2010 U.S.

NATIONAL CHEMISTRY OLYMPIAD
LOCAL SECTION EXAM
Prepared by the American Chemical Society Chemistry Olympiad Examinations Task Force

OLYMPIAD EXAMINATIONS TASK FORCE
Arden P. Zipp, Chair, State University of New York, Cortland, NY
James Ayers, Mesa State College, Grand Junction, CO Sherry Berman-Robinson, Consolidated HS, Orlando Park, IL (retired) Seth Brown, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN Peter Demmin, Amherst HS, Amherst, NY (retired) Marian Dewane, Centennial HS, Boise, ID Xu Duan, Queen Anne School, Upper Marlboro, MD Valerie Ferguson, Moore HS, Moore, OK Julie Furstenau, Thomas B. Doherty HS, Colorado Springs, CO Kimberly Gardner, United States Air Force Academy, CO Regis Goode, Ridge View High School, Columbia, SC Paul Groves, South Pasadena HS, South Pasadena, CA Preston Hayes, Glenbrook South HS, Glenbrook, IL (retired) David Hostage, Taft School, Watertown, CT Dennis Kliza, Kincaid School, Houston, TX Adele Mouakad, St. John's School, San Juan, PR Jane Nagurney, Scranton Preparatory School, Scranton, PA Ronald Ragsdale, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

DIRECTIONS TO THE EXAMINER This test is designed to be taken with an answer sheet on which the student records his or her responses. All answers are to be marked on that sheet, not written in the booklet. Each student should be provided with an answer sheet and scratch paper, both of which must be turned in with the test booklet at the end of the examination. Local Sections may use an answer sheet of their own choice. The full examination consists of 60 multiple-choice questions representing a fairly wide range of difficulty. Students should be permitted to use non-programmable calculators. A periodic table and other useful information are provided on page two of this exam booklet for student reference. Suggested Time: 60 questions—110 minutes DIRECTIONS TO THE EXAMINEE DO NOT TURN THE PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. This is a multiple-choice examination with four choices for each question. There is only one correct or best answer to each question. When you select your choice, blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet with your pencil. Make a heavy full mark, but no stray marks. If you decide to change your answer, be certain to erase your original answer completely. Distributed by American Chemical Society, 1155 16th Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036 All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

Property of ACS USNCO -Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31, 2010

01 14 4A 6 C 14 Si 14.15 K 1.4 62 Sm 94 Pu 152.80 36 Kr 54 Xe 85.2 192.998 × 108 m·s–1 0 °C = 273.00 17 7A 9 F 17 Cl 4.10 40.9 59 Pr 144. 2010 .94 42 Mo 74 W 101.0 90 Th 231.91 41 Nb 73 Ta 95.3 68 Er 168.97 15 P 32.96 47.314 J·mol–1·K–1 R = 0.9 45 Rh 77 Ir 106.0 79 Au 200.941 9.45 39.0 91 Pa 238.72 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 72.5 72 Hf 180.0821 L·atm·mol–1·K–1 1 F = 96.4 107.91 91.81 13 3A 5 B 13 Al 12.4 207.8 51 Sb 83 Bi 127.9 65 Tb 162.500 J·V–1·mol–1 NA = 6.0 84 Po (209) 85 At (210) 86 Rn (222) 88 Ra (226) 89 Ac (227) 104 Rf (261) 105 Db (262) 106 Sg (266) 107 Bh (264) 108 Hs (277) 109 Mt (268) 110 Ds (281) 111 Rg (272) 112 (277) 113 (Uut) 114 (Uuq) 115 (Uup) 116 (Uuh) 117 (Uus) 118 (Uuo) (223) 140.0 71 Lu 232.2 75 Re 190.9 57 La 178.90 35 Br 53 I 83.3 56 Ba 138.3 64 Gd 158.31 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 39.9 131.61 32 Ge 50 Sn 74.626 × 10–34 J·s c = 2.62 88.47 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 87.9 69 Tm 173.4 48 Cd 114.2 82 Pb 209.94 55.8 186.6 80 Hg Uub 204.0 63 Eu 157.003 18 8A 2 He 10 Ne 18 Ar 20.96 34 Se 79.09 30.1 44 Ru 76 Os 102.1 58 Ce 140.99 11 Na 19 K 24.85 8 8B 26 Fe 58.amount of substance ampere atmosphere atomic mass unit Avogadro constant Celsius temperature centi– prefix coulomb density electromotive force energy of activation enthalpy entropy equilibrium constant n A atm u NA °C c C d E Ea H S K ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS Faraday constant F molar free energy G molar mass frequency ν mole gas constant R Planck’s constant gram g pressure hour h rate constant joule J reaction quotient kelvin K second kilo– prefix k speed of light liter L temperature. K measure of pressure mmHg time milli– prefix m volt molal m volume CONSTANTS M M mol h P k Q s c T t V V R = 8.98 28.9 67 Ho 99 Es 167.7 121.00 16 6A 8 O 16 S 19.95 69.92 33 As 78.9 183.3 132.2 195.0 93 Np (237) 95 Am (243) 96 Cm (247) 97 Bk (247) 100 Fm (257) 101 Md (258) 102 No (259) 103 Lr (262) (244) (251) (252) Page 2 Property of ACS USNCO Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31.00 54.9 112.55 11 1B 29 Cu 47 Ag 65.22 92.01 15 5A 7 N 16.6 52 Te 126.88 50.69 63.07 35.022 × 1023 mol–1 h = 6.94 52.5 66 Dy 98 Cf 164.1 197.08 44.8 118.0 70 Yb 175.93 9 8B 27 Co 10 8B 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 58.012 10.39 12 2B 30 Zn 26.2 60 Nd 92 U 61 Pm (145) 150.18 22.008 1 1A 1 H 3 Li PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 2 2A 4 Be 3 3B 21 Sc 39 Y 4 4B 22 Ti 40 Zr 5 5B 23 V 6 6B 24 Cr 7 7B 25 Mn 43 Tc (98) 6.9 137.500 C·mol–1 1 F = 96.

but no stray marks. blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet using a soft.0) (B) NH4NO2 (M = 64.10 g. What volume of methanol should the student use to obtain the required 30. There is only one correct answer to each question. and Sr2+ ions. Which of the following metal ions is indicated? (A) copper (C) strontium (B) sodium (D) zinc 8. Solid camphor is insoluble in water but is soluble in vegetable oil. A student is asked to measure 30. #2 pencil. Which solute is present? (A) NaCl (C) LiBr (B) KC2H3O2 (D) NH4NO3 9.9 mL 6.256 kg (C) 3.20 M Na3PO4 7. Which compound contains the highest percentage of nitrogen by mass? (A) NH2OH (M = 33. Your score is based solely on the number of questions you answer correctly.96 kg (B) 0.5H2O but the accepted formula is CuSO4 •5H2O. (D) The student used a balance that gave weights that were consistently too high by 0. Make a heavy. The best explanation for this behavior is that camphor is a(n) (A) ionic solid (C) molecular solid (B) metallic solid (D) network solid 10. How many neutrons are in 0. Which reagent should be used to selectively precipitate the Ag+? (A) 0.2) to ethanol (M= 46. An aqueous solution is known to contain Ag+. What is the coefficient for O2 when the following reaction __As2S3 + __O2 → __ As2O3 + __SO2 is correctly balanced with the smallest integer coefficients? (A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 9 2. (C) The student weighed out too much sample initially.1 × 1023 4.1) according to the equation C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 What is the maximum mass of ethanol that can be made from 15. A flame test was performed to confirm the identity of a metal ion in solution. 2010 Page 3 . (B) The hydrated sample was not heated long enough to drive off all the water.7914 g/mL at 25˚C) but has only a graduated cylinder with which to measure it.0) (C) N2O3 (M = 76.5 × 1022 (C) 4. If you decide to change an answer.1) 3. erase the unwanted mark completely.5 × 1023 (B) 3.512 kg (D) 7. Mg2+. When phenolphthalein is added to an aqueous solution containing one of the following solutes the solution turns pink. The formula obtained experimentally was CuSO4 •5. Which error best accounts for the difference in results? (A) During heating some of the hydrated copper(II) sulfate was lost. full mark.DIRECTIONS When you have selected your answer to each question.0 g? (A) 23. The result was a green flame.025 mol of the isotope 54 Cr ? 24 (A) 1. Property of ACS USNCO – Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31. Enzymes convert glucose (M= 180.0 g of methanol (d = 0.0 mL (D) 37.6 × 1023 (D) 8.20 M NaOH (C) 0. 1.4 mL (B) 30. A student performed an experiment to determine the ratio of H2O to CuSO4 in a sample of hydrated copper(II) sulfate by heating it to drive off the water and weighing the solid before and after heating. Magnesium chloride dissolves in water to form (A) hydrated MgCl2 molecules (B) hydrated Mg2+ ions and hydrated Cl– ions (C) hydrated Mg2+ ions and hydrated Cl22– ions (D) hydrated Mg atoms and hydrated Cl2 molecules 11.7 mL (C) 32. It is to your advantage to answer every question.93 kg 5. Any questions for which more than one response has been blackened will not be counted.1) (D) NH4NH2CO2 (M = 78.20 M Na2SO4 (D) 0.20 M NaCl (B) 0.5 kg of glucose? (A) 0.

19. CH3CO2H (M = 60. A gas diffuses one-third as fast as O2 at 100 ˚C.06 L (D) 2. Commercial vinegar is a 5. 2010 . Which is the best explanation for this observation? (A) H2O is a polar molecule but N2 and O2 are not.2 kJ (D) –77. (D) minimum temperature at which water vapor can exist.0 kJ/mol to calculate ∆H˚ in kJ/mol for the reaction: 2NO(g) + O2(g) → N2O4(g) (A) –171. liquid and gaseous water coexist.06 L (C) 2.0˚C and 745 mmHg floats to an altitude where the temperature is 10.4 (B) –26.00 L balloon at 20. ∆S is positive (B) ∆H is positive. What are the signs of ∆H and ∆S for a reaction that is spontaneous only at low temperatures? (A) ∆H is positive. ∆S is negative (D) ∆H is negative.833 M (C) 1.94 L (B) 1. Which reaction has the most positive entropy change under standard conditions? (A) H2O(g) + CO(g) → H2(g) + CO2(g) (B) CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) (C) NH3(g) → NH3(aq) (D) C8H18(l) → C8H18(s) 23. What is the molarity of acetic acid in vinegar? [density of vinegar = 1.5 –1675.00 g of Fe2O3 with aluminum metal according to the equation Fe2O3(s) + 2Al(s) → Al2O3(s) + 2Fe(l) Substance Fe2O3(s) Al2O3(s) Fe(l) (A) –25.2 15.4 kJ ∆Hf˚ kJ/mol –825.6 (D) 171. (B) temperature at which water vapor condenses. Use the thermodynamic information: ½ N2(g) + ½O2(g) → NO(g) ∆H˚ = 90.2 (B) –114. Which family of elements has solid. The critical temperature of water is the (A) temperature at which solid.8 kJ (C) –52. Which process is exothermic? (A) condensation (C) sublimation (B) fusion (D) vaporization 13. (B) H2O has a higher boiling point than N2 or O2.20 M (B) 1. This gas could be (A) He (M = 4) (C) C7H12 (M = 96) (B) C2H5F (M = 48) (D) C5F12 (M = 288) 16. ∆S is negative (A) A → B (B) A → C (C) B → C (D) C → B (C) ∆H is negative. (C) maximum temperature at which liquid water can exist.7 12.20 L 14.00 M 18. A 2. 17.6 (C) 114.00 M (D) 3. liquid and gaseous members at 25˚C and 1 atm pressure? (A) alkali metals (Li – Cs) (C) chalcogens (O – Te) (B) pnictogens (N – Bi) (D) halogens (F – I) 20. Under certain conditions CO2 melts rather than sublimes.0˚C and the air pressure is 700 mmHg. (C) H2O has a lower molar mass than N2 or O2.00% by mass aqueous solution of acetic acid. To which transition in the phase diagram does this change correspond? 21. (D) H2O has a higher heat capacity than N2 or O2.9 kJ 22.4 kJ/mol ½ N2(g) + O2(g) → NO2(g) ∆H˚ = 33. Moist air is less dense than dry air at the same temperature and barometric pressure.12.0).00 g/mL] (A) 0. Determine the enthalpy change for the reaction of 5. What is the new volume of the balloon? (A) 0. ∆S is positive Page 4 Property of ACS USNCO Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31.8 kJ/mol 2NO2(g) → N2O4(g) ∆H˚ = –58.

7% (C) 1. If the rate of disappearance of H2(g) is 1. What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 200. kJ/mol.27 g (C) 102 s – (D) 272 s 29. Which substance has a non-zero standard free energy of formation? (A) Pb(s) (B) Hg(l) (C) Cl2(g) (D) O3(g) 31. M Time (sec) – – – 37. What is the equilibrium expression.40 M in NaF? [Ka = 7. 140.4 × 10–3 mol/min (C) 1. What is the percentage ionization of HCOOH molecules in a 0. A 500.064 g (D) 0.0400 0. (B) volume of the container.0800 0.0200 0.0657 M NaOH. kJ/mol 35.27 34.74 (C) 2. Z? (A) X < Y < Z (C) Z < Y < X (B) X < Z < Y (D) Z < X < Y 1 2 3 4 0.2 × 10–3 mol/min (B) 1.0200 39 78 156 ? 38. for the reaction: 2SO3(g)? 2S(s) + 3O2(g) (A) Kc = 2[SO3]/(2[S]+3[O2]) (C) Kc = [SO3] /[S] [O2] 2 2 3 (B) Kc = 2[SO3]/3[O2] (D) Kc = [SO3]2/[O2]3 25. Consider the following reactions: X(NO3)2 + Y → X + Y(NO3)2 X(NO3)2 + Z → X + Z(NO3)2 Y(NO3)2 + Z → No reaction What is the correct order of increasing activity for the metals. 2010 . what is the rate of appearance of NH3(g)? (A) 2.14 (D) 3. kJ/mol (C) 140.8 × 10–3 mol/min (D) 8.04 (B) 2. M Initial – [I ].44 28. In which reaction at equilibrium will the amount of reactants present increase with an increase in the container volume? (A) C(s) + CO2(g) (B) H2(g) + F2(g) (C) CO(g) + NO2(g) (D) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2CO(g) 2 HF(g) CO2(g) + NO(g) 2NH3(g) 33. The times listed are those recorded at 25˚C for the reaction below to produce a measurable amount of I2(aq): S2O82–(aq) + 2I (aq) → I2(aq) + 2SO42–(aq) Experiment Initial [S2O82–].20 g (B) 0.0800 0. If the activation enthalpy of the forward reaction is 140.3% 27.2 × 10–3 mol/min.84 (C) 3. mL of 0.0 × 10–4 mol/min 32.107 M HCl.43 (D) 2. The commercial production of ammonia is represented by the equation N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g).0400 0. mL by evaporation.0 s.5% of its initial value? (A) 11 s (B) 68 s – 36.2 × 10–4] (A) 1.76 V Zn(s) + 2H+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + H2(g) Which change will increase the voltage of the cell? (A) Increasing the size of the Zn electrode.0013 g (C) 0. (B) Increasing the [Zn2+]. what is the activation enthalpy of the reverse reaction? (A) 40. mL saturated solution of MgCO3 (M = 84) is reduced to 120. and 160. kJ/mol (B) 100. X. mL of H2O? (A) 3. 26. The reaction C3H7I + Cl → C3H7Cl + I is thought to occur in the polar solvent CH3OH by the mechanism: Step 1 C3H7I → C3H7+ + I (slow) Step 2 C3H7+ + Cl → C3H7 Cl (fast) Which species is an intermediate in this reaction? (A) CH3OH (B) C3H7+ (C) I– (D) Cl– 30. (C) Increasing the [H+]. What mass of solid – MgCO3 is formed? [Ksp = 4. What is the pH of a solution that is 0. How long does it take for the concentration of that substance to fall to 12. Kc. mL of 0. kJ/mol. Factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction between a solid and a solution include all of the following EXCEPT the (A) concentration of the reactants in solution. kJ/mol (D) 240.92 (B) 2. Y.0400 0. Page 5 What is the expected time for experiment 4? (A) 156 sec (B) 234 sec (C) 312 sec (D) 624 sec Property of ACS USNCO – Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31.10 M solution? [Ka = 1.8 ×10–4] (A) 4. The first-order disappearance of a substance has a halflife of 34. (D) Increasing the pressure of the H2(g). For the cell E˚ = 0.2% (B) 2. A reaction is endothermic with ∆H = 100.24.20 M in HF and 0.0100 0. (C) size of the solid particles. (D) temperature.0 × 10 5] (A) 0.8% (D) 1.

Which molecule has no permanent dipole moment? (A) BCl3 (B) NCl3 (C) CHCl3 (D) PCl3 43. Which statement concerning visible light is correct? (A) The product of wavelength and frequency is a constant for visible light in a vacuum. (A) 3 gained (C) 1 lost (B) 1 gained (D) 3 lost – 47. The O–N–O bond angles in the nitrate ion. The electron configuration of cobalt (Z = 27) is 1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2. respectively. Ag+(aq) + e–→ Ag(s) 2+ – + – – 48. Which element has the greatest electrical conductivity? (A) As (B) Ge (C) P (D) Sn 49. (C) As the wavelength of light increases its amplitude also increases. one 180˚ 42. and CH4 are listed in order of increasing boiling point. (A) Cl (aq) and ClO3 (aq) (C) ClO3 (aq) and H (aq) 41.28 V Use the standard reduction potentials to determine the standard potential for the reaction: Co(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → Co2+(aq) + 2Ag(s) (A) 0.0A is passed through a solution of copper(II) nitrate for 30.6 seconds? (A) 0.52V (B) 0. What mass of copper is deposited when a current of 10. What is the IUPAC name for the molecule below? 45. (B) As the wavelength of light increases the energy of a photon increases. (D) nucleus. When the compounds HF. How many different aldehydes have the formula C5H10O? (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 Page 6 Property of ACS USNCO Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31. ____ electron(s) is (are) _____.08V (D) 1.201g (C) 0. In the reaction – – ClO3 (aq) + 5Cl (aq) + 6H+(aq) → 3Cl2(g) + 3H2O(l) the oxidizing and reducing agents are. 2010 .403g (D) 6. How many valence electrons are in a persulfate ion. Which ionic solid has the greatest lattice energy? (A) NaCl (B) MgO (C) KBr (D) SrS 55. NO3–. NH3. (C) neutron.04g 52. For which pair of species is the difference in radii the greatest? (A) Li and F (C) Li+ and O2– (B) Li+ and F– (D) O2– and F– 56.66V (C) 1. (B) electron. When the half-reaction NO3 → NO is balanced for one – NO3 in acid solution. which order is correct? (A) CH4 < NH3 < H2O < HF (B) NH3 < CH4 < H2O < HF (C) HF < CH4 < H2O < NH3 (D) CH4 < NH3 < HF < H2O 54. are best described as being (A) all 120˚ (C) all 90˚ (B) all 109. SO52–? (A) 32 (B) 34 (C) 36 (D) 38 (B) ClO3 (aq) and Cl (aq) (D) Cl (aq) and H (aq) E˚ = 0.5˚ (D) two 90˚. Ernest Rutherford’s scattering experiment demonstrated the existence of the (A) alpha particle. H2O. The removal of an electron from which gaseous atom requires the greatest amount of energy? (A) Na (B) Cl (C) K (D) Br (A) heptane (C) 3-methylhexane (B) 2-ethylpentane (D) 4-ethylpentane 46. (D) Green light has a higher frequency than blue light.39.88V – 51.101g (B) 0. Which diatomic molecule contains the strongest bond? (A) H–Cl (B) H–F (C) Cl–Cl (D) F–F Co (aq) + 2e → Co(s) E˚ = –0. 44.80 V – + – – 50. 53. How many unpaired electrons are in a gaseous Co3+ ion in its ground state? (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 6 40.

The classification of a fat as saturated or unsaturated is based on whether (A) it can be metabolized by humans. Which element is used to form cross-links between the strands of latex rubber? (A) Fe (B) N (C) P (D) S 60. (C) it has twenty or more carbon atoms.57. Which compound will rapidly decolorize bromine in CHCl3? (A) benzene (C) hexane (B) cyclohexane (D) 1-hexene 58. Which combination of reactants produces an ester? (A) acid and alcohol (C) alcohol and aldehyde (B) acid and aldehyde (D) aldehyde and potassium permanganate 59. END OF TEST Property of ACS USNCO -Not for use as an USNCO Local Exam after March 31. 2010 . (D) it is of animal origin. (B) it contains carbon – carbon double bonds.

45. 16. 19. 47. 24. 9. 44. 13. 2010 . 60. 48. 8. 43. 37. 27. 6. 36. 10. 4. 30. 53. 56. Answer D D C A D C B C A B C A A D B C C D D B A A D B C C D A D B Not for use as a USNCO Local Section Exam after March 31.S. 25. 17. 54. 28. 15. 52. 32. 59. National Chemistry Olympiad Local Section Exam KEY Number 1. 2. Answer D A B C A A D B C B D A C D D C A C A A A B C D B D A C B C Number 31. 18. 50. 38. 42. 11. 12. 22. 29. 55. 7. 51. 40. 26. 21. 23. 39. 20. 46. 49. 3. 5. 14. 35.2010 U. 33. 57. 41. 34. 58.

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