central heating. you might also be busy trying to sell it. the estate agent will arrange for you to view the property. British houses normally have two or three floors or stories. you complete on your house. or loft. The floors of a house are connected by stairs. you can pull out of the offer at any time that you like. The internal walls of a house fall into two categories: load-bearing walls (those that are structural and support the weight of the floors) and partition walls (those walls that divide rooms. while on the first floor you'll probably find bedrooms and a bathroom. On the second or top floor is the attic. the offer isn't legally binding. . the interconnecting walls are cavity walls: they have a space between them to allow air to circulate.) If you already own a house. so that you can see the house or flat for yourself. A qualified surveyor will inspect the house and write a report that illustrates any structural problems. you can move forward with the sale. but can be knocked down. heavy pieces of wood or metal. and in theory. On the interiors. as they are not in a chain (=waiting for other people to buy their house before they can buy their next house). The vendor (seller) can accept or decline this offer. which are long.range and in your area. If you see something that takes your eye.) Floors and roofs are supported by strong>beams. Many house owners prefer to sell to first time buyers (those people who don't already own a home). If you still want to go ahead with the sale. On the ground floor you're likely to find the living room. like damp or drainage problems. and then either painted or decorated with wallpaper. You get the keys and you can move in whenever you want. However. once the contracts are signed and exchanged. Then you might want to throw a house-warming party. Finally.

For safety reasons. school children have to get up early and sit in classrooms for most of the day. some houses can suffer from damp (humidity) or dry rot. In living rooms and bedrooms. such as loft conversions and building extensions. For this reason. such as putting up shelves. Some plumbing (water piping) jobs should also be done by professional plumbers. However. although you can change taps. the floors are generally covered with carpets. and instead. laminate flooring (a type of thin wooden plank). the wiring in the house is on more than one circuit: lighting usually is on one circuit. Houses are normally connected to local utilities. Some electrical jobs (such as wiring or rewiring = installing the electrical cables) should only be done by professional electricians. In addition. For example. fitting cupboards and doors. but some people have their own septic tanks in their gardens to treat waste water. Houses that are connected to utilities have separate meters to show how much they consume. or tiles (either ceramic or vinyl). such as parquet (wooden squares). you should get a professional to install a gas boiler. you need to first apply for and obtain planning and building permission (from the local authorities) then employ a firm of builders. . Some building work can be done without supervision. For example. Those long summer days are over.with which they can then bill their customers. assembling furniture and so on. Representatives of these utility companies visit houses regularly to take meter readings . September means a return to school. although you can still change a plug. damp winter weather causes many problems to houses. not everyone is connected to mains gas.Floors can be covered in a variety of materials. The vast majority of people are connected to the local sewage system (for waste water). for the big jobs. In the countryside. houses have gutters (tubes attached just under the roof that run along the length of the house to catch rain water) and some may need regular damp proof treatment (special chemicals to prevent damp from spreading). most people have insulation in the loft to keep warm air in. electricity and gas which the window is set) and window frames (the wood that goes around the window) should be made waterproof (so that water cannot get in). In Britain. caused by water seeping into walls and timber (wood). Window sills (the piece of the wall . and the sockets are on another circuit.internal or external . Many people enjoy doing DIY. Special thermostats set on the wall help to regulate the temperature in the room. such as mains water. Going back to school After the long relaxing summer holidays. and most people have central heating via radiators to keep the air inside warm and dry. and cold air out. or change a socket (the hole in the wall where you put the plug in to connect to the electricity supply). and some houses have gas tanks in their gardens.

) If the couple chooses a church service. At the end of each of the three school terms. teachers give each pupil a report.particularly if they live outside the town. Some have a packed lunch (where they bring lunch from home. Most children go to state-run primary and secondary schools. Often they have to stand up when their teacher comes into the classroom and say "Good morning". Schools are mostly mixed (girls and boys sit in the same classes). Most schools have lessons in the morning and in the afternoon. Some children walk to school. when the parents can meet the teachers to discuss their child's progress. Schools also have a parents' evening each year. the next step is marriage. the planning . and if neither of the couple breaks off the engagement. such as sandwiches. they can expect to be sent to the headmaster or headmistress. pupils (school children) have to show respect to their teachers. Marriage and wedding vocabulary It all starts with a proposal. and some parents drive their children to school. If pupils break the rules. Engagements can last for years.In Britain. These "school dinners" vary in quality. Pupils can go home for lunch. or to do detention. Planning the wedding Most weddings in the UK take the form of either a civil ceremony (conducted at the Registry Office) or a traditional white wedding. and there has recently been a lot of media interest in providing healthy school dinners for pupils. when they stay behind after the other pupils go home. although there are some single-sex schools (schools for girls or boys only) and a few schools are private. held in a church. and there are regular tests to check progress. as well as school trips to places of interest. pupils wear a school uniform. School isn't just lessons and homework though. As well as a particular skirt or pair of trousers. It is customary for the man to buy his fiancee an engagement ring. Schools try to have clear rules for acceptable behaviour. Traditionally the man goes down on one knee to pop the question. they also have a school PE kit (clothes that they wear to play sports at school). Pupils can expect to get homework for most subjects. or have their lunch in school. (There are other ceremonies for different religions. fruit etc) and some eat what the school prepares. where parents pay school fees. If he receives a "yes". Most schools arrange a sports day once a year. the couple are engaged. with a specific shirt and jumper. For example. most commonly a diamond ring. But others come to school by a school bus .

carrying a bouquet of flowers. arrange a honeymoon (the holiday after the wedding). and at the end of the service. send out invitations. then the best man gives a speech (which is often a funny speech designed to embarrass the groom). After lunch there are various speeches. and then the guests arrive. Other arrangements (for both traditional and civil) are to draw up a guest list. At the end of the day. the service has to be chosen. At that point. Last to arrive is the bride. The guests leave and the couple then sign the marriage register. and the service begins. and the guests rise to their feet to watch the procession. Other wedding vocabulary pre-wedding nerves = when you are nervous before the wedding wedding bells = the traditional tune that the church bells play as the couple leave the church . the groom is allowed to kiss his wife. The big day The groom and best man arrive at the church first. and accompanied by a couple of bridesmaids in matching dresses. flowers arranged and so on. Next in the big day is the reception. which is often a formal lunch in a hotel. The priest always asks if there are any objections to the marriage (someone can speak or forever hold their peace = never have the opportunity again to object). book a reception venue (for after the ceremony). The church organ plays the Wedding March. the bride stands with the groom. her face covered in a veil. and contains readings (extracts from the Bible) and a couple of hymns (religious songs). The service lasts for about half an hour. to select the wedding ring(s). Once they reach the altar. the guests often throw confetti(small pieces of coloured paper). choose bridesmaids (the girls who traditionally accompany the bride in the church) and the best man (the bridegroom's friend who accompanies him to the ceremony). and hire a disco or band to play music for their friends. compile a wedding list (a list of presents that guests can choose to buy the couple) and of course.can become quite complex. and the bridegroom and / or the bride give a short speech to thank their guests. Some couples also arrange an evening reception. When they come out of the church. Usually the bride's father walks her down the aisle until they reach the priest / vicar at the altar. The bride's father normally gives a speech. and the photographer takes various formal photographs. buy the wedding dress. The church must be booked. the couple exchange rings and are proclaimed "man and wife". the happy couple traditionally leave on honeymoon. normally dressed in a long white wedding dress with a train (material from the dress that covers the floor behind her).

Some of these vows could be to love each other "until death do us part" and to love "for richer or poorer." to pay through the nose: "They had to pay through the nose to get their son insured to drive." to cost an arm and a leg: "It costs an arm and a leg to buy all these Christmas would break the bank." To be rich to be loaded: "He works in the City and he's loaded!" to be sitting on a small fortune / goldmine: "She will inherit everything. To cost a lot of money to break the bank: "I can't afford a skiing holiday this winter . They don't have a bean to rub vows = the promises that the bride and groom make to each other during the ceremony." to splash out on something = to pay a lot for an important event: "They're splashing out on their anniversary this year. in sickness and in good health". She's sitting on a goldmine!" to have money to burn: "I've just received a bonus and I have money to burn!" To be poor to not have a bean to rub together: "Those two don't earn enough money." to be as poor as church mice: "His family have always been as poor as church mice. wedding cake = a traditional cake with three "tiers" eaten at the end of the wedding meal Money idioms Idioms used in English that involve money." . for better or worse." to be skint = British slang that means having no money: "Can you lend me some money until next Friday? I'm skint!" to be broke: "She's always broke at the end of the month.

" a skinflint = someone who doesn't want to spend money: "She reuses tea bags . Where you store things Perhaps you have a tall metal cupboard in your office with three or four drawers to put files and correspondence." Money for old rope = an easy source of income: "He sells bunches of flowers he has grown himself. Other people have drawers in their desk or portable drawers (drawers on wheels) in their offices.she's such a skinflint!" tight-fisted: "One reason he has so much money is that he's so tight-fisted!" Other idioms to have more money than sense = to have a lot of money which you waste rather than spend carefully: "He just bought another camera ." make a fast buck = to make money quickly and sometimes dishonestly: "He made a fast buck selling those shares." To not want to spend money a scrooge = Scrooge was a Dickens character." Office vocabulary Words to help you describe objects in an office." to burn a hole in your pocket = to not be able to stop spending money: "He can't just go out window-shopping. In your filing cabinets you usually have hanging files. If you want to put correspondence together.he has more money than sense. . I wonder if he had insider knowledge." Ten a penny = very common: "These scarves are ten a penny in the markets here. You can also put papers in a folder and put the folder on a bookshelf. where you can put loose correspondence. you can use folders or plastic wallets. This is a filing scrimp and save = to make as many economies as you can to save money: "His parents scrimped and saved to send him to university. It's money for old rope. Money burns a hole in his pocket. famous for being mean: "Why don't you want to buy her a leaving present? You're such a scrooge.

How you cut things You can use a pair of scissors to cut paper. Or you could use glue . This is called a notice board and you need to use drawing pins to attach your notice to the board. to get the next piece of blank paper. which is a type of whisky! You can use a stronger type of sellotape for cardboard boxes and this is called masking tape. If you want to make two holes in the left hand margin of paper so that you can put the paper in a file. rubber bands. you will probably need a knife. This is a flat piece of metal with a sharp blade along one side. Line up the hole-punch on the paper. (It's named after the implement used in the French Revolution. then flip over. you can also use a guillotine. You might also have a whiteboard (to write on using whiteboard markers) or a flipchart. you can use a stapler (which contains staples) to staple the pieces together. perhaps you put pens in a pen holder or in a container. A staple is a small.) Office equipment You probably have access to a printer (which needs ink cartridges). A paperclip is the icon you can see in your email program when you want to send an attachment. also known as an OHP. If you want to attach paper more permanently. known in England as 'sellotape' but not as 'Scotch'. How you attach things To stick things together. For example.You can also store small things on your desk. you can use one-sided sticky tape. If you want to cut something thicker than paper. push down and you will get two circular holes in the paper. a photocopier (which needs toner). which is made of metal or plastic. you can use a hole-punch. erasers and so on. You lift the blade then bring it down onto the paper. If you want to cut many pieces of paper together. sharp metal bar which has two ends that curl through the bottom sheet of paper to hold all the pieces together. You might even have a desk tidy with different components for pens. You can attach paper with a paperclip. .a sticky liquid that comes out of a bottle to stick things together. You might have a place in the office where you can leave messages and notices for other people. An OHP is useful if you want to present information and project text or images onto a screen at the front of a room. a fax machine and maybe even an overhead projector. A flipchart is a stand with very large pieces of paper which you can write on.

fat slim young old … years old. handsome sun-tanned pale I have / You have / He has / She has (got)… • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • blue / green / grey / brown eyes freckles a beard a full beard a moustache a goatee a stubbly beard blond hair red hair brown hair black hair dyed hair blond highlights short hair long hair straight hair curly hair / curls a bald head a square / round / triangular / oval face a big / small / long nose big / small ears Clothing and Accessories I wear / You wear / He wears / She wears… .Personal Description Appearance I am / You are / He is / She is… • • • • • • • • • • tall small overweight. beautiful / pretty.

" off the top of your head = when you give an answer to something without having the time to reflect: "What's our market strategy?" "Well. head to head = in a race. I can suggest…" . off the top of my head. when two contestants are doing as well as each other: "They are head to head in the polls.• • glasses contact lenses I am wearing / You are wearing / He/She is wearing… • • • • • • • earrings a necklace a wristband a bracelet a cap a red scarf a tie Character I am / You are / He is / She is … • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • shy quiet lively active easygoing outgoing nice friendly funny happy annoying sad aggressive a pain in the neck a little chatter box Head idioms Idioms that use parts of the head.

He knows I cooked dinner for him and now he's an hour late." use your head = think about something to solve a problem: "It's quite simple .I didn't understand a word of it." be out of your mind = be really worried: "Where have you been? I've been out of my mind with worry." The 100 most commonly used verbs in the English Language accept allow ask believe borrow break bring buy ." make up your mind = decide: "I can't make up my mind about the job offer." have your head in the clouds = dream: "He's always got his head in the clouds ." have a mind of your own = not be influenced by other people: "Don't tell me what to do! I've got a mind of my own." be in two minds about something = unable to decide: "I'm in two minds about buying a new car.he makes all these impossible plans." give someone a piece of your mind = tell someone how angry you are with them: "I'm going to give him a piece of my mind.just use your head!" English idioms using 'mind' keep / bear something in mind = remember something for future use: "I need a job in computers. you know. they kept their heads above water.we often have vacancies for people with your skills." go over your head = not understand something: "The lesson went over my head .have a good head for = be good at something: "He's an accountant and he has a good head for figures." keep your head above water = manage to survive financially: "Despite the recession." "I'll bear it in mind ." be head over heels in love = be completely in love: "You can see that he's head over heels in love with her." keep your head = stay calm: "He always keeps his head in a crisis.

can/be able cancel change clean comb complain cough count cut dance draw drink drive eat explain fall fill find finish fit fix fly forget give go have hear hurt know learn leave listen live look lose make/do need open close/shut organise pay play put rain read reply run say see sell send sign sing sit sleep smoke speak spell spend stand start/begin study succeed swim take talk teach tell think translate travel try turn off turn on type understand use wait wake up want watch work worry write .

books. American English and Australian English surveys of contemporary sources in English: newspapers.the language as it is written and spoken today. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Word the of to and a in is it you that he was for on are with as I his they be at one have this from or had by hot but some what there we can out other Rank 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 Word name very through just form much great think say help low line before turn cause same mean differ move right boy old too does tell sentence set three want air well also play small end put home read . TV. magazines.The 500 Most Commonly Used Words in the English Language Based on the combined results of British English. radio and real life conversations .

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 were all your when up use word how said an each she which do their time if will way about many then them would write like so these her long make thing see him two has look more day could go come did my sound no most number who over know water than 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 hand port large spell add even land here must big high such follow act why ask men change went light kind off need house picture try us again animal point mother world near build self earth father head stand own page should country found answer school grow study still learn plant cover food .

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