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Haile Selassie I

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Haile Selassie I

Emperor of Ethiopia
2 November 193012 September 1974 (43
years, 314 days)
Coronation 2 November 1930
Predecessor Zewditu I
Successor De jure Amha Selassie I (crowned in exile)
Head of State of Ethiopia
Predecessor Zewditu I
Successor Aman Andom (as Chairman of the Derg)

Empress Menen
Princess Romanework
Princess Tenagnework
Asfaw Wossen
Princess Zenebework
Princess Tsehai
Prince Makonnen
Prince Sahle Selassie
Full name

Ras Tafari Makonnen

House House of Solomon
Father Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa
Mother Weyziro Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar
23 July 1892
Ejersa Goro,
27 August 1975 (aged 83)
Addis Ababa,
Religion Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo

Haile Selassie

1 Chairman of the Organization of African Unity

In office
25 May 1963 17 July 1964
Succeeded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser


Main doctrines
Jah Afrocentrism Ital
Zion Cannabis use

Central figures
Queen of Sheba King
Solomon Haile Selassie
Marcus Garvey
Leonard Howell God

Key scriptures
Bible Kebra Nagast
The Promise Key Holy
Piby My Life and
Ethiopia's Progress
Royal Parchment Scroll
of Black Supremacy

Branches and
Mansions United States
Grounation Day

Notable individuals
Bob Marley Peter Tosh
Walter Rodney
Mutabaruka Benjamin

See also:

Vocabulary Persecution
Dreadlocks Reggae
Ethiopian Christianity
Index of Rastafari
This box: view talk edit

Haile Selassie I (Ge'ez: , "Power of the Trinity"[1]) (23 July 1892 27 August
1975), born Tafari Makonnen,[2] was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and Emperor
of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. The heir to a dynasty that traced its origins to the 13th
century, and from there by tradition back to King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba,
Haile Selassie is a defining figure in both Ethiopian and African history.[3][4]
At the League of Nations in 1936, the Emperor condemned the use of chemical weapons
by Italy against his people.[5] His internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter
member of the United Nations, and his political thought and experience in promoting
multilateralism and collective security have proved seminal and enduring.[6] His
suppression of rebellions among the nobles (mekwannint), as well as what some
perceived to be Ethiopia's failure to modernize adequately,[7] earned him criticism among
some contemporaries and historians.[8]
Haile Selassie, who was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian, is revered as Jesus incarnate
among the Rastafari movement, the number of followers of which is estimated between
200,000 and 800,000.[9][10] Begun in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafarian movement
perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead the peoples of Africa and the
African diaspora to a golden age of peace, righteousness, and prosperity.[11]


1 Name
2 Biography
o 2.1 Early life
o 2.2 Governorship
o 2.3 Regency
2.3.1 Travel abroad
o 2.4 King and Emperor
o 2.5 Conflict with Italy
2.5.1 Mobilization
2.5.2 Progress of the war
2.5.3 Exile debate
2.5.4 Collective security and the League of Nations, 1936
2.5.5 Exile
o 2.6 1940s and 1950s
o 2.7 1960s

2.8 1970s
2.8.1 Wollo Famine
2.8.2 Revolution
3 Imprisonment
o 3.1 Death and interment
4 Children
5 Rastafari Messiah
o 5.1 Haile Selassie's attitude to the Rastafari
6 Famous quotations
7 Honours
8 Military ranks
9 Ancestry
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References

13 External links

[edit] Name
Haile Selassie was born Tafari Makonnen (Ge'ez ; Amharic
pronunciation lij tefer meknnin). "Lij" translates literally to "child", and serves to
indicate that a youth is of noble blood. He would later become Ras Tafari Makonnen;
"Ras" translates literally to "head"[12] and is the equivalent of "duke",[13] though it is often
rendered in translation as "prince". In 1928, he was elevated to Negus, "King".
Upon his ascension to Emperor in 1930, he took the name Haile Selassie, meaning
"Power of the Trinity".[14] Haile Selassie's full title in office was "His Imperial Majesty
Haile Selassie I, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah,
and Elect of God" (Ge'ez
; girmw admw 'a aile elassie,
m' 'ambass ze'imneggede yehda negus negast ze'tyy, tsehume 'igz'a'bihr).
This title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace
their lineage back to Menelik I, who in the Ethiopian tradition was the offspring of King
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.[15]
To Ethiopians Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu
Meri, and Abba Tekel. The Rastafari employ many of these appellations, also referring
to him as HIM, Jah, and Jah Rastafari.

[edit] Biography
[edit] Early life

Ras Makonnen, father of Haile Selassie I, in 1902

Haile Selassie I was born Tafari Makonnen from a mixed Oromo, Amhara, and Gurage[16]
family on 23 July 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar province of Ethiopia.
His mother was Woizero ("Lady") Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar, daughter of the renowned
Oromo ruler of Wollo province Dejazmach Ali Abajifar. Haile Selassie's father was Ras
Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa, the governor of Harar; Ras Makonnen served as a
general in the First ItaloEthiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa.[17] He
inherited his imperial blood through his paternal grandmother, Princess Tenagnework
Sahle Selassie, who was an aunt of Emperor Menelik II, and as such asserted direct
descent from Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of ancient Israel.[18]
Ras Makonnen arranged for Tafari as well as his first cousin, Ras Imru Haile Selassie to
receive instruction in Harar from Abba Samuel Wolde Kahin, an Ethiopian capuchin
monk, and from Dr. Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe. Tafari was named Dejazmach
(literally "commander of the gate", roughly equivalent to "count")[19] at the age of 13, on
1 November 1905.[20] Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi, in 1906.

[edit] Governorship
Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale in 1906, a realm of marginal
importance[22] but one that enabled him to continue his studies.[20] In 1907, he was
appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo. It is alleged that during his late
teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, and that from this union, his
daughter Romanework Haile Selassie was born.[23][24]
Following the death of his brother Yelma in 1907, the governorate of Harar was left
vacant,[22] and its administration was left to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha
Safo. Balcha Safo's administration of Harar was ineffective, and so during the last illness
of Menelik II, and the brief reign of Empress Taitu Bitul, Tafari was made governor of
Harar in 1910[21] or 1911.[16]
On 3 August he married Menen Asfaw of Ambassel, niece of heir to the throne Lij Iyasu.

[edit] Regency
The extent to which Tafari Makonnen contributed to the movement that would come to
depose Iyasu V is unclear. Iyasu V, or Lij Iyasu, was the designated but uncrowned
Emperor of Ethiopia from 1913 to 1916. Iyasu's reputation for scandalous behavior and a
disrespectful attitude towards the nobles at the court of his grandfather, Menelik II,[25]
damaged his reputation. His flirtation with Islam was considered treasonous among the
Ethiopian Orthodox Christian leadership of the empire. On 27 September 1916, Iyasu
was deposed.[26]
Contributing to the movement that deposed Iyasu were conservatives such as Fitawrari
Habte Giyorgis, Menelik II's longtime Minister of War. The movement to depose Iyasu
preferred Tafari, as he attracted support from both progressive and conservative factions.
Ultimately, Iyasu was deposed on the grounds of conversion to Islam.[12][26] In his place,
the daughter of Menelik II ( the aunt of Iyasu) was named Empress Zewditu and made
Regent for Tafari during his minority. Tafari was elevated to the rank of Ras and was
made heir apparent and Crown Prince. In the power arrangement that followed, Tafari
accepted the role of Regent Plenipotentiary (Balemulu 'Inderase) and became the de
facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire (Mangista Ityop'p'ya). Zewditu would govern while
Tafari would administer.[27]
While Iyasu had been deposed on 27 September 1916, on 8 October the coup d'etat went
awry. Iyasu managed to escape into the Ogaden Desert and his father, Negus Mikael of
Wollo, had time to come to his aid.[28] On 27 October, Negus Mikael and his army met an
army under Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis loyal to Zewditu and Tafari. During the Battle of
Segale, Negus Mikael was defeated and captured. Any chance that Iyasu would regain the
throne was ended and he went into hiding. On 11 January 1921, after avoiding capture for
about five years, Iyasu was taken into custody by Gugsa Araya Selassie.
On 11 February 1917, the coronation for Zewditu took place. She pledged to rule justly
through her Regent, Tafari. While Tafari was the more visible of the two, Zewditu was
far from an honorary ruler. Her position required that she arbitrate the claims of
competing factions. In other words, she had the last word. Tafari carried the burden of
daily administration but, because his position was relatively weak, this was often an
exercise in futility for him. Initially his personal army was poorly equipped, his finances
were limited, and he had little leverage to withstand the combined influence of the
Empress, the Minister of War, or the provincial governors.[29]

Empress Zewditu, preceded Haile Selassie as Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 until her
death in April 1930. He served as regent of Ethiopia during her reign.
During his Regency, the new Crown Prince developed the policy of cautious
modernization initiated by Menelik II. He secured Ethiopia's admission to the League of
Nations in 1923 by promising to eradicate slavery; each emperor since Tewodros II had
issued proclamations to halt slavery,[30] but without effect: the internationally scorned
practice persisted well into Haile Selassie's reign.[31]
[edit] Travel abroad
In 1924, Ras Tafari toured Europe and the Middle East visiting Jerusalem, Cairo,
Alexandria, Brussels, Amsterdam, Stockholm, London, Geneva, and Athens. With him
on his tour was a group that included Ras Seyum Mangasha of western Tigre Province,
Ras Hailu Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam Province, Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu of Illubabor
Province, Ras Makonnen Endelkachew, and Blattengeta Heruy Welde Sellase. The
primary goal of the trip to Europe was for Ethiopia to gain access to the sea. In Paris,
Tafari was to find out from the French Foreign Ministry (Quai d'Orsay) that this goal
would not be realized.[32] However, failing this, he and his retinue inspected schools,
hospitals, factories, and churches. Although patterning many reforms after European
models, Tafari remained wary of European pressure. To guard against economic
imperialism, Tafari required that all enterprises have at least partial local ownership.[33]
Of his modernization campaign, he remarked, "We need European progress only because
we are surrounded by it. That is at once a benefit and a misfortune."[34]
Throughout Ras Tafari's travels in Europe, the Levant, and Egypt, he and his entourage
were greeted with enthusiasm and fascination. He was accompanied by Seyum Mangasha
and Hailu Tekle Haymanot who, like Tafari, were sons of generals who contributed to the
victorious war against Italy a quarter century earlier at the Battle of Adwa.[35] Another
member of his entourage, Mulugeta Yeggazu, actually fought at Adwa as a young man.
The "Oriental Dignity" of the Ethiopians[36] and their "rich, picturesque court dress"[37]
were sensationalized in the media; among his entourage he even included a pride of lions,
which he distributed as gifts to President Alexandre Millerand and Prime Minister
Raymond Poincar of France, to King George V of the United Kingdom, and to the
Zoological Garden (Jardin Zoologique) of Paris.[35] As one historian noted, "Rarely can a
tour have inspired so many anecdotes".[35] In return for two lions, the United Kingdom

presented Ras Tafari with the imperial crown of Emperor Tewodros II for its safe return
to Empress Zewditu. The crown had been taken by Robert Napier during the 1868
Expedition to Abyssinia.[38]
In this period, the Crown Prince visited the Armenian monastery of Jerusalem. There, he
adopted 40 Armenian orphans ( Arba Lijoch, "forty children") who had
escaped the Armenian genocide of the Ottoman Empire.[39] Ras Tafari arranged for the
musical education of the youths, and they came to form the imperial brass band.[40]

[edit] King and Emperor

In 1928, the authority of Ras Tafari Makonnen was challenged when Dejazmatch Balcha
Safo went to Addis Ababa with a sizeable armed force. When Tafari consolidated his
hold over the provinces, many of Menilek's appointees refused to abide by the new
regulations. Balcha Safo, Governor (Shum) of coffee-rich Sidamo Province was
particularly troublesome. The revenues he remitted to the central government did not
reflect the accrued profits and Tafari recalled him to Addis Ababa. The old man came in
high dudgeon and, insultingly, with a large army.[nb 1] The Dejazmatch paid homage to
Empress Zewditu, but snubbed Ras Tafari.[42][43] On 18 February, while Balcha Safo and
his personal bodyguard[nb 2] were in Addis Ababa, Ras Tafari had Ras Kassa Haile Darge
buy off his army and arrange to have him displaced as the Shum of Sidamo Province[45]
by Birru Wolde Gabriel who himself was replaced by Desta Damtew.[46]

Cover of Time magazine, 3 November 1930

Even so, the gesture of Balcha Safo empowered Empress Zewditu politically and she
attempted to have Tafari tried for treason. He was tried for his benevolent dealings with
Italy including a 20-year peace accord which was signed on 2 August.[20] In September, a
group of palace reactionaries including some of the courtiers of the Empress, made a final
bid to get rid of Tafari. The attempted coup d'tat was tragic in its origins and comic in
its end. When confronted by Tafari and a company of his troops, the ringleaders of the
coup took refuge on the palace grounds in Menilek's mausoleum. Tafari and his men
surrounded them only to be surrounded themselves by the personal guard of Zewditu.
More of Tafari's khaki clad soldiers arrived and, with superiority of arms, decided the
outcome in his favor.[47] Popular support, as well as the support of the police,[42] remained

with Tafari. Ultimately, the Empress relented and, on 7 October 1928, she crowned
Tafari as Negus (Amharic: "King").
The crowning of Tafari as King was controversial. He occupied the same territory as the
Empress rather than going off to a regional kingdom of the empire. Two monarchs, even
with one being the vassal and the other the Emperor (in this case Empress), had never
occupied the same location as their seat in Ethiopian history. Conservatives agitated to
redress this perceived insult to the dignity of the crown, leading to the rebellion of Ras
Gugsa Welle. Gugsa Welle was the husband of the Empress and the Shum of Begemder
Province. In early 1930, he raised an army and marched it from his governorate at
Gondar towards Addis Ababa. On 31 March 1930, Gugsa Welle was met by forces loyal
to Negus Tafari and was defeated at the Battle of Anchem. Gugsa Welle was killed in
action.[48] News of Gugsa Welle's defeat and death had hardly spread through Addis
Ababa when the Empress died suddenly on 2 April 1930. Although it was long rumored
that the Empress was poisoned upon the defeat of her husband,[49] or alternately that she
died from shock upon hearing of the death of her estranged yet beloved husband,[50] it has
since been documented that the Empress succumbed to a flu-like fever and complications
from diabetes.[51]
With the passing of Zewditu, Tafari himself rose to Emperor and was proclaimed Neguse
Negest ze-'Ityopp'ya, "King of Kings of Ethiopia". He was crowned on 2 November 1930,
at Addis Ababa's Cathedral of St. George. The coronation was by all accounts "a most
splendid affair",[52] and it was attended by royals and dignitaries from all over the world.
Among those in attendance were George V's son Prince Henry, Marshal Franchet
d'Esperey of France, and the Prince of Udine representing Italy. Emissaries from the
United States,[53] Egypt, Turkey, Sweden, Belgium, and Japan were also present.[52]
British author Evelyn Waugh was also present, penning a contemporary report on the
event, and American travel lecturer Burton Holmes shot the only known film footage of
the event.[54] One newspaper report suggested that the celebration may have incurred a
cost in excess of $3,000,000.[55] Many of those in attendance received lavish gifts;[56] in
one instance, the Christian Emperor even sent a gold-encased Bible to an American
bishop who had not attended the coronation, but who had dedicated a prayer to the
Emperor on the day of the coronation.[57]
Haile Selassie introduced Ethiopia's first written constitution on 16 July 1931,[58]
providing for a bicameral legislature.[59] The constitution kept power in the hands of the
nobility, but it did establish democratic standards among the nobility, envisaging a
transition to democratic rule: it would prevail "until the people are in a position to elect
themselves."[59] The constitution limited the succession to the throne to the descendants of
Haile Selassie, a point that met with the disapprobation of other dynastic princes,
including the princes of Tigrai and even the Emperor's loyal cousin, Ras Kassa Haile
In 1932, the Kingdom of Jimma was formally absorbed into Ethiopia following the death
of King Abba Jifar II of Jimma.

[edit] Conflict with Italy

The Emperor, Photography by Walter Mittelholzer, February 1934.

See also: Abyssinia Crisis and Second Italo-Abyssinian War
Ethiopia became the target of renewed Italian imperialist designs in the 1930s. Benito
Mussolini's fascist regime was keen to avenge the military defeats Italy had suffered to
Ethiopia in the First Italo-Abyssinian War, and to efface the failed attempt by "liberal"
Italy to conquer the country, as epitomised by the defeat at Adowa.[60][61][62] A conquest of
Ethiopia could also empower the cause of fascism and embolden its rhetoric of empire.[62]
Ethiopia would also provide a bridge between Italy's Eritrean and Italian Somaliland
possessions. Ethiopia's position in the League of Nations did not dissuade the Italians
from invading in 1935; the "collective security" envisaged by the League proved useless,
and a scandal erupted when the Hoare-Laval Pact revealed that Ethiopia's League allies
were scheming to appease Italy.[63]
[edit] Mobilization

Following the 1935 Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie joined his northern armies
and set up headquarters at Desse in Wollo province. He issued his famous mobilization
order on 3 October 1935:

If you withhold from your country Ethiopia the death from cough or headcold of which you would otherwise die, refusing to resist (in your district, in
your patrimony, and in your home) our enemy who is coming from a distant
country to attack us, and if you persist in not shedding your blood, you will

be rebuked for it by your Creator and will be cursed by your offspring.

Hence, without cooling your heart of accustomed valour, there emerges your
decision to fight fiercely, mindful of your history that will last far into the
future... If on your march you touch any property inside houses or cattle and
crops outside, not even grass, straw, and dung excluded, it is like killing your
brother who is dying with you... You, countryman, living at the various
access routes, set up a market for the army at the places where it is camping
and on the day your district-governor will indicate to you, lest the soldiers
campaigning for Ethiopia's liberty should experience difficulty. You will not
be charged excise duty, until the end of the campaign, for anything you are
marketing at the military camps: I have granted you remission... After you
have been ordered to go to war, but are then idly missing from the campaign,
and when you are seized by the local chief or by an accuser, you will have
punishment inflicted upon your inherited land, your property, and your body;
to the accuser I shall grant a third of your property...
On 19 October 1935, Haile Selassie gave more precise orders for his army to his
Commander-in-Chief, Ras Kassa:
1. When you set up tents, it is to be in caves and by trees and in a wood, if the place
happens to be adjoining to theseand separated in the various platoons. Tents are
to be set up at a distance of 30 cubits from each other.
2. When an aeroplane is sighted, one should leave large open roads and wide
meadows and march in valleys and trenches and by zigzag routes, along places
which have trees and woods.
3. When an aeroplane comes to drop bombs, it will not suit it to do so unless it
comes down to about 100 metres; hence when it flies low for such action, one
should fire a volley with a good and very long gun and then quickly disperse.
When three or four bullets have hit it, the aeroplane is bound to fall down. But let
only those fire who have been ordered to shoot with a weapon that has been
selected for such firing, for if everyone shoots who possesses a gun, there is no
advantage in this except to waste bullets and to disclose the men's whereabouts.
4. Lest the aeroplane, when rising again, should detect the whereabouts of those who
are dispersed, it is well to remain cautiously scattered as long as it is still fairly
close. In time of war it suits the enemy to aim his guns at adorned shields,
ornaments, silver and gold cloaks, silk shirts and all similar things. Whether one
possesses a jacket or not, it is best to wear a narrow-sleeved shirt with faded
colours. When we return, with God's help, you can wear your gold and silver
decorations then. Now it is time to go and fight. We offer you all these words of
advice in the hope that no great harm should befall you through lack of caution.
At the same time, We are glad to assure you that in time of war We are ready to
shed Our blood in your midst for the sake of Ethiopia's freedom..."[64]
Compared to the Ethiopians, the Italians had an advanced, modern military which
included a large air force. The Italians would also come to employ chemical weapons

extensively throughout the conflict, even targeting Red Cross field hospitals in violation
of the Geneva Convention.[65]
[edit] Progress of the war

Starting in early October 1935, the Italians invaded Ethiopia. On 6 October, Italian honor
was avenged when Adwa fell. But, by November, the pace of invasion had slowed
appreciably and Haile Selassie's northern armies were able to launch what was known as
the "Christmas Offensive". During this offensive, the Italians were forced back in places
and put on the defensive. However, by early in 1936, the First Battle of Tembien stopped
the progress of the Ethiopian offensive and the Italians were ready to continue their
offensive. Following the defeat and destruction of the northern Ethiopian armies at the
Battle of Amba Aradam, the Second Battle of Tembien, and the Battle of Shire, Haile
Selassie took the field with the last Ethiopian army on the northern front. On 31 March
1936, he launched a counterattack against the Italians himself at the Battle of Maychew
in southern Tigray. The Emperor's army was defeated and retreated in disarray. As Haile
Selassie's army withdrew, the Italians attacked from the air along with rebellious Raya
and Azebo tribesmen on the ground, who were armed and paid by the Italians.[66]

When the struggle to resist Italy appeared doomed, Haile Selassie traveled to the rockhewn churches of Lalibela for fasting and prayer.[67]
Haile Selassie made a solitary pilgrimage to the churches at Lalibela, at considerable risk
of capture, before returning to his capital.[68] After a stormy session of the council of state,
it was agreed that because Addis Ababa could not be defended, the government would
relocate to the southern town of Gore, and that in the interest of preserving the Imperial
house, the Emperor's wife Menen Asfaw and the rest of the Imperial family should
immediately depart for Djibouti, and from there continue on to Jerusalem.
[edit] Exile debate

The Emperor arrives in Jerusalem

After further debate as to whether Haile Selassie should go to Gore or accompany his
family into exile, it was agreed that Haile Selassie should leave Ethiopia with his family
and present the case of Ethiopia to the League of Nations at Geneva. The decision was
not unanimous and several participants, including the nobleman Page (Blatta) Tekle
Wolde Hawariat, objected to the idea of an Ethiopian monarch fleeing before an invading
force.[69] Haile Selassie appointed his cousin Ras Imru Haile Selassie as Prince Regent in
his absence, departing with his family for Djibouti on 2 May 1936.
On 5 May, Marshal Pietro Badoglio led Italian troops into Addis Ababa, and Mussolini
declared Ethiopia an Italian province. Victor Emanuel III was proclaimed as the new
Emperor of Ethiopia. However, on the previous day, the Ethiopian exiles had left
Djibouti aboard the British cruiser HMS Enterprise. They were bound for Jerusalem in
the British Mandate of Palestine, where the Ethiopian royal family maintained a
residence. The Imperial family disembarked at Haifa and then went on to Jerusalem.
Once there, Haile Selassie and his retinue prepared to make their case at Geneva. The
choice of Jerusalem was highly symbolic, since the Solomonic Dynasty claimed descent
from the House of David. Leaving the Holy Land, Haile Selassie and his entourage sailed
for Gibraltar aboard the British cruiser HMS Capetown. From Gibraltar, the exiles were
transferred to an ordinary liner. By doing this, the government of the United Kingdom
was spared the expense of a state reception.[70]
[edit] Collective security and the League of Nations, 1936
Mussolini, upon invading Ethiopia, had promptly declared his own "Italian Empire";
because the League of Nations afforded Haile Selassie the opportunity to address the
assembly, Italy even withdrew its League delegation, on 12 May 1936.[71] It was in this
context that Haile Selassie walked into the hall of the League of Nations, introduced by
the President of the Assembly as "His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Ethiopia" (Sa
Majest Imperiale, l'Empereur d'Ethiopie). The introduction caused a great many Italian
journalists in the galleries to erupt into jeering, heckling, and whistling. As it turned out,
they had earlier been issued whistles by Mussolini's son-in-law, Count Galeazzo Ciano.[72]
Haile Selassie waited calmly for the hall to be cleared, and responded "majestically"[73]
with a speech sometimes considered among the most stirring of the 20th century.[5]
Although fluent in French, the working language of the League, Haile Selassie chose to
deliver his historic speech in his native Amharic. He asserted that, because his

"confidence in the League was absolute", his people were now being slaughtered. He
pointed out that the same European states that found in Ethiopia's favor at the League of
Nations were refusing Ethiopia credit and war matriel while aiding Italy, which was
employing chemical weapons on military and civilian targets alike.
It was at the time when the operations for the encircling of Makale were taking place that
the Italian command, fearing a rout, followed the procedure which it is now my duty to
denounce to the world. Special sprayers were installed on board aircraft so that they
could vaporize, over vast areas of territory, a fine, death-dealing rain. Groups of nine,
fifteen, eighteen aircraft followed one another so that the fog issuing from them formed a
continuous sheet. It was thus that, as from the end of January 1936, soldiers, women,
children, cattle, rivers, lakes, and pastures were drenched continually with this deadly
rain. In order to kill off systematically all living creatures, in order to more surely poison
waters and pastures, the Italian command made its aircraft pass over and over again. That
was its chief method of warfare.[74]
Noting that his own "small people of 12 million inhabitants, without arms, without
resources" could never withstand an attack by a large power such as Italy, with its 42
million people and "unlimited quantities of the most death-dealing weapons", he
contended that all small states were threatened by the aggression, and that all small states
were in effect reduced to vassal states in the absence of collective action. He admonished
the League that "God and history will remember your judgment."[75]
It is collective security: it is the very existence of the League of Nations. It is the
confidence that each State is to place in international treaties... In a word, it is
international morality that is at stake. Have the signatures appended to a Treaty value
only in so far as the signatory Powers have a personal, direct and immediate interest
The speech made the Emperor an icon for anti-Fascists around the world, and Time
Magazine named him "Man of the Year".[76] He failed, however, to get what he most
needed: the League agreed to only partial and ineffective sanctions on Italy, and several
members even recognized the Italian conquest.[61]
[edit] Exile

Haile Selassie in 1942

Haile Selassie spent his exile years (19361941) in Bath, United Kingdom, in Fairfield
House, which he bought. The Emperor and Ras Kassa took morning walks together
behind the high walls of the 14-room Georgian house. Haile Selassie's favorite reading
was "diplomatic history." But most of his serious hours were occupied with the 90,000word story of his life which he was laboriously writing in Amharic.[77]
Prior to Fairfield House, he briefly stayed at Warne's Hotel in Worthing[78] and in
Parkside, Wimbledon[79] A bust of Haile Selassie is in nearby Cannizaro Park to
commemorate this time and is a popular place of pilgrimage for London's Rastafarian
Haile Selassie's activity in this period was focused on countering Italian propaganda as to
the state of Ethiopian resistance and the legality of the occupation.[80] He spoke out
against the desecration of houses of worship and historical artifacts (including the theft of
a 1,600-year old imperial obelisk), and condemned the atrocities suffered by the
Ethiopian civilian population.[81] He continued to plead for League intervention and to
voice his certainty that "God's judgment will eventually visit the weak and the mighty
alike",[82] though his attempts to gain support for the struggle against Italy were largely
unsuccessful until Italy entered World War II on the German side in June 1940.[83]
The Emperor's pleas for international support did take root in the United States,
particularly among African American organizations sympathetic to the Ethiopian cause.
In 1937, Haile Selassie was to give a Christmas Day radio address to the American
people to thank his supporters when his taxi was involved in a traffic accident, leaving
him with a fractured knee.[85] Rather than canceling the radio appearance, he proceeded in
much pain to complete the address, in which he linked Christianity and goodwill with the
Covenant of the League of Nations, and asserted that "War is not the only means to stop
With the birth of the Son of God, an unprecedented, an unrepeatable, and a longanticipated phenomenon occurred. He was born in a stable instead of a palace, in a
manger instead of a crib. The hearts of the Wise men were struck by fear and wonder due
to His Majestic Humbleness. The kings prostrated themselves before Him and
worshipped Him. 'Peace be to those who have good will'. This became the first message.
[...] Although the toils of wise people may earn them respect, it is a fact of life that the
spirit of the wicked continues to cast its shadow on this world. The arrogant are seen
visibly leading their people into crime and destruction. The laws of the League of Nations
are constantly violated and wars and acts of aggression repeatedly take place... So that the
spirit of the cursed will not gain predominance over the human race whom Christ
redeemed with his blood, all peace-loving people should cooperate to stand firm in order
to preserve and promote lawfulness and peace.[85]
During this period, Haile Selassie suffered several personal tragedies. His two sons-inlaw, Ras Desta Damtew and Dejazmach Beyene Merid, were both executed by the
Italians.[82] The Emperor's daughter, Princess Romanework, wife of Dejazmach Beyene

Merid, was herself taken into captivity with her children, and she died in Italy in 1941.[86]
His daughter Tsehai died during childbirth shortly after the restoration in 1942.[87]
After his return to Ethiopia, he donated Fairfield House to the city of Bath as a residence
for the aged, until modified in the 1990s where it is now used as a residential meeting
centre. [88]

[edit] 1940s and 1950s

British forces, which consisted primarily of Ethiopian-backed African and South African
colonial troops under the "Gideon Force" of Colonel Orde Wingate, coordinated the
military effort to liberate Ethiopia. The Emperor himself issued several imperial
proclamations in this period, demonstrating that, while authority was not divided up in
any formal way, British military might and the Emperor's populist appeal could be joined
in the concerted effort to liberate Ethiopia.[83]
On 18 January 1941, during the East African Campaign, Haile Selassie crossed the
border between Sudan and Ethiopia near the village of Um Iddla. The standard of the
Lion of Judah was raised again. Two days later, he and a force of Ethiopian patriots
joined Gideon Force which was already in Ethiopia and preparing the way.[89] Italy was
defeated by a force of the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth of Nations, Free France,
Free Belgium, and Ethiopian patriots. On 5 May 1941, Haile Selassie entered Addis
Ababa and personally addressed the Ethiopian people, five years to the day since his
1936 exile:
Today is the day on which we defeated our enemy. Therefore, when We say let us rejoice
with our hearts, let not our rejoicing be in any other way but in the spirit of Christ. Do not
return evil for evil. Do not indulge in the atrocities which the enemy has been practicing
in his usual way, even to the last.
Take care not to spoil the good name of Ethiopia by acts which are worthy of the enemy.
We shall see that our enemies are disarmed and sent out the same way they came. As St.
George who killed the dragon is the Patron Saint of our army as well as of our allies, let
us unite with our allies in everlasting friendship and amity in order to be able to stand
against the godless and cruel dragon which has newly risen and which is oppressing
After World War II, Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations. In 1948,
the Ogaden, a region disputed with Somalia, was granted to Ethiopia.[91] On 2 December
1950, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 390 (V), establishing the federation
of Eritrea (the former Italian colony) into Ethiopia.[92] Eritrea was to have its own
constitution, which would provide for ethnic, linguistic, and cultural balance, while
Ethiopia was to manage its finances, defense, and foreign policy.[92]
Despite his centralization policies that had been made before World War II, Haile
Selassie still found himself unable to push for all the programs he wanted. In 1942, he

attempted to institute a progressive tax scheme, but this failed due to opposition from the
nobility, and only a flat tax was passed; in 1951, he agreed to reduce this as well.[93]
Ethiopia was still "semi-feudal",[94] and the Emperor's attempts to alter its social and
economic form by reforming its modes of taxation met with resistance from the nobility
and clergy, which were eager to resume their privileges in the postwar era.[93] Where
Haile Selassie actually did succeed in effecting new land taxes, the burdens were often
passed by the landowners to the peasants.[93] Despite his wishes, the tax burden remained
primarily on the peasants.
Between 1941 and 1959, Haile Selassie worked to establish the autocephaly of the
Ethiopian Orthodox Church.[95] The Ethiopian Orthodox Church had been headed by the
abuna, a bishop who answered to the Partriarchate in Egypt. Haile Selassie applied to
Egypt's Holy Synod in 1942 and 1945 to establish the independence of Ethiopian
bishops, and when his appeals were denied he threatened to sever relations with the See
of St. Mark.[95] Finally, in 1959, Pope Kyrillos VI elevated the Abuna to PatriarchCatholicos.[95] The Ethiopian Church remained affiliated with the Alexandrian Church.[93]
In addition to these efforts, Haile Selassie changed the Ethiopian church-state relationship
by introducing taxation of church lands, and by restricting the legal privileges of the
clergy, who had formerly been tried in their own courts for civil offenses.[93]
In keeping with the principle of collective security, for which he was an outspoken
proponent, he sent a contingent under General Mulugueta Bulli, known as the Kagnew
Battalion, to take part in the UN Conflict in Korea. It was attached to the American 7th
Infantry Division, and fought in a number of engagements including the Battle of Pork
Chop Hill.[96] In a 1954 speech, the Emperor spoke of Ethiopian participation in the
Korean conflict as a redemption of the principles of collective security:
Nearly two decades ago, I personally assumed before history the responsibility of placing
the fate of my beloved people on the issue of collective security, for surely, at that time
and for the first time in world history, that issue was posed in all its clarity. My searching
of conscience convinced me of the rightness of my course and if, after untold sufferings
and, indeed, unaided resistance at the time of aggression, we now see the final
vindication of that principle in our joint action in Korea, I can only be thankful that God
gave me strength to persist in our faith until the moment of its recent glorious vindication.

Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, photographed during a radio broadcast

During the celebrations of his Silver Jubilee in November 1955, Haile Selassie
introduced a revised constitution,[98] whereby he retained effective power, while
extending political participation to the people by allowing the lower house of parliament
to become an elected body. Party politics were not provided for. Modern educational
methods were more widely spread throughout the Empire, and the country embarked on a
development scheme and plans for modernization, tempered by Ethiopian traditions, and
within the framework of the ancient monarchical structure of the state.
Haile Selassie compromised when practical with the traditionalists in the nobility and
church. He also tried to improve relations between the state and ethnic groups, and
granted autonomy to Afar lands that were difficult to control. Still, his reforms to end
feudalism were slow and weakened by the compromises he made with the entrenched
aristocracy. The Revised Constitution of 1955 has been criticized for reasserting "the
indisputable power of the monarch" and maintaining the relative powerlessness of the
His international fame and acceptance also grew. In 1954 he visited West Germany,
becoming the first head of state to do so after the end of World War II.[citation needed] Many
elderly Germans still vividly recall the Emperor's visit, as it signaled their acceptance
back into the world, as a peaceful nation. He donated blankets produced by the Debre
Birhan Blanket Factory, in Ethiopia, to the war-ravaged German people.

Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen attending Liturgy on their Silver Jubilee
day, November 2, 1955 at the Orthodox Cathedral of St. George

[edit] 1960s
Haile Selassie contributed Ethiopian troops to the United Nations Operation in the Congo
peacekeeping force during the 1960 Congo Crisis, to consolidate Congolese integrity and
independence from Belgian troops, per United Nations Security Council Resolution 143.
On 13 December 1960, while Haile Selassie was on a state visit to Brazil, his Imperial
Guard forces staged an unsuccessful coup, briefly proclaiming Haile Selassie's eldest son
Asfa Wossen as Emperor. The coup d'tat was crushed by the regular Army and police
forces. The coup attempt lacked broad popular support, was denounced by the Ethiopian

Orthodox Church, and was unpopular among the Army, Air and Police forces.
Nonetheless, the effort to depose the Emperor had support among students and the
educated classes.[100] The coup attempt has been characterized as a pivotal moment in
Ethiopian history, the point at which Ethiopians "for the first time questioned the power
of the king to rule without the people's consent".[101] Student populations began to
empathize with the peasantry and poor, and to advocate on their behalf.[101] The coup
spurred Haile Selassie to accelerate reform, which manifested in the form of land grants
to military and police officials.
The Emperor continued to be a staunch ally of the West, while pursuing a firm policy of
decolonization in Africa, which was still largely under European colonial rule. The
United Nations conducted a lengthy inquiry regarding the status of Eritrea, with the
superpowers each vying for a stake in the state's future. Britain, the administrator at the
time, suggested the partition of Eritrea between Sudan and Ethiopia, separating Christians
and Muslims. The idea was instantly rejected by Eritrean political parties, as well as the
A UN plebiscite voted 46 to 10 to have Eritrea be federated with Ethiopia, which was
later stipulated on 2 December 1950 in resolution 390 (V). Eritrea would have its own
parliament and administration and would be represented in what had been the Ethiopian
parliament and would become the federal parliament.[102] However, Haile Selassie would
have none of European attempts to draft a separate Constitution under which Eritrea
would be governed, and wanted his own 1955 Constitution protecting families to apply in
both Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 1961 the 30-year Eritrean Struggle for Independence began,
followed by Haile Selassie's dissolution of the federation and shutting down of Eritrea's
In 1961, tensions between independence-minded Eritreans and Ethiopian forces
culminated in the Eritrean War of Independence. The Emperor declared Eritrea the
fourteenth province of Ethiopia in 1962.[103] The war would continue for 30 years, as first
Haile Selassie, then the Soviet-backed junta that succeeded him, attempted to retain
Eritrea by force.
In 1963, Haile Selassie presided over the establishment of the Organisation of African
Unity, with the new organization establishing its headquarters in Addis Ababa. As more
African states won their independence, he played an important role as Pan-Africanist, and
along with Modibo Keta of Mali was successful in negotiating the Bamako Accords,
which brought an end to the border conflict between Morocco and Algeria. Also in 1963,
on October 4, Selassie addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations, referring
in his address to his earlier speech to the League of Nations:
Twenty-seven years ago, as Emperor of Ethiopia, I mounted the rostrum in Geneva,
Switzerland, to address the League of Nations and to appeal for relief from the
destruction which had been unleashed against my defenceless nation, by the Fascist
invader. I spoke then both to and for the conscience of the world. My words went
unheeded, but history testifies to the accuracy of the warning that I gave in 1936. Today,

I stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded by its
discredited predecessor. In this body is enshrined the principle of collective security
which I unsuccessfully invoked at Geneva. Here, in this Assembly, reposes the best
perhaps the last hope for the peaceful survival of mankind.[104]
On 25 November 1963, the Emperor was among other heads-of-state, including French
President Charles de Gaulle, who traveled to Washington D.C. and attended the burial of
assassinated American President John F. Kennedy at Arlington National Cemetery.
In 1966, Haile Selassie attempted to create a modern, progressive tax[citation needed] that
included registration of land, which would significantly weaken the nobility. Even with
alterations, this law led to a revolt in Gojjam, which was repressed although enforcement
of the tax was abandoned. The revolt, having achieved its design in undermining the tax,
encouraged other landowners to defy Haile Selassie.

Haile Selassie on a state visit to Washington, 1963

Student unrest became a regular feature of Ethiopian life in the 1960s and 1970s.
Marxism took root in large segments of the Ethiopian intelligentsia, particularly among
those who had studied abroad and had thus been exposed to radical and left-wing
sentiments that were becoming popular in other parts of the globe.[100] Resistance by
conservative elements at the Imperial Court and Parliament, and by the Ethiopian
Orthodox Church, made Haile Selassie's land reform proposals difficult to implement,
and also damaged the standing of the government, costing Haile Selassie much of the
goodwill he had once enjoyed. This bred resentment among the peasant population.
Efforts to weaken unions also hurt his image. As these issues began to pile up, Haile
Selassie left much of domestic governance to his Prime Minister, Aklilu Habte Wold, and
concentrated more on foreign affairs.

[edit] 1970s
Outside of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie continued to enjoy enormous prestige and respect. As
the longest serving Head of State in power, Haile Selassie was often given precedence
over other leaders at state events, such as the state funerals of John F. Kennedy and
Charles de Gaulle, the summits of the Non-Aligned Movement, and the 1971 celebration

of the 2,500 years of the Persian Empire. His high profile and frequent travels around the
world raised Ethiopia's international image.[citation needed]
[edit] Wollo Famine
Famine mostly in Wollo, northeastern Ethiopia, as well as in some parts of Tigray is
estimated to have killed 40,000 to 80,000 Ethiopians[8][105] between 1972-74.[106] Although
the region is infamous for recurrent crop failures and continuous food shortage and
starvation risk, this episode was remarkably severe. It led to the 1973 production of the
ITV programme The Unknown Famine by Jonathan Dimbleby.[107][108] Dimbleby's report
suggested a far higher death toll than was borne out by the facts,[109] stimulating a massive
influx of aid while at the same time destabilizing Haile Selassie's regime.[105]

The 1973 Oil Crisis, the severity of which is demonstrated by this graph, hit Ethiopia
amidst a devastating famine, compounding its effect and undermining support for the
Some reports suggest that the Emperor was unaware of the extent of the famine,[110] while
others assert that he was well aware of it.[111][112] In addition to the exposure of attempts by
corrupt local officials to cover up the famine from the Imperial government, the
Kremlin's depiction of Haile Selassie's Ethiopia as backwards and inept (relative to the
purported utopia of Marxism-Leninism) contributed to the popular uprising that led to its
downfall and the rise of Mengistu Haile Mariam.[113] The famine and its image in the
media undermined popular support of the government, and Haile Selassie's once
unassailable personal popularity fell.
The crisis was exacerbated by military mutinies and high oil prices, the latter a result of
the 1973 oil crisis. The international economic crisis triggered by the oil crisis caused the
costs of imported goods, gasoline, and food to skyrocket, while unemployment spiked.[99]
[edit] Revolution
In February 1974, four days of serious riots in Addis against a sudden economic inflation
left five dead. The Emperor responded by announcing on national television a rollback of
gasoline prices and a freeze on the cost of basic commodities. This calmed the public, but
the promised 33% military wage hike was not substantial enough to pacify the army,
which then mutinied, beginning in Asmara and spreading throughout the empire. This
mutiny led to the resignation of Prime Minister Aklilu Habte Wold on 27 February 1974.
Haile Selassie again went on television to agree to the army's demands for still greater
pay, and named Endalkatchew Makonnen as his new Prime Minister. However, despite

Endalkatchew's many concessions, discontent continued in March with a four-day

general strike that paralyzed the nation.

[edit] Imprisonment
The Derg, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men, set up in June
to investigate the military's demands, took advantage of the government's disarray to
depose Haile Selassie on 12 September 1974. General Aman Mikael Andom, a Protestant
of Eritrean origin,[114] served briefly as provisional head of state pending the return of
Crown Prince Asfa Wossen, who was then receiving medical treatment abroad. Haile
Selassie was placed under house arrest briefly at the 4th Army Division in Addis Ababa,
while most of his family was detained at the late Duke of Harrar's residence in the
north of the capital. The last months of the Emperor's life were spent in imprisonment, in
the Grand Palace.[115]
Later, most of the Imperial family was imprisoned in the Addis Ababa prison Kerchele,
also known as "Alem Bekagne", or "Goodbye, cruel world". On 23 November 1974, 60
former high officials of the Imperial government, known as "the Sixty", were executed
without trial.[116] The executed included Haile Selassie's grandson and two former Prime
Ministers.[115] These killings, known to Ethiopians as "Bloody Saturday", were
condemned by Crown Prince Asfa Wossen; the Derg responded to his rebuke by
revoking its acknowledgment of his imperial legitimacy, and announcing the end of the
Solomonic dynasty.[116]
[edit] Death and interment
On 28 August 1975, the state media officially reported publicly that the "ex-monarch"
Haile Selassie had died on 27 August of "respiratory failure" following complications
from a prostate operation.[117] His doctor, Asrat Woldeyes, denied that complications had
occurred and rejected the government version of his death. Some imperial loyalists
believed that the Emperor had in fact been assassinated, and this belief remains widely
held.[118] One western correspondent in Ethiopia at the time commented, "While it is not
known what actually happened, there are strong indications that no efforts were made to
save him. It is unlikely that he was actually killed. Such rumors were bound to arise no
matter what happened, given the atmosphere of suspicion and distrust prevailing in Addis
Ababa at the time."[119]
The Soviet-backed Derg fell in 1991. In 1992, the Emperor's bones were found under a
concrete slab on the palace grounds;[118] some reports suggest that his remains were
discovered beneath a latrine.[120] For almost a decade thereafter, as Ethiopian courts
attempted to sort out the circumstances of his death, his coffin rested in Bhata Church,
near his great uncle Menelik II's imperial resting place.[121] On 5 November 2000, Haile
Selassie was given an Imperial funeral by the Ethiopian Orthodox church. The postcommunist government refused calls to declare the ceremony an official imperial funeral.

Although such prominent Rastafarian figures as Rita Marley and others participated in
the grand funeral, most Rastafari rejected the event and refused to accept that the bones
were the remains of Haile Selassie. There remains some debate within the Rastafari
movement as to whether Haile Selassie actually died in 1975.[122]

[edit] Children

Asfaw Wossen, eldest son of Haile Selassie I, on a voyage to Jerusalem in 1923

By Menen Asfaw, Haile Selassie had six children: Princess Tenagnework, Crown Prince
Asfaw Wossen, Princess Tsehai, Princess Zenebework, Prince Makonnen, and Prince
Sahle Selassie.
There is some controversy as to Haile Selassie's eldest daughter, Princess Romanework
Haile Selassie. While the living members of the royal family state that Romanework is
the eldest daughter of Empress Menen,[123] it has been asserted that Princess Romanework
is actually the daughter of a previous union of the emperor with Woizero Altayech.[124]
The emperor's own autobiography makes no mention of a previous marriage or having
fathered children with anyone other than Empress Menen.
Prince Asfaw Wossen was first married to Princess Wolete Israel Seyoum and then
following their divorce to Princess Medferiashwork Abebe. Prince Makonnen was
married to Princess Sara Gizaw. Prince Sahle Selassie was married to Princess Mahisente
Habte Mariam. Princess Romanework married Dejazmatch Beyene Merid. Princess
Tenagnework first married Ras Desta Damtew, and after she was widowed later married
Ras Andargachew Messai. Princess Zenebework married Dejazmatch Haile Selassie
Gugsa. Princess Tsehai married Lt. General Abiye Abebe.

[edit] Rastafari Messiah

Today, Haile Selassie is worshipped as Jesus[125] incarnate among followers of the
Rastafari movement (taken from Haile Selassie's pre-imperial name Ras meaning
Head - a title equivalent to Duke Tafari Makonnen), which emerged in Jamaica during
the 1930s under the influence of Marcus Garvey's "Pan Africanism" movement, and as
the Messiah who will lead the peoples of Africa and the African diaspora to freedom.[126]
His official titles, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings and Elect of
God, and his traditional lineage from Solomon and Sheba,[127] are perceived by
Rastafarians as confirmation of the return of the Messiah in the prophetic Book of
Revelation in the New Testament: King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the
Tribe of Judah and Root of David. Rastafari faith in the incarnate divinity of Haile
Selassie[128] began after news reports of his coronation reached Jamaica,[129] particularly
via the two Time magazine articles on the coronation the week before and the week after
the event. Haile Selassie's own perspectives permeate the philosophy of the movement.

In 1961, the Jamaican government sent a delegation composed of both Rastafari and nonRastafari leaders to Ethiopia to discuss the matter of repatriation, among other issues,
with the Emperor. He reportedly told the Rastafarian delegation, which included
Mortimer Planno, "Tell the Brethren to be not dismayed, I personally will give my
assistance in the matter of repatriation."[131]
When Haile Selassie visited Jamaica on the 21st April 1966, somewhere around one
hundred thousand Rastafari from all over Jamaica descended on Palisadoes Airport in
Kingston,[129] having heard that the man whom they considered to be their Messiah was
coming to visit them. Spliffs[132] and chalices[133] were openly[134] smoked, causing "a haze
of ganja smoke" to drift through the air.[135][136][137] When Haile Selassie arrived at the
airport, he was unable to come down the mobile steps of the airplane, as the crowd rushed
the tarmac. He then returned into the plane, disappearing for several more minutes.
Finally Jamaican authorities were obliged to request Ras Mortimer Planno, a well-known
Rasta leader, to climb the steps, enter the plane, and negotiate the Emperor's descent.[138]
When Planno reemerged, he announced to the crowd: "The Emperor has instructed me to
tell you to be calm. Step back and let the Emperor land".[139] This day, widely held by
scholars to be a major turning point for the movement,[140][141][142] is still commemorated by
Rastafarians as Grounation Day, the anniversary of which is celebrated as the second
holiest holiday after 2 November, the Emperor's Coronation Day.
From then on, as a result of Planno's actions, the Jamaican authorities were asked to
ensure that Rastafarian representatives were present at all state functions attended by His
Majesty,[143][144] and Rastafarian elders also ensured that they obtained a private audience
with the Emperor,[145] where he reportedly told them that they should not emigrate to
Ethiopia until they had first liberated the people of Jamaica. This dictum came to be
known as "liberation before repatriation".

Defying expectations of the Jamaican authorities,[146] Haile Selassie never rebuked the
Rastafari for their belief in him as the returned Jesus. Instead, he presented the
movement's faithful elders with gold medallions the only recipients of such an honor on
this visit.[147][148] During PNP leader (later Jamaican Prime Minister) Michael Manley's
visit to Ethiopia in October 1969, the Emperor allegedly still recalled his 1966 reception
with amazement, and stated that he felt he had to be respectful of their beliefs.[149] This
was the visit when Manley received as a present from the Emperor, the Rod of Correction
or Rod of Joshua that is thought to have helped him to win the 1972 election in Jamaica.
Rita Marley, Bob Marley's wife, converted to the Rastafari faith after seeing Haile
Selassie on his Jamaican trip. She claimed, in interviews and in her book No Woman, No
Cry that she saw a stigmata print on the palm of Haile Selassie's hand (as he waved to the
crowd) that resembled the envisioned markings on Christ's hands from being nailed to the
crossa claim that was not supported by other sources, but was used as evidence for her
and other Rastafarians to suggest that Haile Selassie I was indeed their messiah.[150] She
was also influential in the conversion of Bob Marley, who then became internationally
recognized, and as a result Rastafari became much better known throughout much of the
world.[151] Bob Marley's posthumously released song Iron Lion Zion refers to Haile
Selassie.[citation needed]

[edit] Haile Selassie's attitude to the Rastafari

Haile Selassie I was the titular head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and, until his visit
to Jamaica in 1966, he had never confirmed nor denied that he was divine,[152] during his
visit he specifically declined to contradict the Rastafari belief that he was Jesus.[153][154]
After his return to Ethiopia, he dispatched Archbishop Abuna Yesehaq Mandefro to the
Caribbean to help draw Rastafarians and other West Indians to the Ethiopian church and,
according to some sources, denied his divinity.[155][156][157][158]
In 1948, Haile Selassie donated a piece of land at Shashamane, 250 km south of Addis
Ababa, for the use of people of Arfrican descent from the West Indies. Numerous
Rastafari families settled there and still live as a community to this day.[159][160]

[edit] Famous quotations

A house built on granite and strong foundations, not even the onslaught of pouring rain,
gushing torrents and strong winds will be able to pull down. Some people have written
the story of my life representing as truth what in fact derives from ignorance, error or
envy; but they cannot shake the truth from its place, even if they attempt to make others
believe it.
Preface to My Life and Ethiopia's Progress, Autobiography of H.M. Haile Selassie I
(English translation)
That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and
permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and
second-class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more
significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally

guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace
and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting
illusion, to be pursued but never attained and until the ignoble but unhappy regimes that
hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique, and in South Africa in subhuman bondage
have been toppled and destroyed; until bigotry and prejudice and malicious and inhuman
self-interest have been replaced by understanding and tolerance and goodwill; until all
Africans stand and speak as free human beings, equal in the eyes of the Almighty; until
that day, the African continent shall not know peace. We Africans will fight if necessary
and we know that we shall win as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.
English translation of 1963 Speech delivered to the United Nations and popularized in
a song called War by Bob Marley.
Apart from the Kingdom of the Lord there is not on this earth any nation that is superior
to any other. Should it happen that a strong Government finds it may with impunity
destroy a weak people, then the hour strikes for that weak people to appeal to the League
of Nations to give its judgment in all freedom. God and history will remember your
Address to the League of Nations, 1936.
We have finished the job. What shall we do with the tools?"
Telegram to Winston Churchill, 1941.
Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted; the
indifference of those who should have known better; the silence of the voice of justice
when it mattered most; that has made it possible for evil to triumph.
Today I stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded
by its discredited predecessor.
In a speech to the United Nations.
Misguided people sometimes create misguided ideas. Some of my ancestors were Oromo.
How can I colonize myself?
in response to accusations by dissidents
I have heard of that idea [i.e., of Haile Selassie being the reincarnation of Jesus Christ]. I
also met certain Rastafarians. I told them clearly that I am a man, that I am mortal, and
that I would be replaced by the oncoming generation, and that they should never make a
mistake in assuming or pretending that the human being is emanated from a deity."
Interview with Bill Mc Neil).
A qualified man with vision, unmoved by daily selfish interests, will be led to right
decisions by his conscience. In general, a man who knows from whence he comes and
where he is going will co-operate with his fellow human beings. He will not be satisfied
with merely doing his ordinary duties but will inspire others by his good example. You
are being watched by the nation and you should realize that you will satisfy it if you do
good; but if, on the contrary, you do evil, it will lose its hope and its confidence in you."
2 July, 1963 - University Graduation

[edit] Honours

Chief Commander of the

Order of the Star of Ethiopia
- 1909

Grand Cross of the National Order of

Vietnam- 1958
Order of Truth of Burma - 1958

Grand Cordon of the Order

of Solomon - 1930
Riband of the Three Military
Orders Of Christ
Knight of the Order of the
Most Holy Annunciation 1928
Order of the Elephant - 1954
Order of the Gold Lion of
the House of Nassau of
Luxembourg - 1924
Collar of the Order of the
Seraphim - 1954
Maha Chakri - 1954
Order of Suvorov 1st class of
USSR - 1959
Collar of the Order of
Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1930
Grand Cross of the Legion
d'Honneur - 1924
Chief Commander of the
Legion of Merit - 1945
Grand Collar of the Order of
Pahlevi - 1964
Collar of the Order of the
Aztec Eagle - 1954
Royal Victorian Chain
(RVC) - 1930
Knight of the Order of the
Garter (KG) - 1954
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of the Bath (GCB) 1924
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of St Michael and St
George (GCMG) - 1917
Knight Grand Cross of the
Royal Victorian Order
(GCVO) - 1924
Collar of the Order of the
(Grand Cordon-1930)
Order of the Liberator San
Martin of Argentina
Order of the Nile of Egypt

Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross of

Brazil - 1958
Collar of the Order of the Leopard of Zaire
Order of the Lion of Senegal
Order of the Lion of Malawi
Order of Valor of Cameroon
Order of the Sun of Peru
Collar of the Order of the Bust of the
Liberator Simon Bolivar of Venezuela
Order of the Condor of the Andes of Bolivia
Special Grade of the Order of the Propitious
Clouds of China
Order of Oummaya of Syria
Order of Mono of Togo
Order of Congolese Merit of the Republic of
the Congo
Order of the Leopard of Somalia - 1960
Order of the Equatorial Star of Gabon
Order of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
Order of the Source of the Nile of Uganda
Order of the Eagle of Zambia
Special Class of the Order of Merit of the
Federal Republic of Germany - 1954
Collar of the Order of the Republic of Italy 1955
National orders of Lebanon, Chile, Central
Africa, Upper Volta, Chad, Benin, Mali,
Madagascar, Mauritania, Guinea and Niger.
Collar of the National Order of Honour and
Merit of Haiti - 1966
Knight Grand Band of the Order of the
Pioneers of Liberia
Grand Chief of the Order of the Golden
Heart of Kenya
Grand Star of the Decoration of Honor for
Merit of Austria - 1954
Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 1st Class 1958
Raja of the Order of Sikatuna of the
Commander of the Order of the Shield and
Spears of Uganda - 1964
Order of the Yugoslav Great Star - 1954
Order of Pakistan, 1st Class - 1958
Order of the State Crown of Malaysia - 1968
Order of King Abdul Aziz, 1st Class, of

Order of Pius IX of the

Vatican - 1970
Order of Idris I of Libya
Order of Independence of
Order of Hussein ibn Ali of
the Jordan
Order of Muhammad of
Chain of Honor of the Sudan
Grand Order of the
Hashemites of Iraq
Order of the Crown of Italy 1917
Order of Leopold (Belgium)
- 1924
Order of Saints Maurice and
Lazarus - 1924
Order of the Tower and
Sword of Portugal - 1925
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of William - 1954
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of the Netherlands
Lion - 1930
Order of the White Eagle of
Poland - 1930
Collar of the Order of St
Olav of Norway - 1949
Collar of the Order of
Charles III of Spain

Saudi Arabia
Order of the Star of Ghana - 1970
Banner of the People's Republic of Hungary,
1st Class with Diamonds - 1964
Military Medal of France - 1954
Honorary citizen of the Socialist Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia - 1972 [161]
Honorary citizen of Belgrade - 1954 [162]

Collar of the Order of the

White Rose of Finland


[edit] Military ranks

Haile Selassie held the following ranks:[164]

Field Marshal, Imperial Ethiopia Army

Admiral of the Fleet, Imperial Ethiopian Navy
Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force
Field Marshal, British Army

[edit] Ancestry

4. Dejazmatch Wolde Mikael Gudessa

2. Ras Mkonnen Wld-Mika'l Guddisa

10. Sahle Selassie

5. Princess Tenagnework Sahle Selassie

11. Woizero

1. Haile Selassie I of

6. Dejazmach Ali Abajifar of Woreilu

3. Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar

14. Ato Yimeru of


7. Ima-Hoy Walatta Ihata Giyorgis Yimeru

[edit] See also

Arba Lijoch - A group of 40 Armenian orphans sponsored during the 1924 trip to
Black Lions
Darge Sahle Selassie
Desta Damtew

[edit] Notes
1. ^ Balcha Safo brought an army of ten thousand with him from Sidamo.[41]
2. ^ Balcha Safo's personal bodyguard numbered about five hundred.[44]
1. ^ Gates, Henry Louis and Appiah, Anthony. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the
African and African American Experience. 1999, page 902.

2. ^ Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg (2003). Colonialism: an

international, social, cultural, and political encyclopedia. Volume 1. ABC-CLIO.
p. 247. ISBN 9781576073353.
Retrieved 2009-10-05
3. ^ Erlich, Haggai. The Cross and the River: Ethiopia, Egypt, and the Nile. 2002,
page 192.
4. ^ Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel and Spencer, William David and McFarlane, Adrian
Anthony. Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader. 1998, page 148.
5. ^ a b Safire, William. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. 1997, page
6. ^ Karsh, Efraim. Neutrality and Small States. 1988, page 112.
7. ^ Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart
of Despair. 2005, page 212-3.
8. ^ a b Rebellion and Famine in the North under Haile Selassie, Human Rights
9. ^ Major religions ranked by size - Rastafarian
10. ^ Barrett, Leonard E. Sr (1997) The Rastafarians. Boston: Beacon Press.
11. ^ Sullivan, Michael, C. In Search of a Perfect World. 2005, page 86
12. ^ a b Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel and Spencer, William David and McFarlane,
Adrian Anthony. Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader. 1998, page
13. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page xiii.
14. ^ Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel and Spencer, William David and McFarlane, Adrian
Anthony. Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader. 1998, page 159.
15. ^ Ghai, Yash P. Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in
Multi-Ethnic States. 2000, page 176.
16. ^ a b Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page 387
17. ^ de Moor, Jaap and Wesseling, H. L. Imperialism and War: Essays on Colonial
Wars in Asia and Africa. 1989, page 189.
18. ^ Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 265.
19. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page xii.
20. ^ a b c Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 193-4.
21. ^ a b Roberts, Andrew Dunlop. The Cambridge History of Africa. 1986, page 712.
22. ^ a b White, Timothy. Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley. 2006, page 34-5.
23. ^ Untitled Document
24. ^ Rastafari Online Community
25. ^ Lentakis, Michael B. Ethiopia: Land of the Lotus Eaters. 2004, page 41.
26. ^ a b Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 228.
27. ^ Marcus, A History of Ethiopia, page 126
28. ^ Marcus, A History of Ethiopia, page 127
29. ^ Marcus, A History of Ethiopia, page 127

30. ^ Clarence-Smith, W. G. The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the
Nineteenth Century. 1989, page 103.
31. ^ Brody, J. Kenneth. The Avoidable War. 2000, page 209.
32. ^ Marcus, A History of Ethiopia, page 123
33. ^ Gates, Henry Louis and Appiah, Anthony. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the
African and African American Experience. 1999, page 698.
34. ^ Rogers, Joel Augustus. The Real Facts about Ethiopia. 1936, page 27.
35. ^ a b c Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page 3-4.
Times. 17 May 1924.
May 1924.
38. ^ Mockler, Haile Sellassie's War, p. 4
39. ^ Aspden Rachel. Swinging Addis. New Statesman, 16 August 2007.
40. ^ Nidel, Richard. World Music: The Basics. 2005, page 56.
41. ^ Marcus, p. 127
42. ^ a b Roberts, Andrew Dunlop. The Cambridge History of Africa. 1986, page 723.
43. ^ Marcus, p. 129
44. ^ Marcus, p. 127
45. ^ Mockler, Haile Sellassie's War, p. 8
46. ^ Marcus, p. 127
47. ^ Marcus, pp. 127-128
48. ^ Roberts, Andrew Dunlop. The Cambridge History of Africa. 1986, page 724.
49. ^ Sorenson, John. Ghosts and Shadows: Construction of Identity and Community
in an African Diaspora. 2001, page 34.
50. ^ Brockman, Norbert C. An African Biographical Dictionary. 1994, page 381.
51. ^ Henze, Paul B. Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. 2000, page 205.
52. ^ a b Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page 12.
October 1930.
54. ^ Wallace, Irving. 'Everybody's Rover Boy', in The Sunday Gentleman. New
York: Simon & Schuster, 1965, p. 113.
55. ^ Emperor is Crowned in Regal Splendor at African Capital. The New York
Times. 3 November 1930.
November 1930.
57. ^ Emperor of Ethiopia Honors Bishop Freeman; Sends Gold-Encased Bible and
Cross for Prayer. The New York Times. 27 January 1931.
58. ^ Nahum, Fasil. Constitution for a Nation of Nations: The Ethiopian Prospect.
1997, page 17
59. ^ a b Nahum, Fasil. Constitution for a Nation of Nations: The Ethiopian Prospect.
1997, page 22
60. ^ Anthony Mockler. Haile Selassie's War at p.61
61. ^ a b Carlton, Eric. Occupation: The Policies and Practices of Military
Conquerors. 1992, page 88-9.

62. ^ a b Vandervort, Bruce. Wars of Imperial Conquest in Africa, 1830-1914. 1998,

page 158.
63. ^ Churchill, Winston. The Second World War. 1986, page 165.
64. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: Chapter 35
65. ^ Baudendistel, Rainer. Between Bombs And Good Intentions: The Red Cross
And the Italo-Ethiopian War. 2006, page 168.
66. ^ Young, John. Peasant Revolution in Ethiopia. 1997, page 51.
67. ^ Garvey, Marcus. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement
Association Papers. 1991, page 685.
68. ^ Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page 123.
69. ^ Spencer, John. Ethiopia at Bay: A Personal Account of the Haile Selassie Years
2006, p. 62.
70. ^ Barker, A. J. The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 132
71. ^ Spencer, John. Ethiopia at Bay: A Personal Account of the Haile Selassie
Years. 2006, page 72.
72. ^ Moseley, Ray. Mussolini's Shadow: The Double Life of Count Galeazzo Ciano.
1999, page 27.
73. ^ Jarrett-Macauley, Delia. The Life of Una Marson, 1905-65. 1998, page 102-3.
74. ^ Safire, William. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. 1997, page
75. ^ Haile Selassie, "Appeal to the League of Nations", June 1936
76. ^ Time Magazine Man of the Year. 6 January 1936.
77. ^ Time Magazine, Distressed Negus
78. ^ Elleray, D. Robert (1998). A Millennium Encyclopaedia of Worthing History.
Worthing: Optimus Books. p. 119. ISBN 0-9533132-0-4.
79. ^ [1] The Anglo-Ethiopian Society.
80. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 11-2.
81. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 26-7.
82. ^ a b My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 25.
83. ^ a b Ofcansky, Thomas P. and Berry, Laverle. Ethiopia A Country Study. 2004,
page 60-1.
84. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 27.
85. ^ a b c My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 40-2.
86. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 170.
87. ^ Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 3.
88. ^ Haber, Lutz. The Emperor Haile Selassie I in Bath 1936 - 1940. The AngloEthiopian Society.
89. ^ Barker, A. J. The Rape of Ethiopia 1936. page 156
90. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress. Vol. 2, 1999, page 165.
91. ^ Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 201.
92. ^ a b Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical Dictionary of
Ethiopia. 2004, page 140-1.
93. ^ a b c d e Ofcansky, Thomas P. and Berry, Laverle. Ethiopia: A Country Study.
2004, page 63-4.

94. ^ Willcox Seidman, Ann. Apartheid, Militarism, and the U.S. Southeast. 1990,
page 78.
95. ^ a b c Watson, John H. Among the Copts. 2000, page 56.
96. ^ As described at the Ethiopian Korean War Veterans website.
97. ^ Nathaniel, Ras. 50th Anniversary of His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I.
2004, page 30.
98. ^ Ethiopia Administrative Change and the 1955 Constitution
99. ^ a b c Mammo, Tirfe. The Paradox of Africa's Poverty. 1999, page 103.
^ a b Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia, second edition (Oxford:
James Currey, 2001), pp. 22026.
^ a b Mammo, Tirfe. The Paradox of Africa's Poverty: The Role of
Indigenous Knowledge. 1999, page 100.
^ "General Assembly Resolutions 5th Session". United Nations. Retrieved 2007-10-16.
^ Semere Haile "The Origins and Demise of the Ethiopia-Eritrea
Federation", Issue: A Journal of Opinion, 15 (1987), pp. 9-17
^ "Wikiquote "Selassie's Address to the United Nations"".'s_Address_to_the_United_Nations.
Retrieved 2010-02-04.
^ a b De Waal, Alexander. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in
Ethiopia. 1991, page 58.
^ A BBC report suggests 200,000 deaths, based on a contemporaneous
estimate from the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute. While this figure is still repeated
in some texts and media sources, it was an estimate that was later found to be
"overly pessimistic". See also: De Waal, Alexander. Evil Days: Thirty Years of
War and Famine in Ethiopia. 1991, page 58.
^ The Unknown Famine in Ethiopia 1973
^ Jonathan Dimbleby and the hidden famine
^ Eldridge, John Eric Thomas. Getting the Message: News, Truth and
Power. 1993, page 26.
^ Dickinson, Daniel. The last of the Ethiopian emperors. BBC. 12 May
^ De Waal, Alexander. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in
Ethiopia. 1991, page 61.
^ Woodward, Peter. The Horn of Africa: Politics and International
Relations. 2003, page 175.
^ Kumar, Krishna. Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and
International Assistance. 1998, page 114.
^ a b c Launhardt, Johannes. Evangelicals in Addis Ababa (1919-1991).
2005, page 239-40.
^ a b Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to
the Heart of Despair. 2005, page 216.
^ a b Shinn, David Hamilton and Ofcansky, Thomas P. Historical
Dictionary of Ethiopia. 2004, page 44.
^ "Haile Selassie of Ethiopia Dies at 83". New York Times. 28 August

Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Haile Selassie, the last emperor in the 3,000-year-old

Ethiopian monarchy, who ruled for half a century before he was deposed by
military coup last September, died yesterday in a small apartment in his former
palace. He was 83 years old. His death was played down by the military rulers
who succeeded him in Addis Ababa, who announced it in a normally scheduled
radio newscast there at 7 a.m. They said that he had been found dead in his bed by
a servant, and that the cause of death was probably related to the effects of a
prostate operation Haile Selassie underwent two months ago."
^ a b An Imperial Burial for Haile Selassie, 25 Years After Death. New
York Times. 6 November 2000.
^ Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York:
Africana, 1978), p. 109 n. 22
^ Ethiopians Celebrate a Mass for Exhumed Haile Selassie. New York
Times. 1 March 1992.
^ a b Lorch, Donatella. Ethiopia Deals With Legacy of Kings and Colonels.
The New York Times. 31 December 1995.
^ Edmonds, Ennis Barrington. Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture
Bearers. 2003, page 55.
^ Granddaughter Esther Selassie's website genealogy
^ Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War. 2003, page xxvii.
^ Rastafarian beliefs
^ The African Diaspora, Ethiopianism, and Rastafari
^ Haile Selassie King of Kings, Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah
^ Haile Selassie
^ a b c Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-43598650-3
^ The Re-evolution of Rastafari
^ The Rastafarians by Leonard E. Barrett
^ Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley by Christopher John Farley,
p. 145
^ People Funny Boy (Lee Perry biography) by David Katz, p. 41.
^ Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari Reader by Nathaniel Samuel
Murrell, William David Spencer, Adrian Anthony McFarlane, p. 64.
^ Kingston: A Cultural and Literary History, by David Howard p. 176.
^ The State Visit of Emperor Haile Selassie I
^ "Commemorating The Royal Visit by Ijahnya Christian", The
Anguillian Newspaper, 22 April 2005.
^ Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley by Timothy White p. 15, 210, 211.
^ Black Heretics, Black Prophets: Radical Political Intellectuals p. 189 by
Anthony Bogues
^ This Is Reggae Music: The Story of Jamaica's Music by Lloyd Bradley,
p. 192-193.
^ Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers by Ennis Barrington
Edmonds, p. 86.
^ Verbal Riddim: The Politics and Aesthetics of African-Caribbean Dub
Poetry by Christian Habekost, p. 83.

^ Rastafari: From Outcasts to Culture Bearers Page 86 by Ennis
Barrington Edmonds
^ Verbal Riddim: The Politics and Aesthetics of African-Caribbean Dub
Poetry, page 83 by Christian Habekost
^ Edmonds, p. 86
^ Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music By Kevin O'Brien, p. 243.
^ "African Crossroads - Spiritual Kinsmen" Dr. Ikael Tafari, The Daily
Nation, Dec. 24 2007
^ White, p. 211.
^ Life Is an Excellent Adventure, Jerry Funk, 2003, p. 149
^ No Woman, No Cry, Rita Marley, p. 43.
^ Bob Marley the Devoted Rastafarian!
^ Must God Remain Greek?: Afro Cultures and God-Talk by Robert E.
Hood, p. 93 ISBN 0-8006-2449-1
^ "African Crossroads - Spiritual Kinsmen" The Daily Nation, 24 Dec.
^ Wilgoren, Debbi (13 January 2006). "Ethiopians in D.C. Region Mourn
Archbishop's Death". Washington Post, 13 January 2006. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ "Bob Marley Anniversary Spotlights Rasta Religion". National
^ "Haile Selassie I - God of the Black race". BBC.
^ Mirror, Mirror: Identity, Race and Protest in Jamaica, Rex Nettleford,
William Collins and Sangster Ltd., Jamaica (1970)
^ Jamaican Rastafarian Development Community website
^ The History and Location of the Shashamane Settlement Community
Development Foundation, Inc., USA
^ Odluka o proglaenju Njegovog Carskog Velianstva Cara Etiopije
Haila Selasija Prvog za poasnog graanina SFRJ ("Slubeni list SFRJ", br. 33/72
^ ilas podrao predlog
^ Shoa6

[edit] References

Fage, J.D., Roberts, A.D., and Oliver, Roland Anthony (1994). The Cambridge
History of Africa: From 1905 to 1940, Volume 7. Cambridge: Press Sindicate of
the University of Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-22505-1.

Haile Selassie I. My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor

Haile Sellassie I. Translated from Amharic by Edward Ullendorff. New York:
Frontline Books, 1999. ISBN 0-948390-40-9
Paul B. Henze. "The Rise of Haile Selassie: Time of Troubles, Regent, Emperor,
Exile" and "Ethiopia in the Modern World: Haile Selassie from Triumph to
Tragedy" in Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. New York: Palgrave, 2000.
ISBN 0-312-22719-1
Ryszard Kapuciski, The Emperor: Downfall of an Autocrat. 1978. ISBN 0-67972203-3
Marcus, Harold G. (1994). A History of Ethiopia. London: University of
California Press. pp. 316. ISBN 0-520-22479-5.
Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
Haile Selassie I : Ethiopia's Lion of Judah, 1979, ISBN 0-88229-342-7
Haile Selassie's war : the Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, 1984, ISBN 0394-54222-3
Haile Selassie, western education, and political revolution in Ethiopia, 2006,
ISBN 978-1-934043-20-2

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
Wikisource has original works written by or about: Haile Selassie
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Haile Selassie I

Ethiopian Treasures - Emperor Haile Selassie I - The Ethiopian Revolution

Imperial Crown Council of Ethiopia
Speech to the League of Nations, June 1936 (full text)
Marcus Garvey's prophecy of Haile Selassie I as the returned messiah
Haile Selassie I and the Italo-Ethiopian war
Haile Selassie I, the Later Years
A critical look at the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
BBC article, memories of his personal servant
Watch News Reel: His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
visits Jamaica, 21 April 1966
Ba Beta Kristiyan Haile Selassie I - The Church of Haile Selassie I
Haile Selassie I Speaks -Text & Audio"Distressed Negus.". Time Magazine. November 15, 1937.,9171,758326,00.html. Retrieved
January 19, 2010.
Haile Selassie I

House of Solomon
Born: 23 July 1892 Died: 27 August 1975

Preceded by
Zewditu I

Regnal titles
Emperor of Ethiopia
2 November 1930 12 September
Titles in pretence

Loss of title
Communist take-over

Emperor of Ethiopia
12 September 1974 27 August

Monarchy abolished

Succeeded by
Crown Prince Amha


Emperors of Ethiopia (12701974)


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Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval (1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) Hugh Samuel
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(1936) Chiang Kai-shek / Soong May-ling (1937) Adolf Hitler (1938) Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill (1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) Joseph Stalin (1942)
George Marshall (1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) Harry S. Truman (1945)
James F. Byrnes (1946) George Marshall (1947) Harry S. Truman (1948) Winston
Churchill (1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)
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