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Cartilla Didactica de Negocios y Contabilidad

Cartilla Didactica de Negocios y Contabilidad

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MINDS ARE LIKE PARACHUTES - THEY ONLY FUNCTION WHEN ARE OPEN. SO, OPEN YOURS.

THOMAS DEWAR

LIBRO GUIA DE NEGOCIO Y CONTABILIDAD “CARTILLA DIDACTICA”

REALIZADO POR LUIE FERNANDO SUAREZ

DOCENTE

LUIS FERNANDO SUAREZ

INSTITUCION EDUCATIVA AMERICA SEDE PEDRO JUSTO BERRIO

PUERTO BERRIO 10 DE ABRIL DEL 2011

INTRODUCTION

This primer is performed as a useful resource to strengthen some necessary fundamentals in terms of the technical vocabulary of the commercial, accounting and business needs a person who studies and works in this area.

READINGS
1. WHO INVENTED THE WORD “PERFECT”, ANYWAY?

Ok, you‟re looking in the “Segunda Mano” for a new job...we all know that feeling of anticipation – what‟s going to be in there for me? – as your eyes skate down the page looking for that one job that suits you, or at least seems interesting enough to spend a stamp on. If nothing looks good under your preferred job heading, you may entertain the idea of looking in other fields – but as you search through, you start to realize that the offers in your field, the strangest offers, the ones you don‟t understand, and those you‟d never admit to even reading, have one thing in common.... “Imprescindible hablar inglés”. And you ever-so-nonchalantly flip over to the “formación” section of the want ads – “Academias de Inglés” From my experience in preparing students for interviews in English, I have basically found that there are two types of interviews. This of course is not the be all and end all of job interviews, but here are some tips for both types I‟ve seen – and some common questions... Interview 1 – The "Guy just want to see if you speak English (even if we can’t)" interview. This tends to be common in jobs such as sales, administration, secretarial jobs, IT, some legal positions, travel and tourism, business, marketing, advertising, well, you name it! And is usually a combination interview – part in Spanish and part in English. Depending on the amount of English that you would actually have to speak if you were to land this job, the interview may be more or less rigorous. I have seen everything from students being interviewed by someone who hardly speaks English at all, to being interviewed by a native. However, this type of interview tends to be less job specific (they usually ask the labor-related questions in the Spanish part of the interview) – and more geared towards how well you “speak English”. From wha t I

have been told and have seen, the English part of this interview tends to last around 15 minutes, and sometimes even less. This interview can be more difficult in the sense that the interviewer‟s only job is to pay attention to how you speak English, or rather, how well you speak English. So, you may feel more under pressure as far as vocabulary and structure. However, it is easier in the sense that the questions asked are usually quite basic and colloquial, and are only intended to get you to speak in different tenses and in a variety of contexts. Some of the common questions in these types of interviews (among others) are: 1. Tell me about yourself. (this is such a fun question to answer!) 2. Where are you from? 3. What is there to see in your town? 4. What do you do in your free time? (answering “I study English in my free time” is a “PELOTA” answer! Don’t insult your interviewer) 5. How did you learn English? 6. How long have you studied English? 7. Have you traveled to any English-speaking countries, spent time abroad? 8. How did you like (country)? 9. How long were you in (country)? 10. Tell me about your experience in (country). (this type of question , “tell me about...”, usually comes up when you are being a “listo” and only giving short answers to avoid speaking and they want to hear you talk more.) 11. What was (country) like? (this is, among other things, to see if you really went to this place, so if you haven’t, and you’re telling “porky pies” (lies) you better get “googling” your chosen pla ce before the interview!!) 12. Did you like the people? (Please, if your interviewer is from the same country you studied in, and you hated the people and/or the food, maybe this isn’t the time to show how honest you are.) 13. What are you doing now to keep up your English skills? (Needless to say, picking up “Guiris” at bars is not a good answer.) 14. How have you had to use English at work in the past? 15. What did you do in your last job? 16. What are your strengths and weaknesses? (even more fun than question #1! Trust me, we all “work too hard” – be creative with your weakness!) Interview 2 – The –"¡Cágate lorito! ¿Por qué no fui a Oxford a estudiar - por mi cara bonita - cuando mis papis me lo ofrecían?" - interview. Yes, the interview of all interviews!!! The, “I‟m going to work for a foreign company” interview. Undoubtedly this can be a more difficult interview to handle. First of all, your interviewer will most likely have impeccable English skills. You need to be comfortable with your English speaking skills – confident. The good thing about these interviews is that the minor mistakes (unless it‟s for a UN translator or something of that sort) usually don‟t count so much against you. I‟m not saying you can get away with murder, however the interviewers aren‟t usually as hung up on grammar as your COU English teacher was. Usually the interviewer is interested in your skills in your field, if you can speak fluently and confidently, and if you understand what they are asking you. Listening comprehension plays a big role in these interviews (in all interviews). One of our worst enemies are our own nerves when we listen to someone speak in another language – we get so nervous about not understanding them, we actually end up getting confused, all on our own. Or, at the

first word we don‟t understand, we lose the next ten, stuck on that one darn word and/or freaking out. What‟s this, you say? AAAAGH! Phrasal Verb!!! Freaking out?

According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary (great resource, by the way): FREAK function: verb intransitive uses: 1: to withdraw from reality especially by taking drugs -- often used with out 2 : to experience nightmarish hallucinations as a result of taking drugs -- often used with out 3 a : to behave irrationally or unconventionally under the influence of drugs -- often used with out b : to react with extreme or irrational distress or discomposure -- often used with out Ok, we‟re talking about 3b here, the modern definition. The other 3 are what my parents wer e probably doing in the late 60‟s. (Just kidding Mom and Dad!) Anyway, and in summary – the important thing is to relax and to not get hung up on that one stupid word! If you find yourself in a situation where you find it really difficult to understand the interviewer, you have to make every effort to go with the flow and get the idea of what they are asking or saying. And move on! The same goes for when you are speaking and can‟t remember a certain expression. Get over it and work around it! By doing this, you are also showing your problem-solving skills in English, demonstrating that you can SURVIVE in these situations. Ok, enough chit chat– Here are some more common questions to prepare for this type, or any type of interview. You then have to add on other questions specific to your field and practice, practice, practice! 2. Tell me about yourself. / How would you describe yourself? (you’ll never escape this question!!!) 2. Why did you leave your last job? 3. What did you like most/least about your last job? 4. What do you see yourself doing five years from now? Ten years from now? 5. What are your long range and short range goals and objectives? 6. Why did you choose this career? 7. Why did you go into (profession)? (this is another way of asking question 6) 8. How well do you work with people? 9. Do you work better alone or in a team? 10. How would you describe your work ethic? 11. How well do you work under pressure? 12. Why should we hire you? /Why should we hire you over the other candidates? 13. What makes you qualified for this position? 14. What qualities do you think make up a good (job title)? 15. What's one of the hardest decisions you've ever had to make? 16. What two or three things are most important to you in your job? 17. What accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? Why? 18. Describe the most rewarding experience of your career thus far. 19. What do you think it takes to be successful in a company like ours? 20. In what ways do you think you can make a contribution to our company? 21. Why did you decide to seek a position in this company? 22. What can you tell us about our company? 23. What do you know about our competitors? 24. What two or three things are most important to you in your job?

the Chairman of the Board may also be the CEO (as well as the President). This person is . "Directors" are usually officers who form part of the Board of Directors. In private companies.Chief Executive Officer – This person is the top executive responsible for a company's operations. Chairman of the Board – This person is appointed to be the head of the Board of Directors. CEO . Two Main Executive Officers The executive officers manage the whole company. They develop global strategies. This person reports to the board of directors. A GENERIC CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY Board of Directors A board of directors is a group of people who either control or execute (or both) the general business affairs of a corporation. How do you feel about traveling? 26. What are your strengths and weaknesses? (ha! ha! ha! you’ll never escape this one either!) 2. Would you be willing to live in another country? 27.25.

R&D. Manager. the hierarchical structures in different companies can be very different. Support. IT (information technology).sometimes also the president of the company. There are a variety of titles for the people who are in charge of the departments in companies: Vice-President. Legal. Director. Vice President of Sales. Sometimes the titles vary in different countries depending on the laws governing corporations there. which can create a need for very different departments 3. It is too easy to concentrate all your efforts on the content of your presentation neglecting the 'performance' aspect of it. Human Resources Director. etc. In some cases the president acts as the “Chief Operating Officer” under the direction of the Chief Executive Officer. Executive Manager. Purchasing. Regional. The title of the departments themselves can serve as part of the employees‟ titles: Sales Director. Accounting. Executive Director. PRESENTING IN ENGLISH A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 1 – Looks. The existence and titles of these departments depend on the corporations themselves (i. Country (i. Country Manager). The titles that companies give their employees depend on their company‟s origins. Regional Manager). Other times. their cultures and their particular needs. . Executive Vice-President. etc. There are also a variety of tagsthat accompany these titles: Executive (i. President – “President” is a title in many corporations. Projects. (i.e. etc.e. the second most important is how you talk.). Also. etc.e. Accounting Manager. etc. Workers with very similar job-descriptions working in different companies may have completely different titles and salaries. Human Resources.e. Marketing. "Vice-Presidents in Charge of Departments ("Vice-President" or another title. Manner and Voice Have you ever been asked to make a presentation in English? Being able to present professionally in English can give your career a boost and propel you up the corporate ladder. Also. the third most important (in fact. Surveys have shown that to capture and then to keep an audience's attention the most important thing is how you look and how you move your body (body language).) Departments: There are usually a variety of departments in companies: Sales. their needs and company culture). the least important) is what you say. Production. workers with very similar titles can have very different job-descriptions. the CEO appoints a president. Finance.

Use repetition and contrast opposing points again for emphasis. talk slow and don't talk too much”. The actor John Wayne once said: “talk low. The majority of the presentation will be 'ad hoc' (or unscripted) in that you will be using your own words as you follow the pre-prepared plan. what about body language? Well. you should derive approximate timings for each part of the presentation as a help in estimating the duration of the talk and as a means of reviewing your progress as you speak. Just wait and see and all will become clear. This makes it easy for the audience to follow the presentation and to differentiate the main subject matter from background contextual content. The introduction will include a summary of the main part (what you are going to say) and the conclusion will also include a summary of the main part (what you said). This will allow the audience to understand the structure of the presentation and to follow its logical flow. However. Next thing.So. Don't put your hands in your pockets or look at the floor. A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 2 – Planning and why all this Preparation is Important. Chinese and even Spanish! So how will it give you any particular help when you present in English? Well. You may have noticed that in Part 1 all the advice could equally apply to giving a presentation in German. Stress important words or phrases for emphasis and pause afterwards to ensure the audience understands the significance of the points and have time to absorb them. In addition. Bear this in mind when you are planning your presentation and you'll be starting off on the right foot. How you talk. try to face the audience. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion. Your presentation will have an introduction. Don't talk too quickly. within reach as you . The main part will be divided into sections or topic areas. you just have to buy a new outfit at El Corte Inglés. don't look at your Powerpoint presentation when you're speaking. Keep them on their toes. Listen to the way that politicians speak. the first thing you have to do is to be smart. Now. Ask rhetorical questions. make eye contact with members of the audience. OK. you should write a script for the first part of the introduction and the last part of the conclusion beforehand and learn both by heart. a main part and a conclusion. that's easy. the ones that you know the audience would likely want to ask themselves. You should print a copy of the scripts and the plan and keep them make the presentation. move around. use your hands. this part will also be applicable to any language but both will be invaluable for non-native English speakers preparing presentations in English.

.So. Language to help you navigate the talk may include: “To start off then . Don‟t forget it is important to check the progress of the presentation against the schedule..... This will allow you to concentrate on the content of your talk... talk precisely and clearly. Do not turn your back on the audience when referring to the screen and try not to read verbatim from the displayed text.. use emphasis and pauses to „punctuate‟ your points... by preparing your introduction beforehand.” .. However. Similarly. This could be a wall clock. take it off and put it in front of you. don‟t forget. by speaking more slowly and pausing you will give yourself time and you will conserve your energy.. As we mentioned before... it is the professional way to do things and will give you the best chance of giving an effective talk.” “To go back to what I was saying . By memorising parts of your presentation. why are Looks... by carefully planning your presentation we have reduced the amount of ´thinking on your feet‟ that you will need to do.... mobile phone or watch but if you use a wrist watch. your audience can read. Keep your notes (with timings) in front of you and refer to them when you need to.. it will give you time and help you conserve your mental energy. the first five minutes.. Furthermore.” “To move on to my next point . reducing the mental effort involved with navigating your way through the various stages of the presentation.. A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 3 – The Performance The obvious problem when presenting in a language other than your own is nerves. Secondly. so make sure you have some kind of timer available. You will need to decide if you you prefer taking questions during the talk or leaving them until the end.. you will be able to ease your way into the presentation allowing yourself to get over the most nerve-racking part of all.. for nonnative English speakers. We will cover this issue in the next episode. So... you will save the energy involved in producing 'ad hoc' language and you will ensure that during the most important stages of the presentation (the beginning and the end) you will say what you planned to say.. Manner and Voice (Part 1) and Planning (Part 2) important for your English presentation? First of all. By effective planning you will save on the concentration needed to navigate the talk giving yourself the opportunity to be more relaxed and natural. and most importantly.. a pre-rehearsed ending to the presentation will ensure you don't forget to leave the audience with the important points clear in their minds....... Keep your hands above your waist and use movement and body language to complement your voice in putting across your message.. You need more time and energy (perhaps better described as concentration) to convert what you want to say into English words and sentences than you do in your native language......

” Language to help you with your visual material may include: “Take a look at this.. .....” “I'd like to point out. recommend. . how will your readers know? Possible purposes include: to educate.... ... 1) Think Why am I writing? It sounds obvious but if you don‟t know exactly the purpose of your report... in the next episode we will look at how to deal with unanticipated events and the language needed to overcome potential problems..” “To digress for a moment .... but how much information do you know about them? Close your eyes...” “To summarise .. Here are some practical tips to a simple “4-step guide” to get you started.“To give you an example of what I mean . inform.. THE "4-STEP" GUIDE TO REPORT WRITING Writing reports in English can be timeconsuming but with practice and a plan you can do it.” “To sum up then .” You may ask.. motivate action and instruct..... ..... imagine the person or people you‟re writing about and put yourself in their shoes asking yourself the following questions: Who are my readers? (Prioritise your readers based on your purpose: Key and non-key readers) What background information or knowledge do they have? What are their attitudes to the subject matter of the report? What are they looking to find in the report? .... “what about questions and interruptions?” Well..................” “As you can see... persuade.. I know you know who your readers are. ... 4... Who are my readers? Yes. .

” Be clear and to the point. 2. Conclusion 5. Be confident in your recommendations and give them importance by using the active instead of the passive voice. to the point and ideally no more than 1 page. Most business reports follow this typical structure: 1. It has to have a logical flow. For example “We recommend that …. I always assume that most readers are very busy and so will not read all the report.. Plan While reading all of part (1) jot down any ideas you have and slowly expand them. but option 2 offers a better long term solution. Keep it brief. next steps and follow-up. Structuring the report depends on the purpose of your report and the readers. conclusions reached and recommendations. your findings. Instead they will skim read using your contents page and executive summary to guide them and they‟ll thank you for doing that. so you can guide the reader and prove to the reader that your ideas have merit. Write The order in which you present your ideas is critical. Group all your ideas together that require a similar action. Separate each idea and focus on it entirely. 3. Executive Summary and Recommendations 2. who has time to read a 15-20 page report in English? Readers will only read your report if it has something that benefits them. purpose. Appendices Lets be realistic. The Executive Summary is your secret weapon to grabbing the attention of the reader by giving them a taste of the benefits inside your report. What action do I want my readers to take? What outcomes do you want? What do you want your reader to do after reading your report? This is where you deliver your recommendations. A mind-map is an excellent visual tool to organise this. For example: Option 1 will be the best in the short term. Content 4. .What is my key message? Once you know the purpose of your report. Include it in the executive summary and also put it in the beginning so the reader knows what follows will support your key message and will help the readers reach a conclusion. you must decide what your key message is. background information. Introduction 3.” instead of “It is recommended that …. key issues. It should include.

Secondly someone with a high level of English or a native to check and critique the clarity and simplicity of your ideas. graphics and colour.Use layout to help the reader skim read and quickly find the information they want. Make sure everyone knows what's expected from them. This type of attitude doesn't only have negative effects in customer service. Which day will your team be more efficient? Now. Find two proof readers you know to read and critique your report. It's as simple as saying "good job" or "thank you". So here are some quick Be tips to keep up the morale of your team: cheerful and transmit happiness as in the previous example. Now change that situation to a happy start. growling at everyone in your team. Firstly someone who is knowledgeable in the area to check and critique the technical content of your ideas. bolding. but I assure you she won't be doing any word of mouth marketing for you. headings. Make main ideas and recommendations stand-out by using bullet points. subheadings. Do you think this customer will return? Perhaps. Use motivational words. but also in other areas of the company: Imagine you arrive to work stressed and grumpy. smiling and pats on the backs. 5. Revise Only keep the ideas you‟re 100% confident in. you either have a very strange team or I'm inclined to think the answer is the second day. 4. ask your colleagues if they can recommend a translator with expertise in your industry or sector. When an employee finally attends her she doesn't receive a smile nor a "thank you". . MOTIVATING STAFF A woman waits a good while at the counter to pay for her purchase. If you can‟t find two proof readers.

Provide leadership. here are tips I compiled from the experts: Do we need to meet? "What a stupid question". MEETINGS.. Herb Kelleher. And also. Managers complained that at least 50% of their time spent in meetings was a complete waste of time. I'm sure you are not too different from your team members. talking over a coffee or by using technology such as instant messenger.. He pointed out that they are always in touch with their employees even when they are not at work: maternity leave. such Establish a good Make employees feel part of the company through as profit sharing. decrease the number of meetings! I just didn‟t believe the techies. Make time for people. recent research has said that most managers spend at least 60% of their time in meetings in comparison to 45% in the 1970´s. stock options or similar schemes. MEETINGS. . you can never relax. Be fair and consistent in your disciplinary system when they fail to perform. Be disciplined. generous profit sharing schemes and stock options created the necessary team spirit that is essential for success. Think about what makes you tick. you say "of course we need to meet". Talk about their goals and help them develop and achieve these goals. rewarding system.Talk to your employees on a regular basis and tell them when they are doing things well. MEETINGS Technology was supposed to be the answer to the work-life balance and whisper it. So what can be done? Well it‟s not rocket science. showing that they value them as individuals. Guide them and never forget that a good leader can delegate all except their responsibility. retired. Schedule regular periods where you can dedicate more time to them. Chairman of Southwest Airlines explained to Mark Morrison (Managing Editor at BusinessWeek) the importance that the motivation of his people had played in the success of the company. Motivating is a full-time job. sick. "Do we really need to meet?" Maybe you can solve issues through other communication tools. 6. not just as workers. Well surprise surprise. Well dig deep and honestly ask yourself and colleagues.

Prepare well achieve either Surprise surprise. remember past occasions where you‟ve communicated successfully in English and focus on how great you felt afterwards... to the point and relevant. Tongue-tied We‟ve all been in international meetings where we wanted to speak but we couldn‟t and sat in silence.. In the summary the meeting leader should gain commitment to action points by meeting attendees.. those meeting minutes provide clues if you need to meet again and if so. Shoddy work helps nobody. etc.. This person needs to be respected by all attending. Leading a meeting Some cultures (e. Why why why? Well...... have a strong personality to control the meeting covering all major points/issues and to promote an inclusive atmosphere. emails. When giving invitees background information. tongue-tied unsure of the correct English expression or phrase to use. keep it brief. Both methods have their merits.. what is important to both. Other cultures hate being constrained by such a rigid structure and prefer to have more free flowing meetings. be clear about what you want to as the meeting leader or as an attendee.".. forums. where attendees agreed to action points and then at the next meeting turned up and gave excuses... is the meeting leader or chair. Also it makes sure that people do what they say and when! So keep meeting minutes accurate. while also giving you time to think. just say no and explain why. those people who prepare answers to key issues before going into a meeting. North Americans and Northern Europeans) use meeting agendas to prevent rambling and irrelevancy. .g. So think before you agree to an action point and if you‟re over stretched. say something like "We should consider. Make sure you book the meeting room and check it has everything you need. Take a deep breath and quickly relive that feeling before you speak during the meeting.. Meeting Minutes It‟s the worst job in the meeting. taking meeting minutes.. Do what you say We‟ve all been to meetings. motivation plummets and nobody takes the meetings seriously. what should be included and not included.. but someone has to keep a record of what was said by everybody.. PAUSE (2 seconds).. people assume it's important. Before you go to meetings. Pauses focus attention on what you have to say. Secondly use pauses and eye contact. Only invite those who are essential and relevant to the meeting issues.. because. like a projector and teleconference facilities. action-orientated and get all attendees to agree to what they said. achieve their goals quickly and painlessly. Trust is broken.blogs. brief. If you do have a meeting.

The Small Agency . Often we become emotional and make issues personal and make personal comments instead of keeping things objective. However. So agree meeting ground rules before starting a meeting and don‟t be afraid to remind people of these during the meeting! 7. Lilli Cloud. This maybe acceptable in some cultures but others find it confrontational and not the best way to facilitate cooperation. what can we do to generate publicity? Well. we often forget our manners. Well-known brands like Body Shop. GENERATING PUBLICITY According to Al and Linda Ries in their book "Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR" the importance of PR is changing and they argue that PR has become the most effective way to build a brand.The Boutique Agency . yet their brand awareness is huge. However in the heat of the moment. PlayStation and Harry Potter spend very little on advertising.Respect people Well. if you are more adventurous here is a quick seven step guide to start generating publicity for your company or project: . interrupting and shouting at people we don‟t agree with. you can put yourself in hands of professionals and depending on your needs and characteristics choose the type of PR agency that best fits you. I‟m not suggesting we‟re rude people or we lack manners.The Independent Consultant In this article she explains the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.The Big Agency . founder of Cloud Communications explains in BusinessWeek (Business Week) that there are four types of agencies: . So.

STEP 2: Develop a database of contacts .here the importance of step two and developing a good database of contacts. STEP 4: Write the press release .publish it on your Web site. this will increase the likelihood of generating publicity.make a list of all the publications.Study a few press releases on similar topics and write a short story using a similar style. mail it to customers and prospects.dedicate time to improve your relationships with those that decide what gets published. STEP 5: Send the press release . STEP 3: Determine the story . TELEPHONING TIPS . place them on handouts and fliers.com. These seven steps are developed in more detail in Al Lautenslager'sarticle on Entrepreneur. Make sure the story is news and not just promotion. STEP 7: Develop relationships with contacts .STEP 1: Determine your target . etc. 8. radio stations.Decide in which section the news you will generate best fits in and find outwho's the primary editor or reporter of this section. this will increase the chances of it getting itpublished.brainstorm ideas on possible stories and bring this down to around 12 topics which cankeep you going for at least 1 year. STEP 6: Other uses for your press release . TV channels you want to reach.

. Don't be provoked .. You can do this by first being modest and asking the caller to speak slowly as English isn't your native tongue and during the conversation speak slowly yourself and repeat information as the person speaks.Although you should speak in a low tone to avoid the shrillness of the phone.This week's topic is about a very common business tool.Although people say it's the first impression that counts. If you think you are speaking a touch too slow.Take notes and never interrupt your caller.Don't be in a hurry.. If the telephone call is in English. don't waste time and confuse your caller by looking for pens. etc. Hang up gently . it will make them feel you are not with them. the phone is still a very important tool for business communication. there is no rush. the not so important ones too. info. there's no need to cause a bad last impression by slamming down the receiver and causing a loud noise at the other end of the line.. giving you that extra time to think and digest the information. and about all those wonderful tips I have found out there on the net.Have all your resources at hand. the telephone. Also. Are you sure you're making the most of that time or could you improve? As always. but I'm not going to provide a full training course. Speak loudly and clearly . by smiling you'll project a friendly and interesting voice which is always important. you are probably speaking at just the right speed. Your notes will also be useful here. Although the widespread use of email has reduced its use. make an effort to slowdown the conversation. Think specially about what you want to achieve and the objections that may arise.If the phone call is difficult or very important prepare it well before calling. repeat concisely what you have agreed on to avoid confusion. Your notes will help you come back to things you want to say and remember the important details once the call has finished. Now just think of all those important phone calls you have made during the last month and well. but never use the keyboard. Repeat Agreements . a friendly response will calm down even the most beastly of creatures. by speaking slowly you transmit calmness and confidence.Smile when you pick up the phone. Take notes . Prepare . Resources at hand . I also recommend you pay special attention to the preparation and think through the imaginary phone call to recreate the situation. Slow down . It is in your interest to set a slow pace to help you understand and not get lost half way through the call. you should get you voice across without confusion and speak into the mouthpiece and do not place the phone under your chin. but I will outline some interesting tipswhich you may use: Smile .Stay calm in all situations. . yet few people ever do specific telephone skills training.In the end. I'm sure there's room for improvement.

you‟ll get there faster and it looks incredibly unprofessional to arrive with someone. not too early or too late. their jargon and the type of people who work there. if you arrive too early. They call all the departments that communicate information about the company. 10 STEPS FOR GETTING THE JOB YOU WANT! There are no sure ways to guarantee that you get the job you want. “Hello I‟m (first name) (last name). 2. but there are strategies and techniques that can certainly increase your chances. too embarrassed to speak to the company directly. Here are ten steps that trainers recommend: 1. Go alone Second. how do wemake the right first impression? 1. Direct eye contact for trust. 2.9. Arrive late and you‟ll start the interview with an apology and provide the interviewer with evidence that you‟re not time conscious. discussed later in point 6. although we all consider ourselves open-minded and fair. 4. you‟llput pressure on the interviewer and they‟ll react badly to this and resent you disturbing their work. This picture is then used as a reference point for all their answers and “pacing”. relying on the Internet and asking friends. Marketing. A smile. 3. It‟s a pleasure meeting you”. On the other hand the “Brave Researcher” wants to know about the company. so you‟ve got the interview. . Get your support from friends and family before the interview. Why? Well. Also starting with an apology puts you into a subordinate role in the interview as opposed to the role you want as an equal and possible future colleague. Arrive on time Third. (For more on this type of vocabulary. we usually make judgements about people in the first 2-5 minutes of meeting them. So. the culture. see: Corporate Hierarchy) This critical information enables them to paint a picture in their minds of the exact culture and candidate profile the company is seeking. 3. such as Sales. arrive on time. go to an interview alone. Make a Good First Impression Fourth. Public Relations and Human Resources. Research the Company (Section titles not in MP3) First. how do you prepare? Well most of us adopt the “Chicken Researcher” approach.

” Pacing includes learning and using the company‟s buzz words or jargon. you believe you have the skills and personality this company needs to continue being successful. it‟s the language of achievers. It looks incredibly unprofessional.” etc. Be Positive Seventh. examples include: “implement.” 7. A firm but gentle handshake. find an area of agreement and start to lead the interviewer toward the job offer. either as a problemsolving situation of “the interviewer and me against the problem” or as a confrontational situation of “the interviewer against me”. Remember you‟re talking to a potential colleague and an equal. 5. Finally. you‟re not asking for the job as a favour. Buzz words are popular words the company and its employees use when talking about the company or describing its products or services. Flatter the Interviewer Eight. “People like people who like them” and “People like people who ARE like them”. Use your research about the company to give compliments about the interviewer and their company. Focus on past successes. Concentrate! . not on the negative. Action words are dynamic and energetic. Daniel Goleman.” “persuade. Be like the Interviewer Sixth. 8.” “lead. flattery will get you everywhere. it‟ll enhance your image with the interviewer. the famous author of “Emotional Intelligence. We all love to receive flattery and compliments as long as it‟s natural and not fake. inappropriate and tarnishes your image. try and sit next to or beside the interviewer as opposed to a confrontational position of directly opposite.4. Next use “Action Words” when answering. if the interviewer offers you the choice of where to sit. one technique to use is “Pacing. 6.” “I‟m excited about the position. but not all of it as it‟ll become obvious. Be natural and concentrate on the things that the company has done or does that have impressed you.” “effective.” “motivate.” “innovate. 9.” “What you are offering looks like a long term position.” “I believe I fit the profile you are looking for. One good technique is. There are two ways of viewing an interview. Then try reading the body language of the interviewer and subtlycopying some of it. Lean forward in your seat slightly and try the phrases: “My background fits this position well. align yourself with the interviewer. You decide.” talks about the powerful psychological impact of. never ever criticise your previous employers. Be Equal Fifth. So how can we use this in an interview? Well. don‟t take a subordinate role.” “initiate.

Recent research by Professor G. 4.University of Pennsylvania. 10. 3. as the interview reaches its natural end you start to lose your concentration. titles. Don‟t! Maintain concentration and be as attentive as possible. buzz words. “It sounds like a great opportunity” or “I'll look forward to hearing from you. how do negotiations break down? What are the reasons for people breaking agreements? The Cambridge English dictionary defines a negotiation as. where you win and the other person loses! But if that was always the case. WHAT NEGOTIATION STYLE DO YOU HAVE? Films and media like to show that there is only one negotiation style that matters. continue listening for information. Richard Shell from the prestigious Wharton School of Business. 2.” And a long lasting agreement and commitment comes from cooperation. names. . and finally. “To have formal discussions with someone in order to reach an agreement.” A firm but gentle handshake. First let‟s try to understand why it is important to know what mix of negotiation styles you have. The words. Direct eye contact for trust. a competitive style. etc. 10. at the end of the interview you want to make a confident and long lasting impression on your interviewer. A smile. Make a Long-Lasting Impression Ten. but we‟ll discuss that later. identified 5 common negotiation styles and how those styles interacted.Nine. How? 1. to use in the second interview or follow-up letter! How? One technique is to drink a coffee before the interview to maintain your concentration for longer.

then to be an effective negotiator you need to generate trust between yourself and the other person. Remember. Other fears include a lack of alternatives.For most cultures of the world. a fake. Trying to be competitive when you hate competition will make you appear fake and you‟ll lose trust. Knowing whatoutcomes the interactions of different negotiations styles produces enables you to better choose the most effective negotiation strategy to reach an agreement with them. information exchange. The greatest fear people have about negotiations is the fear of what they will lose. the negotiation process can be divided into the following stages: preparation. Trust comes from being natural and being yourself. If reaching an agreement in a negotiation is based on cooperation and cooperation is based on trust. you become more aware of the other person‟s negotiation style and also how different negotiation styles interact. explicit bargaining. These can all be greatly reduced from increasing your knowledge of the negotiation process and negotiation strategies. and commitment. . you‟re not that good an actor! If you‟re more aware of your own negotiation style. in different situations and conditions? The answer is that you can‟t unless you know your own negotiation style first. threats and time. Once you‟re aware of your negotiation style you know what can realistically be improved and what can‟t. Neither can you prepare effective responses to what the other person does in the negotiation without self-awareness. not from trying to be something you‟re not. Let's concentrate on the negotiation process: firstly preparation. How can you prepare an effective negotiation strategy if you don‟t know how you will react under pressure.

So they will make a compromise first. Accommodator: They like to resolve conflict by solving the other person‟s problems.” Secondly. Competitor: They like to win and be in control of the situation. We can all learn.Professor G. Finally if you don‟t have a problem-solver negotiation style. Richard Shell‟s research identified 2 things. practice and adopt the habits of the most effective negotiators: . 4. Contrary to popular opinion the “Competitor” produced more “Bad” outcomes than “Good” as most people thought they were difficult. what outcomes (Good or Bad) these negotiation styles produced when two people (A and B) interacted together in a negotiation. 2. What mix of negotiation styles are you? 1. there are 5 negotiation styles and most people have a mix of these negotiation styles. Firstly. giving the other person what they want in order to reach an agreement and preserve the relationship. Compromiser: Their priority is to maintain a productive relationship. Avoider: Hate conflicts and avoid them at all costs. Avoider (B) Avoider (A) Compromiser (B) Good Bad Good Good Bad Good Accommodator Competitor Problem (B) (B) – Solver (B) Bad Bad Bad Good Good Bad Good Bad Bad Good Good Good Good Good Good Compromiser Bad (A) Accommodator Bad (A) Competitor (A) Bad Problem – Bad Solver (A) His research showed that people who have the same negotiation style quickly understood each other and produced a “Good” outcome. the other person takes and gives nothing in return. 5. 3. you lose. don‟t worry. They believe if they win. Effective negotiating is as much about attitude as style. Hence making an agreement with an Avoider very difficult. A “Problem-Solver” negotiation style produced the best outcomes but is also the hardest to implement due to the complexity of most negotiations. If the other person is also an accommodator then they return the favour and help solve their problems. Problem Solver: The most imaginative thinkers who think about fair “win/win” solutions and greater solutions that “make the pie bigger. If not.

If you combine this simple tool with other tips below you can turn it into a powerful time management system. SAVE TIME Read and listen to this article in this interactive activity: Save Time Activity.. So here are some tips grouped in the three previously mentioned categories. Spending five minutes to make a to-do list will help you work through your tasks quicker. Could someone else be doing it? Just by having these questions in mind your change in attitude will help you make the most of your time. 2. It's the third link at the bottom of the page. Is the task you're working on a top priority? 2. Do fewer things: 3. (This one may be easier: Activity 2. Is the task going to add value to your work? 3. 4.. before I continue with the tips I found. Use Pareto's rule: 20% of the effort will provide 80% of the reward. . Does your task help achieve your goals? 4. Spend time planning and organising.. which is the next tip. Set goals.) Or simply read the text below and listen to: Now. This will help you keep on the right track: 1. so the key is to identify and concentrate on that 20%. Prioritize.I don't have time to organise!" when we should be thinking ".how much time do I lose each day because I'm not organised?" I highly recommend that you read the story Sue McMillin tells in her article to see how important this point is. Reduce unused time: 1. ask yourself the followingquestions .and not just now but frequently at work. Use a to-do list.A willingness to prepare High expectations The patience to listen A commitment to personal integrity 11. Goals will give you a sense of direction and will help you plan and prioritize.. Too often we hear ".

Break up tedious tasks. Then. 9. your most productive time of the day. And to finish. 6. The most important one is the need to think like Hispanics and to talk to them on a Personal level. You must prove what you claim. so trying to reach a larger target than your budget allows will decrease effectivity. Answering the wrong questions. Reduce urgent tasks.5. I reckon that mistakes in advertising are quite common so I decided to look for an article that could point out a few more common errors: 1. The quest for instant gratification. you should make as many ads as you have points to transmit. 4. 8. These ads. I believe this is true for any segment. don't create a permanent image of your brand. Consumers are not interested in products. Unsustainable claims. Creating Ads instead of campaigns. targeted for immediate response. Otherwise. 5. no-one likes to be classified into a stereotype or do you? Well if you talk to a stereotype. Eliminate all trivial tasks and those that don't add value to your work. This varies from person to person.e. 12. Now. Do the right thing right. don't forget that when motivated you work faster and better . you'll probably get rejected. . ADVERTISING ERRORS In her BusinessWeek article at Marketing with an Spanish Accent she points out two major errors. This will help you get it out of the way. Repetition is essential to establish retention. This increases its effectivity. achieving goals orsticking to your to-do list. Take less time: 7. Everyone is attracted by advertising that not only attacks our needs and desires but. Do the most important tasks in your prime time. Each ad should make one single point. One ad can't tell the whole story. they are interested in satisfying their desires. The second mistake she points out is the use of stereotypes. i. your ad will be ignored. 2. . Prime Time. Excess reach.I mean by this that they talk to me in way that I understand and feel comfortable. does so in our language.so reward yourself for completing tasks. try breaking it up into smaller tasks. nobody will listen to you or even worse. When you avoid doing something you don't like. Learn to say "NO". 3. If you have done all the above you should be doing the right thing (effectiveness) now you must concentrate on being efficient. These tasks usually have short-term consequences and you should be concentrating on those with long-term and goal-related implications.

ingenious advert that leaves people with their mouths open trying to understand what the ad really means or a clear message explaining the reasons why you should buy the product in an informative but persuasive manner.6. Here are just a few things you shouldn't do when advertising:Advertising Mistakes. 7. . I find the last one particularly interesting because there are many adverts on TV which I either don't understand or I spend all day singing their music. Great production without great copy. but I can never remember what they are advertising. What's better? A clever. Overestimating the importance of the qualitative targeting. Sometimes it's more about saying the right thing because saying the wrong thing to the right people is useless.

Name 3 purposes of writing a report? 3. GAMES AND EXCERCISES A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part Comprehension 1. b. Why do readers skim read? 4. 3. b. It's possible. b. What are the 4 steps of the “4-step guide”? 2. False. Yes. 2.ACTIVITIES. What is an executive summary used for in a report? 5. c. Punishments are bad for motivation? a. Why do your ideas have to have a logical flow in the flow? 6. Will the woman return to the shop? a. a. False. True. It doesn't say. No. c. Comprehension Discussion Questions 1. It doesn't say. c. . Herb says that keeping close contact with employees helps increase motivation. True. What are the benefits of using two proof readers? Motivating Staff Comprehension Quiz.

Meetings Comprehension Quiz Comprehension Discussion Questions 1) What are the alternative communication tools to a meeting? 2) What meeting preparation can you do? 3) What ways can you lead a meeting? 4) Why is important to commit to action points in a meeting? 5) How should meeting minutes be? 6) How can you solve being tongue-tied in meetings? 7) Why have meeting ground rules? .

In your sector which negotiation style is the most typical? Why? 6. In your opinion what is the key factor to having a successful interview? 3. Comprehension Discussion Questions 1. How would you change the 10 steps? Why? 2.10 Steps Jobs Comprehension Quiz. Do you think there are more or less than 5 common negotiation styles? 2. Can you think of other habits of effective negotiators? . what type of people (negotiation style) do you like to negotiate with? Why? 3. In your opinion. Describe your favourite negotiators? 5. When have you been most effective in negotiations? 4. When have you been most effective in an interview? What were the reasons for this? Discussion Questions 1.

pieces of spiral is when wages and prices take turn to grow in short intervals payment is what a company pays to workers who are no longer needed order is an instruction to a bank to pay some money at regular times to another bank is involved with companies rather than with people is a large gathering at which companies show and sell their products is a sum of money that has been saved or kept for a special purpose charges very large amounts for lending money to someone . A 14. A nest 18. A trade 17. A bank account 15. price index is a measurement of the changes in the cost of basic goods and life is an exciting way of living in which rich and successful people enjoy is a way of making money quickly. Services supplied to foreign countries such as banking are called 10. The themselves 4. The gravy 6. and often dishonestly is good at dealing with Money exports is money given by an employer to someone who cannot work because of illness are given by employers to employees to buy meals in some restaurants is the money which can be officially used in a country were gold coins . The services 3.SPECIAL EXERCISES 1. you are completely without Money 5. Legal 11. In the past. A 16. An 13. Sick 8. easily. Someone who is sharp- 7. Unemployment 2. A loan is regularly paid by the government to people who do not have a job. Luncheon 9. If you are stony 12.

14. 4. is their ability to buy goods. Mail is a way of buying goods in which you choose 15. In a economy some industries are controlled privately and some by the government. A ticket can be used many times within a limited period and is cheaper than paying separately for each use. A fundis a person or event which collects money. company is owned by the group of people who have shares in the company rate is the amount that it charges on money that it lends you $ is the sign. 2. If something is hardwork was done. If you live from hand to to live without suffering. 9. 3. If you ask for a employer. A person's purchasing A card is a credit card which you can get if you earn a lot of money. 17. . A wage is the smallest amount of money that an employer is allowed to pay someone. 13. you want more money from your . An organisation which is profit does not make a profit intentionally (usually charity). Free is an economic system in which private businesses compete with each other. In hire the buyer pays part of the cost immediately and then makes small regular payments. 8. 11. 7. 12. A country's national/public is the total amount of money that is owed by its government. A joint20. 6. A bank's 1. you have just enough money 10. In an market a country allows companies from other countries to do business there.19. 16. 5. . Hard is money of a type that has a value in other countries than its own. it is deserved because lots of rise.

socialist spends money wastefully but claims to support a is for the expenses of the king or queen and royal bank exchanges cheques with other banks. A building buy a house. The gold bank. robbery is charging an unreasonably high price for The extra money paid to someone because their job is dangerous is The income is the money which you can spend as you want and not on basic needs. rate is used to decide how much to charge for lending is the amount of gold held by a national money is given by a parent to a child every week or 19. 20. A bottomed investment can be trusted completely because it is certain to succeed.what you want. money is measured by counting money kept by banks and people. Under A fair society The civil family. is when it is difficult to borrow money from banks. A cheque has been signed but does not yet have the amount of money written on it. A down is an amount of money which is only part of the total . 18. A loan is what a bank lends to you until you can get the money from somewhere else. month. Priceshoppers compare the prices of two similar products and buy the cheaper one. A credit called A something. The money. A is a business that lends you money if you want to means it has too little money to be able to develop. money. usually from a catalogue.

The economy of a country is the income of those people . If a service is first available. A money. The on. If an activity is cost- If a business is intensive. it contains a larger amount of the goods that you are buying for a lower price. The buildings. A down-andis a person who has no job or home and is unlikely to get either of these. it needs a lot of money to buy buildings and equipment. is what you earn by hard physical work. of living is the amount of money that you need to live it is good value for the money paid. An entrance cinema or theatre. is what you pay in order to be allowed into a If it is -sized. The price is the price it costs to make. account you usually leave money for a long time. A $50 gift value. A officer looks at travellers' bags to make certain they are not taking goods into a country without paying taxes. it is the best that is possible or The year is a period of twelve months for which a business plans its management of money. A In a Your daily store is a shop which sells its goods at cheap prices. . without a profit being added.cost. prices are the prices which a factory sells its goods assets of a business are things of value such as benefit is additional to your pay but is not in the form of can be exchanged in a shop for goods of that Powerful bankers from Switzerland are sometimes called the of Zurich. Factory for.

is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 1. 11. can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. 17. the taxes. accounting. 16. is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 9. is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in In Britain and New Zealand. 3. conventions or doctrines generally observed in is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. are a dozen or so concepts. 4. retailers. In a An paid. time. 15. 13. 8. salary is what a person earns before other sums of A bank is a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account. is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. A money. is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are is the government office which collects the main is paid in relation to how much you earn. This ex is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by Your is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 6. 2. 7. In Britain. 5. A A A you give information about what you earn every year. debt is a loan that is not likely to be paid back. A Automated dispenser. is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. 12. is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. too old or ill to work. 10.who do not pay taxes. trademark etc. A bank is an arrangement with a bank where the customer puts in and withdraws money from. machine (ATM) is a formal expression for cash The price is the amount of money someone wants when they sell something. 14. .

A A A Your tax is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. An account paid. 3. 6. 17. is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. 19. is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 19. is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not are a dozen or so concepts. 9. is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 20. is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed.18. A ledger accountant is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. 2. 14. national too old or ill to work. In Britain and New Zealand. is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Value retailers. tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 10. . A A trade A tax A personal A management you give information about what you earn every year. trademark etc. A management guru is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. 1. A ledger is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. . Accounting accounting.com assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. 8. 12. is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. 1.nonstopenglish. is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. the main taxes. 20. 3. 4. In a tax Gross Excise Cash time. Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are Revenue is the government office which collects the In Britain. 15. 2. A personnel allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. This exercise is brought to you by www. 16. 13. 18. 5. 11. tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. conventions or doctrines generally observed in year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. 7. is the amount of money received before taxes are paid.

17. 7. 15. Gross income tax is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 19. In a tax statement you give information about what you earn every year. Income duty is paid in relation to how much you earn. Accounting laws are a dozen or so concepts. 16. The Economic year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Your tax credit is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 9. 11. national welfare is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. A trade angel is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 13. . In Britain and New Zealand. A tax selector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. 18. Excise allowance is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Choose the best word to form compound nouns related to accounting and taxation. the Inland Office is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inheritance duty is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. 12. Work Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. 10. 20. . Direct tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Tangible assets such as copyright. 6. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Accounts receivable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid.4. 5. Cash Now is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty. 14. In Britain. 8.

nonstopenglish. The _____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. allowance duty obligation tariff tax 9. Gross _____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. national _____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work.1. admittance report return sheet statement 11. . A management _____ is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. Accounting _____ are a dozen or so concepts. surplus return on demand in time flow 8. the _____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. angel banker capitalist creditor debtor This exercise is brought to you by www. British Financial Income Inland Tax 12. accountant booker booking clerk writer 2. accountant advisor guru lawyer trainer 3. norms policies politics principles rules 7. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. In Britain. A tax _____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. A ledger _____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. income law payables return turnover 10. unpaid taxable receivable payable paid 6. A trade _____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. Value _____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. In Britain and New Zealand. Cash _____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. returner officier inspector clerk captain 4. Account _____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid.com 5. Excise _____ is tax raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Taxing Monetary Fiscal Economy Economic 14. In a tax _____ you give information about what you earn every year. health health service insurance mortgage redistribution 13.

3. 14. 8. cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. . 13. _____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. _____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that companies earn. 9. 2.com The bank has lost $703 million as a result of I can put this lunch on my expense False Capital Capital Capital A A deducted. Abstract Dream Intangible Tangible Theoratical 16. is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Your tax _____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 4. 7.nonstopenglish. is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 11. duty-free income limit tax-free -free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. tax-free no-tax income duty-free allowance 20. Excise Income Inheritance Land Value added 19. Your personal _____ is the amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. debts. control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. A journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been A margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. trademark etc. . Corporate Direct Income Indirect Selective 17. 12. _____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. My employer will pay for it.Abstract Added Income Paid Set 15. _____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. 6. are the buildings and machines owned by a business. Dead Income Inheritance Land Road 18. This exercise is brought to you by www. 5. 10. allowance 1. sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts.

8. 4. .15. 16. 20. A A A pay A pay counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. 10. are the buildings and machines owned by a Capital are profits made by selling buildings or machines. is money which is spent on buildings and False is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 17. 7. 13. Capital equipment. such as income tax. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of debts. 12. A counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. is the amount of money a person earns. Capital business. contains a person's pay. 18. A line is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. . 5. I can put this lunch on my expense pay for it. 3. 6. A sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. 9. My employer will is the money that a person has to pay to the government. (US English) A direct 1. 11. 14. (US English) A margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. A line is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 19. is the amount of money a person earns. A pay A pay contains a person's pay. account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. 2.

A direct is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 11. is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. This exercise is brought to you by www.com is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. 19. is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. A journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. 16. 14. A A A A A A is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted.15. goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. 16. control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. 13. 12. 2. is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. 5. cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. 8. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of I can put this lunch on my A A . A is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. 10. 15. systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. . 17. are the buildings and machines owned by a business. such as income tax.nonstopenglish. 7. 3. My employer will pay for it. is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. 20. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 6. 4. is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 9. 18. is the amount of money a person earns. is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a . 1. such as income tax. 19. 17. free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. 18.

A item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 9. A pay box is an envelope containing a person's pay.nonstopenglish. (US English) 4. systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. (US English) accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's pay which they A profit is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. 1. is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. A coin counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. Creative is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. I can put this lunch on my account. 13. 7. . This exercise is brought to you by www. 2. 3. such as income tax. Capital Capital Capital A bean A balance is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 17. tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 5. A current (US checking ___) is a bank account which usually earns little interest and to which you have quick access.company. 14. A company sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. . A line cost is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 3. is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. My employer will pay for it. 8. 20. 1. 19. is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. 6. (US English) 20. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad . 10. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 15. 16.com is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. DutyA Credit A sales A profit Petty A A receive. 4. 2. 12. 11. A (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns little profit and to which you have quick access. 18. are the buildings and machines owned by a business.

15. A salary packet is the amount of money a person earns. document graph line paper sheet 2. 7. My employer will pay for it. 18. . A bean _____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. Capital profits are profits made by selling buildings or machines. Duty-less goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. . 12. 17. A profit rate is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. I can put this lunch on my expense box. Capital interest is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 20. 11. 13. . 1. Capital goods are the buildings and machines owned by a business. An indirect tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. such as income tax. . Selective accounting hides what has really happened. 14. Credit check systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of wrong debts.5. 6. 10. writer setter producer fighter counter . Petty money is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. Wrong accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. . A profit account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. A balance _____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 9. 16. 8. 19. A sales ledger is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. A profit costs is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it.

check control proof restraint watch 15. My employer will pay for it. A _____ account (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns low interest and to which you have quick access.nonstopenglish. Capital _____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. A _____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's earnings. wins stakes profits losses gains 11. Capital _____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. I can put this lunch on my _____ account. A _____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. A _____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. A sales _____ is the book which contain a list of all company sales arranged by date. wage salary purse pay employee 9. interest line sum mark margin 4. assets expenditures goods shares stakes 12. costs expense investment return spending 13. fee pay prize salary wage 10. Capital _____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Credit _____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. gain loss margin plus tax This exercise is brought to you by www. A profit _____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. (US English) queue bad line set row 8.3. booking accounting bookmaking audit auditing 14. book journal logging note notebook 6. bank black credit current profit 7. . A profit _____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it.com 5. Duty-_____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. fail fiend free friendly less 16. Creative _____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it.

A trade is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. Bad Black False Intuitive Wrong 20. is raised on products such as tobacco and 8. 6. In a tax you give information about what you earn . Excise alcoholic drinks. bank note cash coin dollar money 18. Cash is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. 10. 11. 12. Gross is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 9. 3.costs expenditure bank expense employer's 17. such as income tax. 2. Accounting are a dozen or so concepts. A ledger ledger. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad _____. _____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 5. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. is a person who writes accounts in the A management is a person who advices companies on how to make profit. 1. 4. A tax is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. 7. A year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. A personal is an amount of money that you can earn before you are subjected to tax. profit loss loans debts customers 19. Petty _____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. _____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Accounts are sums of money owed by a company such as invoices received but not paid.

such as copyright. Luncheon ____ are given by employers to employees to buy meals in some restaurants. vouchers 2. Your tax is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. The gravy ____ is a way of making money quickly. tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Value Tax is paid to the government on goods and services. This tax can be reclaimed by retailers. 14. national is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. . 13. standing . 19. the Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. 18. assets can only be turned into money with difficulty. ANSWERSTO THE EXERCISES 1. 20. In Britain. and often dishonestly.: train 3. A joint-____ company is owned by the group of people who have shares in the company.every year. tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. stock or: venture 5. 15. tender or: currency 4. tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Legal ____ is the money which can be officially used in a country. A ____ order is an instruction to a bank to pay some money at regular times to another bank account. 17. easily. In Britain and New Zealand. trademark. 16. patent etc.

The ____ price index is a measurement of the changes in the cost of basic goods and servic es. The ____ life is an exciting way of living in which rich and successful people enjoy themsel ves.6. A ____ bank is involved with companies rather than with people. Unemployment ____ is regularly paid by the government to people who do not have a jo benefit or: allowance 1. A trade ____ is a large gathering at which companies show and sell their products. If you are stony ____. In the past. nosed 11. pay 10. A loan ____ charges very large amounts for lending money to someone. pieces of ____ were gold coins. A bank's ____ rate is the amount that it charges on money that it lends you. broke 20. $ is the ____ sign. egg 19. An ____ spiral is when wages and prices take turn to grow in short intervals. high 16. A nest ____ is a sum of money that has been saved or kept for a special purpose. eight 18. retail or: consumer 8. Services supplied to foreign countries such as banking are called ____ exports. Someone who is sharp-____ is good at dealing with money. lending or: interest 13. you are completely without money. shark 7. Sick ___is money given by an employer to someone who cannot work because of illness. A ____ payment is what a company pays to workers who are no longer needed. inflationary 15. merchant 12. dollar . redundancy 9. Invisible 14. fair or: show 17.

In a ___ economy some industries are controlled privately and some by the government. non 9. you have just enough money to live without suffering. pay 13. A country's national/public ____ is the total amount of money that is owed by its governmen t. If you live from hand to ____. raiser 4. enterprise or: market 10. power or: ability 5. it is deserved because lots of work was done. minimum 8. An organisation which is ____-profit does not make a profit intentionally (usually charity). If something is hard-____. you want more money from your employer. A fund-____ is a person or event which collects money. Hard ____ is money of a type that has a value in other countries than its own currency 11. mouth 14. A ____ wage is the smallest amount of money that an employer is allowed to pay someone. Free ____ is an economic system in which private businesses compete with each other. If you ask for a ____ rise.2. A ____ card is a credit card which you can get if you earn a lot of money. season 7. In an ____ market a country allows companies from other countries to do business thereop . A ____ ticket can be used many times within a limited period and is cheaper than paying sep arately for each use. earned or: won 12. gold 6. debt 3. mixed 15. A person's purchasing ____ is their ability to buy goods.

Price-____ shoppers compare the prices of two similar products and buy the cheaper one. purchase 17.: bridging or: bridge 4. base 2. ____ money is given by a parent to a child every week or month. ____ money is measured by counting money kept by banks and people. blank 3. A building ____ is a business that lends you money if you want to buy a house. Under ____ means it has too little money to be able to develop. society 6. The ____ rate is used to decide how much to charge for lending money. The gold ____ is the amount of gold held by a national bank. reserve 20. A ____ cheque has been signed but does not yet have the amount of money written on it.en 16. usually from a cat alogue. In hire ____ the buyer pays part of the cost immediately and then makes small regular pay ments. conscious 19. Correct: Pocket 1. Mail ____ is a way of buying goods in which you choose what you want. Broad 5. A ____ loan is what a bank lends to you until you can get the money from somewhere else. capitalized or: capitalised 7. A ____ socialist spends money wastefully but claims to support a fair society champagne or: . order 18.

designer 8. Factory ____ prices are the prices which a factory sells its goods for. squeeze or: crunch 12.: fixed 18.: fringe 19. A ____ robbery is charging an unreasonably high price for something. A ____ benefit is additional to your pay but is not in the form of money. The extra money paid to someone because their job is dangerous is called ____ money. Powerful bankers from Switzerland are sometimes called the ____ of Zurich. A ____ bank exchanges cheques with other banks. A $50 gift ____ can be exchanged in a shop for goods of that value.: daylight or: highway 14. payment 16. clearing 10. A credit ____ is when it is difficult to borrow money from banks. danger 13. The civil ____ is for the expenses of the king or queen and royal family. token or: voucher 20. A ____-bottomed investment can be trusted completely because it is certain to succeed. A down ____ is an amount of money which is only part of the total cost. gate 17. The ____ income is the money which you can spend as you want and not on basic needsdi sposable 15. copper 11. list 9.: gnomes . The ____ assets of a business are things of value such as buildings.

The ____ economy of a country is the income of those people who do not pay taxes. 12. If it is ____sized. A ____ salary is what a person earns before other sums of money. The ____ year is a period of twelve months for which a business plans its management of m oney. out 6.1. economy 5. effective 13. it contains a larger amount of the goods that you are buying for a lower price. black 15. customs 10. If an activity is cost-____ it is good value for the money paid. Your daily ____ is what you earn by hard physical work. class 2. A ____ store is a shop which sells its goods at cheap prices.: capital 14. A ____ officer looks at travellers' bags to make certain they are not taking goods into a coun try without paying taxes. it is the best that is possible or available. cost 11. it needs a lot of money to buy buildings and equipment. bread 9. If a service is first ____. In a ____ account you usually leave money for a long time. fee 4. . discount 7. If a business is ____ intensive. financial 3.: deposit or: savings 8. The ____ price is the price it costs to make. The ____ of living is the amount of money that you need to live on. without a profit being added. A down-and-____ is a person who has no job or home and is unlikely to get either of these. An entrance ____ is what you pay in order to be allowed into a cinema or theatre.

basic 16. A bank ____ is a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account. statement 17. A bank ____ is an arrangement with a bank where the customer puts in and withdraws mon ey from. account 18. A ____ debt is a loan that is not likely to be paid back. bad 19. Automated ____ machine (ATM) is a formal expression for cash dispenser. teller 20. The ____ price is the amount of money someone wants when they sell something. asking

1. ____ is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. Value Added Tax 2. A ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. trade creditor 3. In a ____ you give information about what you earn every year.: tax return 4. A ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. tax inspector 5. Your ____ is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. tax allowance 6. A ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. personal allowance 7. In Britain, ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. national insurance 8. A ____ is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. management accountant 9. A ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. ledger clerk

10. ____ can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright, trademark etc. Intangible assets 11. In Britain and New Zealand, the ____ is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inland Revenue 12. ____ is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Inheritance tax 13. ____ is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Indirect tax 14. ____ is paid in relation to how much you earn. Income tax 15. ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. Gross income 16. A ____ is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Fiscal year 17. ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Excise duty 18. ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. Cash flow 19. ____ are a dozen or so concepts, conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Accounting principles 20. An ____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. account payable

1. In a tax ____ you give information about what you earn every year. return 2. Accounting ____ are a dozen or so concepts, conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. principles

3. An account ____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. payable

4. ____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright, trademark etc. Intangible 5. In Britain, national ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. insurance 6. A tax ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. inspector 7. In Britain and New Zealand, the ____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inland 8. ____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Inheritance 9. ____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Indirect 10. ____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. Income 11. Gross ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. income 12. Cash ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. flow 13. A ____ year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Fiscal 14. Excise ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. duty 15. A trade ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. creditor

16. A ledger ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. clerk 17. A personal ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. allowance 18. Your tax ____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. allowance

A personnel allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. conventions or doctrines generally observed i n accounting. A ledger accountant is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. 4. Accounting principles are a dozen or so concepts. Indirect tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 9. A trade creditor is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 5. A trade angel is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. Accounting laws are a dozen or so concepts. Value ____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. Excise duty is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Excise allowance is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Cash Now is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in ti me. or: Cash Flow is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. 8. 10. 6. or: A tax man is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. A management guru is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. Cash flow is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time.A tax inspector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Accounts payable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid.: A ledger clerk is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. A tax selector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. Direct tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. A management accountant is a person who advises companies on how to make profit.19. A personal allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. accountant 1. 3. 2. 7. . Accounts receivable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. Added 20. A management ____ is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit.

In a tax return you give information about what you earn every year. Intangible assets such as copyright. The Economic year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. In Britain and New Zealand. accountant 2. A ledger _____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. national insurance is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. The Fiscal year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Work Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. Tangible assets such as copyright. 15. Value Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. A management _____ is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. Inheritance tax is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. Your tax allowance is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. Income duty is paid in relation to how much you earn. accountant . 20. 13. the Inland Office is the government office which collects the m ain taxes. or: The Financial year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Income tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. In Britain.11. Your tax credit is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. national welfare is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. 14. Inheritance duty is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. In Britain and New Zealand. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty . 19. Gross income tax is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. 18. 12. 16. the Inland Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. 17. In Britain. Gross income is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty. 1. In a tax statement you give information about what you earn every year.

Cash _____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in t ime. Gross _____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. In Britain and New Zealand. angel 5. national _____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. Accounting _____ are a dozen or so concepts. A tax _____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay.3. health . surplus 8. allowance 9. British 12. admittance 11. the _____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. A trade _____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. unpaid 6. returner 4. income 10. norms 7. In a tax _____ you give information about what you earn every year. Account _____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not p aid. In Britain. Excise _____ is tax raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting.

Abstract 15. allowance 1. such as income tax. trademark et c. A direct ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. tax 2. _____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Excise 19. Abstract 16. _____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. tax-free 20. Dead 18. Corporate 17. Taxing 14.: sales . A ____ journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. The _____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Your personal _____ is the amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. Value _____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers.13. Your tax _____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. _____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that companies earn . _____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn.

A line ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. Petty 6. ____ cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. gains 11. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. A ____ margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. Creative 15. packet 7. A ____ counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company.3. profit 5. A pay ____ contains a person's pay. packet 8. A ____ sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. ____ accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. ____ control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. current 13. bean 16.: investment 10. A ____ margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. ____ -free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. A pay ____ is the amount of money a person earns. Credit 14. A ____ account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. Duty 12.: profit 4. (US Engli sh) ítem 9. balance .

A line ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a comp any. ____ accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. account 10. I can put this lunch on my expense ____ . A ____ counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. Creative 8. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ debts. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. False ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. account 1. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. bad 2. investment or: expenditure 7. A ____ account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. bad 18. I can put this lunch on my expense ____. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ debts. My employer will pay for it. assets 19. bean 4. current 9. A ____ sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. My employer will pay for it. (US English) item . assets 5. False ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. accounting 20. balance 3. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. gains 6. accounting 11.17.

Petty 16. packet or: check 15. Creative accounting 5. A direct ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. False accounting 3. A ____ margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deduc ted. such as income tax . tax 20. A pay ____ is the amount of money a person earns. ____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. ____ cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. Petty cash .: Duty 1. ____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. packet 14. ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. ____-free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. A ____ journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. sales 18. A pay ____ contains a person's pay.: profit 17. profit 13. Credit control 2. ____ control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money Credit 19. A ____ margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. Capital investment 4.12. ____ is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items.

A ____ is the amount of money a person earns. A ____ is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. Capital gains 9. (US Engli sh) line item 20. A ____ is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. A ____ is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company.6. A ____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. current account . sales journal 15. Capital assets 8. A ____ (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns little profit and to which you have quick access. bad debts 10. A ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. My employer will pay for it. direct tax 13. I can put this lunch on my ____ . A ____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. such as income tax.: expense account 11. pay packet 16. profit margin 14. bean counter 18. A ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ . Duty-free 7. balance sheet 19. A ____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. ____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. pay packet 17. profit margin 12.

counter 7. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Petty ____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. A bean ____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. expense 10. account 2. debts 8. assets 4. Duty. control 6. Creative ____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really h appened to it.____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. journal 15. (US . cash 5. A current ____ (US checking ___) is a bank account which usually earns little interest and to which you have quick access. ____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. such as income tax. investment 14. My employer will pay for it. False 11. Credit ____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. direct 9. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. free 12. gains 13. I can put this lunch on my ____ account. A ____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad ____ . A ____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company.: accounting 3. A sales ____ is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date.1.

(US English) A line item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. A bean counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. A profit ____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. sheet 1. A profit account earns little interest and to which you have quick access.: A profit margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. A pay box is an envelope containing a person's pay. 5. pay 20. A coin counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. A line cost is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a compa ny.English) line 16. margin 18. A company sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts A balance sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. A ____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. 7. A profit ____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. 2. A pay packet is the amount of money a person earns.: pay 19. margin 17. A current account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. 6. A pay packet is an envelope containing a person's pay. A profit margin is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. 8. A balance ____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 3. A profit rate is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. A salary packet is the amount of money a person earns. A ____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. (US English) 4. . A profit costs is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it.

Capital goods are the buildings and machines owned by a business. My employer will pay for it. A direct tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government.or: A wage packet is the amount of money a person earns. 9. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of wrong debts. 16. Capital gains are profits made by selling buildings or machines. . 11. Petty cash is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. A sales ledger is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. such as income tax. Credit check systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. 13. Petty money is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap ite ms. 19. An indirect tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 15. 14. 12. Credit control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. False accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Capital assets are the buildings and machines owned by a business. Wrong accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Capital interest is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. A sales journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. 20. Capital investment is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Selective accounting hides what has really happened. Creative accounting hides what has really happened. or: Capital expenditure is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. such as income ta x. My employer will pay for it. Duty-less goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. 18. Duty-free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. or: A sales book is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Capital profits are profits made by selling buildings or machines. I can put this lunch on my expense box. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad debts. I can put this lunch on my expense account. 17. 10.

A profit _____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducte d. A sales _____ is the book which contain a list of all company sales arranged by date. assets . A profit _____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it.1. bank 7. A _____ account (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns low interest and to which you have quick access. gain 5. document 2. wins 11. interest 4. A bean _____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. fee 10. Capital _____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. A balance _____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. book 6. A _____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. Capital _____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. (US English) queue 8. A _____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a com pany. wage 9. A _____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's earnings. writer 3.

Petty _____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap item s. costs 17. such as income tax. I can put this lunch on my _____ account. booking 14. accountant 3. _____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad _____. bank note 18. A management ____ is a person who advices companies on how to make profit. Creative _____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. My employer will pay for it. Credit _____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. check 15. A personal ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are subjected to tax. Duty-_____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. fail 16. clerk 2. . Bad 20. costs 13. A ledger ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. A direct 1.12. Capital _____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. _____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. profit 19.

duty 11. Gross ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. A tax ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. return 13. the ____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. income 12. trademark. ____ assets can only be turned into money with difficulty. Accounts ____ are sums of money owed by a company such as invoices received but not pa id. Cash ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in ti me. fiscal 7. Value ____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services. principles 8. This tax can be reclaime d by retailers. pa tent etc. inspector or: man 5. Excise ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. . payable 9. A ____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. flow 10. In Britain. Accounting ____ are a dozen or so concepts.allowance 4. national ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who ar e too old or ill to work. In a tax ____ you give information about what you earn every year. A trade ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them creditor 6.: Inland 14.: Added 16. insurance 15. In Britain and New Zealand. such as copyright. conventions or doctrines generally observed i n accounting.

Intangible 17. ____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. ____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. ____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Your tax ____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. Indirect 18. Income 20. allowance . Inheritance 19.

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS .

Here is my card.. Can you change this into ..... I want to change some dollars/euros/pounds.Tiene/Tienes (formal/informal) un catálogo? Do you have a catalog? Tengo una cita con . I have an appointment with .. I'm looking for ..? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) darme un costo aproximado? Can you give me an estimate of the cost? Acá tiene/tienes (formal/informal) mi tarjeta. ? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) cambiar estos cheques de viajero? Can you change these traveler's checks? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) cambiar esto a ... Cuál es la tasa de cambio? What is the exchange rate? Cuál es la tasa de inflación? What is the inflation rate? Dónde puedo cambiar dinero? Where can I change my money? Dónde puedo sacar fotocopias? Where can I make photocopies? Dónde está el banco más cercano? Where is the nearest bank? Dónde debo firmar? Where should I sign? Puede reparar esto? Can you repair this? Dónde trabajas? Where do you work? Cómo te ganas la vida? What do you do for a living? Soy maestro I am a teacher Soy estudiante I am a student Soy un autoempleado I am self-employed Trabajo en un restaurante I work in a restaurant Trabajo en un supermercado I work in a super market Trabajo en una tienda I work in a shop Soy médico I am a doctor/a physician ...... Cuánto cobra/cobras (formal/informal) de comisión? How much commission do you charge? Quiero cambiar algunos dólares/euros/libras..... Cuánto cuesta la entrada? How much is the entrance fee? Cuál es el precio por día? How much does it cost by day? Cuál es el precio por hora? How much does it cost by hour? Cuál es el precio por semana? How much does it cost by week? Es gratis? Is it free? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) ayudarme? Can you help me? Puedo ayudarle/ayudarte? (formal/informal) Can I help you? Qué le/te (formal/informal) gustaría? What would you like? Qué está/estás (formal/informal) buscando? What are you looking for? Sólamente estoy viendo I'm just browsing | I'm just looking around Me gusta este I like this one Me gustan estos pantalones I like these trousers/pants Me gusta esta playera I like this t-shirt Me gusta esta chaqueta I like this jacket Me gusta esta blusa I like this blouse Me gusta este traje I like this suit Me gustan estos lentes I like these glasses Me gustan estos zapatos I like these shoes Busco ... Puedo probármelo? Can I try it on? Puedo probarlo? Can I try it? Dónde están los vestidores? Where is the fitting room? Está demasiado largo It's too long Está demasiado corto It's too short Está demasiado apretado Puedo pagar en efectivo? Can I pay cash? Puedo pagar con tarjeta? Can I pay by credit card? Acepta?/Aceptas? (formal/informal) Do you accept ..

It's too tight Está demasiado flojo It's too loose No me queda It doesn't fit Me queda muy bien It fits quite well Qué talla es/eres? (formal/informal) What size are you? Soy talla .. de "questions and answers". preguntas y respuestas Origin / Proposed by BusinessWeek Forbes The Economist The Economist Forbes The Economist Forbes . No entiendo estas tallas I don't understand these sizes Tiene uno más grande? Do you have a larger one? Tiene uno más pequeño? Do you have a smaller one? Me gusta el color I like the color No me gusta el color I don't like the color Tiene este en rojo/azul/amarillo/verde/morado/rosado? Do you have this in red/blue/yellow/green/purple/pink? Tiene uno más barato? Do you have a cheaper one? De qué está hecho? What is this made of? Soy psicólogo I am a psychologist Soy programador I am a programmer Soy ingeniero I am an engineer Soy mecánico I am a mechanic Soy escritor I am a writer Soy conductor I am a driver Soy actor / actriz I am an actor/an actress Soy trabajador social I am a social worker Soy político I am a politician Soy empleado I am employed English to e-biz new-media company flop stats WTO investment banker Q&A's Spanish negocios relacionados con internet empresa involucrada en los nuevos medios de comunicación negocio o producto que no ha tenido éxito abrev. estadísticas abrev... I am size . de "World Trade Organization". de "statistics". Organización Mundial del Comercio banquero especialista en inversiones abrev..

they only function when open. never regains its original dimensions. Sr.proves .into.etc.employees. once stretched by a new idea.students.of. entry.Your mind.where .service.-retirement.activities-6-certificate .Oliver Wendell Holmes. nunca recuperá sus dimensiones originales.bulk up portal 1.. (Su mente.tax-paying .active . comprar en grandes cantidades 2.is .proves . .footnote.new client.activities-5-certificate . inclusion -2.Minds are like parachutes .registered 45--certificate.-decrease.clients.. and in fact it is said . mantener gran cantidad de mercancía en inventarios portal The Economist Mr Agustí Miralles cuenta propia 1 concerning self employment 2 on one's own Ms Claudia Hidalgo baja- 1-fall. Thomas Dewar (Las mentes son como los paracaídas . .) **** .withdrawalfrom .the discharge-of.-lossMr Xavier 4-form.Garriga etc.-drop2-slump 3-discharge..that .It is felt that a disciplined mind leads to happiness and an undisciplined mind leads to suffering.Jesus of Nazareth (El reino del cielo está adentro de usted y está fuera de usted.clients. .that .students.-bodies-etc.employees.the -roll.of..active service.entry. una vez expandida por una nueva idea... -etc.) **** .inscription.bodies-etc.rollof.funcionan solamente cuando están abiertas.institutions.are registered 4--certificate. annotation 1 admission..into .new .ofretirement.where .institutions.the .1 concerning employment by someone else or working for someone else 2 on behalf of someone else Ms Claudia Hidalgo apostilla alta-1 cuenta ajena ..The Kingdom of Heaven is inside you and it is outside you.from.tax-paying ..-3form.) **** ...employee.withdrawal.

) **** . y se ha dicho que traer disciplina a la mente de uno es la esencia de las enseñanzas de Buda. and gardening is a symbol of the spiritual path. A veces decimos en castellano que alguien „es un pieza‟. He just came and started giving orders. usted se ahoga permaneciendo allí. Acabo de leer tu informe.) THESE ARE A FEW TERMS FROM BUSINESSWEEK. He just came and started giving orders. .The garden is a metaphor for life. Una buena traducción sería „es la leche‟ (también en significado negativo y con connotación de alguien „complicado”) I do not know how she does it. FORBES AND THE ECONOMIST. entonces usted estará muerto.Everyone has inside of him a piece of good news.Henri Kaiser (Los problemas son solamente oportunidades en ropa de trabajo. . AS WELL AS FOUR WORDS PROPOSED BY COLLABORATORS: I just read your report. pueden cambiar los aspectos externos de sus vidas. Y si usted se vuelve un indeciso.) **** . no sé si vendrá de ahí.. 2) Alguien complicado. cambiando las actitudes internas de sus mentes.You don't drown by falling in the water.that bringing about discipline within one's mind is the essence of the Buddha's teaching. She always gets things done. Una buena traducción que he encontrado para ambas opciones es „ser la leche‟… Lo dejo ahí .The greatest discovery of my generation is that human beings. Contexto coloquial: Varios significados: 1) Alguien extraordinario. She‟s a real piece of work. He‟s a piece of work. .Problems are only opportunities in work clothes. He‟s a piece of work.William James (El descubrimiento más grande de mi generación es que los seres humanos. The good news is that: You don't know how great you can be! How much you can love! How much you can accomplish! And what your potential is! Anne Frank (Cada uno tiene adentro de él un pedazo de buenas noticias. . y el cultivar un huerto es un símbolo de la trayectoria espiritual.) **** . Déjame que te diga que verdaderamente es un trabajo excelente.Jim Citrin (La incertidumbre puede llevar a la parálisis. can change the outer aspects of their lives. And if you become indecisive you're dead.) **** .Larry Dossey (El jardín es una metáfora para la vida. Las buenas noticias son que usted no sabe ¡Cuan grande usted puede ser!¡Cuánto usted puede amar! ¡Cuánto usted puede lograr! ¡Y cuál es su potencial!) **** . you drown by staying there. con connotación negativa. Let me tell you it is truly an excellent piece of work.Dalai Lama (Se nota que una mente disciplinada lleva a la felicidad y una mente indisciplinada lleva al sufrimiento.) **** .Uncertainty can lead to paralysis.Edwin Louis Cole (Usted no se ahoga cayendo en el agua. by changing the inner attitudes of their minds. .

Así pues. páginas amarillas.COLD-CALLING (REALIZAR LLAMADAS/VISITAS COMERCIALES NO SOLICITADAS) He aquí una expresión de difícil traducción y muy usada en el ámbito de los negocios. sino también una „visita‟. le sirvan: Unemployment rate: Tasa de desempleo Social Security contribution: cotización a la Seguridad Social Company closure: Cierre de empresa Reason for dismissal: Causa de despido Be on the dole: Cobrar el paro Contract for tenure: Contrato indefinido Permanent employment: Empleo fijo Collective redundancy: Despido colectivo Unemployed: Desempleado Termination of contract: Rescisión de contrato End of contract: Extinción del contrato Severance pay: finiquito Reduced day: Jornada reducida Wages. Un „cold email‟ es un correo no solicitado. se suele hacer „cold calling‟ tras obtener contactos de bases de datos. Aprovecho la ocasión para recordar que „call‟ no sólo es llamada en inglés. payroll: Nómina Association of employers: patronal Trade union: sindicato Staff cutback: Reducción de plantilla Personnel cutback: Reducción de personal Labour reform: Reforma laboral Minimum wage: Salario mínimo Rise in unemployment: subida del paro Fall in unemployment: bajada del paro Black market: Trabajo negro . Las ventas a domicilio de un típico comercial (door-todoor salesman) sería un ejemplo de „cold-calling‟. listas comerciales… UNEMPLOYMENT (PARO) Desgraciadamente esta palabra y términos relacionados están muy de moda. sin que éste lo solicite. Esta expresión se usa también para correos electrónicos. pero enviado con fines comerciales. „Cold-calling‟ significa llamar/visitar a un cliente potencial. Espero que si alguien está buscando trabajo. He recogido una lista de términos comunes sobre ámbito.

RECLAMACIÓN.RENT-TO-OWN (ALQUILER CON OPCIÓN A COMPRA) Se trata de un término para referirse al „leasing‟ (arrendamiento) inmobiliario. querellante. con la crisis griega. Un cliente puede presentar una queja („file a complaint‟) ante el departamento de una empresa. o una dolencia o síntoma de carácter „leve‟. Example: A government bailout . * Ámbito médico: en este campo. Esta palabra procede del contexto legal („bail‟ es la típica fianza que alguien paga para sacar a una persona de la cárcel). * Ámbito jurídico: en este caso. tan de moda en algunos ámbitos. Se trata de una de esas expresiones que si queremos traducirlas al inglés habrá que aprenderla tal cual. quejas de los consumidores. BAILOUT (RESCATE FINANCIERO) A raíz de ciertas noticias recientes. De este término. usually by giving or lending them money. Se hizo „famosa‟ durante el momento de crisis hipotecaria estadounidenses y ahora. se deriva „complainant‟. „plan de rescate financiero‟. que será el denunciante. se recomienda no usar „queja‟ en el ámbito médico. demandante. El término con la preposición „out‟ es ahora parte del lenguaje económico-financiero y significa „rescate financiero‟ (o „ayuda financiera‟) y en algunos casos. También se habla de „consumer complaints‟. AFECCIÓN) He aquí una palabra que puede tener distintos significados según el ámbito donde se aplique: * Ámbito comercial/empresarial: se trata de una „queja‟. aunque en español la estructura usada es otra. en función del contexto. Al traducirse. especialmente el financiero. ya que como se observa sería aplicar una traducción más propia de otros ámbitos. La definición que da el Cambridge es la siguiente: When someone helps a person or organization that is in difficulty. esta palabra es cada vez más frecuente. literalmente. sin intentar traducir palabra por palabra… nuestra tendencia natural. „alquiler para luego ser el propietario‟. hace referencia a una „afección‟. se trata de una „reclamación‟ o „demanda‟ y suele ser de derecho civil (aunque no siempre). ¡por otra parte! COMPLAINT (QUEJA. por ejemplo. „Rent to own‟ significa. más recientemente.

Otras sugerencias para „empower‟: facultar. Creo que se emplea más en Reino Unido también. „disempower‟: „restar autoridad‟ o „debilitar‟ en algún contexto. He leído „empoderamiento‟. término que chirría en mis oídos pero se usa cada vez más. EMPOWERMENT (RESPONSABILIZACIÓN. habilitar. marketing y moda. Otra expresión equivalente: „to be on trend‟. Abogo más por „responsabilización‟ o „corresponsabilización de los pacientes incluso‟. Me aparece ahora en el contexto de „patient empowerment‟ (pero podría aparecer en el ámbito de negocios también). CAPACITACIÓN) Se usa esta palabra en muchos contextos. Y para su contrario. Significa „dar poder‟.EL CHISTE DE LA SEMANA… HOW ABOUT IF… ? TREND RIGHT (A LA MODA) „Que se ajusta a las tendencias actuales‟ o bien „a la moda‟. autorizar. capacitar. Usado en contexto de negocios. también se emplea con la expresión „to be on trend right‟. . Eso es exactamente lo que significa este término.

esta expresión significa: „happening or having an effect on people at every level and in every area‟. suele referirse a las actas que se toman en una reunión. „something‟s wrong here‟. Es decir: en general. globalmente. Aquí os dejo CUADRAR LAS CUENTAS (BALANCE THE ACCOUNTS/THE BOOKS) ¿Cómo se dice „cuadrar las cuentas‟ en inglés? En sentido literal. prefiere reservarse „sesión/acto‟ para „proceedings‟ y dejar actas para „minutes‟. . en todos los casos/ámbitos. es decir. En contexto empresarial y legal. sería „to balance the accounts/the books‟. En sentido figurado. que los números no salen. Across the board (en su totalidad) Según el diccionario Cambridge. sistemáticamente. La iniciativa cuenta con apoyo generalizado/a todos los niveles. que algo falla o no cuadra: „something doesn‟t add up‟. es decir. en su totalidad.BALANCE SHEET (BALANCE DE SITUACIÓN) Y más… Asset: activo Liability: pasivo Gross: Bruto (Gross income/revenue: renta/ingresos brutos) PROCEEDINGS (ACTAS DE UNA REUNIÓN) „Proceedings‟ es una de aquellas palabras con múltiples significados. en términos generales. Otra palabra usada para referirse a las actas es „minutes‟ y a veces para diferenciar ambos términos. Un sinfín de posibilidades para expresar lo siguiente: que abarca todo aquello que la palabra que modifica o complementa. Ejemplo: The initiative has across-the-board support.

Algunos términos… Tax avoidance: evasión fiscal Tax concession: beneficio fiscal Tax haven: paraíso fiscal Raise taxes: subir impuestos Tax return: Declaración de la renta File/Prepare your taxes: Preparar/presentar la declaración GO BELLY UP (ESTIRAR LA PATA) He leído que esta expresión viene de cuando un animalillo muere y queda panza arriba (traducción literal de esta expresión). pero viéndolo también me gustaría señalar algunas palabras muy útiles en todos los contextos… Funding: financiación Investment: inversión Profitable stores: tiendas rentables Government bailout: ayuda gubernamental (para sacar a alguien de un apuro) Federal loans: préstamos (créditos) federales The stock market: la bolsa Tumble: caer Wipe Out: erradicar Drop: descenso (A drop in revenues) Revenues: Ingresos Lay off: despedir Company performance: rendimiento/desempeño de la compañía Cutbacks: recortes Union: sindicato Staff: personal TAX WITHHOLDING (RETENCIÓN DE IMPUESTOS) „To withhold‟ se usa sobre todo en economía (y en derecho tributario. La terminología tributaria es muy amplia pero también muy necesaria de conocer. claro) en el sentido de „retener‟ (impuestos). es fácil conocer el significado clave del vocabulario. hay que ver en qué contexto se emplea (me refiero a traducirla correctamente) pero desde luego.BANKRUPCY (QUIEBRA) Os invito a ver este interesante vídeo sobre la situación de GM. ha pasado a emplearse esta frase para referirse en el ámbito de negocios a una empresa que „muere‟. . cada vez se ve más en prensa. y como metáfora. Es bastante claro y mediante el contexto. Por supuesto. „estira la pata‟. A partir de ahí. Es un término muy habitual y va bien conocerlo Otro término relacionado es: „tax withholding allowances‟ (deducciones en las retenciones de impuestos). También puede significar „fracasar‟. „cierra sus puertas‟ o coloquialmente.

„Bottom Line‟ tiene un significado específico en el ámbito de los negocios (resultados económicos finales. en definitiva. Otra expresión de difícil traducción sería: Effective “bottom line” decision making: Toma de decisiones con impacto en los resultados… En sentido general.Ejemplos: Roubini Says Stocks Will Drop as Banks Go Belly Up So more and more industries are likely to go belly-up… Nota: Por cierto. reducción crediticia. . En muchas ocasiones se usa en inglés. podemos usar esta expresión como equivalente de „Lo importante aquí…/En resumen…/En definitiva…‟ (Traducción libre): The bottom line is I don‟t trust her Lo importante aquí es que no confío en ella En resumen. Se trata de la información previa del cliente a la empresa. así como las indicaciones o recomendaciones que hay que seguir. la imagen de la foto no sé si es un pájaro o un avión. el resultado final). beneficios o ganancias netas) y también un significado general (lo importante de algo. en cifras positivas). pero sí que está „belly up‟ BRIEF O BRIEFING (INSTRUCCIONES) Otro término que a menudo da problemas. crisis de crédito. Este término ha gozado de mucha popularidad en la prensa… He aquí un vídeo que explica el concepto. Se incluyen aquí características del producto o propuesta. „Keep the bottom line black‟ significa mantener los resultados en negro (es decir. Como opuesto habría: don‟t keep the bottom line red (en números rojos). „Crunch‟ significa „crujido‟ en inglés. BOTTOM LINE (BALANCE FINAL) He aquí un término que suele dar problemas al traducir. tener ganancias. „Balance final‟ creo que expresa bastante bien el concepto que quiere dar a entender el inglés. no confío en ella CREDIT CRUNCH (CONTRACCIÓN DEL CRÉDITO) Hay muchas formas de traducir esta expresión: contracción del crédito. Otra acepción es la de „reunión informativa‟ que se da en una empresa respecto a un proyecto o producto.

OFFSHORING (DESLOCALIZACIÓN) Vaya palabreja he elegido para empezar este blog… pero la encontré ayer. También se le llama „outsourcing internacional‟. lo que contrastaría con otro término „Nearshoring‟ (deslocalización pero más próxima. leyendo un interesante libro y es la primera que me ha venido a la cabeza. término que aparece a menudo en prensa. como sugiere el prefijo off -. se refiere a una deslocalización externa. . En tiempos de crisis. dentro del mismo huso horario). algo que podríamos traducir como „externalización‟. parece que el „offshoring‟ está de moda. „Offshoring‟.

VOCABULARY Acceptance: aceptación Account: cuenta Accountant: contador Accounting: contabilidad Accounts payable: cuentas por pagar Accounts receivable: cuentas por cobrar Accrued assets: activos acumulados Accrued: causado Acquisition costs: costos de adquisición Acquisition: adquisición o compra Actives: activos ADR: American depository receipt Advising bank: banco avisor Amortization. paying off: amortización Amount: monto de una deuda Analysis: análisis Anti trust laws: leyes antimonopólicas Article: artículo Assembly: asamblea Assets: activos At sight: a la vista Auction: subasta pública Auditory: auditoría Aunvity: anvalidar .

ALL CHARGES TO GOODS : Todos los gastos a cargo del vendedor. AIR MAIL TRANSFER : Transferencia de fondos por correo aéreo. La totalidad del saldo pendiente de pagos será exigible cuando cualquiera de los vencimientos deje de ser atendido por el deudor. AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE : Carta de transporte aéreo. ACTUAL CASH VALUE : Valor efectivo real. o representante. ACT OF GOD : (acte de Dieu) caso fortuito. ADVISING BANK : Banco avisador. ADMIRALTY LAW : Derecho marítimo. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT : Acuse de recibo. AIR WAY BILL : (AWB) Guía aérea. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION : Información contable. AFFREIGHTMENT : Fletamento.Automatic cash: cajero automático Automatic cashing: cobro automatizado Average price: precio promedio AWL: airway lading: conocimiento de embarque aéreo ABOARD : A bordo. por avalúo. . ACTS OF PUBLIC ENEMIES : Actos de los enemigos públicos. ADVISE of arrival : aviso de llegada. ADDITIONAL PREMIUM : (A/P) prima adicional / suplemento de prima. ACCEPTED FOR CARRIAGE : Aceptado para transporte. intermediario. ADVISE : Aviso. ACCEPTANCE : Aceptación. ALEATORY CONTRACT : Contrato aleatorio. ALTERATION : Agravación material/ alteración. ACTS OF WAR : Actos bélicos. AIRCRAFT : Avión. ABOVE PAR : Por encima de la par. capacidad. ADVANCED LETTER OF CREDIT : Carta de crédito anticipada. ACCIDENT : Accidente. AGAINST ALL RISKS : Contra todo riesgo. AGENT : Agente. ACTUAL FAULT : Culpa real. AFTER DERRICK POST : Poste de carga de popa. AFTER PERPENDICULAR : Perpendicular de popa. AFORO : Arqueo. ADHESION : Adhesión. ADVISE of dispatch : aviso de expedición o despacho. ADVISE of shipment : aviso de embarque. ACTUAL WEIGHT : (A / W) peso real. ALL LINE INSURER : Asegurador autorizado para emitir toda clase de seguros. ALLOWED : Permitido. ACCIDENTAL DEATH : Muerte por accidente. AIRPORT OF DEPARTURE : Aeropuerto de salida AIRPORT OF DESTINATION : Aeropuerto de destino. ACCELERATION CLAUSE : Cláusula que frecuentemente se usa en los Estados Unidos para los contratos que prevén pagos escalonados. ADVANCED PAYMENT : Pago anticipado. ALL RISK CONTRACT : Seguro contra todo riesgo. AGREEMENT : Acuerdo / contrato. AD VALOREM : Ad valorem. AGAINST DELIVERY : Contra entrega.

B/L: bill of lading: conocimiento de embarque Back to back: crédito documentario Balance of payments: balanza de pagos Balance of payments: balanza de pagos Balance of trade: balanza comercial Balance sheet: balance general Balance: saldo Balanced fore card: cuadro integrado de costo Balloon payment: pago al final Banker's acceptance: aceptacion bancaria Bankruptcy: banca rota Banning: banca . ASSESSMENT : Valuación. AUTOMATIC PREMIUM LOAN CLAUSE : Cláusula de préstamo automático. AT SIGHT : A la vista. ASSURER : Asegurador. AVERAGE : Avería. AMOUNT : Monto. ASHORE : En tierra. AMERICAN LLOYDS : Forma de organización autorizada en algunos estados en la cual sus miembros toman el riesgo como particulares. AUTOMATIC COVERAGE CLAUSE : Cláusula de cobertura automática. ANNEX : Anexo. Ral : Avería gruesa. AUTOMATIC REINSTATEMENT INSURED LIMIT : Cláusula de reposición automática de suma asegurada. ARBITRATION AWARD : Laudo arbitral. to ASSESS THE RISK : Apreciar el riesgo.AMBIGUITY : Ambigüedad. AVERAGE . ASSIGNMENT : Cesión. ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS : Cesión del producto del crédito. APPLICANT : Ordenante. ASSURED : Asegurado. ARSON : Incendio intencional. ANNUITY RENT : Seguro de renta. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF INSURED VALUE : Ajuste de índice variable. AUTOMATIC COVERAGE IN CUSTOMS : Cobertura automática en Aduana. to AMEND : Modificar. limitando generalmente su responsabilidad. Particular : Avería particular. ASSIGNABLE CREDIT : Crédito cedible. ANCHOR : Ancla. ARBITRATION CLAUSE : Cláusula de arbitraje. AVERAGE ADJUSTER: Liquidador. ASSIGNS : Derechohabientes. ANTICANCELLATION LAWS : Leyes que restringen el derecho de los aseguradores a cancelar pólizas. AMENDMENT : Modificación. AVERAGE . en el estado en que se encuentra. AS IS : Tal cual. premeditado. ARBITRATION : Arbitraje.

Confirming bank : banco confirmante. BALE : Fardo o bala (para algodón). Bias: sesgo. Drawee bank : banco librado. BANK : Banco. Reimbursing bank : banco reembolsador. Claiming bank : banco peticionario. Nominated bank : banco designado. .Barter: trueque Basis of assessment: base gravable Be in debt: estar en deuda. Transfering bank : banco transferente. BARGE : Barcaza. Correspondent Bank : banco corresponsal / banco pagador / banco negociador. BARTER : Trueque. adeudar Bear market: mercado bursátil en declinación Bench mark: punto de comparación Bench marking: proceso de comparar continuamente una organización con líderes del mundo. tendencia Bid: oferta Bill of change: letra de cambio Bill: cuenta Blue chip company: gran compañía Bond: bono Book keeping: contabilidad Borrowing: préstamo Bottom price: precio mínimo Brand: marca de fabrica Breadwinner: asalariado Break down: análisis Break even point: punto de equilibrio Breakage: rotura Budget: presupuesto Bulk: masa. BANKER'S ACCEPTANCE : Aceptación bancaria. BANK CHARGES : Gastos bancarios.A. BARRATRY : Baratería. BANK TO BANK REIMBURSEMENT AGREEMENT : Acuerdo de reembolso entre bancos. BAREBOAT CHARTER : Fletamento a casco desnudo. BAG : Bolsa. : Recargo por combustible. BARGE-CARRYING SHIP : Embarcación de recreo. BARREL : Barril. saco. volumen Bull market: mercado bursátil en alza Business card: tarjeta de negocios Buyer: comprador Buying power: poder adquisitivo BAD STOWAGE : Arrumaje defectuoso / defectuosa distribución de la carga. Remitting bank : banco remitente. B. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS : Balanza de pagos.F. Issuing bank : banco emisor. BAILEE: Comodatario. BANK RATE : Tasa de interés bancario.

BRANCH : Sucursal. BERTH TERMS : Términos de muelle. BID : Oferta. BLOCKAGE : Bloqueo. Blank bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque en blanco. Common carrier bill of lading : carta de porte de un transportista público. BOOKING NUMBER : Número de identificación o reserva. On board bill of lading : conocimiento a bordo. adjudicación. BOW : Proa. BILL OF EXCHANGE : Letra de cambio. Clean bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque limpio. BLANKET POLICY : Póliza universal o general. BINDER : Certificado de Cobertura. BLADINGS : Abreviatura de «bill of lading». BOW ANCHOR : Ancla de proa.I. BRIDGE : Puente de navegación.D. BELLIGERENT POWER : Potencia beligerante.B. BID BOND : Garantía de oferta y cumplimiento. Short bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque corto. Direct bill of lading : conocimiento sin transbordo. . BOND OF INDEMNITY : Fianza. Negotiable bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque negociable. Primary beneficiary : beneficiario primario. BOW THRUSTER : Hélice transversal. BLUE PETER : Bandera de despedida. Inland bill of lading : documento que cubre todas las formas de transporte terrestre por líneas regulares. Second beneficiary : segundo beneficiario. Non negotiable bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque no negociable. BEAM : Manga. BOOM : Pescante de grúa. in bond : en depósito. BENEFICIARY : Beneficiario. (BOTH DATES INCLUDED) : Ambas fechas comprendidas. caución. BOND. BOARDING : Abordaje. BERTH : Muelle. BILL OF LADING (B/L) : Conocimiento de embarque. BREAKAGE : Rotura. BELOW PAR : Por debajo de la par. Contingent beneficiary : beneficiario secundario. oficina de reservas. BONA FIDE HOLDER : Tenedor de buena fe. Long bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque largo. Dirty bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque sucio. Stale bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque demorado o vencido. BOOKING OFFICE : Despacho de pasajes. BOTTOMRY CONTRACT : Contrato de préstamo a la gruesa. BORROWER : Prestatario. Through bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque directo. First beneficiary : primer beneficiario. BLANK BACK : Dorso en blanco.

intermediario. C&F: valor incluyendo costo y flete Capital flight: fuga de capital Capital gains: utilidades de capital Capital goods: bienes de capital Capital market: mercado de capital Capital rationing: racionamiento de capital Capital stock: acciones de capital Capital: capital Carnings: ganancias Carrier: transportador marítimo Cash balance: saldo de caja Cash cows: vacas lecheras Cash flow audience: flujo de caja del inversionista Cash flow: flujo de caja Cash on hand: efectivo en caja Cash payment: pago al contado Cash: contado Ceiling price: precio tope CEO: chief executive officer: presidente Change: cambio Check: cheque CIF: valor incluyendo costo. BUYER : Comprador. seguro y flete Circulating capital: capital circulante Claim: reclamo Clean credit: crédito sin necesidad de garantías Clearing: compensación Client: cliente Coaching: asesoría personal COD: cash on deliver: pago contra entrega COD: Cash on delivery : entrega contra reembolso Collateral: activo dado en prenda Collect: cobro en el destino Comissions: comisiones Commitment fee: comisión de compromiso Commodity: mercadería Company: compañía . BROKERAGE : Corretaje.BROCHURE : Publicación / folleto. productor. BROKERAGE FEE : Comisión de corretaje. BULK : Masa. BURIAL INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos de sepelio. BROKER : Agente. BULKHEAD : Escotilla BURGLARY : Robo. BULBOUS BOW : Proa bulbo. BUSINESS INTERRUPTION : Pérdida de beneficios. volumen. BULK CARGO : Carga a granel. BUY-BACK : Convenio de recompra.

CARGO TERMINAL : Terminal de carga. cargamento.F. CARGO SHIP : Barco de carga. CAPTURE : Apresamiento. CARGO : Carga. transportista. CAPITAL ASSET : Bien de capital. . porteador. to CALL AT : Hacer escala. CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT : Ley de Transporte Marítimo de Mercaderías. CAN : Bombona. Carriage by land : transporte terrestre.A. CARRIAGE : Transporte. : Recargo por diferencia de cambio. Carriage by air : transporte aéreo. Carriage by sea : transporte marítimo. C. CASE : Caja de metal o madera. CARTOON : Caja de cartón. CARTAGE : Transporte efectuado por medio de camiones.Competition: competencia Competitiveness: competitividad Compound interest: interés compuesto Concern: compañía Conciliation: conciliación Consolidated debt: deuda consolidada Consultation: consulta Consumer goods: bienes de consumo Consumer price index: índice de precios al consumo Consumer: consumidor Consumption: consumo Contribution founds: aportación de fondos Convertibility: convertibilidad Cost benefit ratio: razón beneficio costo Cost of living adjustment: ajustes por inflación Cost price: precio de costo Cost volume profit analysis: análisis de sensibilidad Cost: costo Counter trade: comercio Counter trade: trueque Coupon: desprendible Credit card: tarjeta de crédito Credit: crédito Creditor: acreedor Currency: circulante Currency: moneda Current account: cuenta corriente Current account: cuenta corriente Custom house: aduana Customer: cliente Customers duty: derechos arancelarios CABLE SHIP : Barco cablero. tocar (puertos). CABLE TRANSFER : Transferencia por cable. CARRIER : Transportador.

etc.CASH : Efectivo / contado. CLAUSE (COST.C.R. CLAUSE : Cláusula. reclamo de indemnización de siniestro. CASK : Tonel. CHARTER PARTY : Póliza. Care. Cesser clause : cláusula en la que se establece la cesación de responsa bilidad. Ex-works clause : cláusula ex-fábrica (ver anexo). Deviation clause : cláusula de cambio de ruta. C. CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN : Certificado de origen. Additional charges : gastos adicionales. Import charges : gastos de importación. CHARGES : Gastos.seizure.) clause : libre de huelgas.P. la custodia o el control del asegurado. Free of capture. Contestable clause : cláusula de rescisión. FREIGHT) : Cláusula CIF (Costo. CIVIL COMMOTIONS : Conmociones civiles. Discount charges : gastos de descuento. Weight charge : cargo por peso. Ex-warehouse clause : cláusula ex-fábrica (ver anexo). CHARTERER : Fletador. Seguro y Flete) .S. CHARTER : Buque que se fleta por un tiempo determinado y se arrenda en su totalidad para el transporte de personas o mercaderías.A.P.I. Cancellation clause : cláusula de rescisión.C. . to CHECK : Revisar.) : libre de apresuramiento. cargador. Export charges : gastos de exportación.A. custody or control exclusion clause : cláusula que excluye respon sabilidad del asegurador sobre los bienes que se encuentren bajo el cuidado. apoderamiento. Salvage charges : gastos de recupero. CENTER LINE : Línea de crujía. Ex-mill Clause : cláusula de cambio de ruta. CASH IN SAFE : Dinero en caja. CIVIL WAR : Guerra civil. CENTER PROPELLER : Hélice central.F. CIVIL STRIFE : Contienda civil. Charges at origin : gastos en origen. contrato de fletamento. clause (F. Free of strikes.) : libre de avería particular (L. etc. Both to blame and collision clause : cláusula de colisión por culpa concurrente. & S. tumultos y conmociones civiles. General average clause : cláusula de avería gruesa. Constructive total loss clause: cláusula de pérdida total virtual. CLAIM : Denuncia. & C. Free of particular average clause (F. Minimum charges : gastos mínimos. CASH IN TRANSIT : Dinero en tránsito. to CHART : Fletar. Continuation clause : cláusula de prórroga de cobertura. CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE : Certfiicado de cobertura. riots and civil commotions (F. CHECK : Cheque. Charges at destination : gastos en destino.). Consular Charges : gastos consulares. INSURANCE.

Seaworthiness Clause : cláusula de navegabilidad. CLIPPER SHIP : Navío rápido. COASTER SHIP : Barco de cabotaje. Warehouse to Warehouse Clause : cláusula de depósito a depósito. CONSIGNEE : Consignatario. Unavoidable collision : Abordaje fortuito o casual. CONSIGNMENT : Expedición. COLLISION DUE NEGLIGENCE : Abordaje culpable. Seaworthiness conditions : condiciones de navegabilidad. COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS : Documentos comerciales. Paramount Clause : cláusula Paramount o cláusula principal. CLEAN DOCUMENT : Documento limpio. CONFIRMING BANK : Banco confirmador. CLEAN TRANSPORT DOCUMENT : Documento de transporte limpio. destinatario. . Reasonable dispatch clause : cláusula de prontitud razonable. to COLLECT : Cobrar. COLLISION PARTIAL LOSS : Daños parciales por accidente. CLEAN ON BOARD : Libre a bordo. COMBINED TRANSPORT : Transporte combinado o mixto. COLLISION TOTAL LOSS : Daños totales por accidente. COINSURANCE : Coseguro. Unseaworthiness conditions : condiciones de innavegabilidad. CLEAN COLLECTION : Cobro simple. CLEARANCE : Despacho. COLLECTION : Cobro. COMMODITIES : Mercaderías. COMPENSATION : Indemnización. Lien Clause : cláusula en la que se establece el derecho de retención sobre las mercaderías. CONCEALMENT : Reticencia. CONFERENCE : Conferencia. COALER SHIP : Barco carbonero. COMPENSATORY RIGHT : Derecho compensatorio. CLEARANCE FOR CUSTOMS : Despacho aduanero. CONFERENCE LINE VESSEL : Buque que pertenece a una Compañía que forma parte de la Conferencia. COLLISION : Choque. CONDITIONS: Condiciones. COMPULSORY INSURANCE : Seguro obligatorio. COMMODITY RESTRICTIONS : Restricciones a las mercaderías. CLEARING : Compensación. CONFERENCE'S TARIFF : Tarifa de la Conferencia. abordaje. CLEARANCE FORMS : Formularios de despacho. CLEARING AGREEMENTS : Acuerdos comerciales suscriptos entre dos países por los cuales se compran cantidades específicas de productos por montos determinados por un tiempo establecido.Institute Cargo clause : cláusula para seguros de carga. COASTING TRADE : Comercio de cabotaje. Coverage conditions : condiciones de cobertura.

CONSULAR INVOICE : Factura Consular. CONSORTIUM : Consorcio. CONTAINERISE : Embalar (carga general) en grandes recipientes para facilitar su transbordo.) : contenedor refrigerado (RF). Country of origin : país de origen o procedencia. CONSULATE : Consulado.L. Reefer container (R. Reinforced container : contenedor reforzado. CRATE : Embalaje de tablas. CONSULAR CHARGES : Gastos consulares. CREDIT : Crédito. COSTS OF RECOVERY : Gastos de recupero. Car container : contenedor para vehículos. to CONSOLIDATE : Consolidar. CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY : Responsabilidad contractual. CONSULTATION : Consulta / conferencia. COUNTRY : País. CONSTRUCTIVE TOTAL LOSS : Pérdida total virtual. Less than container load (L. Insulated container : contenedor insulado (INS). to COVER : Mantener cubierto. por conveniencia del armador o buque). COVERAGE : Cobertura. . Flat rack container : contenedor con plataformas con laterales. COUNTER TRADE : Intercambio compensado / compensación bilateral.) : contenedor completo.CONSIGNOR : Comitente. CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT : Contrato de fletamento. Cattle container : contenedor para ganado. CRAFT : Embarcación menor. Country of destination : país de destino. House container : contenedor «house» (llenado por cuenta y responsabilidad del tomador del flete). Open top container : contenedor descubierto (OT). Full container load (F. Pier container : contenedor «pier» (contenedor llenado en zona portuaria con personal de estiba. COURIER : Mensajero. granelero. CONSOLIDATOR : Consolidador. cubrir.C.C. COUNTER PURCHASE : Compra compensada. CONSOLIDATION : Consolidación. CONTAINER SHIP : Buque portacontenedor. CONVOY : Buque de pasajeros. Automatic coverage : cobertura automática. 20' tandard container : contenedor clásico de 20 pies.L.) : contenedor de grupaje.F. Con-air container : cont. Dry bulk container : cont. CONTAINER : Contenedor. refrigerado. Superventilated container : contenedor superventilado (SPV). CRANE : Grúa.

Currency rate : tipo de cambio. CUSTOMS DEALER / CLEARER : Despachante de Aduana. CUSTOMARY RISKS : Riesgos corrientes. CUSTOMER : Cliente. CREDITOR : Acreedor.Assignable credit : crédito cedible. CUSTOMS WARRANT : Certificado de Aduana. CUSTOMS UNIT : Unión Aduanera. (costo y flete) Data business: comercio electrónico Data cash: banca electrónica Deal: negocio Dealer: vendedor Debt limit: nivel de endeudamiento Debt: débito Decision: decisión Deck load: carga en cubierta Deck: cubierta Default: incumplimiento Deferred payment: pago a plazos Deferred: diferido Deficit: déficit Deflaction: deflación Delivery: entrega Demand: demanda Deposit: deposito Depreciation: depreciación . Direct credit : crédito directo. Revocable credit : crédito revocable. Foreign currency : divisa. CURRENT ACCOUNT : Cuenta Corriente. Indirect credit : crédito indirecto. CLAUSE (CLAUSE COST AND FREIGHT) : Cláusula C. Transferable credit : crédito transferible. CURRENCY : Moneda (de un país). Fractionable credit : crédito fraccionable. C. Divisible credit : crédito divisible. Transmissible credit : crédito transmisible. Pre-advised credit : crédito preavisado. Irrevocable credit : crédito irrevocable. CUSTOMS ENTRY FORM : Formulario de Declaración de Aduana. & F. CREDIT DATE : Fecha del crédito. Back to back credit : crédito subsidiario. CUSTOMS DUTIES : Derechos de Aduana.& F. CUSTOMS : Aduana. CREW : Tripulación.

DECLARED VALUE FOR CARRIAGE : Valor declarado para el Transporte. Under deck : bajo cubierta. On deck : sobre cubierta. DEATH : Muerte. DEDUCTIBLE : Franquicia. cambio de ruta. Delivery against payment : entrega contra pago. DEFERRED PAYMENT : Pago diferido o a plazo. DAMAGES : Daños y perjuicios. DELAY : Demora. DEPARTURE : Partida. DEPTH : Profundidad.Devaluation: devaluación Devise: divisas Disbursement : desembolso Discount: descuento Dividend: dividendo Down payment: pago inicial Draft: letra de cambio Drawing: giro Duty: arancel DAILY INDEMNITY : Renta diaria. DELIVERY : Entrega. DIRECT LOSS : Pérdida directa. Delivery against acceptance (d/a) : entrega contra aceptación. DECLARATION : Declaración. DECLARATION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS : Declaración de mercaderías peligrosas. DEADWEIGHT : Peso muerto. DEBTOR : Deudor. DECLARED VALUE FOR CUSTOMS : Valor declarado para la Aduana. DEAD FREIGHT : Falso Flete. Delivery order : orden de entrega. . DEMURRAGE : Sobreestadía. retraso. DEVIATION : Desviación. DISABILITY : Incapacidad. siniestro. DEBT : Deuda. Deckload : cargamento sobre cubierta. DATE OF PICK-UP : Fecha de recogida. DEPOT : Depósito / estación de ferrocarril. salida. DERAILMENT : Descarrilamiento. DIMENSION : Dimensión. DEPOSIT : Depósito. DECK : Cubierta. DESCRIPTION : Descripción. DATE OF POST RECEIPT : Fecha de recepción en correos. DAMAGE : Daño. DETAINMENT : Detención. Delivery date : fecha de entrega.

DOCUMENTARY TRANSFER : Transferencia documentaria. to Release Discrepancies : Liberar discrepancias. muelle. DOCUMENT : Documento. librar (documento). DOCKYARD : Astillero. DISMEMBERMENT : Pérdida de miembros. DRAWER : Librador. desembarque. DISCOUNT : Descuento. DOUBLE INDEMNITY RIDER : Suplemento de seguro de vida que brinda doble indemnización. desembarcar. DRAW BACK : Devolución de los derechos de importación que gravan los insumos importados que se utilizan en la elaboración de mercaderías que luego se exportan. DISCLAIMER FOR ACTS OF AN INSTRUCTED PARTY : Exoneración respecto de los actos de terceros intervinientes. DOUBLE BOTTOM : Doble fondo. DOCUMENTARY CREDIT : Crédito documentario. DIVIDEND OPTIONS : Opciones para el pago de dividendos que surjan de pólizas de seguro de vida. DISCHARGE : Descarga. DOMESTIC ROUTING : Rutas internas o nacionales. DRAFT : Efecto de comercio / letra de cambio. . to DRAW : Girar. DRAWEE : Girado. DISPONENT OWNER : Armador disponente.Partial permanent disability : incapacidad parcial permanente. to DISTRIBUTE : Distribuir. (verbo) descargar. DISCREPANCIES : Discrepancias. DISPATCH MONEY : Prima de celeridad de embarque. DISABILITY INCOME INSURANCE : Seguro por incapacidad. to DISCOUNT : Descontar. Sight draft : letra a la vista. DO NOT STORE IN A DAMP PLACE : Colocar en lugar seco. in DISTRESS : En peligro. Transport document : documento de transporte. DISCLAIMER ON EFFECTIVENESS OF DOCUMENTS : Exoneración respecto a la validez de los documentos. DISCLAIMER : Exoneración. DISBURSEMENT : Desembolso. DOCK : Dique. DRAMSHOP EXCLUSION : Exclusión de responsabilidad por daños originados por despacho de bebidas alcohólicas. DISCLAIMER ON THE TRANSMISSION OF MESSAGES : Exoneración respecto a la transmisión de los mensajes. Temporary disability : incapacidad temporaria. DISTRIBUTOR : Distribuidor. Documentary draft : cobranza documentaria. Total permanent disability : incapacidad total permanente.

D.) : Hora estimada de llegada. DAMAGE FOLLOWING : Daños materiales por terremoto. EXEMPTION : Exención. DRY DOCK : Dique Seco. EARTHQUAKE. EFFECTS NOT CLEARED : Efectos pendientes de cobro. ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL (E. DUPLICATE : Duplicado. riesgo EARNMARKED : Reservado / asignado. ENDORSEMENT : Endoso de póliza. FIRE FOLLOWING : Incendio por terremoto. ESTIMATED TIME OF DEPARTURE (E. ENGINE ROOM: Sala de máquinas. DUMPING : Exportación a un precio inferior al valor nominal. E. DUNNAGE : Material utilizado para sujetar la carga. Earning report: estado de resultados EBIT Economic profit: valor económico Economic trend: coyuntura económica Economy: economía Efective rate per annuu: tasa efectiva anual Effective rate: tasa efectiva Effective: efectivo Empowerment: empoderamiento Enterprice: empresa Entrepreneur: empresario EPS: ganancias por acción Escision: particion de una sociedad en dos o entregar de parte a otras existentes EVA: economic valúe added Exchange adjustment: ajuste de cambio Exchange rate: tasa de cambio. EXPLOSIVE : Explosivo. .T. DUE AGENT : Debido al agente. ERASURE : Raspadura. E. EXCEPTED PERILS : Riesgos excluidos. ERRORS & OMMISSIONS INSURANCE (E.) : Seguro de responsabilidad profesional. EARTHQUAKE. In duplicate : Por duplicado. ENTRY/IMMEDIATE DELIVERY : Declaración de Aduana / Entrega inmediata. tipo de cambio Expenditure: desembolso Expense: desembolso Expenses: gastos Exporter: exportador Exposure: exposición. & O. EQUIPMENT INTERCHANGE RECEIPT : Recibo de intercambio.) : Hora estimada de partida. EMBASSY : Embajada.A. DRUM : Tambor.T.DROPPAGE : Caída. EXPEDITED DELIVERY SERVICE : Servicio de entrega urgente. DUE CARRIER : Debido al transportista. suplemento. EMBARGO : Embargo.: Salvo error u omisión. ENDOWMENT INSURANCE : Póliza de seguro total. & 0.

A. CLAUSE (Free Alongside SHIP) : Cláusula F. EXPOSURE : Exposición ante un riesgo.EXPORT : Exportación. EXTENDED COVERAGE EXTENSION : Prórroga. to FINANCE : Financiar. Accidental fire: incendio causado en forma accidental.S. EXPORT PACKING : Embalaje de exportación. EXPORTER : Exportador. to EXPORT : Exportar. FIRE : Incendio.S. FEE : Derecho / canon / tasa. F. Friendly fire: fuego no hostil. (libre al costado del buque) . EXPORT LICENSE : Licencia de exportación. Unfriendly fire: fuego hostil. EXTRA EXPENSE INSURANCE : Seguro para gastos extraordinarios. Face value: valor nominal Face value: valor nominal Factory: fabrica Fair price: precio justo FASB: normas contables Fee: comisión inicial Finance evaluation: evaluación financiera Financial backing: apoyo financiero Financial ratios: razones financieras Financing evaluation method: método de evaluación financiera Financing: financiación Firm: compañía Fixed assets: activos fijos Fixed price: precio fijo Float. . FAIR PRICES : Precios justos. floating: cheques girados y no cobrados Floating debt: deuda flotante FOB: franco a bordo Foreign exchange: divisas Forward: cobertura en moneda extranjera Forwarder: despachador Forwards: mecanismo de protección ( en garantía en el exterior) Free cash flow: flujo libre de efectivo Freight: flete Fund transfer: translado de fondos Fund: fondo Future worth: valor futuro FACTORING : Cobro por factores (sistema de cobro mediante el cual el exportador cede a la empresa de factores las cuentas a cobrar de sus clientes extranjeros). EXTENSION FOR SAFE BURGLARY : Suplemento de ampliación de cobertura a horas en caja. EXTRALARGE : Recargo por exceso de medida. FINANCING : Financiación. FACULTATIVE REINSURANCE : Reaseguro facultativo.A.

CLAUSE (FREE ON BOARD) : Cláusula libre a bordo .C. FUNNEL: Chimenea. FIRST LOSS ABSOLUTE : A primer riesgo absoluto. FREE SHIP : Barco neutral. FLOOD INSURANCE : Seguro contra inundación.O. FREIGHT PLANES : Aviones de carga. Gambling: apuesta Golden parachute: "paracaídas dorado" indemnización Good will: buena imagen Goods: bienes Gross benefit: beneficio bruto Gross income: ingreso bruto . FIT FOR CONSUMPTION : Apto para consumo. FLASH POINT : Punto de inflamación. FRANCHISE : Franquicia. Inland freight : Flete terrestre. Ocean freight : Flete marítimo. FORE DERRICK POST : Poste de carga de proa. FLEET POLICY : Seguro de flota de vehículos. FIRE INSURANCE : Seguro contra incendio. FORECASTLE : Castillo de proa. Freight prepaid : Flete pagadero en origen.FIREBOAT : Barco bomba.& S. Freight collect : Flete a cobrar/pagadero en destino. FREE FROM GENERAL AVERAGE (F.) : Riesgo de apresamiento excluido. FREIGHT CONFERENCE : Conferencia de Fletes. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS : Líquidos inflamables. FORWARDER/FORWARDING AGENT : Embarcador / Agente de embarque. FREIGHT : Flete. Advanced freight : Flete pagado por adelantado. FLAT RACKS : Plataforma con laterales rebatibles.B.& S. FLIGHT NUMBER : Número de vuelo. FULL DETAILS TO FOLLOW : Siguen detalles completos. FORWARD PERPENDICULAR : Perpendicular de proa. FRAME : Estructura. FLAT : Plataforma. FREE OF CAPTURE AND SEIZURE (F. F. to FORFEIT THE PREMIUM : Perder la prima. FORCED CALL : Arribo forzoso. FLIGHT : Vuelo. FREIGHT FORWARDER : Transitario / Agente de embarques / Agente despachador. FOREIGN INSURER : Asegurador extranjero. FIRST LOSS RELATIVE : A primer riesgo relativo. FLOATING POLICY : Póliza flotante. FLAMMABLE SOLIDS / SUBSTANCES : Sólidos/sustancias inflamables.) : Libre de avería particular.C. FLOOD : Inundación. FREE PORT : Puerto libre. FRAGILE : Frágil.

Lawful goods : mercaderías autorizadas. GROSS REGISTER TONNAGE (G. HATCH : Compuerta / escotilla. HOSTILE ACT : Acto hostil. HINDRANCE : Obstáculo. HOUSE AIR WAYBILL : Guía aérea interna (hija). HARBOUR DUTIES : Derechos portuarios. Dangerous goods : mercaderías peligrosas. HOLD : Bodega. Unsound goods : mercaderías defectuosas. GROSS WEIGHT : Peso bruto. GOODS : Mercaderías. GOAD : Guinche. GROUP HOSPITALIZATION INSURANCE : Seguro colectivo de asistencia médica. obstáculo. HANDLE WITH CARE : Manejar con cuidado. GOOSENECK : Sustentante. GROUP LIFE INSURANCE : Seguro de vida colectivo. HOMEOWNERS' FORMS : Seguro combinado familiar.T. GOODS TRAIN : Tren de carga. HANDLING : Manipuleo de la carga. HEALTH AUTHORITY : Autoridad sanitaria.R. GROUPAGE : Agrupamiento Hard currency: moneda dura Harvesting strategy: sacar el efectivo producido Hedge: cobertura Hedging: cobertura High income housing: vivienda suntuaria Hire purchase: venta a plazos Hurdle rate: tasa de corte HAIL : Granizo. Damaged goods : mercaderías averiadas. GENERAL AVERAGE : Avería gruesa. HEAVY WEATHER : Tempestad. HOUSE BILL OF LADING : Conocimiento de embarque marítimo interno (hijo). HANDLING OUT : Manipuleo de salida (del contenedor). HOSTILITIES : Hostilidades.) : Tonelaje bruto de registro en metros cúbicos. HAZARD : Riesgo. HEAVY LIFT : Mercadería pesada / recargo por sobrepeso. GRACE PERIOD : Período de gracia. . GLASS : Vidrio / cristal. GROSS PREMIUM : Prima bruta. HOPPER TANK : Tanque alimentador. HANGER : Soporte colgante / gancho. HULL : Casco.GEAR : Guinche. HIRE : Renta. HANDLING CHARGES : Gastos de manipulación.

N.A. INCUR NO CHARGES : Sin gastos. . INDUCEMENT : Recargo que suele aplicarse cuando un buque debe escalar en un puerto no habitual y la carga no devenga un flete considerado suficiente. INLAND FREIGHT : Flete interno.) : Renta de retiro individual. IN BULK : A granel. INDIRECT LOSS : Pérdida indirecta. INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT : Transporte fluvial.) : Cuenta de Retiro Individual.A. to IMPORT : Importar. IMPORT : Importación. INLAND MARINE INSURANCE : Seguro de transporte marítimo interno. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNT (I.R. INSTALLMENT : Pago parcial a cuenta / cuota.IBF : international banking facility: transacciones en eurodolares en Estados Unidos Importation: importación In land freight: flete terrestre Income : renta Income policy: política de ingresos Income statement: estado de ganancias y perdidas Income tax: impuesto sobre renta Income yield capacity: rentabilidad Increase: incremento Inflation: inflación Inherited audience: flujo de caja del proyecto futuro Initial investment: inversión inicial Input: insumo Installment: crédito Insurance: seguro Interchange: intercambios Interest rate: tasa de interés Internal rate of return: tasa interna de retorno Inventory: inventarios Investment: cartera Investment: inversión Invoice : factura IOU: I owe you: le debo IRR : international rate of return: tasa internacional de retorno Issuing company: compañía emisora Item: partida ICEBREAKER : Rompehielos. IMPORTER : Importador. INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT : Accidente del Trabajo. INSURABLE INTEREST : Interés asegurable. IMPORT DUTIES : Derechos de Importación IMPORT LICENSE : Licencia de importación. IN TRANSIT : En tránsito. INCOMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS : Instrucciones incompletas. INSOLVENCY : Insolvencia.R. IN BOND : En depósito. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ANNUITY (I.

INTERLINE AGREEMENT : Acuerdo interlínea. INSURANCE : Seguro. Burglary insurance : seguro contra robo. Workers' compensation insurance : seguro de accidentes del trabajo.INSURANCE BROKER:Productor de Seguros / intermediario. INVOICE : Factura. INTEREST : Interés. Product Liability insurance : seguro de responsabilidad civil de fabricantes. to INSURE : Asegurar.INSURABLE RISK : Riesgo asegurable. Life insurance : seguro de vida.S. Aeronautic insurance : seguro aeronáutico. Government insurance : seguro nacional para veteranos de guerra. Hull insurance : seguro de casco. Fire insurance : seguro contra incendio. Air Travel insurance : seguro contra accidentes por aeronavegación. Theft insurance : seguro contra robo. Endowment insurance : seguro dotal Errors & Omissions insurance : seguro de responsabilidad profesional. All risk insurance : seguro contra todo riesgo. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF ARBITRATION : Tribunal Internacional de Arbitraje. Title insurance : seguro de título. INTERNATIONAL TRADE : Comercio Internacional. Group life insurance : seguro de vida colectivo. INSURANCE POLICY : Póliza. INSURANCE COMPANY : Compañía de Seguros. INTENDED VESSEL : Buque previsto. Insurance contract : contrato de seguro. Export credit insurance : seguro de crédito a la exportación. Accident insurance : seguro de accidentes personales. INSURED : Asegurado. Marine insurance : seguro marítimo. . INSURANCE CONTRACT : Contrato de seguro. Consular invoice : factura consular. Annuity insurance : seguro de renta. INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE (I. Compulsory insurance : seguro obligatorio.O.) : Oficina de Servicios de Seguro. Homeowners' insurance : seguro combinado familiar. Fleet policy insurance : seguro de flota de vehículos. Coprehensive insurance : seguro contra todo riesgo. INSURER : Asegurador. Livestock insurance : seguro de animales / seguro de ganado. Collision insurance : seguro contra daños materiales (al vehículo). Automobile insurance : seguro del automotor. Deposit insurance : seguro de depósitos bancarios. Flood policy insurance : seguro contra inundación. Unemployment insurance : seguro de desempleo. Liability insurance : seguro de responsabilidad civil. Hail insurance : seguro contra granizo.

KEGS : Barriles pequeños (generalmente usados para transportar productos químicos). KEEP DRY : Mantener en lugar seco. KEEL : Quilla.O. (I OWE YOU) : Vale/reconocimiento de deuda en papel sin timbrar. ISSUING CARRIER : Transportador emisor. Label : etiqueta Labor: mano de obra Lakeover: adquisición hostil Lend: prestar Letter of credit: carta de crédito Leverage rate: índice de apalancamiento Levy: gravamen Liabilities: pasivo Liquidity ratios: razón de liquidez Liquidity: liquidez Listed securities: acción cotizada en bolsa Load: cargamento Loan: prestamo Long term capital flows: flujo de capital a largo plazo Long term debt: deuda a largo plazo Long term loan: préstamo a largo plazo Loss: perdida Low income housing: vivienda popular Lump sum: pago global LABEL : Etiqueta. ISSUING BANK : Banco emisor.venture: acuerdo de cooperacion entre empresas de dos paises Joint venture: actividad empresarial conjunta entre socios de países diferentes Junk bond: bono basura JETTISON : Echazón. KEEP IN COLD PLACE : Mantener en lugar fresco. to ISSUE : Emitir. sin cláusula a la orden. ISSUANCE DATE : Fecha de emisión. ISSUER : Emisor. KEY EMPLOYEE LIFE INSURANCE : Seguro de vida sobre empleados indispensables. Join. . LATENT DEFECTS : Vicios ocultos. Issuer of documents : Emisor de documentos.Proforma invoice : factura proforma. KEEP UPRIGHT : No dar vuelta. I. JOINT SURVEY : Peritaje. LANDING CERTIFICATE : Certificado de descarga.U. LABOR DISTURBANCES : Disturbios laborales. LATENT : Oculto.

Short term loan : préstamo a corto plazo. LINER VESSELS : Buques de línea. LIQUIDATION OF THE ENTRY : Liquidación de la declaración de Aduana. LENDER : Prestamista. cabarraje. Sight letter of credit : carta de crédito a la vista. días. cargamento. Letter of credit payable at . Deferred letter of credit : carta de crédito diferida. Long term loan : préstamo a largo plazo.days : carta de crédito pagadera a . LIFT HERE : Levántese aquí. Revolving letter of credit : carta de crédito rotativa. LIABILITY : Responsabilidad civil / obligación. Non-transferable letter of credit : carta de crédito intransferible. LIGHTERAGE : Lanchaje. LIEN : Derecho de retención. LOAN : Préstamo. LIFEBOAT : Bote salvavidas. Divisible letter of credit : carta de crédito divisible. to LOAD : Cargar. Medium term loan : préstamo a mediano plazo. LEAKAGE : Derrame. Confirmed letter of credit : carta de crédito confirmada.. Cumulative letter of credit : carta de crédito acumulativa. Transferable letter of credit : carta de crédito transferible. Subsidiary letter of credit : carta de crédito subsidiaria. LIGHTER : Lancha. LETTER OF INDEMNITY : Garantía bancaria.LAY DAYS : Tiempo de estadía. Standby letter of credit : carta de crédito standby. LLOYD'S agent : agente del Lloyd. LENGHT : Eslora. LENGHT BETWEEN PERPENDICULARS : Eslora entre perpendiculares. Irrevocable letter of credit : carta de crédito irrevocable. Non-confirmed letter of credit : carta de crédito no confirmada. LOAD LINE DISC: Disco de línea de carga. LEVY : Embargo. LEADING MARKS : Marcas de identificación. Indivisible letter of credit : carta de crédito indivisible. LINER TERMS : Términos de línea.. LIFE ANNUITY : Renta o pensión vitalicia. Advanced letter of credit : carta de crédito anticipada.. Non-cumulative letter of credit : carta de crédito no acumulativa.. LASH BARGE : Barcaza lash. LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C) : Carta de crédito. LOADING GEAR : Equipo de carga. Documentary letter of credit : carta de crédito documentaria. Green clause letter of credit : carta de crédito con cláusula verde. LENGHT ON WATERLINE : Eslora en flotación. Red clause letter of credit : carta de crédito con cláusula roja. LOAD : Carga. .

MARINE ADVENTURE : Travesía marítima. MALICIOUS DAMAGE : Daños producidos con malicia. MANIFEST : Manifiesto. M&A: mergers and acquisitions: fusiones y adquisiciones Manager: gerente Manufacturer: fabricante Manufactures products: productos manufacturados Market price: precio de mercado Market research: estudio de mercado Market: mercado Matched timing: tiempo apareado Meeting: asamblea Merger: fusión Monetary adjustment monetary correction: corrección monetaria Money growth: crecimiento del dinero Money received: ingresos Money: dinero Monthly payment: mensualidad Mortage: hipoteca Most favored nation treatment: tratamiento de nación mas favorecida Movement: movimientos MACHINARY BREAKDOWN : Rotura de maquinarias. MAIN MAST : Palo mayor. MARITIME CONFERENCE : Conferencia marítima. Actual loss : Pérdida real.LOCK OUT : Cierre patronal. MARINE CONTRACT : Contrato marítimo. MARK : Marca. LOADING CHARGES : Gastos de carga. MARINE INSURANCE : Seguro marítimo. LOSS RATIO : Porcentaje de pérdida. MARITIME COMPANY : Compañía marítima. LUMP SUM : En cifras redondas. Handling mark : marca de manipuleo. LUMP SUM FREIGHT : Flete proporcional. Entry manifest : manifiesto de carga. importe alzado. MARITIME LAW : Derecho marítimo. LOSS : Pérdida. MARINE RISK : Riesgo marítimo. MADE IN : Fabricado en. LOT : Lote. . MARITIME PERIL : Riesgo marítimo. MARITIME LOAN : Préstamo marítimo.

MONTHS SIGHT : Meses vista.) : Recibo provisorio / reci-bo sin observaciones / recibo de a bordo. NAUTICAL MILE : Milla náutica. MATURITY : Vencimiento. MASTER : Capitán. amarrar. MERCHANT : Negociante. MISREPRESENTATION : Declaración falsa. METHOD OF PAYMENT : Forma de pago. MULTIMODAL : Multimodal. turnover: cifra NAMED PERIL CONTRACT : Contrato que cubre los riesgos especificados. NEGLIGENCE : Negligencia. MASTER BILL OF LADING : Conocimiento de embarque principal (madre). MILL CERTIFICATE : Certificado de fábrica. MIDDLEMAN : Intermediario. NEGOTIABLE : Negociable. MATE'S RECEIPT (M. . MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT : Transporte multimodal.R. MOORING PIPE : Pasacabos. MEANS OF CONVEYANCE : Modalidad de transporte. MATERIAL DAMAGE : Daños materiales. MARKET : Mercado. Standard mark : marca estándar. National income: ingreso nacional Net cash flow: flujos netos de efectivo Net present value: valor presente neto Net price : precio neto Net worth: valor neto ( patrimonio) Net: red NF: no founds: sin fondos Nominal rate: tasa nominal Non profit corporation: empresa no lucrativa NPV: Net present value: valor presente neto Number. MOORING : Amarradero. MEDICAL-PHARMACEUTICAL ASSISTANCE : Asistencia médico-farmacéutica. MERCHANDISE : Mercadería. to MOOR : Anclar. MOORING WINCH : Guinche de amarre. MARKING : Marcado. MAJOR MEDICAL BENEFITS : Beneficios médicos suplementarios. MATOR (MATERIAL ORDER): Pedido de materiales. MUTINY : Motín.Informative mark : marca informativa. MASTER AIR WAYBILL : Guía aérea principal (madre). MISTATEMENT OF AGE CLAUSE : Cláusula de ajuste de indemnización en caso de declaraciones falsas. MATE : Piloto. Foreign market : mercado externo. comerciante.

NON NEGOTIABLE SEA WAYBILL : Documento de embarque marítimo no negociable. OPEN HERE : Abrir aquí. Order of payment : orden de pago. OUTFIT : Equipamiento.: a la orden de . NO FUNDS : Sin fondos. NET PROFIT : Beneficio neto. OVERDRAFT : Descubierto en cuenta. NON OWNERSHIP LIABILITY : Responsabilidad sobre bienes de terceros. OFFSET : Compensación. NULL AND VOID : Nulo. OUTSIDER : Buque que realiza un tráfico cuyo itinerario coincide a grandes rasgos con el que sirve la Conferencia sin que éste (o su armador) la integren. NON-FORFEITURE OPTIONS : Opciones de pago. OTHER CHARGES : Otros cargos. to OPEN A LETTER OF CREDIT : Abrir una carta de crédito. to order of.. OPTION TO CONSOLIDATE : Cláusula de consolidación. NOT TO BE DROPPED : No volcar. NEW JASON CLAUSE : Cláusula restrictiva de responsabilidad del transportista / cobertura de los riesgos resultantes de la cláusula New Jason. OPEN ACCOUNT : Cuenta corriente.. OTHER RISKS : Otros riesgos. NON DOCUMENTARY CONDITIONS : Condiciones no documentarias. OVER INSURANCE : Sobre seguro. OWNER : Armador. NOTICE OF READINESS : Carta de alistamiento / notificación de arribo. ORDER NUMBER : Número de pedido. production: producción Outstanding shares: acciones en circulación ODD : Impar. NON DELIVERY : Falta de entrega. NON NEGOTIABLE : No negociable. Offer: oferta Open market: mercado libre Operation costs: costos de operación Operation expenses: gastos de operación Operation: operación Ordinary shares: acciones comunes Output. ON STREAM : Llave en mano. to NEGOTIATE : Negociar. ORDER : Orden. . ON BOARD : A bordo. NON FULFILLMENT : Incumplimiento. NOTICE OF SHIPMENT : Declaración de embarque.. ORIGINAL : Original.NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT : Documento negociable.. NON OWNED AUTOMOBILES : Vehículos de terceros. NOTICE OF DAMAGE : Denuncia de siniestro.

PALLET-LESS UNIT LOADS : Unidades de carga sin paletas. PARTIAL SHIPMENT : Embarque parcial. PALLET : Paleta de carga. PARTIAL DAMAGE : Daño parcial. PASSENGER LIABILITY : Responsabilidad civil hacia terceros transportados. Four-entry pallet : paleta de cuatro entradas. PARCEL : Paquete. PACKET : Paquete o fardo pequeño. . PAID (P.Pay in cash: pagar en efectivo Payback period: periodo de recuperación Payment advance: avance Payment in arrears: pago atrasado Payment: pago Payroll: nomina Period: período PIB: gross national product Planing: planificación Political economy: economía política Pre investment: pre inversión Preference shares: acciones preferentes Preferential trading system: sistema de comercio preferencial Price control: control de precios Price earning rate: relación precio ganancia Price elasticity: elasticidad del precio Price fall: caída de precios Price freeze: congelación de precios Prive list: tarifas Price: precio Prime rate: tasa preferencial Profit margin: margen de beneficio Profit: beneficio Profit: ganancia Profit: utilidad Project life cycle: ciclo de vida del proyecto Promissory note: pagare Promissory quota: pagare Providers: proveedores Proyect evaluation: evaluación de proyectos Proyection: proyección Purchase: compra Purchasing power: poder adquisitivo PACKAGE : Bulto.) : Pagado. PACKING : Embalaje. PACKING BOX/ CASE : Cajón. PACKING LIST : Nota o lista de empaque. Sole base pallet : paleta de base única. caja de embalaje. Plain pallet : paleta plana. paquete.D. Double entry pallet : paleta de doble entrada.

tomador. POLICY : Póliza. Life insurance policy : póliza de seguro de vida. PLATE GLASS : Cristales. VIRGINIA: Fallo de la corte suprema de los E. POLICY HOLDER : Tenedor. Deferred payment : pago diferido.C.U.E. PERSONAL ACCIDENTS : Accidentes personales. to PAY : Pagar. POINT OF DESTINATION : Punto de destino. del año 1868 que estableció que el seguro no constituye un comercio.U. PAUL vs. Maritime perils : riesgos de la navegación / riesgos marítimos. PILOT : Práctico. POOL AGREEMENTS : Convenios de explotación en común. Open covered policy : póliza de cobertura abierta. PIER : Muelle. PAYLOAD : Pasaje o carga aérea / carga útil. PERILS: Riesgos. PORT : Puerto / babor. Port of arrival / port of discharge / final port : puerto de llegada o destino. POINT OF ORIGIN : Punto de origen. PIRACY : Piratería. Intermediate port : puerto intermedio. Time policy : póliza temporaria. Payment in installments : pago en cuotas. Floating policy : póliza flotante. . Voyage policy : póliza por viaje. PILFERAGE : Piratería. Port of call : puerto de escala. Endowment policy : póliza de seguro total. PERISHABLE : Perecedero. Payment date : fecha de pago. POISONOUS SUBSTANCES : Sustancias venenosas. POOP : Popa. PLACE OF DEPARTURE : Procedencia. PIECE : Bulto. PLACE OF DESTINATION : Destino. Excepted perils : riesgos excluídos / riesgos no cubiertos. PAYMENT : Pago. PERFORMANCE BOND: Garantía de buena ejecución. Port of loading / shipment : puerto de carga. Covered perils : riesgos cubiertos / riesgos asegurados. Port of distress : puerto de arribada forzosa. PER CENT (P.PASSENGER SHIP : Barco de pasajeros. Sight payment : pago a la vista.): Por ciento.

PROHIBITED : Prohibido. PROPELLER : Hélice. PRICE : Precio. ganancia. PROMISSORY NOTE (P/N) : Pagaré. PROFIT SHARING PLAN : Plan de participación en las utilidades. estipulación. Replacement price : precio de reemplazo. PROOF OF LOSS : Prueba del siniestro. Index price : precio índice. PROFIT : Beneficio. Net price : precio neto. QUAY : Muelle. Total price : precio total. PRIVITY : Complicidad. PURCHASE ORDER : Nota de pedido / orden de compra. PROXIMATE CLAUSE : Causa directa. PROBABILITY : Probabilidad. PRO RATA : A prorrata. QUOTATION : Cotización. QUALITY : Calidad. Port dues : derechos portuarios. Port side : banda de babor.Port of unloading / discharge : puerto de descarga. Quota: cupo QUALIFIED RECEIPT : Recibo condicionado / recibo con reservas. PURCHASE : Compra. Gross price : precio bruto. PRINCIPAL : Capital. PURCHASER : Comprador. QUALITY CERTIFICATE : Certificado de calidad. Unit price : precio unitario. to PURCHASE : Comprar. PROMPT NOTICE : Aviso inmediato. Port of refuge : puerto de refugio. Rate of growth: rata de crecimiento Rate of interest: rata de interés Rate of return: tasa de rentabilidad Rate: índice Raw material: materia prima Real interest: interés real Receipt: recibo . QUANTITY : Cantidad. PROPOSAL FORM : Propuesta de celebración de un contrato. QUOTATION REQUEST : Pedido de cotización / pedido de precios. PROVISION : Cláusula. QUOTE : Cotización / término utilizado para indicar el comienzo de un texto copiado.

RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES : Sustancias radioactivas. REPAYMENT : Reembolso. .Recession: desaceleracion Reciprocal trade: acuerdo comercial Redemption: amortización Repayment: reembolso Refund: reembolso Rentability: rentabilidad Required return: retorno sobre la inversión Return on assets: retorno sobre activos Return on equity: retorno sobre el patrimonio Revolving found: fondo de rotación Roucher: comprobante Runaway inflation: inflación galopante RADAR MAST : Palo de radar. REASONABLE DISPATCH : Prontitud razonable. RATE OF INTEREST : Tasa de interés. REEL : Carrete. RAIL TRANSPORT : Transporte ferroviario. RECEIPT : Recibo. RATE OF EXCHANGE : Tasa de cambio. Class rate. REINSTATEMENT : Rehabilitación (de póliza). RANCE agent : agente de seguros. with reduction : tarifa de clase inferior a la normal. RADAR SCANNER : Antena radar. REBELLION : Rebelión. REIMPORT : Reimportación. Direct reimbursement : reembolso directo. Additional reimbursement : reembolso adicional. RATE CLASS : Tarifa de Clase. Class rate. Specific Commodity Rate : tarifa para mercadería específica. REMITTANCE : Remesa. to REJECT : Rechazar. REIMBURSEMENT : Reembolso. REGULAR MEDICAL INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos médicos extraordinarios. General reimbursement : reembolso general. RATE : Tarifa. REINSURANCE : Reaseguro. RENTAL CONTAINER : Alquiler de contenedor. Temporary rate : tarifa temporaria. RECOVERABLE : Indemnizable. with surcharge : tarifa de clase superior a la normal. Commodity rate : tarifa especificada. RED LABEL : «Etiqueta roja» (mercaderías peligrosas). REJECTION : Rechazo. RANGE LIGHT : Luz de alcance. Indirect reimbursement : reembolso indirecto. RAW MATERIAL : Materia prima.

ROAD TRANSPORT : Transporte por carretera o rodoviario. RETAIL PRICE : Precio minorista. REPORTING FORM : Póliza por declaraciones. alzamiento. Credit risk : riesgo de crédito. RESHIPMENT : Reembarque. RETAIL : Venta minorista. ROTOR SHIP : Barco de rotores. RIDERS : Cláusulas particulares adicionales. RESTRAINTS OF PRINCES AND RULERS : Restricciones impuestas por la autoridad. RUDDER : Timón. RETAILER : Vendedor minorista. to RESCIND : Rescindir. endoso. REVOCATION : Revocación.REPAYMENT GUARANTEE : Garantía de reembolso. RISK : Riesgo. RIOT : Tumulto. Extraordinary risk : riesgo extraordinario. to RESHIP : Reembarcar. REPLACEMENT COST : Valor de reposición. Sale: venta Security: seguridad Set back: contratiempo Settlement: saldos Share turnover: movimiento accionario Share: acción Shareholder: accionista Shares of stock: acciones Shares outstanding: acción en circulación Short term loan: préstamo a corto plazo Simple interest: interés simple Sinking found: fondo de amortización Speculation: especulación Statement of accounts: estado de cuentas Stock company: compañía anónima . REVOLVING CREDIT : Crédito rotativo. ROUND TRIP : Modalidad del fletamento a tiempo por la cual el armador fletante cede el buque por un período expresamente no determinado. REVOLUTION : Revolución. Manufacture risk : riesgo de fabricación. REPLACEMENT COST INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos de reposición. RIGHTS : Derechos. ROUTE : Trayecto. ROYALTY : Canon pagado al creador de un producto por el derecho de utilizarlo en su provecho. RIDER : Suplemento. RESTRAINT : Restricción. sin dar al fletador la opción de apartarse de dichas zonas sin su previo consentimiento.

expedidor. . SHIPMENT : Expedición / embarque. SENDER : Remitente. fletador. SHEER : Arrufo. SAMPLE : Muestra. SEA WAYBILL : Documento de embarque marítimo. SHIP : Buque. SCRAP VOYAGE : Último viaje de un buque. SHIPPING NOTE : Nota de embarque. SCUTTLED SHIP : Buque que se fue a pique. SAID BY SHIPPER TO CONTAIN : Dice contener según el cargador. SAID TO WEIGHT : Dice pesar. SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE : Certificado de navegabilidad. SHORT DELIVERY : Entrega menor que la cantidad solicitada. SHIPPER : Cargador. SET : Juego (de documentos). SETTLEMENT OPTIONS: Opciones de pago. SEAWORTHINESS : Navegabilidad. SALVAGE : Salvamento. SHIPOWNER : Armador propietario. SHIPPING DOCUMENT : Documento de embarque. SHIPPING agent : agente marítimo. Complete set : juego completo. SAFETY : Seguridad. SEIZURE : Apoderamiento. SELLER : Vendedor.Stock corporation: compañía anónima Stock exchange: bolsa de valores Stock holder: accionista Stock holders: patrimonio Stock index: indicador bursátil Stock market: bolsa de valores Stock pile: acumulación de inventarios Stock: capital Stockbroker: corredor de bolsa Storing: almacenamiento Sum: suma Supply: oferta Surcharge: recargo Surrender value: valor de salvamento Surtax: sobretasa Swap: cambalache SACK : Saco / saqueo. SAMPLE ORDER : Pedido de muestra. SHIPWRECK : Naufragio. Partial shipment : embarque parcial. to SHIP : Embarcar. SHIPPING COMPANY : Compañía naviera. SEA WATER : Desgaste natural por el uso del buque.

corporación Chairman of the Board .desarrollar Vice-President .Consejo de Administración business affairs .ENGLISH TO SPANISH corporate .Presidente del Consejo de Administración CEO . Tax: impuesto Technical study: estudio técnico To debit: adeudar To go into debt: contraer deuda To owe: adeudar Trade: comercio Trading year: ejercicio económico Transaction: operación Transport: transporte Turn over: rotación Unemployment: desempleo Up turn: alza Valorization: valorización Value added network: red de valor agregado Value engineering: generación de valor Venture capital: capital de riesgo Wholesaler: mayorista Winery: bodega Winset on line: bolsa electrónica Working capital: capital de trabajo SPECIAL VOCABULARY .asuntos de negocios corporation .ventas human resources .jerarquia Board of Directors .recursos humanos accounting .Consejero Delegado develop .departamento de apoyo IT department .departamento de compras .departamento de informática purchasing department .sociedad anónima.Vicepresidente (máximo directivo por debajo del Consejero Delegado) sales .finanzas support department .contabilidad finance .de la empresa hierarchy . SIDE LIGHTS : Luces de costado.SHORT FORM : Abreviado.

set of clothes worn for a particular occasion or activity .having a clean. .memorizar. la habilidad de hacer algo en el mejor momento.ten lo presente.de antemano.fondo.near enough so that you can touch it or pick it up.entrar en materia. . .sincronización.an investigation of opinions done by asking questions .probable.puede que te hayas dado cuenta. To get over: to feel better after something or someone has made you unhappy or nervous. ir al grano.muy útil. You may have noticed . To start off on the the right foot – to begin a project or challenge in an effective way . fomentar.etiquetas Manner . valor incalculable.elegante. Corporate Ladder – the hierarchical structure of a company.estimular. Boost .hacer que las personas presten atención.a tu alcance. Propel . ponerse manos a la obra. Eye Contact . Be applicable to .despues.tu aparencia.extremely useful. To think on your feet: to make a quick decision or give an answer quickly. .rendimiento.improvisado.making it possible for you.simplemente espera.desatender. .projects . aplicable a. To keep people on their toes – to keep people attentive and prepared . . Just wait .questions asked to produce an effect and not to get an answer .affecting or relating to a person or thing. The best chance .encuesta.the ability to do something at the right time.jerarquía corporativa. Ad hoc .to push or move something somewhere.conjunto.a very good possibility. Invaluable . is usable. tidy and stylish appearance . . . Allow .lanzar. Afterwards . Learn by heart .the way that something is done or somebody behaves . To bear in mind – to remember a piece of information when you are making a decision or thinking about a matter .to simply remain in expectation. . Beforehand .dándote la posibilidad. earlier.improvisado.preguntas retóricas. How you look .permit.contacto visual. Giving yourself the opportunity . .forma. Timing . . To ease your way (in context): to begin an activity in a way that makes it more comfortable or easier.something that helps something else .how well or badly something is done .when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time . ritmo.Improvised.permitir. appropriate and relevant to.your appearance . . Outfit . Likely . Background . The higher you are up the ladder. Unscripted .the context and circumstances of the presentation .empezar con buen pie.It is probable that you noticed before now (having the consequence in the present that now you know what the author is speaking about). interpretación.to not pay enough attention to something .investigación y desarrollo tags . .in advance of something. Smart .to make sure that something happens . Performance .la mejor oportunidad. allow: permitir Furthermore: also to say something in a language other than your own: to say something in adifferent language. often with a lot of force .start work on.asegurar.probable or expected . the more senior you are .proyectos R&D .at a later time . Neglect .memorize. Within reach . Ensure . Rhetorical questions . Survey . . Get down to business .improvised.

superar.Nerve-racking / nerve-wracking: describes something that is difficult to do and causes a lot of worry for the person involved in it. put yourself in their shoes . tratar.to continue with.Read quickly searching for main or key information executive summary . . fair . programa de reparto de beneficios. morale .People paid to read motivating staff . señalar. .consejos.marketing del boca a boca.Write down something skim read .sistema de recompensa. to rehearse: to practice. subject matter . . to point out .a soft friendly open handed hit on the back. word of mouth marketing .moral (en el sentido de alentar).To communicate your main ideas jot down .Encourages people to do something. .mostrador. .Something that takes a long time to do.Information about the area you‟re writing about that helps the reader.justo.To follow a logical order proof readers .the general motivated attitude of a group of workers. reach a conclusion . what makes you tick .practical advice.liderazgo. . to deal with .just. .the method the employer uses to motivate his workers. leadership .irritable. I assure you . .opción de compra de acciones profit sharing scheme . a purchase .to make aware of. .to succeed in dealing with a problem.lo que te hace funcionar.Main summary grabbing the attention of .To get the attention of logical flow . to overcome .The area or topic you're writing about. perform . background information . counter .To arrive at a conclusion deliver your recommendations . .servicio al cliente. rewarding system .to do something well. to move on .marketing consisting of people telling each other. Verbatim: using exactly the same words as were originally used.alegre.to handle. .un buen rato.work that increases the value that buyers receive from their purchases. . customer service .A system by which workers receive part of the profits of a company. To sum up: to describe or express briefly the important facts or characteristics about something or someone.palmaditas en la espalda.rendir. cheerful . .making a low threatening sound like an animal (for example: a tiger). motivate action .I am sure and you should be also.to practice beforehand) To put across: to express your ideas and opinions clearly so that people understand them easily. .the "bar" where you pay for things.Imagine the situation from somebody else‟s perspective . stock options . . time-consuming . .te aseguro.happy. . . (to pre-rehearse .malhumorado. tips .the thing that motivates you to do something.motivando los empleados.a long time.a buy. a good while . .una compra. To digress: to move away from the main subject you are writing or talking about and to write or talk about something else. growling .gruñendo. grumpy .to return. .motivating the workers at a company.the right to buy stocks at a specific price. to go back .the capacity to get people to do things. pats on the back .

maternity leave .an instrument that helps you do something.write the notes of the meeting correctly.es algo simple o no muy difícil como lo sería la ciencia de los cohetes.irrelevancia. . .hablar informalmente sobre algo en un bar o similar.not being able to talk because of nerves.helpful practical advice . .badly done work. Shoddy work . . Motivation plummets .analizar más profúndamente las respuestas a tus preguntas.consejos prácticos.presidente.the people who are invited to an event.al menos. sin sufrimiento.que divaga.baja por maternidad Work-life balance .writing down everything that is said by everybody in the meeting.to say that you are irritated or unhappy because of something .to be successful in reaching an objective. .asegurarse. . Tools .de una forma satisfactoria. quiet way.compromiso. Successfully . .herramientas.equilibrio entre la vida y el trabajo.group leader.to restrain or limit.mantener la exactitud de las actas.pista.susurrar.analyse in more detail the answers to your questions.a promise to do something. .en contacto.it is something that is simple and common sense. Keep it brief . . .to gather or bring together different tips.invitados. levantar actas.to do something in a way that doesn't last very long.follow-up actions people have agreed to do.pérdida de tiempo. . Irrelevancy . Tongue-tied .the lack of a relation of something to the matter at hand. . . .to establish something without a doubt. Whisper . Chair .mantenerse centrado en la cuestión principal de la conversación. .de forma indolora. Techies . . . Clue .limitar. Over stretched .to appear or come. .recopilar.not less than .a person who attends an event. . .making sure you don‟t let stress at work affect your health. Achieve .in contact. .a list of major points/issues to be discussed in the meeting. .to keep talking about the main topic set for a conversation without getting distracted.hacerlo breve. Dig deep .IT (information technology) workers or people good with technology. Make sure . Spend time in meetings .chapuza.Motivation drops quickly.in a way that is without pain.abrumado con mucho trabajo. Taking meeting minutes . . .asistente. . It's not rocket science . Compile tips . Rambling .to use time in meetings. Issues . . . Waste of time . Painlessly . con éxito.in touch .information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem. . . Keep meeting minutes accurate .asuntos.la motivación cae en picado. To the point (stick to the point) . Invitees . At least .not focusing on one point at a time. . Take the meetings seriously . . . Action points .lograr. Constrained . Complain .in a satisfactory way.reservar la sala de reuniones.aparecer o llegar. reunir consejos prácticos. Meeting agendas . . Attendee .a scheme by which a pregnant female worker can stay home with pay. cuestiones.orden del día. información que es esencial para entender una situación o problema.pasar tiempo en reuniones.too much work to do at one time. . Talking over a coffee .entusiastas de los ordenadores o informáticos.puntos de actuación.to respect the meetings.to talk about something informally in a stress-free place.quejarse.tomar las reuniones en serio.to speak in a soft. . Commitment . Turn up . . Book the meeting room .evidence that helps solve a mystery.to reserve the meeting room. Background information . Tips .problems or worries that somebody has about something.spending time badly .

no es la mejor manera.publicado customers .apuntar. . Keeping things objective .ser maleducado. . Not the best way .confianza a touch too slow .las reglas establecidas para la reunión.in an intense emotional moment.justo la velocidad correcta don't waste time .to insult or attack in a personal way.exposición mediática that best fits you .Afterwards .clientes prospects . describir tips . Remind people .formación de habilidades making the most . argue .folletos fliers .to act and think in a rational way.marca advertising .to help people to remember something. Lack manners . In the heat of the moment . . . .folletos improve . . .noticia find out .mantenerte press release .extendido skills training .un poco demasiado despacio just the right speed . .el que mejor te encaje adventurous .there are better ways to do something.publicidad brand awareness .to be argumentative.en la excitación o nerviosismo del momento.respira hondo.aventurero target .objeciones que puedan surgir there is no rush .no hay prisa calmness .objetivo reach . .clientes potenciales handouts .consejos smile .mejorar room for improvement .aprovechando improve .probabilidad widespread . .enorme publicity .mejorar likelihood .tranquilidad confidence .meeting rules that everybody agrees to.recordar algo a alguien.mantener la objetividad de la situación.después.to breathe one time deeply.no pierda el tiempo take notes .sonreir objections that may arise .alcance news .reducirlo a aproximadamente keep you going .to feel personally attacked.mejorable outline .toma notas .nota de prensa published . .to not behave in a correct and proper way.tomárselo de forma personal. Make issues personal .insultar o atacar de forma personal. Confrontational . Ground rules .argumentar brand .enterarse bring this down to around . Make personal comments .polémico.notoriedad de marca huge . Take a deep breath .after something.

Never ever .To understand what somebody is thinking from their body movements.This phrase means "never.In a way that is indirect and clever.To give someone compliments. Subtly .inutilizado tips .herramienta time management . To put pressure on someone . To enhance . Tarnishes your image .Move only your upper body closer to something or somebody. Fake . etc. Jargon or buzz words .paso lento Guarantee .To find sympathy.tareas tool .tener en cuenta make the most . moves.emplear tiempo highly recommend . Read the body language of somebody . Chicken Researcher .protestando lack .To further improve or increase the quality of something.Frequently used terms and words related to a specific sector. A firm but gentle handshake .metas ." but with extra emphasis.This is a letter that you write after your interview to ask for or about more information about the job.consejos following .gestión de tiempo goals .concisely . runs. walks. To make the right first impression .lista de tareas pendientes tasks .aprovechar spend time .colgar con fuerza el auricular slow pace . Lean forward .To remain angry with somebody about something that happened. industry or career.False and artificial.muy recomendado to-do list . and not very noticable or obvious. To get your support .A word or phrase saying that you're sorry for something you've done. To resent somebody .To guide someone towards a specific topic or issue in a conversation. Flattery .conciso avoid .Someone who is afraid to meet or speak to people when researching.prioridad máxima add value .siguientes top priority .conseguir tus metas in mind .To form opinions about people. To make judgements about people .falta unused .To strongly persuade someone to do something.añade valor achieve your goals .Something that makes your image look bad.Construct a detailed profile or image of something or someone in your mind. Apology . causing anxiety. Pacing .Matching or copying the speed at which someone talks.barbilla slamming down the receiver . A follow-up letter . To paint a picture in your mind . Open-minded and fair .A promise or something that insures that something else will happen.Shaking someone's hand in a positive and soft way.micrófono del teléfono chin .Willing to listen to and accept other ideas and treating everyone equally.To give a good image of yourself when you meet them.evite shrillness .tono alto mouthpiece . help and encouragement (usually from friends and family). complaining . To lead the interviewer toward something .

reward .reclamos insostenibles prove .señalar no-one .campaña qualitative targeting .advertisment .en vez de campaign .búsqueda brand .pasar todo el día .efectividad efficient .advert .objetivo unsustainable claims .forma o manera spend all day .aprovechar mistakes .convincente manner .bastante común quest .Yo opino quite common .agencia de publicidad take advantage .texto (de un anuncio) ingenious .consumidor point out .alcanzar un público objetivo cualificado useless .anuncio advertising agency .probar (proporcionar evidencias no testear) instead of .errores consumer .inútil copy .ingenioso persuasive .fundador ad .eficiencia tedious .mantenerse al la lista de tareas founder .tedio sticking to your to-do list .rechazado I reckon .alcance target .recompensa effectiveness .marca reach .nobody .nadie rejected .

translated.html http://www.com/watch?v=5X5sjDj4e_wFRASES DE ERNST FISCHER http://www.ar/autor/ernst-fischer.com/business-english/general-management/67emailwriting.reverso.madridteacher.wordpress.com/lang/es/allexercises/ http://diccionario.com.es/USERS/amiles/wordlists.wordpress.net/negocio-espanol-ingles/p%C3%A9rdidas http://www.frasesypensamientos.html http://es.scribd.com/category/ingles-denegocios/page/2/ http://www.com/articles/perfect-interview.net/ .com/monografia/libro_de_frases_espanol_english_inglesnegocios_business/2818-4 http://es.org/wiki/Ingl%C3%A9s/Introducci%C3%B3n http://inglesparaprofesionales.ctv.bab.CIBERGRAPHY http://inglesparaprofesionales.htm#list http://www.youtube.htm http://mymemory.la/diccionario/espanol-ingles/libros-de-contabilidad http://www.nonstopenglish.wikibooks.com/doc/15899653/Cartilla-Ingles-Ciclo-III-6 http://www.com/2009/11/28/proceedings-actas-deuna-reunion/ http://es.wikilearning.curso-ingles.

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