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The Educator’s Trumpet Handbook
MUSC 106A Secondary Methods Class: Trumpet
James Ackley Associate Professor of Trumpet University of South Carolina School of Music
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook
James Ackley, University of South Carolina School of Music"
Table of Contents:_____________________________________
I. II. III. IV. Choosing a Trumpet Choosing a Mouthpiece Proper Embouchure Position Proper Posture & Breathing Breathing Exercises Breathing Aides Fingering Chart Developing the Sound Concept The Art of Tonguing Intonation Care & Maintenance The Six Most Common Problems Dealing with Braces Tip on How to Practice Other Trumpets Mutes Literature & Resources Selected Discography Selected List of Artists Appendices: Various Articles Effect of Breathing Management Instrument Maintenance Developing Sound p. 3 p. 4 p. 7 p. 8 p. 10 p. 12 p. 13 p. 14 p. 15 p. 18 p. 20 p. 22 p. 24 p. 25 p. 26 p. 27 p. 28 p. 36 p. 37 p. 38
V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII.
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook
James Ackley, University of South Carolina School of Music"
I CHOOSING A TRUMPET___________________________________________
Helping students choose a quality instrument can be challenging for many private teachers and band directors. Most private teachers know everything about the latest developments in trumpet technology for advanced players but cannot name a good beginning trumpet make or model. Some basic characteristics to look for in a good beginning instrument are:
1. Monel pistons, not plated 2. First and Third slide rings (for adjusting intonation) 3. Secure case with room for accessories
When having a beginning student purchase an instrument, inform the parents that this instrument will only get them into High School. Any student serious enough about the trumpet to want to continue after High School should consider a professional model trumpet. With the characteristics above in mind, the following are the most popular instrument brands that have served past students well: (photos courtesy of Yamaha Trumpets) Beginners: Getzen - 300 series Selmer Bach - TR200, TR300, Bundy Yamaha - YTR2335 Professional: Bach Stradivarius - ML180 (37, 43 or 72 bell) Yamaha - YTR6335, Zeno or Artist Model Sonaré – 800 or 900 series
While choosing the trumpet or instrument that is needed or preferred, it is important to remember the steps we took with choosing a mouthpiece; they all apply. We should look for a free blowing instrument in all ranges, good intonation in all ranges, ease of response in all ranges and a good tone production in all ranges.
I have listed. A deep cup gives more lower harmonics than high harmonics. The deeper the cup. it is a reasonable assumption that the mouthpiece plays an important part. generally has more projection. 4 . What sound do I want? What sound do I need? And. Although many brass players use the same equipment and it works for them. Bright should not mean brittle and dark should not mean dull. Remember. examples of different cups and their characteristics. This is a popular choice for orchestral and jazz musicians alike. the shallower the cup. University of South Carolina School of Music" II CHOOSING A MOUTHPIECE________________________________________ The Mouthpiece is the most important part of equipment you will own. With that said. very generally. easier to play softly and delicate. great flexibility. Use your ears and your teacher to determine the correct sound needed. more compression but less flexibility. Each and every person is unique in his or her body and facial structure. Things to Consider When Purchasing a Mouthpiece: 1. V-Cup: A bright sounding mouthpiece. This is usually the choice of many orchestral musicians. is normal to begin a student depending on the size of their lips (7C for thinner lips and 3C for thicker lips). the brighter the sound. the mouthpiece should be somewhat comfortable. so the mouthpiece chosen should “fit” that particular individual. what type of mouthpiece is out there to help me obtain that sound? Below. dark sound. Somewhat Deep Cup: A more brilliant sound than that of the deep cup. the darker the sound. A professional should take into consideration the type of music to be performed and the sound that is wanted. produce a sound without restriction or tension and stable in response and intonation. Do not accept a mouthpiece if it “feels” good but sounds bad. a Bach 7C to 3C. There is almost always a compromise. Because the vibrations inside the mouthpiece greatly dictates/influences the relative sound. Deep Cup: A robust. or equivalent. p.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Common in “lead” playing. this does not mean that the same equipment will work for everyone. Moreover. Decide which is desired and the best for the situation in which you perform.
What size or form of the mouthpiece fit better (feels better)? With experience and experimentation you eventually learn what works for you and what doesn’t. The Diameter – This is hugely different for each individual depending on lip size. It should be comfortable in all ranges of the trumpet (a small mouthpiece doesn’t give you range. even less flexibility. with a price… the sound quality). Diagram of different shaped rims and “bite”. etc. etc. Many teachers give you exact measurements to follow that work for them. it allows you to play longer with the range you already have… but. roundness and smoothness of the rim. rim surface and the “bite” of the rim. experience. A sharper rim helps with clearer attacks and flexibility.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. There are many diverse variations: thin. The “Bite” – The bite is the form inside where the rim meets the cup. University of South Carolina School of Music" Convex V-Cup: High compression. 5 . whereas a rounder rim helps with comfort and endurance. Maynard Ferguson made this type of mouthpiece very popular among the elite high note “lead” players. 2. Rim Surface – This is a comfort factor: the flatness. (Diagram courtesy of Woodwind & Brasswind) p. thick. Some factors to keep in mind are: the diameter. but often this does not work for the student. round and “cutting”. Experimentation with your experienced private instructor is always best. musculature.
but can change the articulation and intonation drastically. general embouchure strength. etc. the aid of your instructor is paramount. but had one mouthpiece that was “home base. For example. changing the dimensions of the throat and backbore are common and generally aid in a freer and larger sound. playing in a salsa band with one mouthpiece then use the same mouthpiece in a brass quintet. University of South Carolina School of Music" 3. Having one of each for the student to try is helpful and beneficial. There are many well-known Brand names of mouthpieces: Bach. Schilke. often changed mouthpieces for specific jobs. but usually falls within the 3C. It is a good idea to get the job done right as easily as possible with the correct sound needed for that musical performance. There are many brass players that use the same mouthpiece on everything they play yet there are an equal number of people who change their mouthpiece depending on the job at hand. p. 4. Greg Black. the sound will not work.. former principal trumpet and tuba of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra respectively. Yamaha. 5C or 7C range. or Monette… one brand name is as good as the next just as long as you like the mouthpiece (after considering the above process).The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. I do not feel that it is right to use the same mouthpiece in every situation. Both brass legends Adolph “Bud” Herseth and Arnold Jacobs. The size will depend on facial formation. 6 . You need to use the right tool for the job. Reeves. Blackburn. Professional instrument makers/repair people can also alter mouthpieces. I usually recommend the use of a Bach mouthpiece for beginners. Again. a symphonic band or an orchestra (vice versa).
Inc. but I have also had great success with a 60/40 ratio (top to bottom lip). As I have stated before. Notice. p. but not drastically. published by McGraw-Hill. Its best to do this while the student is in their earlier stages of development. This book is a terrific resource and should be welcomed in the library of every general music educator. and the mouthpiece placement (whether too low or too high). I use this book because I feel it easily demonstrates the different aspects of brass playing for each instrument as well as their similarities. articulation. puffy cheeks. The most common are the smile embouchure. Alan Siebert. the bunched-up chin embouchure. Only through slight experimentation can the correct embouchure for the individual be found. It is much more difficult during later stages. With this said. Patrick Miles. each person is uniquely different from the next and will have slight variations of embouchure. excessive pucker. University of South Carolina School of Music" III PROPER EMBOUCHURE POSITION____________________________________ It is difficult to pinpoint an individual and tell them that a specific embouchure is better than another. (Professor Ackley) There are also common embouchure problems that can be readily fixed when the instructor spots them. William Stanley and Thomas Stein.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. the standard trumpet embouchure is located in the center. Please refer to Chapter Two of Teaching Brass: a Resource Manuel by Wayne Bailey. Please refer to Chapter X of this handout for pinpointing common problems. the corners are slightly down (frowning). and is at a ratio of 50/50 (top lip to bottom lip). 7 . below the nose. etc.
You will notice that you are probably more forward than you originally anticipated. if under tension. Posture: What a correct posture does is allow your body to expand and move naturally while breathing. 8 . but it will also help us sound better. find a balance. University of South Carolina School of Music" IV PROPER POSTURE & BREATHING___________________________________ Before we discuss breathing. This should be a relaxed and easily maintained posture. This is good! While standing. the same relaxed effort is applied while maintaining the curve in the lumbar region of the back (hips back). there is a direct and unmistakable correlation between the two. The lumbar region of the back should have a nice curve (not a forced curve). 2007) Standing: do & don’t do Hips open | Hips closed Sitting: do & don’t do Hips open/throat open | Hips closed/throat closed p. resulting in a relaxed and full breath. Your chin should not be looking up. This is important to understand. aiding in a fuller breath. (Photos courtesy of the David G. An example of good posture would be… pretend that an invisible thread is pulling your spine upward. rather down somewhat. Remember to keep the chest up in both instances. The diagrams below outline the “do’s” and “don’ts” of playing posture. Monette Corp.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Not only does good posture enable us to breath better and easier. with your head “over your shoulders”. A good way to check is take a full breath and exhale while keeping the chest in pretty much the same position. causing your hipbone to pivot backward slightly and naturally. we must first understand that posture plays an equally important role. You should notice that the chest is now up and allows the rib cage to be out of the way. The balance is now located in the feet (do not stand back too far on your heels or too forward on your toes). will not respond properly to a normal breathing habit). Keep the posture. Relax the shoulders down with your arms at your side (not in front of you. From there. but stay nice and relaxed. you should be sitting on your “sitting bones” (you can feel these bones while rocking forward and backward in your chair). It also allows the diaphragm to work properly and move without excess tension (the diaphragm is an involuntary muscle that. but at your side).
I have included a few breathing aids so you may further explore them on your own. University of South Carolina School of Music" Feet: parallel – hips open Feet: splayed/open – hips closed Knees: parallel – hips open Knees: splayed – hips closed Breathing: I am always saying. mimic the syllable “OH” or “HOME” while taking the breath.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. I use the Breath Builder with my students and have seen wonderful results. the better the sound will be coming out”. rather let them move as a whole while the air fills the lungs. This should sound and feel very relaxed and you should feel cold air on the back of your throat. This apparatus uses a ping-pong ball as giving a visual reference of the students’ breathing habits. the chest. The sound it makes is very little. It is imperative that you do not move these areas voluntarily. including the abdomen. start from the bottom of your lungs and fill them to the top. Remember to fill your lungs with air. working properly and advantageous to the wind player. Listen to your air going in. One only needs to listen to the entire breathing process to know that it is relaxed. Using a breathing aid may help many to achieve a more relaxed way of breathing. “The better the breath going in. p. Try to emulate a good breath each time you breathe. On page 7. 9 . This is a great way to correlate sound and technique. and the shoulders. Like filling a drinking glass. You should notice movement or expansion (but not forced) of your torso.
4. Play a game with your students: have your students breathe in for 4 counts and then expel the air for 4 counts at a slow tempo (quarter note = 60). Inhale more and hold it… more and hold it…. inhale… hold it. Let the air come out in a controlled fashion. C. then exhale. extending your torso to the left. e. c. play through a few chorales or lyrical selections and apply what is learned through music. Concentrate on the p. Back Stretch a. let the air out. but really gets the blood flowing. Head Rolls a. University of South Carolina School of Music" Breathing Exercises 1. Inhale slowly and deeply. You can repeat steps a-d at will. expel in 4 counts. B. Sit erect on edge of chair. Exhale and drop intertwined fingers by your belly button.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. b. intertwine fingers and hold above head (palms up). With right arm. Return to center. Once this is done. Standing. and coming out. Practice with the syllable “OH”. Reach around (left) with left arm and place on back of chair. Return to rest position. d. Hold briefly while breathing in and then exhale. hold hands behind the body at the waist. c. Like saying. Uncomfortable? Good! Now. Arch head up and down slowly. reach across the chair. try stretching. Have them recognize that the air does not need to be pushed out with a great deal of force. A. Standing. e. Inhale for 8 counts. Show them how to blow through the phrase and remind them that pushing is not necessary (see example below). Bending over. warms the body. 10 . b. 6-8 times. Just a few will do. This will open the throat and allow a large quantity of air in very quickly. 6-8 times. “Ho”.” 3. Have the students take a deep. 2. This should only take a minute or two. Roll head slowly from right to left. “HOME. Roll head slowly from left to right. c. don’t push. Sit in a chair with your feet and legs/knees together. etc. Have them achieve the best sound of air going in. grab your ankles and look forward. Pull arms slightly backwards and upwards and hold briefly while breathing. relax (yet quick) breath and then blow it through the horn (without the mouthpiece – this way there are no “sounds” to deal with). and awakens the mind. “Home”. 6-8 times. b. 5. Push palms downward and bend at your waist (as to touch the floor). Where do you feel the expansion? Don’t repeat this too many times or your students will pass out on the floor. Inhale for 4 counts expel in 16. Before beginning. Chair Spinal Twist a. d. Repeat on opposite side.
Exhale completely. 8. Then. Breathing in. 8. 6. against your mouth. cause a “ripping” sound to occur. While standing. thumb under the chin. but stretch like in No. 9 again. 9. Try No. p. breathe in and raise your hands above your head (intertwined).The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. pull your hand away while breathing in and allow the air to rush into your lungs. you can cause dizziness. 11 . Exhale completely. Repeat several times. 7. exhale and lower your hands to below your stomach. Then. University of South Carolina School of Music" sound and the musicality (we have already gone through the exercises. 10. Remember to remain as relaxed as possible. Careful not to repeat too much. palms up. Place back of your hand against your mouth and breath in (the back of the hand will cause resistance). Relax and repeat. Remind them to always play with a beautiful sound. Put on a metronome to 60 beats per minute. Inhale through your mouth for 5 counts. Count twenty counts from the metronome and exhale completely and as fast as possible. now allow the students to experiment with this through their sound). Repeat several times. Place the side of your hand.
if the unit is turned upside down.00 . University of South Carolina School of Music" (photos of Power Lung. Incentive Spirometer $20. p.00 The Incentive spirometer (also known as the Inspiron) is used to give respiratory patients a visual demonstration of how much air they can inhale. Since the same air is breathed. Power Lung $80.00 The Breath Builder is used to feel (and see) the sensation of inhaling and exhaling. A built-in gauge is used to adjust resistance as needed.00 The Voldyne is used to measure the amount of air inhaled (up to five liters. the practice of inhalation and exhalation. it can also be used for exhalation.$22. It works on resistance training with inhalation and exhalation.$22. Volumetric Exerciser $17.) There are two chambers: the larger (right) is used to measure air volume and the smaller (left) air pressure.00 .00 A 5 to 6-liter rubber air bag can be used for giving a rough estimate of a person's vital lung capacity and.$ 120. The bottom is sealed and the top has three holes.00 A small apparatus that fits in your hand and is easy to transport. Air Bag $16. although expensive.$28. 12 . is transferred avoiding hyperventilation. A great training device.00 . by slowly re-breathing air several times in a row. carbon dioxide.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley.00 - $22. Originally designed for inhalation. It is a tube of plastic six inches tall with a ping-pong ball inside. which are used to vary the resistance. courtesy of Power Lung) Breathing Aids The Breath Builder $15.00 . The Inspiron can also be used in conjunction with mouthpiece practice. rather than oxygen.
University of South Carolina School of Music" V FINGERING CHART______________________________________________ p.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. 13 .
Nothing substitutes a live performance. 5. It’s not only important for the sound concept. but for many reasons. (playing in tune) The notes sound the best (the “fattest”. I’m sure this is arguable. one that would project to the back of the orchestra hall with the most resonance and the least amount of effort. Orchestral trumpet playing has traditionally moved towards a balanced. you can find it. then have a professional come in every now and again and spot check. Jazz has traditionally been performed in smaller avenues. Playing in the center of pitch. Even during the lesson.brighter sounds are easier to hear and usually project in those situations. Listening to recordings. therefore the sound does not need to be as sonorous . Educators. if you are not a trumpet player. most “resonant”. is the ideal sound – as the student may change that sound afterwards via equipment or through personal experience and adapt to the musical situation more easily than if they began with a different sound. A few helpful ideas on developing a sound concept are: 1. This is also great for inspiring the students. University of South Carolina School of Music" VI DEVELOPING THE SOUND CONCEPT__________________________________ There are many different trumpet tones – each individual has his or her own tone and each particular style of music has its own “tone” or sound.. get a well qualified teacher/player whenever possible.” p. Use lip bending to find the sweet spots. see who can guess the trumpeter first. but it’s worked for me as a teacher and player. one of orchestral playing. Teach patience. a teacher has his or her own preference and will guide the student in this direction.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Teach your student to practice. 4. This is very important. Studying with a professional private instructor. more “ring”. Basically. Please refer to the appendices for the article “Developing Sound. more sonorous tone. The center will often depend on the make and level of the trumpet.. Point out the sound characteristics. Practicing slowly & correctly. I feel a typical trumpet tone. I cannot state this enough. not destroy. 3. better “projection”) when you play the note in its center. Attending live performances. 14 . Teach what to listen for. This is subjective and the sound concept develops over years of study and during the act of performing. Listen for it. 2. Make a game out of it. Personally. Practice to build.
p. “Tah”. it is best to use “Dah” or “Tah”. The sound of the shortest articulation must mimic the sound of a full long tone. While practicing. worth ¼ the value of the printed note). As a student. Once mastered. near the gum line.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. no matter how short the note. force yourself to play all articulations written. or articulation is an extremely important part of brass playing. “Tah”. General Tonguing Concepts 1. In this example. University of South Carolina School of Music" VII THE ART OF TONGUING___________________________________________ Tips and Study Aids for Tonguing Tonguing. practice this exercise in all ranges and dynamics. relaxed air stream is very important. b. “Du” “Dah” or “Di” syllables depending on the register (or “Toe”. “Tu”. it is best to use “Dah” or “Tah”. 15 . or “Ti” depending on the register. In this a. Knowledge of musical styles is important to the professional musician. b. Play the following exercises: a. 3. example. Say the word “tip” to get an idea of proper tongue placement. Placement of the tip of the tongue is usually behind the top teeth. The most beautiful tone quality in the world will be ruined by poor articulation. then very short (staccatissimo. practice this exercise in all ranges and dynamics. Once mastered. or “Ti” depending on the register). A strong. 2. Do not change the air support or tone – “Toe”. sustain the air as if playing a whole note. you should become familiar with as many styles of music as possible and the articulations that apply to them. “Tu”. Avoid “puffs” of air for each note – instead. Play first measure sustained. steady. Keep everything very connected: “Doe”. not just the notes! 4.
Ta – Ta – Ta c. Ta – Ta d. University of South Carolina School of Music" Syllables used in different registers “Toe”/”Doe” – low range “Tah”/”Dah” – middle range “Teh”/”Deh” – middle to upper range “Ti”/”Di” – upper range “Tsss” – extreme upper range Why use syllables? Syllables allow us to position our tongues. Multiple Tonguing For preliminary work on multiple tonguing. raised higher than the “Doe”. Ta – Ka b. Ta – Ta – Ka b. but I prefer the Ga syllable). hence speeding the air slightly and allowing greater ease for the particular register. Using the tongue is the most efficient way of control the airflow – namely the speed. Ka – Ka – Ka p. • “sss” – is used in the extreme range. f. Practice to keep the sound the same. the syllable use should change depending on the register. Again. 16 . it is in the middle of the oral cavity. • With the tongue in the “Deh” position. (I will use Ka in my explanations below for ease of typing. Double Tonguing Practice using the “Ka” in different places: a. out of the way.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Notice the tongue is at the roof of the mouth. aiding the support of the notes in this particular register. Ka – Ta c. Ka – Ka e. practice the above exercises using a Ga or Ka syllable. You should not hear an audible difference between the “Ta” and “Ka” syllable while playing. Triple Tonguing Practice using the “Ka” in different places: a. Always emulate the sound of the “Ta”. allowing for the oral cavity to open. it is down. • With the tongue in the “Doe” position. the tip is forward and the air travels at its fastest speed.
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook
James Ackley, University of South Carolina School of Music"
d. e. f. g. h.
Ka – Ta – Ta Ka – Ka –Ta Ta – Ka – Ta (Ka – Ta –Ka) Ta – Ka – Ka Always emulate the sound of the “Ta”. You should not hear an audible difference between the “Ta” and “Ka” syllable while playing. Practice to keep the sound the same. Again, the syllable use should change depending on the register.
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook
James Ackley, University of South Carolina School of Music"
There are three important steps to playing in tune on the trumpet:
1. You need to know if you're out of tune. Listen. If pitch is bad, assume it is YOU. 2. Adjust. Don't just sit there. If you don't know which way to go, try up or down. 3. Keep your air moving! Keeping the air moving consistently can cure many intonation problems.
(Knowing your pitch tendencies will allow you to make an educated guess as to which direction you are probably out of tune.)
Pitch Tendencies: 1. Valve combinations: a. 1 = slightly sharp (normally, use a little slide). b. 1 + 2 = sharp (use first slide). c. 2 + 3 = flat (lip up, no slide needed). d. 1 + 3 = sharp (use third slide). e. 1 + 2 + 3 = very sharp (use first and third slide). 2. The harmonic series: a. Fifth harmonics are flat (lip up 4th line D, 4th space E-flat, and E). b. Sixth harmonics are sharp (lip down high G and F-sharp, thumb slide on F). c. Seventh harmonics are unusually flat. 3. Environmental temperature: a. Cold = flat. b. Hot = sharp. c. The more you play, the warmer the instrument-the sharper you will be. 4. Condition of the trumpet: a. Very dirty = smaller bore = sharp. b. Immovable slides = inability to adjust = sharp. 5. Sound quality, dynamic level, and distance: It is only possible to play in tune with a good, centered sound. Loud playing tends to go flat, or is at least perceived as flat. Soft playing tends to go sharp, or is at least perceived as sharp. Playing at a distance makes the pitch go flat to the listener, therefore if you are playing from backstage you must push the main tuning slide in further to adjust.
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook
James Ackley, University of South Carolina School of Music"
6. Miscellaneous equipment issues: • Mutes make you go sharp, so pull the main tuning slide out. • Each type/brand of mute will differ, so check yours with a tuner. • Filing the corks can adjust a mute's pitch to a degree. • Tuners only work as a reference. You can be in tune with a tuner and out of tune with everyone else. • The shallower the mouthpiece, the sharper you will play. 7. Embouchure and tongue position: • The tighter your embouchure, the sharper you will play. • The more loose the embouchure, the flatter you’ll play. • The higher your tongue is arched in your mouth, the sharper you will play. • The lower your tongue sits, the flatter you will play. • The concept of adjusting your tongue arch in order to change pitch and tone quality is often referred to as "voicing." 8. Equal versus Just intonation: a. Equal temperament is playing 100 cents per half step, like with a tuner. This is the way a piano is tuned. b. Just intonation is adjusting to make intervals and chords sound without “beats”.
Here are the places where you should begin to do this:
With Relation to the Root M3 Narrow by 14 cents m3 Widen by 16 cents P4 Narrow by 2 cents P5 Widen by 2 cents m7 Narrow by 4 cents
(M = Major, m = minor) You must know your place in the chord to accomplish this task.
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. University of South Carolina School of Music" IX CARE & MAINTENANCE_________________________________________ Items you need to thoroughly clean your trumpet: (photos courtesy of Dillon Music) Valve Oil & Slide Cream Cleaning “Snake” Polishing Cloth Mouthpiece Brush Trumpet cleaning kit available (with all needed items) p. 20 .
Follow step 5 with all the slides. and the bell. 11. Take trumpet apart (place valves somewhere where they will not get wet). Then. Let the trumpet soak for a few minutes (5-10). Residual soap gums-up the trumpet valves. Rise thoroughly and dry them off. The mouthpiece should go in the mouthpiece slot or a case. Use a polishing cloth to polish the lacquer or silver plating. clean the valves separately at a sink.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. then place trumpet in water. Make sure you have a good case and place the trumpet in the case properly. 2. 2. Dry trumpet and all slides. Rinse thoroughly. 12. 13. Draw a bath of warm water (not hot). valve casing. 3. pour into lead pipe and clean out with the cleaning snake. Use warm water. It will dent your horn! 5. 21 . 7. d. Never leave it so it can move around freely. You are finished! MAINTENANCE 1. as to not bend anything that shouldn’t be bent! 4. Keep valves and slides oiled and in working condition. 8. p. c. (I personally use an old toothbrush for this). 3. See above instructions. 5. e. Run it through a few times. Take some liquid soap (from kitchen). Place some baking soda in the water (this takes away bad smells!). Hold the valve stem in your hand. b. 10. Use a soft cloth to wipe off daily finger prints. slide casings (on the trumpet). a. Oil each valve separately and insert into the correct valve casing (the valves are usually marked). 9. 6. Clean your horn once a month. University of South Carolina School of Music" CLEANING YOUR TRUMPET 1. Put the slide grease/cream on the slides (a little goes a long ways). Put soap on the valve and use your brush to lather the soap by gently scrubbing up and down. Add a few drops of valve oil to the slides to help make them work better. Take off the bottom valve caps too! 4. bottom valve caps.
something between and stretch and a pucker. Smiling or frowning when forming the embouchure causes this. University of South Carolina School of Music" X THE SIX MOST COMMON PROBLEMS__________________________________ The six most common problems encountered by beginning and intermediate trumpet students. Have students breathe in as full as they can get and then hold their breath.118-119) Restricted or interrupted breath. young students should be encouraged to use as little pressure as possible. The process of inhalation-exhalation should be thought of as one circular motion. into the teeth when forming the embouchure. Another tendency is to hold the breath at the top of the inhalation.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. I encourage students to take a full and relaxed breath. Keep a close eye for this habit and stop it early in the students training. Another habit that can cause the embouchure to stretch is puffing the checks. Stretched or Tight Embouchure. In the process of inhalation students will sometimes close the throat or mouth and get a vacuum sound. Exhaling all the air you can and relaxing to feel the air fall back in the body can also do this. have students think of filling from the belt to the shoulders. p. The mouthpiece should be vertically and horizontally centered as much as the dental/facial characteristics will allow. I have students relax the grip they have on the instrument to release the pressure on the embouchure. Incorrect Mouthpiece Placement. especially in a class setting. This is often where young players’ problems begin. Scott Whitener. be careful not to breathe so full that tension is created. (from "A Complete Guide to Brass". 22 . Once they have felt the sensation of effortless breathing encourage them to breathe like that always. Have students pull the corners to the center of the mouth. While it is important to take a full breath before playing. Excessive Pressure. This allows tension to set in and makes the body have to work to exhale the air. This will create firm corners and a supple middle. 1990. Students have a tendency to try to control the air instead of simply letting it flow freely in and out of their lungs and through the instrument. Schirmer Books. Although there is no such thing as no-pressure playing. This refers to both inhalation and exhalation. In the exhalation process students will often try to hold the air in or close the throat or oral cavity and cause the air to be restricted. Then have them relax and experience the air falling out of their body. Also. p.
Occasionally there will be a problem that does not fit into any of the other categories. This is caused by any number of conditions.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. The one I have encountered most is the clenching of the teeth. Impedance at the mouthpiece. Persistent research on the part of the teacher is necessary to solve many of the problems in this category. A relaxed tongue and jaw are vital to tone production. p. This means simply that there is something happening at the mouthpiece that is preventing the student from producing a good sound. If a student is having severe difficulty in keeping the teeth apart I cut a piece off the casing of a “Bic” pen and have them hold it between their back teeth until they get used to the feeling of playing with the teeth apart. which tightens the jaw. 23 . University of South Carolina School of Music" Rigid Jaw or Tongue. It could be that the embouchure is too tight to buzz or the aperture is too large to produce the proper pressure to produce a sound. if you have students say "m & m" or “mmm” to form the embouchure this will create the correct tension. flexibility and range. This will close the aperture and get the buzz started. The teeth should always be apart when playing any brass instrument. Whatever the case. If the aperture is too large have the student say a soft "pooh" as they exhale.
com (1-800-453-7846). www. The most frequent complaint from students is that their braces hurt their lips when playing/practicing. hard to clean after playing and needs to be thick enough to prevent the braces from protrude through the lips. Have the instructor keep a close eye on the student for a few weeks. www. Short and limited exercises are great. seeing them in a short lesson often (5-10 minutes 2-3 times a week) rather than 30 minutes a week. It is easily washable and fits over the braces easily and without mess or delay.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Work closely with the private instructor. There are now a number of products that deal with this situation.com (1-803-695-5001). it is usually difficult to “pick” all the wax off. Braces do not necessarily impede the progress in brass playing.morgan-bumper. Once the student has the braces put on by the orthodontists. soft PVC tube with a slit down the side.dentakit.com (1-800-377-2655). however it may make you take a different direction with the way in which you normally instruct players that do not have braces. it is better to have the student take some time off of the instrument for a few weeks.html (1-877-329-4733). BraceGuard. especially lyrical etudes/exercises as in the Concone book or the Arban’s book (see Methods and Resources). BraceGuard: Brace Guard is a kit that helps form a rubber guard between the braces and the lips.lipprotector. The Morgan Bumper and the Karwoski Lip Protector. During the “time off” of the instrument. The four most common are: wax. 24 . The Morgan Bumper: The Morgan Bumper is a thin. Playing too soon seems to hinder the readjustment process and leads to bad habits. University of South Carolina School of Music" XI DEALING WITH BRACES___________________________________________ Dealing with issues surrounding braces can be very frustrating for both the student and the teacher. Keep the musical spark going. Wax: Wax is usually very messy. When the student has the braces removed. It comes in bulk and you simply cut the desired length.com/sildenwax. while the body has time to heal. when wax becomes warm it does not hold its shape very well. Karwoski Lip Protector: Much like the Morgan Bumper. but some say a little thinner and more comfortable. All three items listed below are readily available at any major instrument store or on the web. have the student listen to good recordings and research new literature. http://www. It is similar to a mouth guard that an athlete would use for protection (although not as thick).braceguard. p. Brace Guard is more expensive than wax and is can be tricky to form to the braces. it is a good idea to have the student begin playing immediately so the new embouchure has a chance to form and the lips will “toughen-up”. www. Also. When students take the wax off their braces.
11. “Skeletonize” the phrases and learn where the air pattern flows.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. If recordings and scores are available. etc. First. The end result should be your sound. Make sure you are warmed-up (physically and mentally). Use rhythmic displacement. 4. This will limit bad habits. A consistent performance routine is also necessary for success. make sure you are in shape and then begin practicing. Achieve a consistent end result. go hear orchestras. 5. New ideas come from hearing others play. Be yourself. 10. Practice meticulously. 3. 25 . Have a schedule (game plan) and follow it. etc. Practice areas that are more challenging. flutter tonguing. Make sure you are in shape (don’t practice if you are struggling with the notes or endurance). Don’t practice over and over areas that you are able to play. use them but don’t copy them. over articulation. Try to address as much as possible using the least amount of time as possible. Use miscellaneous devices to achieve your goal. University of South Carolina School of Music" XII TIPS ON HOW TO PRACTICE________________________________________ 1. Take phrases apart and then put them back together. 8. 9. style. 6. 2. chamber music. 7. Performing is much different than a practice room. They should all be appropriate for the piece being studied/performed. Keep distractions to a minimum. phrasing and intonation. Keep the inspiration flowing. Go hear other players that are great musicians. p. 12. slurring. Practice performing. Listen and learn.
normally pitched in Bb/A (but also comes pitched in C. This is the modern baroque trumpet. The sound is sweet.it only facilitates the natural range of the trumpet. A good choice of instrument for a beginner.g. The piccolo trumpet . Mahler’s 3rd Symphony).pitched in the key of C. this is primarily used as a classical solo instrument. The flugelhorn . A or Eb). rotary trumpet are becoming used more and more in orchestras. the flugelhorn has many classical composition dedicated to it. It does NOT give you an extra octave in range . this trumpet is the choice of most orchestral musicians. with great carrying power.this instrument is used for both classical and jazz. You should be aware of the fact that these trumpets exist and are considered specialty instruments (with the exception of the cornet and flugelhorn). Has also been used as a posthorn (e. University of South Carolina School of Music" XIII OTHER TRUMPETS______________________________________________ There is a variety of trumpets that professionals use depending on the situation. Rotary trumpets come in all the keys/style mentioned above.the term rotary refers to the type of valves used. especially of Germanic literature. It is also widely used in orchestral playing. especially if their hand are small and their reach is limited. Inc. The Eb/D trumpet . The C trumpet .they may come in various keys (usually Bb. Orchestral players will also use these trumpets in a variety of way. Used mainly is European orchestras. Used mainly as a solo or orchestral instrument. a little more brilliant than a Bb. 26 . The rotary trumpet . p. Photos courtesy of Yamaha.pitched in either Eb or D (by a moveable bell and/or slides). None primarily for its use it jazz.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. The Cornet . G and F). facilitating baroque literature. making certain passages lighter in character.
Denis Wick is another good mute. 27 . And.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Denis Wick is another good mute. The Harmon Mute (Wah-Wah) . There are several mutes that are a must have for any trumpeter. Trumcor is pictured here. They are both “adjustable cups”. The Jo-Ral Bubble Mute is pictured here. I will list them here: (photos courtesy of Dillon Music) The Straight Mute . but it now used in many band and solos as well. Another choice is the Harmon brand. No need to purchase a brand name when you can go to a store and buy a plunger (make sure its not a used one!). a great choice. It gives a nasal sound. many different brands and companies make mutes. this versatile mute produces a round.used in many occasions. meaning you can move the cup of the mute. this is another must have mute for your trumpet section. They also play very well in tune and little adjustment is needed. When used correctly. You will find this mute used often in jazz ensembles. University of South Carolina School of Music" XIV MUTES_____________________________________________________ There are many different kinds of mutes. My personal preferences lean towards Trumcor and Denis Wick mutes.every jazz section will need a plunger. giving different tone timbres. p. Trumcor is pictured here. The Plunger Mute . but a more brilliant tone. It produces a softer dynamic. Just remove the stick that comes with it and TA-DA. They are skillfully manufactured and have distinct sounds that either allow them to cut through an ensemble or diffuse the sound enough to become a part of the ensemble. If a section is marked muted. You want your students to use a metal mute. the plunger can almost mimic human speech.used in many situations.the most common of mutes. They sound MUCH better! The Cup Mute . somewhat muffled sound. A very effective mute. not a cardboard mute. as with all other equipment. a mute. they are referring to this mute. often associated with jazz.
reift. PUBLISHERS Beauport Press Music Publications (www.presser.com) Cimarron Music Press (www. (Publisher listed within the parenthesis).curnowmusicpress.com) p.com/english/) Schirmer (www. 28 . journals.com) Editions BIM (www.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley.com) Hickman Music Editions (www.hickmanmusiceditions.com) Theodore Presser Company (www.ch) Gerard Billaudot Edituer (www. Trumpet Literature & Publishers List Many of the publishers listed here may have works listed below that have since become difficult to find.cherry-classics.com) Daniel Schynder (www.com) Boosey and Hawkes Music Publications (www.boosey. but rather a starting point.beauportpress. and other resources I have used or have found in researching solutions to a specific brass related problem.billaudot.ch) Editions Marc Reift (www. This will enable us to grow and reach our goals.cimarronmusic.com) Cherry Classics Publishing (www.com) Curnow Music Press (www.com) Carl Fischer (www.alphonseleduc. these publishers are a fabulous resource. If you are looking for a particular work and cannot find it.danielschnyder. I feel it is our job as educators to constantly search for new sources of information and new music.carlfischer. This is not to be considered a complete list.com) Alphonse Leduc (www.schirmer.com) Brass Chamber Music Press (http://brasschambermusic.editions-bim. University of South Carolina School of Music" XV LITERATURE AND RESOURCES______________________________________ The following is a simple list of method books.
vol. ed. Job (A. 29 . Leduc) Clodomir: Methode Complete. Goldman and Smith (C. repertoire and literature. ed. Fischer) Arban: Methode Complete. but it should give an educator a starting point or reference. Leduc) Saint-Jacome: Grand Method (C. Fischer) Gordon: Physical Approach to Elementary Brass Playing (C. COMPLETE METHODS Arban: Complete Conservatory Method. (A. By no means is it a final list. Fischer) Longinotti: l’Etude de la trompette (Editions Henn) Ridgeon: Brass for Beginners (Boosey & Hawkes) Robinson: Rubank Elementary Method (Rubank) Wiggins: First Tunes & Studios (Oxford) Grouse: Learn to Play the Trumpet/Cornet Haddad: Step by Step Band Technique Hering: Trumpet Course Kinyon: Breeze Easy Leonard: Essential Elements (Hal Leonard) Mitchell: Trumpet Method Book 1 O'Reilly & Williams: Accent on Achievement Robinson: Rubank Elementary Method (Rubank) Sandoval: Playing Techniques and Performing. ed Maire.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. I have included the publishers name when available. University of South Carolina School of Music" The following is a brief list on popular methods. 1 Vincent & Weber: Cornet Student Kissling: Method for Beginning Trumpeter (AK Brass Press) BAND METHODS Accent on Achievement (Alfred) Essential Elements 2000 (Hal Leonard) Now Go Home and Practice (Heritage Music Press) Standard of Excellence (Kjos) Step by Step (Kjos) Yamaha Band Student (Alfred) Band Expressions (Warner Brothers) p. Fischer) ELEMENTARY METHODS Clarke: Elementary Methods (C. 3 vols.
Fischer) Laurent: Etudes practiques. Bizet: 12 Grandes etudes de perfectionnement (A. ed. Leduc) Glantz: The Complete Harry Glantz (C. 2 vols (C. ed Voisin (International) Clarke: Setting Up Drills (C. Leduc) Harris: Advanced Studies (C. University of South Carolina School of Music" STUDIES MEDIUM to MEDIUM-DIFFICULT Bordogni: 24 Vocalises. ed. 3 vols (A. Fischer) Dunhem: 24 Etdues (C. 2 vols (C. Colin) Endresen: Supplementary Studies (Rubank) Gallay: 22 Exercises. Colin) Goldman: Practical Studies (C. Colin) Zauder: Embouchure & Technique Studies (C. Leduc) Broiles: Trumpet Baroque. Fischer) Gallay: 12 Grand caprices. Fischer) Brandt: 34 Studies & 24 Last Studies. Fischer) Hovaldt: Lip Flexibility (R. Leduc) Bousquet: 36 Celebrated Studies. trans. ed. Maire (A. ed. 30 . Colin) DIFFICULT Andre: 12 Etudes caprices dans le style baroque (piccolo trumpet) (Editions Billaudot) Andre: Exercises Journaliers. Goldman (C. Bach (A. Foveau (International) Balay: 15 Etudes (A. Maire (A. Colin) Chavanne: 25 Characteristic Studies. Leduc) Clarke: Characteristic Studies (C. Colin) p. Leduc) N. Leduc) Gallay: 39 Preludes. ed. Fischer) Stamp: Warm-ups and Studies (Editions BIM) Vacchiano: Trumpet Routines (C. Leduc) Bodet: 16 Etudes de virtuosite d’apres J. Porret (transposition) (A. King) Kopprasch: 60 Studies. 2 vols (piccolo trumpet) (Queen City) Charlier: Etudes transcendantes (A. Lopez (Editions Billaudot) Balasanyan: 20 Studies. Gumbert/Herbst. Fischer) Colin: Advanced Lip Flexibilities (C. ed. Maire (A. Brown) Skornicka: Rubank Intermediate Method (Rubank) Smith: Lip Flexibility (C. Fischer) Staigers: Flexibility Studies. Fischer) Gower & Voxman (ed): Rubank Advanced Method (Rubank) Hering: 32 Etudes (C. Leduc) Pares: Scales (Rubank) Salvation Army: 101 Techincal Exercises (Salvation Army) Schlossberg: Daily Drills and Technical Studies (M.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. ed.S. ed Vacchiano (Belwin-Mills) Broiles: Have Trumpet… Will Transpose (transposition) (C.
Ashdown) Haydn: Andante.): 10 Trumpet Tunes (Oxford) 12 Trumpet Tunes (Oxford) Borst/Bogar (eds): Trumpet Music for Beginners (Editio Musica) Dearnley (ed. Fischer) Webster: Method for Piccolo Trumpet (Brass Press) UNACCOMPANIED TRUMPET DIFFICULT Adler: Canto I (Oxford) Arnold: Fantasy (Faber) Berio: Sequenza X per tromba in do (e risonanze di pianoforte) (Universal Eds. 31 .The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Lawrence (Oxford) Handel: A Handel Solo Album. (E. arr. Leduc) Burrell: 5 Concert Studies (Oxford) Cheetham: Concoctions (Presser) Friedman: Solus (?) Henze: Sonatina (Dunster Music) Kagel: Old/New (Universal Eds. Fitzgerald (Belwin-Mills) Bakaleinkoff: Serenade (Belwin-Mills) Barsham (ed. arr. Voxman (Rubank) A Haydn Solo Album. Lethbridge (Oxford) p. In Memorium Witold Lutoslawski (Schott) Tisne: Emotion (Diffusion. University of South Carolina School of Music" Hickman: The Piccolo Trumpet (Tromba Publications/Hickman Music Editions) Longinotti: Studies in Classical and Modern Style (International) Petit: Grandes Etdues (A. Leduc) Sasche: 100 Etudes (transposition) (International) Smith: Top Tones (C.): 8 easy pieces (Chester) Dexter/de Smet: First Year Trumpeter. 2 vols. Arpeges) Watkins: La mort de l’aigle TRUMPET AND PIANO EASY Adams: The Holy City (Boosey & Hawkes) Bach: Aria – Bist Du Bei Mir.) Bozza: Graphismes (A. arr.) Ketting: Intrada Persichetti: Parable (Presser) Presser: Suite (Ensemble Pubs) Renwick: Encore Piece (Tromba Pubs) Sampson: Litany of Breath (Brass Press) Schuman: 25 Opera Snatches (Presser) Takemitsu: Paths. arr.
): Souvenir Album (Boosey & Hawkes) Persichetti: The Hollow Men (Presser) Purcell: Sonata. 32 . Leduc) Chance: Credo (Boosey & Hawkes) J.): The Young Trumpet Player.): Concert & Contest (Rubank) p. Fitzgerald (Presser) Vandercook: Marigold (C. arr. arr.): Classical Album (Boosey & Hawkes) MEDIUM to MEDIUM-DIFFICULT Anderson: Trumpeter’s Lullaby (Belwin0Mills) Bakaleinikov: Polonaise (Belwin-Mills) Balay: Petite Piece Concertante (Belwin-Mills) Barat: Andante et Scherzo (A. Lawton (Oxford) Watsall (ed. Fischer) Willner (ed.): Classical & Romantic Album.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Powell (Southern) Hovhaness: Prayer of St. Clarke: Trumpet Voluntary. vols. Ramsey) Ledger (ed. arr. Gregory (Southern) James: Windmills (B. arr. vol. Fischer) Goedicke: Concert Etude (Belwin-Mills) Handel: Aria con Variazioni. Leonard) Fioco: Arioso (Presser) Fitzgerald: English Suite (Presser) Gaubert: Catabile et Scherzetto (C. Fitzgerald (Belwin-Mills) Handel: Sonata No. arr. Fischer) Telemann: Herois Music. Fischer) Lawton (ed. 3 vols. Powell (Southern) Delmas: Choral et variations (Billaudot) Forbes (ed. University of South Carolina School of Music" Hering (ed. 3. arr. 1 (Oxford) Tenaglia: Aria. Lethbridge (Oxford) Philips (ed. 2 vols. arr. arr. ed. Voxman (Rubank) A Mozart Almub. Fischer) Morning Glory (C. Viosin (transposed) (International) Richardson (ed. 2-3 (Oxford) Getchell (ed. (Oxford) Lawton (ed.): Warlike Music 1760 (Oxford) Mortimer (ed.): Easy Pieces for the Young Trumpeter (C.): Old English Trumpet Tunes.): Master Solos (H. Voisin (International) Corelli: Prelude & Minuet.): Classical & Romantic Album. (Oxford) Lowden: Easy Play-Along Solos (recording included) (Kendor) Mozart: Concert Aria.): 6 Trumpet Tunes (Boosey & Hawkes) Ropartz: Andante et Allegro (Southern) Simon: Willow Echoes (C.): First Repertoire Pieces for Trumpet (Boosey & Hawkes) Voxman (ed. Leduc) Bozza: Badinage (A.
Gabrieli: Sonata No. ed. Coleman (Oxford) Stradella: Sinfornia.) Enesco: Legend (International) Fasch: Concerto in D (Sikorski) D. ed. ed. Leduc) Charlier: Solo de Concours (Schott Freres) H. ed Tarr (Musica Rara) Hindemith: Sonate (Schott) Honegger: Intrada (Salabert) Hummel: Concerto in E/Eb. Leduc) Concerto No.) Bozza: Rustiques (A.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Leduc) Kennan: Sonata (Warner Bros. Thilde (Billaudot) Neruda: Concerto in Eb. (Warner Bros. 2 (A. Tarr (Universal Editions) M. Mozart: Concerto in D. Fischer) Arnold: Concerto (Faber) Arutunian: Concerto (International) Bellstedt: Napoli (Southern) La Mandolinata (Southern) Bitsch: Quatre Variations sur un theme de Domenico Scarlatti (A. arr. Leduc) Bloch: Proclomation (Broude Bros. 2. (Musica Rara) Telemann: Concertos in D (Musica Rra) p. Leduc) Jacchini: Sonata in D (Musica Rara) Jolivet: Concertino (A. 2 vols. 2 in D. Fischer) Stanley: Trumpet Tune. ed. University of South Carolina School of Music" DIFFICULT Albinoni: Concerto in D. ed. arr. Tarr (Musica Rara) Haydn: Concerto in E (Eb). 33 . 2 vols. Clarke: Music of Herbert H. 2 in D. Haydn: Concerto in D (A.) Koetsier: Sonatina (Donemus) Longinotti: Scherzo Iberico (Editions Hen) Luening: Intro & Allegro (Peters) Mager (ed. Clarke.): 9 Grand Solo de Concert (Southern) Mendez: Numerous solos (Hickman Music Editions) Molter: Concerto No. 1 in D (Musica Rara) L. Hansen) Staigers: Carnival of Venice (C. Benjamin) Concerto No. ed. Thilde (Billaudot) Albrechtsberger: Concertino (Brass Press) Arban: Carnival of Venice (C. Tarr (Musica Rara) Hertel: Concerto No. Stein (musica Rara) Ibert: Impromptu (A. James Ackley (Cimarron Music Press) Pilss: Concerto (King) Purcell: Sonata (Schott) Riisager: Concertino (W.
Brown) Hyatt – The Soprano and Piccolo Trumpets: Their History.The Inside Story of Brass Playing (Conn) Mendez . of Michigan) Sherman – The Trumpet Player’s Handbook (Accura Music) Smithers .Modo per Impare (Brass Press) Farkas .Advance Method (Agree Music Press) Hanson .Die Trompete (Univ.Brass Instruments. arr.Trumpet Pedagogy: A Compendium of Modern Teaching Techniques (HME) Hunt . vols. 473) Johnson .Brass Playing (Fischer) Hickman . Their History and Development (Faber) Bate .The Trumpet Teacher's Guide (Queen City Bras Pub. ed.Trumpet Technique (Oxford Univ. University of South Carolina School of Music" Heroic Music.Prelude to Brass Playing (Fischer) Mathie .The Trumpet and Trombone (Ernst Bern.Trumpeters and Kettledrummers Art (Brass Press) Bach – The Art of Trumpet Playing (Vincent Bach Corp. ed.Music & History of the Baroque Trumpet Before 1721 (Oxford Press) p. Anton Weidinger (Brass Press) D’Ath – Conrnet Playing (Boosey & Hawkes) Davidson – Trumpet Techniques (Wind Music) Dobzrelewski – Complete Audition Guide to Trumpet Excerpts.Guide to Teaching Brass (Wm.Ascending Trumpets (Wilfredo Cardoso) Cardoso . 34 .Art of Trumpet Playing (Iowa Univ.The Keyed Bugle and Its Greatest Virtuoso.Art of Musicianship (Musical Pub) Fredrickson . Press) Dalquist . 1-16 (HME) Eliason .) Pietzch . Literature and a Tutor (DMA Thesis: UM 74-20. Lawton (Oxford) Tisne: Heraldiques (Billaudot) Tomasi: Concerto (A.Keyed Bugles in the United States (Smithsonian) Fantini/Tarr . Tarr (Musica Rara) Vejvanovsky: Sonata (Edition Ka We) RECOMMENDED BOOKS Attenberg/Tarr .Arnold Jacobs: Song and Wind (Windsong Press) Foster – Practical Hints on Playing the Trumpet/Cornet (Belwin-Mills) Green/Gallawey .) Farkas .Art of Brass Playing (Wind Music. Tarr (Musica Rra) Sinfonia con Tromba.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley.The Inner Game of Music (Doubleday) Grocock .Entire Art of Trumpet Playing (Brass Press) Bush – Artistic Trumpet Technique and Study (Highland Music) Cardoso . C. Ltd.) Bendinelli/Tarr .) Baines . Inc. Leduc) Torelli: Concerto in D.Instrument Makers (Brass Press) Eliason .Playing Trumpet in the Orchestra (Cardoso) Dale . Press) Kent .
A Complete Guide to Brass (Schirmer) BRASS RELATED JOURNALS Canadian Musician Crescendo and Jazz Talk Flute Talk ITA Journal ITG Journal Medical Problems of Performing Artists Opera News The Horn Call The Instrumentalist TUBA Journal Windplayer p.Keys to Natural Performance (Brass World) Whitener .The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. 35 . University of South Carolina School of Music" Weast .
Gerard Sandoval. Eric Antonsen. Arturo Tromba Mundi p. Anthony Schlueter. Stephen Davis. University of South Carolina School of Music" XVI SELECTED DISCOGRAPHY (brief)_____________________________________ NAME Ackley. 36 . Maurice Aubier. Hakan Mase. soprano) Wynton Marsalis 20th Century Music for Organ and Trumpet Virtuoso Trumpet Music for Trumpet Contest Solos for young trumpeters New Music for Trumpet Cornet Favorites A Festival of Trumpets The Latin Train Music for Trumpet Ensemble Plog. Philip Schwartz. Charles Stevens. Miles Hardenberger. Raymond Marsalis.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. Terrance Burns. James Andre. Thomas Smith. Ole Edvard Blanchard. Wynton CD TITLE Recital Music for Trumpet Lírico Latino: songs for trumpet Concertos pour trompette Great Trumpet Concertos Music of Our Time 4 Grand Concertos Trumpet Concertos Terrance Blanchard Solo Telemann Sketches of Spain Kind of Blue Baroque Trumpet Concertos At the Beach Mysteries of the Macabre Trumpet In Our Time Trumpet Concertos Carnival Baroque Duet (With Kathleen Battle.
The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. University of South Carolina School of Music" XVII LIST OF SELECTED ARTISTS________________________________________ Recommended Artists for listening Orchestra Phil Smith Michael Sachs Dave Bilger Adolf Herseth Chris Martin Robert Sullivan Tom Hooten Mark Inyouye Susan Slaughter William Vacchiano Empire Brass Quintet Canadian Brass Boston Brass Atlantic Brass Quintet Meridian Arts Ensemble German Brass Burning River Brass Summitt Brass Philip Jones Brass Ensemble Center City Brass Quintet Maurice Andre Hakan Hardenberger Wynton Marsalis Gerard Schwartz Ole Edvard Antonsen Chris Geker Eric Aubier Guy Touvron Thomas Stevens Robert Sullivan Dave Hickman Phil Smith Alan Vizzutti James Ackley Rafael Mendez Reinholdt Friedrich Brass Ensembles Maurice Murphy (LSO) Malcolm McNabb Timothy Morrison Mark Isham Film/Soundtracks Jazz Louis Armstrong Bix Beiderbecke Nicholas Payton Clifford Brown Terrell Stafford Tom Harrell Miles Davis Dizzy Gillespie Randy Brecker Lee Morgan Cat Anderson Jon Faddis Maynard Ferguson Terrance Blanchard Wynton Marsalis Freddie Hubbard Soloists Crispian Steele-Perkins Edward Tarr Nicholas Eklund Friedemann Immer Black Dyke Brass Band River City Brass Band Gohteberg Brass Band Brass Band of Battle Creek Historical Brass Bands p. 37 .
p. Please visit section VIII Literature & Resources for further information regarding journals.The Educatorʼs Trumpet Handbook James Ackley. magazines and other trumpet related reading materials. University of South Carolina School of Music" XVIII APPENDICES: VARIOUS ARTICLES_______________________________________ Attached are various articles from magazines dealing with different aspects of trumpet playing and teaching that I thought were interesting enough to include them for your benefit. 38 .
136-150 Published by: MENC: The National Association for Music Education Stable URL: http://www. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources.org . pp. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides.org/stable/3345572 Accessed: 25/02/2009 11:31 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use.jstor. 48. please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. http://www.org.MENC: The National Association for Music Education The Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Performance of Elementary Brass Players Author(s): Karin Harfst Sehmann Source: Journal of Research in Music Education.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=menc. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. preserve and extend access to Journal of Research in Music Education. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor. For more information about JSTOR.org/page/info/about/policies/terms. MENC: The National Association for Music Education is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. 2000). that unless you have obtained prior permission. non-commercial use.jstor. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work.jsp. in part. and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal. 2 (Summer. No. available at http://www. you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles. Vol.
eku. Three measuresfor breathing (thoracic displacement. VOLUME 48. Richmond. PAGES 136-150 The present study is an investigation of the effectsof breathmanagementinstruction on the performanceof elementarybrass players.range. Main effects grade pet. (fourth. Recommen- dations in this document include beginning wind instruction no later than Grade 5. Given the importance of this instruction. The data were analyzed using multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance. The experimentalgroup (N = 32) receivedinstruction on the use of air during brass performance. 1986). Therewereno treatmentby-instrument or treatment-by-grade-levelinteractions. . and sixth). Foster 101. Copyright ? 2000 by MENC-The National Association for Music Education.fifth. Eastern Kentucky University The on Effects the of Breath of Instruction Management Performance Elementary Brass Players Instrumental music in the United States has become a basic part of the music curriculum in most schools.136 JRME 2000.05). and duration (p < . The importance of this early instruction to the total school instrumental music program has been noted by the Music Educators National Conference (now MENC-The National Association for Music Education) in The School Music Program: Description and Standards (MENC. NUMBER 2. Breathing instruction in group lessons was effectivein improvingthe breathingand performanceof elementary brassplayers. and control). little is found in the research literature concerning effective teaching techniques for Karin Harfst Sehmann is an associate professor of music in the Department of Music. for had group showed that the experimental group significantly higherscoreson measures of abdominal displacement. and tone quality) were the dependentvariables.abdominal displacement. Eastern Kentucky University. duration.The controlgroup (N = 29) continued with instruction from their method books. e-mail: email@example.com. trombone).and lung capacity) and for performance (range. KY 40475.instrument (trumIndependentvariables included group (experimental and and level horn. Karin Harfst Sehmann.
The research and knowledge from these sources have not been synthesized into a systematic methodology for teaching brass players. 1981a. in his book Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy. stressing that the rib cage can be expanded simultaneously with the abdomen. Witt. 163). 11). long-time tubist with the Chicago Symphony. articulation and diction. stress the importance of psychomotor skills. accents. 1986. Russo. 1981b. 1985). 1988).JRME 137 instrumentalists. 1983. He taught the same mode of abdominal/diaphragmatic breathing that has been described by the previously mentioned writers on brass pedagogy (Kohut. discusses all aspects of musical performance. He gives a thorough explanation of the breathing process for musicians and cites relevant research. 1956.Jacobs. Wick. Of the motor skills involved. the respiration process often is mentioned as the most important physical aspect of brass playing (Farkas. Kohut (1985). especially brass teachers. 1983. 1987. precise coordination" (p. He stresses that perceptual-motor learning is a large part of musical performance. Medical authorities. specialists in respiration. . 6). 1973. Johnson. and master teachers have studied the breathing process. Stewart. Jacobs instructed the instrumental teacher to "start mechanical movements without the instrument so the student experiences change in the abdominal/diaphragmatic relationship" (Kelly. 15). Kohut (1985). in his 1981 book The Art of TrumpetPlaying. Kleinhammer (1963) states that "breath control is directly related to everything the trombonist plays" (p. 1981) and curriculum for instrumental lessons (Kendall. 1981. Rainbow. 25). dynamic level and intensity of the tone as well as phrasing. It demands prolonged concentration. writing that "breath directly affects intonation. vibrato. 1981. p. 1973). accurate writing about musical performance. in his writing on instrumental pedagogy. notes the lack of concise. Several authors have commented about the lack of research concerning the psychomotor process of learning to play an instrument (O'Donnell. 1971). acousticians. 1983. became known for his work with musicians on the topic of respiration (Bobo. He stresses the importance of breathing for the musician. and other aspects of musical expression" (p. Experts in wind playing. "Playing any brass instrument for an extended period at a high standard is very much an athletic pursuit. Areas that have been investigated beginning include strategies for rehearsals (Caimi. 1991: Kelly. The well-known trombonist Denis Wick (1971) writes. Johnson. Arnold Jacobs. Yarbrough & Price. but that it is neglected as a research topic and in pedagogical sources. states that "highly developed motor skills are critical in implementing fine musical performance" (p. 1987). Price.
1965. 1990. 1986. 1986. 1999. 1990. Druz and Sharp (1981) studied the effect of body position on lung capacity and noted that an upright. Cugell. Watson and Hixon (1985) found that active breathing of the type used by singers and wind players involves different action and uses different muscles than passive breathing. Huttlin. 1990). Staples (1988) investigated the effects of different conditions placed on brass players during inspiration and found that restricting the chest and shoulders decreased measured lung capacity. Van Middlesworth. finding that both areas of the torso contribute to the possible capacity of the lungs. Later scientific findings and expert opinions support this survey.138 SEHMANN Taylor (1968/1969) is perhaps the first to have surveyed the 20thcentury scientific and pedagogical sources on breathing as related to wind playing. All researchers found that wind players and singers use a combination of abdominal and thoracic lung expansion to perform. Kreisman. or RIP) was similar to that used in the present study to measure movement of the chest and abdomen during brass playing. Druz. The instrumentation used by Cugell (1986) in a study of brass players (respiratory inductive plethysmography. Taylor reported the most common type of respiration used by most teachers and players of brass instruments to be abdominal/diaphragmatic breathing. This method (RIP) was originally developed for medical personnel. Vellody. and Sharp (1978) studied the functions of the chest and abdominal regions in breathing. Phillips & Sehmann. Medical researchers have conducted studies on the breathing process as to efficiency and functioning. 1982. Advances in technology for measuring respiration (Bouhuys. & Wolkove. 1978). The RIP equipment consists of one elastic band placed to measure chest expansion and one to measure abdominal expansion during respiration. 1964. Smith. Results from several of these studies indicate that brass players have larger lung capacities than the average nonplayer. Konno & Mead. standing posture allowed the greatest amount of air to be inspired into the lungs. 1986. Fox. only Van Middlesworth reported no significant difference between the lung capacities of wind players and nonwind players. investigators have measured respiratory function in wind instrumentalists (Berger. Bouhuys. Such scientific knowledge has provided a basis for an understanding of the breathing process as it relates to musical performance. In several studies. Phillips & Vispoel. 1967) have made the study of breathing more objective and quantifiable. but has been used for studying respiratory activity in musicians (Cugell. Colacone. Nassery. 1964. Dennis (1987/1988) researched the use of instruction in the Alexander tech- . Fuks & Sundberg. Cugell.
Kohut. but was highly regarded by the participants of the study. which emphasizes abdominal/diaphragmatic breath1968/1969). 1971). All of the studies cited used adults as subjects. O'Donnell. 9). 1993). which served as a pilot study for the present research. was an investigation of the effects of breath management instruction on college-level brass players. Even the more recently published methods. Kelly. 1956. A review of older method books intended for elementary-age brass students reveals that most traditional methods include little discussion about breathing (Erickson. 1981. Jacobs. Spiegel. 1997). 1983.JRME 139 nique with brass players. 1990. The writers of these books may assume that instrumental music teachers cover the psychomotor aspects of playing. noting that a short amount of instruction did not alter musical performance or respiratory function. include little about breathing in the student books. and an expansion of the abdominal wall during inhalation. 1985. Kleinhammer. The mode of breathing used in the present study was based on the one recommended by most leading authorities on brass playing and breathing physiology (Brown & Thomas. stating that "one of the most urgent needs in instrumental music education is the development of a theory of instruction based on fact and not speculation" (p. 1988. Feldstein & O'Reilly. Many authors have commented on the need for correct breathing (Farkas. . 1985. Kohut. lateraling. Pearson. Swearingen & Buehlman. & Hawkshaw. 1987. O'Donnell (1987) also notes a lack of psychomotor instruction for elementary brass players. Smith et al. 1963. Johnson. A study by Phillips and Sehmann (1990). 1984. 1993). Wick. Froseth. Standard of Excellence (Pearson. such as Essential Elements (Rhodes. These investigators found that instruction in breath management significantly improved breathing mode and some measures of musical performance for those subjects receiving the experimental treatment (breath management instruction). Sataloff. is a The characterized by lowered diaphragm. Proper breathing motion allows for more air to be inspired than is required for normal respiration. technique ly extended lower ribs. 1991. 1984). 1982. In a descriptive study of beginning brass pedagogy. 1988. Rainbow (1973) notes the shortage of research on the physical aspects of instrumental performance. 1990. (1990) found that trained musicians had a much higher level of control over breathing than the average population. & Lautzenhauser. Biershank. Taylor. 1991. or the absence of this information may reveal a lack of understanding as to the importance of breathing for young brass players. and Accent on Achievement (O'Reilly & Williams. but few have proposed methods to teach breathing. Jacobs.
and one student dropped out of the instrumental program. phrasing. The 61 subjects that completed the study included 34 trumpet students. and 21 trombone/baritone students. that is. Prior to the beginning of the study. groups of five students per lesson were assigned equally to treatment or control. 6 horn students. range. an instructional manual was developed to present a logical. sequential method of instruction in breathing. and so forth. dynamics. Three students did not complete the study: one did not meet the minimum attendance requirement. therefore. and 6. The ability to perform articulations. Therefore. and most other "musical" aspects of wind playing are contingent upon correct breath management. is an essential requisite to good performance. groups of four students per lesson were assigned equally to treatment or control. To this end. and these same groups were used in the study so as not to disrupt the school schedule and possibly bias the results (since students might have realized they were in an experimental research setting). the researcher set a minimum attendance level of eight lessons during the 10-week instructional sequence. 163). METHOD Subjects The subjects in this study were all of the 64 brass students representing five elementary schools within a moderate-size Illinois school district. tuba students were not a part of the study due to the lack of tuba players in these grades . The instrumental lesson groups were randomly assigned to experimental (breath management instruction) and control groups. The lesson groups were matched for group size prior to assignment to treatment or control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breath management instruction on the breathing technique and musical performance of elementary level brass players in Grades 4. and duration. Subjects were grouped by instrument class for lessons. the investigator sought to determine if instruction in breath management would effect a significant change in the physical breathing mode and lung capacity of brass players and would significantly improve the following performance measures: tone quality. one student moved out of the district. 5.140 SEHMANN Teaching students to breath properly for instrumental playing may be the most important part of the teaching sequence. since it affects practically every aspect of tone production and musical expression" (p. Specifically. 61 students completed all the requirements of the study. Kohut (1985) stated that "correct breathing.
There were a total of 24 lesson groups involved in the study. and researcher-devised instruction suggested by scientific respiration research. 1986). Specifically.JRME 141 and the small number of tubists in elementary schools in general. was a combination of psychological and physiological approaches for achieving the optimum breathing mode for brass playing. Duration of the Study The duration of this study was 16 weeks. recommended exercises for improving breathing (Zi. all preliminary dependent measures were taken. or 7 minutes of instruction. depending on the length of treatment in breath management during each group lesson. There followed 5 weeks of breath management instruction in weekly group lessons. Lesson groups were assigned to either the experimental or the control group. as devised by the investigator. The group structure remained the same for the duration of the second semester. All subjects were taught by the same instrumental instructor that they had had prior to the beginning of the study. This treatment period was followed by 4 weeks during which the subjects prepared for a solo and ensemble contest. During the final 6 weeks. The total amount of treatment time within lessons for the experimental group was 65 minutes. Since the material from the investigator-devised instructional manual was taught by the regular instrumental teachers. treatment resumed for 5 weeks. The experimental group received 5. the period of this study. Instructional Procedures The psychomotor instructional sequence. the psychomotor instruction included parts of a sequence used with college-level brass players (Phillips & Sehmann. practice with breathing tubes (Staples. instructional aids used with schoolchildren in a previous study on breathing (Phillips. During the first week. whereas the control group continued group lessons in the same format as had been used the previous semester. 1990). The subjects received 30-minute group lessons once each week in the semester preceding this research project. No treatment was given during this 4-week period. since there were two different teachers involved in teaching the treatment groups . and the final week of the study was given to posttesting. 1983). These training sessions were designed to make the instruction from the manual as identical as possible. 6. 1988). the investigator conducted two 1-hour training sessions with the two instrumental teachers.
or 7 minutes were spent on this instruction during the regular 30-minute lesson. range. exhaling in varied counting patterns. The second set of breathing exercises were designed to improve the exhalation portion of the breathing process. The teachers were given demonstrations and tried specific exercises and activities for each lesson. 5. 1988). The control group played only out of the method book or worked on solo and ensemble literature. Depending on the lesson.) were part of these lessons. and lung capacity). the physical characteristics of proper breathing and posture. Data Collection Pretests and posttests of the three dependent measures of breathing (thoracic displacement. These exercises were intended to improve the action of the muscles involved in breath management. as well as the three dependent measures of performance (tone quality. The next part of the instruction was the establishment of the technique of abdominal/diaphragmatic breathing. All of the measures were taken individually during separate sessions by the investigator and an assistant during the 1-week pretest and . and duration) were obtained for each subject. the remainder of the lesson was spent playing out of the method book or working on solo and ensemble pieces. Another exercise consisted of tongued patterns designed to ensure that the breath management remained the same in all styles of playing. and the procedures to be followed for record keeping. The sequence of treatment exercises were presented to all of the lesson groups in the experimental group. and exhaling while tonguing imaginary quarter notes ("toh. 1968/1969). the type of breathing recommended by almost all brass experts (Taylor. The investigator explained the goals and theories behind the development of the manual.142 SEHMANN involved in the study. which determines the actual tone production on brass instruments." etc. The application of breath management instruction to the subjects' instrumental playing occurred during the second 5week period of lessons. The instruction manual included instructions that the chest should remain expanded as much as possible and should not be restricted in any way for maximum volume of air (Staples. toh. Students performed long tones throughout their ranges while the instructors checked for application of abdominal/diaphragmatic breathing to tone production. The students' instruments were not used in the first exercises. Activities such as deflating the abdominal area with the hands. toh. The first portion of the instructional sequence included postural exercises to reduce muscle tension. 6. abdominal displacement.
Statistical analysis was done on the total of the three trials. The Respibands contain sensors that. Phillips. Lung capacity was measured before and after the treatment period with a Respiradyne pulmonary function monitor. This breath measurement device consists of two gauze-like Respibands placed around the subject's torso. and the total number of half-steps for the three trials was the score for the range measure. Inc. in liters on three separate trials. Measures of displacement were produced by the penwriter tracings and were measured in millimeters. The range test consisted of subjects playing scales from music provided by the investigator. but has been used for studying respiratory activity in singers and wind players (Cugell. NY). Tone quality was assessed using an etude from a beginning level band book. 1990. when connected to a pen chart writer (called a "penwriter"). Lung capacity was included in the study to determine if taking a "deeper" breath (abdominal/diaphragmatic mode) increased subjects' lung capacity. The number of half-steps between the highest and lowest pitches was calculated. Staples. This method was originally developed for monitoring medical patients. 1983. Best in Class (Pearson. The investigator recorded the lung capacity. The measure of duration determined how long each subject could sustain a pitch. Three trials have been used in previous studies (Bencowitz. The investigator recorded the highest and lowest pitches played by each subject on three trials. 1984.. 1982. 1988) and have been accepted as reliable. The instrument used was a Respitrace unit (Ambulatory Monitoring. the judges attended a training session and practiced using the rating scale on sample etudes. A significant increase in capacity was not expected. 1990). These measurements were made during the performance of long tones. The same concert pitch (the concert B-flat nearest middle C) was played in the same register by each instrument (on the . Phillips & Sehmann. called "vital capacity" in the medical world. 1982). one at upper chest level and one at the abdominal level. are able to transmit the amount of torso displacement at these two levels. A statistical analysis of the sum of the measurements for the three trials was done for both thoracic and abdominal displacements. 1999. The subjects' performances were recorded and later scored by judges experienced in working with beginning brass students. 1986. Huttlin. Phillips & Vispoel. 1973) for clarinet performance were used. Ardsley. Fuks & Sundberg. Prior to listening to the taped examples.JRME 143 posttest periods. Four items from a multiple item 5point rating scale (Abeles. The measures of thoracic and abdominal displacement were obtained using respiratory inductive plethysmography.
range. and Grade (fourth. RESULTS Reliability estimates for thoracic displacement. Bouhuys. fifth. and sixth grade).144 SEHMANN staff. as the F above middle C. To ensure similar playing levels. but not for lung capacity and thoracic displacement. abdominal displacement. When the reading on the decibel meter dipped to the line below the set level. Instrument (trumpet. 1989).99. These results were expected. vital capacity. In both duration and tone quality. but only marginally lower when compared with trumpets. Among the breathing measures. This procedure was repeated three times. significant differences were observed for range and duration. the subjects first practiced the pitch while looking at a decibel meter (100 dB at one meter). The results are shown in Table 1. as middle C. but not for tone quality. differences were noted. Among the performance measures. The results for main effects showed that the experimental group had significantly higher scores than the control group (p < 0. and trombone). DISCUSSION The results of this study show that breath management instruction is effective in improving both breathing and performance aspects of . A two-by-three-by-three factorial design was used in the study. the subject was instructed to stop playing.92. for the horn. Research shows that equivalent concert pitches produce the same airflow rate on all brass instruments (Cugell. and duration range from 0. The three independent variables were Group (experimental and control). The interjudge reliability estimate (coefficient alpha) for judges' scores of the tone quality ratings was 0.05) on breathing and performance measures.85 to 0. these appeared for the trumpet. and for the trombone. There were no significant grade level main effects for either the breathing or performance measures according to a MANCOVA analysis. 1986. The data were analyzed using multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance on the SAS computer program (SAS. 1964). horn. Tone quality scores were significantly lower for trombones when compared with horns. there were significant effects for instrument classification. as the B-flatjust below middle C). significant differences were found for abdominal displacement. The horns had significantly higher duration scores than either the trombones or trumpets. However. since the instruction stressed increased abdominal expansion and did not work toward increased thoracic expansion.
48 (2.50) F= 0. 50) F= 1. 50) F= 0.73 (12.30* (2. 50) F= 0.72 (1. measures were brass playing.03 (1.92 (2.82 (2.35 (2. The results of the study reinforce the view that improving the brass player's breathing will improve the player's performance (Dale. 80) F= 0.44 (12.59* (2.50) F= 1. 50) F= 3.19 (2.A single covariate (the appropriatepretest measure) was used in the follow-upANCOVA analysis.63** (1.09 (2. 50) Abdominal displacement F= 8. 50) F= 2.13 (2. 40) UNIVARIATE Thoracic displacement F= 0. 50) F= 0. 50) F= 0.67 (2. 50) F= 0. 50) F= 0. Pretest scores on all six dependent variablesserved as covariatesin the MANCOVA analysis.35** (6.JRME 145 Table 1 and ANCOVA Results MANCOVA Measures for Breathingand Performance Measure Treatment (T) Instrument (I) Grade (G) TxI TxG MULTIVARIATE F= 6. 50) * p < . O'Donnell. 1987). 50) Duration F= 21. 1985. 1965. 1981.14 (2.11 (2. 50) F= 0. 50) F= 1. 50) F= 1. ** p< .28 (2.45 (1.57 (2. Group main effects for the dependent found to be significant for the sample of fourth through sixth grade brass players.19 (2.51** (1.50) F= 0. .83** (1. 50) Range F= 12. 50) F= 0. 50) F= 1.50) F= 0. 50) F= 0.15 (2.22 (2.98 (12.24 (2. 80) F= 0. 50) F= 0.05.33 (2.Multivariatetests were run using the GLM procedure from SAS (1989).65 (2. 50) Tone quality Note.55 (2. 80) F= 0. F= 0.01.50) F= 0. 50) F= 0. Johnson. 50) Vital capacity F= 2.01 (2. Kohut.20 (2.90* (12. 50) F= 1.50) F= 6. 80) F= 1.60 (2.
Various researchers have measured lung capacity among instrumentalists (Brown & Thomas. Therefore. 11. The control group in the present study increased their lung capacity slightly from an average of 1. These results may have been due to the practice in taking deeper breaths by the experimental group or general maturity. 9. the regular instrumental instruction does not seem to aid the development of abdominal breathing. significant differences were found for range by group. but the larger increase in range for the experimental group seems to be due to the specific instruction in breathing. The control group still exhibited abdominal contraction. and the students were already actively using the thoracic mode of breathing.47) when compared to the control group (mean. Staples. The experimental group also improved on the duration measure from pretest to posttest.91). 1982. the range measure showed significantly higher scores for the experimental group.59 millimeters. The control group showed a lower score for duration on the posttest (mean.82). Among the performance measures. 1999. +5. The treatment appears to be responsible for the increase in duration for the experimental group. meaning the abdominal area got smaller when taking a breath. The instruction in breathing mode was successful in improving abdominal displacement. abdominal displacement was found to be significantly higher for members of the experimental group (mean.81 liters to 1. Among the performance measures.39 seconds) than they had on the pretest (mean. The experimental group also increased their lung capacity. since the breath management instruction did not stress chest movement. 1978). 1971. Huttlin. The exercises in the instructional manual . 1988. Both the experimental and control groups showed a lack of abdominal movement on the pretest.72 half-step mean scores. but the experimental group was able to change from a thoracic mode of breathing mode of breathing.97 liters.22) improved slightly with a semester of regular instruction. -1. The control group (18. standard deviation [SD] of 6.37 millimeters.46). SD = 6.92 seconds per held pitch. but only the Brown and Thomas study explored the effects of breath training upon the subjects. Both groups to an abdominal/diaphragmatic showed about the same thoracic displacement on the posttest as they had on the pretest.146 SEHMANN Among the breathing measures. SD= 4. The posttest experimental group averaged 13. Faulkner. SD = . The experimental group showed an average range of almost 22 half steps (SD = 3.47 seconds).17 liters. Tucker. & Horvath. although not quite reaching the significance level set by the researcher (1.85 liters to 2. This was expected. Van Middlesworth.
aural tone model. aural memory. aural memory. An inspection of the means for the range measure shows that the control group increased about 1 half-step in overall range. More resistance makes it easier to slow the flow of air through the aperture. Among the experimental group.g. the most resistance and less air expended on the same airflow rate. The tone quality scores for the trombone players were significantthan those for horn or trumpet players. or the rating scale used for judging may be too imprecise to measure small differences in tone. while the experimental group increased their range about 5 half-steps. tone quality may be a function of other variables than just breathing style. Also. therefore. indicates that the breath management instruction was equally effective with all . Taken as a whole. permitting the subject to conserve breath. The young trombonists are playing in a range lower than their own singing range. The absence of group-by-instrument and group-by-grade interactions.. aural tone model. these variables might include instrument.JRME 147 stress using the airstream to produce higher pitches instead of using embouchure (or mouthpiece) pressure. These techniques enable the subjects to learn to relax the diaphragm more slowly. the horns had significantly better scores on the duration test than either the trumpets or trombones. The results of these two measures show that the treatment (breath management instruction) made a positive difference in an important component of brass-playing duration. have the narrowest leadpipe and. allowing subjects to play slightly longer. and this may cause a difference in aural perception of the pitches as well. The horns. the results indicate that the addition of some breath management instruction is more effective than traditional instruction alone for enhancing breathing and performance skills. of all the instruments in this study. This is probably due to the initial bore size of the instrument. The control group did show a decrease in their duration scores. perhaps the effects of improper breathing cause the inconsistency in both inspiration and expiration and can have a negative effect on this aspect of playing. instruand ment. Significant group differences also were found for the duration measure. and embouchure. embouchure). This may have occurred because certain of the exercises stressed the control or slow emission of the air. Tone quality may be lower ly a function of variables other than just breathing style (e. Tone quality varied little from pretest to posttest between groups. It may take longer than 16 weeks to see any change in the tone quality of elementary brass players. coupled with the significant group main effects. articulation. articulation.
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Phillips. K. (1973). 28-30. Kent State University. SAS softwarerelease5. The Quarterly. 105. Sensation of inspired volumes and pressures in professional wind instrument players. Musical performance:Learning theoryand pedagogy. K. B. (1993). Staples. Englewood Cliffs. The art of tromboneplaying. 1983). (1990). H. W. The effects of conductor academic task presentation. M. 22. & Williams. (1986). Essential elements. Konno. Journal of Research in Music Education. CA: Kjos. E. WI: Hal Leonard Publishing. 5. San Diego. D. K. Fox. (1997). 96-105.JRME 149 aural and instrumental performance skills. Colacone. E. Spiegel.18. A study of the effects of breath management instruction on the breathing mode. knowledge of breathing. Evanston. O'Donnell. & Wolkove. (1983).. Bierschenk. CA: Kjos West. no. Reston. J. NC: Author.J. 68. The effects of group breath control training on selected vocal measures related to the singing ability of elementary students in grades two. 44.J. F.. Measurement of the separate volume changes of rib cage and abdomen during breathing. Rainbow. K. Phillips. Ball State University. The school music program:Description and standards.. J. 1 (1 & 2). (1989). Dissertation AbstractsInternational. T. (1982). & Sehmann.. An interview with Arnold Jacobs. 48. H. A comprehensive performance project in horn litera- . (1963). Sataloff. O'Reilly. no. (1993).San Diego. 1411A. L. H. (1973). The Instrumentalist. T. Journal of Applied Physiology. W. 33. Instrumental music: Recent research and considerations for future investigations. Price. SAS Institute. 1017A. J. & Mead. Van Nuys. 27.. 205-219. H. K. R. 407-422... Kreisman. H.. 8-20. (1988). The effects of respiratory dysfunction on instrumentalists. & Vispoel. Rhodes. E... Best in class. VA: Music Educators National Conference [now MENC-The National Association for Music Education]. Kohut. & Hawkshaw. Journal of Applied Physiology. A. 58-71. NJ: Prentice-Hall.. Kleinhammer. and vocal performance among elementary education majors. Beginning brass instruction: Teaching strategies for selected skills and concepts (Doctoral dissertation. Pearson. IL: SummyBirchard. Standard of excellence. Phillips. T. Medical Problemsof Performing Artists. attentiveness and attitude. 2nd ed. The effects of class voice and respiration instruction on vocal knowledge. 36. (1985). Accent on achievement. conductor reinforcement. Smith. Dissertation AbstractsInternational. and performance skills of college-level brass players. Cary. Bulletin of the Councilfor Researchin Music Education. W. Milwaukee. (1990). B. and ensemble practice on performers' musical achievement. M. 2380-2383. N. 31.J. Inc. (1987). 94-99. MENC Commitee on Standards. (1967). D. CA: Alfred. & Lautzenheiser. 245-257. three and four (Doctoral dissertation. Russo. (1990). Pearson. T. H. 1987). (1990). Journal of Research in Music Education. attitudes. R. (1983). Bulletin of the Council for Researchin Music Education.
327-335. OH: Heritage Music Press. A study of the concepts of breathing as presented in literature dealing with tone production for orchestral brass-wind instruments (Doctoral dissertation. Effects of body position change on thoracoabdominal motion. (1986). M.. Journal of Research in Music Education. Taylor.. T. Zi. and cardiovasVan Middlesworth.London: Oxford University Press. Archives of Environmental Health. accepted December 21. Vellody. Dissertation AbstractsInternational. H. Nassery. Faulkner. J.. 23. 581-589.. Use of class time and student attentiveness in secondary instrumental music rehearsals. University of Iowa. Swearingen. The art of breathing. Band plus. . Yarbrough. Dissertation AbstractsInternational. (1971). & Buehlman. Tucker. Witt. S.. Columbia University Teachers College. (1985). T. 1988). & Sharp. S. 104-122..New York: Bantam Books. & Horvath. Journal of Researchin Music Education. 45. 2296A. Dayton. B. A. (1981). D. P. (1969). W. Prediction of performer attentiveness based on rehearsal activity and teacher behavior.. Rochester. N. (1984). (1986). NY. (1978). M. Wick. Eastman School of Music. Respiratory kinematics in classical (opera) singers. E. SubmittedJanuary 26. 29. 29. (1971). 1999. 49. Druz. Watson. J. Journal of Speechand Hearing Research. P.1999. 34-42. & Price.. 209-217. 3198A. 1968). J. An analysis of selectedrespiratory cular characteristicsof wind instrument performance. J. & Hixon. M. J. L.28. (1978). C. B. E. Journal of Applied Physiology. R. Trombone technique. A. Electrocardiography and lung function in brass instrument players. 33. V.Unpublished master's thesis. C.150 SEHMANN ture with an essay consisting of the effects of inspiratory conditions on the vital capacity of brass players (Doctoral essay.
pp. 54-55 Published by: MENC: The National Association for Music Education Stable URL: http://www. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work.org/page/info/about/policies/terms. you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www. 1979). We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon. non-commercial use. No. Hales Source: Music Educators Journal. http://www. 1 (Sep. that unless you have obtained prior permission.org/stable/3395718 Accessed: 25/02/2009 11:32 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use. in part.jstor. available at http://www.org. and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal.. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. please contact support@jstor. preserve and extend access to Music Educators Journal. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides.MENC: The National Association for Music Education Preseason Maintenance for Brass Instruments Author(s): John A.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=menc.org . For more information about JSTOR. Vol.jstor. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. 66.jsp.jstor. MENC: The National Association for Music Education is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources.jstor.
using the thumbs to push the tuning slide brace (see Figure 2). Non-ferrule (left) and ferrule (right) slide design 54 mej/september '79 . apply a good penetrating oil and leave it on the slide overnight.. check each valve to be sure it moves freely. wearing of mechanical parts. and interior and exterior damage that may cause problems when the instrument is transported. which can be distinguished by the ferrule (see Figure 1). and tubas have movable slides on the top of the valves. excessive moisture. broken latches and hinges. Most valve slides do not receive large amounts of saliva and therefore are usually easy to remove. extreme temperatures. Illustration by Steve Pederson Leaving all valves in the casing. next remove all slides. If valves are sluggish. Do not overlook the protection afforded a mouthpiece. which will remove lacquer from the instrument. Gently tug in the normal direction you would move the slide. Thisarticle is the first in a series on instrument repair and maintenance to be published on a periodic basis. Rather. dirt is probably the problem. First. do not force the slide further.ferrule I . SI ^1 I- x &. Do not use hot water. causing damage to the instrument. Place a length of cloth clothesline or a handkerchief through the crook. because the braces may loosen. When a valve does not function properly after cleaning. If the penetrating oil does not work. _ - John A. send the instrument to a repair shop. Trombone tuning slides also should be removed by hand. The author is program coordinatorfor the musical instrument technology curriculum at State Universityof New York in Morrisville. Hales As marching season begins. These promote rapid deterioration of instruments through dents. and destruction of pads. Horn slides only should be pulled by hand since a rope or handkerchief will pull unevenly on the slide. Brass instruments are easily inspected.brace one hand against the valve casing and the other against the body of the instrument and pull the slides out with your fingers. . Never use the old belt trick on the tuning slide. Instruments used outdoors are subject to excessive abuse in handling. Next. Inspect the inside of each slide for dirt or corrosion. preventive maintenance requires each band director's immediate attention. but send the instrument to a repair shop. Biannual instrument inspection will lead to early detection of problems that otherwise would result in costly and inconvenient repairs.slide-inside slide tube Figure 1. and dirt. Any sign of accumulation means the instrument should be cleaned carefully using lukewarm soapy water and a flexible brush. starting with the tuning slide. especially in trombone cases. which are notorious for loose mouthpieces that can dent the slide and instrument. most baritones. The valve slides are usually quite safe to remove. sousaphones. If the slides do not pull. This is especially necessary with stuck valves.check the instrument case for poor handles. Remember. Depress the corresponding valve while bracing one hand against the valve casing.PRESEASON MAINTENA ^-I. which are hollow and cannot be driven out with drumsticks.
dirt. especially on mouthpipes and taper end of mouthpieces. If a clean slide drags. inexperience may ruin an otherwise good slide. Never grasp a trombone slide at any location other than at the hand brace. The standby vaseline and lanolins are probably the least acceptable slide lubricants due to the large amounts of water that they contain. -dpl .FOR BRASS INSTRUMENTS Figure 2. odorless. Incorrect grip may cause even a clean slide to drag. providing they are not larger than one quarter of the tube diameter. Next. carefully check each solder joint near a dent. This is only a general rule. A general brass inspection should include an examination of the water key corks. For brass instruments used in a marching band. Check the inside slide on the mouthpiece side for dirt by holding it up to the light. which is a noncorrosive. but rather only certain notes in the overtone series. long-lasting. a weekly flushing with water and a thorough biweekly cleaning with a brush is a good precaution. The pressure of the spring will continually wear a cork until the side splits or a defect in the cork leaks air. I have found the best lubricant to be Army surplus rifle grease. Removing a trombone tuning slide The trombone slide should be checked for ease of movement. lubricate the slides. Never work on your own slide. The water key cork can be deceptive in that air leaks do not affect all notes. low-cost grease. Most body dents are not serious to the performance. The impact when a dent is made may break solder joints. Many students forget to clean the inner slide. which continually deposits dirt between inner and outer slides and may create a drag on the slide. These should be removed. since certain locations may greatly affect some notes of the overtone series. After all instruments are cleaned. therefore. send it to a repair shop to remove the dents or adjust the alignment. I I \i 1 I I 1"'. and food particles creates greater risks than do other instrumental performance situations. General appearance is the best guide for replacement. Regular rifle grease sold in sporting goods stores has a strong odor caused by additives. A deep impression in the cork is a telltale sign of problems. look for dents. The band instrument's exposure to moisture.
and page number are cited as the source. Pedagogical Topics Editor – Phil Norris: Developing Tone Quality (J an 02/36) The International Trumpet Guild (ITG) is the copyright owner of all data contained in this file. www. so long as no fee. server.Reprints from the International Trumpet Guild Journal to promote communications among trumpet players around the world and to improve the artistic level of performance.trumpetguild. or any other database or device that allows for the accessing or copying of this file or the data contained herein by any third party. whether direct or indirect • Transmission of this file or the data contained herein to more than one individual end-user • Distribution of this file or the data contained herein in any form to more than one end user (as in the form of a chain letter) • Printing or distribution of more than a single copy of the pages of this file • Alteration of this file or the data contained herein • Placement of this file on any web site. teaching. and literature associated with the trumpet J on Burgess. The International Trumpet Guild prohibits the following without prior written permission: • Duplication or distribution of this file. or printed copies made from this file for profit or for a charge. ITG gives the individual end-user the right to: • Download and retain an electronic copy of this file on a single workstation that you own • Transmit an unaltered copy of this file to any single individual end-user. . including such a device intended to be used wholly within an institution. whether direct or indirect is charged • Print a single copy of pages of this file • Quote fair use passages of this file in not-for-profit research papers as long as the ITGJ. date.org Please retain this cover sheet with printed document. the data contained herein.
” Yet. Herseth on my trumpet. and tongue position). then. We hear ourselves subjectively. The implications of this approach extend to teaching and conducting as well as performing. which in turn sends signals to the body to produce the desired sound. Successful performance involves ordering a clearly conceived product in the mind. certain parts of the harmonic series are not perceived as they actually sound. The position of our ears relative to where the sound originates is an important factor in perception. this should be the starting point for approaching tone development in all wind players. Players need something they can take with them to help them know as they play that their tone is good. for that matter. All timbres can be digitally analyzed to determine a “fingerprint. Every book or article I’ve read about tone seems to assume that players hear themselves as others do. there is still a mysterious nature to tone production. This perception problem often slows or prevents the development of tone in young or experienced players.e. Let’s say I imitate Mr. Arnold Jacobs was right when he said that we must play from cranial nerves (nerves that send signals to the body from the brain) and not from sensory information (from the body to the brain).” When we play. First. Editor Developing Tone Quality BY PHIL NORRIS “Sounds foggy. colleague. while most others have to find a way to develop it. Our goal. through focus on the product. we usually experience what Jacobs called. including trumpeters. so sensory analysis is not the prime focus. Yet. authors and teachers urge us to imitate or imagine excellent tone. In comparing perceived tone to actual tone (i. all sounds. and 2) indirectly. but in relying on another person. Pure tones when combined in various numbers and strengths determine the difference between a flute and a trumpet and. Second. through focus on the means of achieving good tone (such as airflow. Regardless of how tone is achieved. oral cavity. A pure tone if isolated has a whistle-like quality. because we are connected to the instrument (just as a singer is part of her instrument). we need to know what sort of tone to produce according to what we hear that will sound good to the listener. the result will not sound like Herseth to you. professional) who can tell us when we’re “in the ballpark. When we play with attention to sonic or tactile hearing. There remains some mystery about the process. we must decide in the mind what kind of sound to produce and make that sound rather than listening to ourselves and analyzing our product. tone heard on a recording or described by another person).” I was in the second quarter of my master ’s degree in trumpet performance and had recently found a mouthpiece that to me felt and sounded wonderful. a few players seem to have a great sound from the start. Singers have always understood this principle. Why is this true? The Basic Premise The starting point in understanding tone production on wind instruments is this: we do not hear ourselves the way others hear us. Once a player knows what kind of sound to order. Additionally there is a factor of perception in the objective listener who will hear the timbre differently © 2002 International Trumpet Guild . is to find a way to hear our tone qualities more objectively. I’ve discovered a few simple. This is an important step. which I hope to minimize in the course of this article. we need what I call a 36 ITG Journal / January 2002 “trusted friend” (a teacher. The question remains: what kind of tone do I need to produce that will sound good to the listener? Tone Perception Most musicians know about the nature of a tone: that it’s composed of a set of pure tone components known as harmonics or overtones. basic things that help in hearing more objectively. if not all. we should notice the fine points of timbre and seek to reproduce them as consistently as we can regardless of how we personally feel about the sound we are producing. the mystery of tone production is greatly reduced. but wind players and teachers have for the most part either not known about or ignored this reality. How could he say I sounded “foggy?” I was perplexed to tears. Most.Pedagogical Topics J on Burgess. “paralysis of analysis. one that will sound good to the listener. At my next lesson. How can we do this? There are two basic ways to develop tone: 1) directly. In other words. Nowhere have I read or heard anyone address tone production in this way. there is a need to monitor the tone we make. Will I sound like him? When I try to produce Herseth’s sound based on my hearing. embouchure.” When the tone is deemed “good” by our friend. my teacher said something that turned the light on for me: “Have you ever heard your voice on a tape?” Immediately I knew the central issue in my confusion.
but often the means can be positively affected by ordering the proper tone. the sound of an oboe is different right beside the instrument compared to its timbre heard at a distance of fifty feet. like oral cavity or use of breath. Many of us have struggled with teachers who asked us to sound a certain way that didn’t sound good to us. At the same time. To add brilliance. To the rest of us. In working with players. The focus of this approach is the product. the same sound will likely not result. does imitation have? Imitation is © 2002 International Trumpet Guild valuable in terms of style. the result (to the listener) is actually more resonant: a darker. but bright. if any. Phil Norris is Associate Professor of Music at Northwestern College in St. and tight. The environment in which the sound is made contributes to the perception as well. and with respect to acoustical environment and distance. clear. When a student’s tone is getting tight. the quality the player should try to produce (remember Jacobs’ ordering of sound?) must have more clarity or “ring. thin. What should the player conceive in the mind while producing a tone so that the desired product will result? Teachers hear dramatic improvement if they give the student tone production goals that achieve the desired sound from the listener ’s perspective. the focus should be on precise intonation while retaining the “ring” or a “floating” (vs. breath. bright. I’ll give a cue word like “buzz” or “ring” and immediately the tone is improved without attention to oral cavity. With these. When one is urged to produce a “dark” sound. however. thinner tone.” When players (to their hearing) produce clearer. the result is often not dark at all. I’ve discovered that “good” sounds require the player to produce a clearer. the resulting tone is tight and pinched. more ringing tone compared to what the player thinks would sound beautiful. so do the numbers and strengths of higher partials in the overtone series. First. fuller. a forced) quality. In addition. the lower registers should contain more “buzz. but they also extend to teachers and conductors. increasing volume seems to do the trick. and is able to do so with little or no attention to the physical means of creating the sound. In this manner. The net result is usually a “pinched” tone. The terms. given during a breath or a rest. In my experience as a student in a studio or under a conductor. which is a musically superior approach. they can more readily accept instruction with little or no resistance. brighter timbres like these. Why does this occur? When I make the tone sound “dark” to my ears. attention is focused on the product and away from the process. Paul.” as the pitch ascends. The timbre will also be different in a dry space from one in a live acoustic environment. brighter. as a teacher I can very quickly help refocus a player if the tone gets “foggy” by a simple oneword cue. I’m actually accentuating the lower harmonics in the timbre. the player/student achieves good tone almost immediately. What to Order In my work with this approach.depending on the distance from the sound. That’s not to say we don’t give attention to some of the means. As players understand the perception issue. direction to produce a dark or deep tone has resulted in a brighter.” In the high register. this approach reduces misunderstandings between a teacher or conductor and the player.” For reed players the term “reedy” is used. I’m reducing the higher partials in the overtone series. Occasionally I’ve read or heard individuals use these terms to describe tone on their instruments. If someone imitates a fine player and reproduces the same quality to his or her ears. He has presented this topic at the Mid-West International Band and Orchestra Clinic as well as other state music conventions. Minnesota where he teaches trumpet. richer quality. the overtone series for a given instrument must be at its best (most complete). Brass players may use the term “brassy. teachers need to hear from the player ’s perspective. Younger players usually make sounds that sound nice to them. opposites in perception seem to work well. For example. About the Author: Dr. and even timbre. interpretive aspects. and it has helped my students — beginners and experienced players alike — to have a clearer grasp of what it takes to develop an aesthetically pleasing tone quality. the player gains greater independence by being better able to monitor the sound apart from the teacher ’s presence. January 2002 / ITG Journal 37 . For maximum resonance and actual darkness or fullness of tone. The player needs to know what kind of sound to order from his ears so the resulting sound will be good to the audience. The Benefits The benefits of this method of realizing tone production as a performer are enormous. teachers need to help them get past perception problems. however. In all cases. instrumental methods. When volume increases. What role. and music theory. The way to get wind players to sound “darker” is to ask them to make their timbre clearer or brighter to their ears. Doc Severinsen calls this quality “brrr. This approach has made a positive impact in my success as a performer. To the player. so long as the perceptual problem is considered. and ringing are descriptions that seem to result in improved tone production in all players so long as the blowing is not tight or compressed. All musicians need to develop an awareness of how the sound differs with respect to performer and audience. or embouchure. He holds graduate degrees in trumpet performance from Northwestern University and the University of Minnesota. not the means. giving them a clearer sense of the objective result through their subjective hearing.” I sometimes call it a “buzz. Second. but freely blown. Third.
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